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What is a refugee?

Symbols of

Spinning the news & hits

The Story of Rome Rights: Do you know yours?

Who was St. Valentine?

Who was

Nicholas Winton?


SP O

R is for Rights In wealthier countries, we take many things for granted. Life is safe and there are many opportunities. It is not the same in countries where some rights do not exist. The Suffragette movement has been in the news recently as people remembered that women in the 19th and early 20th century, believe it or not, were not allowed to vote.

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Emmiline Pankhurst, a suffragette, became famous because of her bravery. Along with many other women, she helped win the right to equality. Since 1928 women over the age of 21 in the UK have had the right to vote.

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In America, Rosa Parks sat at the front of a bus and refused to give up her seat to a white woman, which was unheard of. She stood up for her right to be a human being. The Civil Rights movement was born in 1954 because of the lack of rights for black people who did not have the right to do normal things, like sit in the front of buses or eat in restaurants, stay in hotels and drink from the same fountains as white people.

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Activists such as Martin Luther King and Malcolm X gave their lives in order for us to have the equal rights we enjoy today.

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All rights reserved. This newspaper or any portion thereof may be reproduced or used in for non commercial purposes as long as credit is given to its creators. Contact the publisher for permission if you wish to use content for commercial purposes. Chicken is published by Design Tribe Ltd, 28 Charteris Road, London N4 3AB, England www.design-tribe.net

In countries such as Israel, North Korea and Cuba serving in the army is compulsory. You do not have the right to refuse. In the US people have the “right to bear arms”, which means they are allowed to carry guns. While this is freedom of rights, the issue is that guns are sometimes placed in the wrong hands. The importance of having the right to live the way you choose allows peace of mind and peace in the country you live in. Do you know any rights of the child ? If not, read on and find out... Our editorial comment this issue come from Michelle Lowe, whose business is all about people. She organises all kinds of events events.

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CONTENTS

Inside

Peace The Letter Celebrations:

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Valentine’s Day EW

News from

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Reviews: 28

Radio:

How it works

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Shapes:

Refraction

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Alphabet News 20

The Romans Rights:

EW

Spinning the news & hits

Refugees come from somewhere

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Zambia

Rainbow library

Chicken Heroes N

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Do you know yours?

Subscribe to chicken for £32 per year and get copies delivered to your door. Find out more;

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R is the tenth letter in the modern alphabet. It is a consonant.

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THE LETTER

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The letter 'r'is the eighth most common letter in English and the fourth-most common consonant after 't', 'n', and 's'. The letter 'r' is used to form the ending "-re", which is used in certain words such as centre in some varieties of English spelling, such as British English. In American English, this ending is usually replaced by "-er" (center). This does not affect pronunciation. The original Semitic letter may have been inspired by an Egyptian hieroglyph for tp, "head". It was used for r by Semites because in their language, the word for "head" was rêš (also the name of the letter). It developed into Greek 'ρ' (rhô) and Latin R.

Egyptian hieroglyph tp

"Resh", the original R

Greek letter Rho

Runic letter Raido

Cyrillic letter Er

Gothic letter Reda

"Insular" R (Gaelic type)


LETTERS

Draw your own letter R

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LETTER R Illustrations Š 2015 Ken Wilson-Max

Draw a line to match the word with the picture. If there is no picture, draw one to match the word.

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St. Valentine’s Day Each year on February 14th, we celebrate St. Valentine’s Day, the day of romance. It has its origins in the Roman holiday Lupercalia, a festival dedicated to Faunus, the Roman god of agriculture, and to the Roman founders Romulus and Remus. There are at least three Saint Valentines associated with February 14, According to the Roman Catholic Encyclopaedia. One was a priest in Rome, the second the Bishop of Interamna (now Terni in Italy) and the third lived in Africa. They were all martyrs, meaning they were killed for their religous beliefs. Most experts believe St. Valentine's Day was created in honour of Valentine, the Roman priest.

Did you know there are 12 Roman Catholic St. Valentines, so you can celebrate the saint many times each year. Besides February 14, you might decide to celebrate St. Valentine of Viterbo on November 3. Or maybe you want to get a jump on the traditional Valentine celebration by feting St. Valentine of Raetia on January 7. Women might choose to honor the only female St. Valentine (Valentina), a virgin martyred in Palestine on July 25, A.D. 308. The Eastern Orthodox Church officially celebrates St. Valentine twice, once as an elder of the church on July 6 and once as a martyr on July 30.

Valentine’s Day is the second largest card-exchanging holiday after Christmas. About 1 billion valentines are sent each year worldwide. Most Valentine’s Day cards are sent to Teachers.

Many more women than men believe themselves to be in love at any one time.


CELEBRATIONS!

Write your own Valentine’s poem

The oldest known valentine poem was written in 1415 by Charles, Duke of Orleans, to his wife while he was imprisoned in the Tower of London. It is now part of the manuscript collection of the British Library in London. England.

The Valentine’s heart shape comes from the seed of the silphium plant. It first appeared in 1347 in a book called Documenti d’Amore by artist Francesco da Barbarino.

Valentine greetings have been popular since the Middle Ages, though written Valentine’s didn’t begin to appear until after 1400.

The Valentine’s heart shape comes from the seed of the silphium plant. It first appeared in 1347 in a book called Documenti d’Amore by artist Francesco da Barbarino.

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Children should be protected at home, in neighbourhoods, cities and countries. In reality, though, throughout history children have been treated badly by grown ups.

On 11 December 1946, one year after the United Nations was formed, it set up the United Nations Children’s Fund, or UNICEF as it is commonly known. They set about creating the charter of the rigths of the child.

ARTICLE

28 Every child has the right to education The right to free primary education, the availability of vocational educating, and the need for measures to reduce the drop-out rates.

Alphabet News

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News from Letter to the Zambian Government about the Rights of the Child.

I am very happy to share my experiences on what we have learned and lived in terms of our rights, according to Article 28 & 29 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and Article 11 of the African Charter on the Rights & Welfare of the Child for all children as well as the challenges that we face in Zambia.

Education is indeed the key to success. It is an asset for children to grow up and have better understanding of issues in their communities, countries and worldwide. Education is indeed the key to success. It is an asset for children to grow up and have better understanding of issues in their communities, countries and

worldwide. Education gives children the opportunity to help to change the world for the greater good. I am emphasizing education because in my country many children do not go to school. I want all children to be educated and to grow up to be good human beings. In our country many children, including those with disabilities, do not receive a good education because of the lack of good teachers and other factors. My disabled sister, is in a school for the disabled because my parents are aware; however the society in which she lives does not generally provide facilities for disabled children so they have fewer opportunities. I want all the children of my nation to get opportunities to study. To do this there should not be any kind of discrimination on the basis of poverty, disability, gender, caste, class, or colour. The thirst for education in rural


NEWS

Meet our partners in Zambia, Mongu Children News Agency. Zambia is in Southern Africa and is about the size of France and Germany combined.

Zambia communities has increased, but this demand does not match the available infrastructure and facilities for children. Due to the unavailability of secondary schools in most rural communities, children have to move from their communities where they live with their parents. This means living away from home with relatives or family friends. These relatives or friends sometimes consider such children as additional burdens to their meager family resources, so they usually make the children sell items to bring income and do other household chores. Sometimes these chores do not give the children enough time to go to school as often as expected. These children end up dropping out of school and into trouble: sexual abuse and pregnancy, for instance. The children are eventually not able to achieve their goals. This is the reality

rice A swamp grass which is widely cultivated as a source of food, especially in Asia. It is eaten daily by half the world's population. Rice is usually grown in flooded fields or paddies, and needs a lot of water.

of a typical rural education. Girls are usually the most affected group. I ask to make this dream a reality for Zambian children, especialy for the the poorest children in the most remote villages. They need to have the same access and opportunities as the more privileged children in cities. Thank you, Media Network on Child Rights & Development (MNCRD), for implementing in my community. Children are aware of their rights now. In the future I want to be a teacher and help my community through working with MNCRD. God bless all the children of Zambia Yours sincerely, Austin Kabanda, 16 years old Mongu Children News Agency – MCNA.

Would you ever write to your government?

Children in many Mongu district schools in the western province of Zambia are shunning school to catch fish. The headmaster of a school, Mr. Chris Silishebo (not his real name) said the pupils mostly in lower grades have stopped coming to school for almost a month as they have gone with their parents to catch fish in the rivers. He said classes for lower grades have been affected because of this. This came to light when Mongu Children News Agency –MCNA, visited the schools near the Barotse Plains during a children education rights tour. Mr. Silishebo noted that the school is usually affected around this time of

the year, when parents travel with their children to far way areas of the Barotse Plains looking for 0 fish. He said fish selling is the main business for people in the Mongu and other districts of Western Province of Zambia They trade fish for food, second hand clothes and other goods while some sell in cash to traders who come from as far as the capitol Lusaka, the Copperblet, and Livingstone. Peter Mwiinga, 16 years Mongu Children News Agency - MCNA

–Golden Rice, created by science, has more provitamin A in it which helps keep hundreds of thousands of children healthy.

ravioli The story goes that Ravioli were first served in the 1200s in Gavi Ligure, part of the Republic of Genoa in the north west of Italy. Chef Ravioli was the cook who created this dish. Ravioli are incredibly versitile with many variations and ingredients, like this version from the Veneto region called Casunziei. These are filled with beetroot and ricotta cheese and once cooked in boiling water are finished in a pan with butter, parmesan and poppy seeds. A delicious recipe that plays with sweet and savory tastes. In India, a gujiya is similar to ravioli. It is sweet, filled with dry fruits, sugar, and a mixture of sweet spices, then deep fried in vegetable oil. In China are the jiaozi or wonton are similar to ravioli. Jewish food has a dish called kreplach, filled with meat or vegetables. A Middle Eastern dish called shishbarak has pasta pockets filled with minced beef meat and cooked in hot yogurt. Yum! Special thanks to Filippo di Lenardo, Managing Director at Elite RetrEat Italia for telling us about Ravioli

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Four Symbols of Peace

The Peace Sign The first peace badge in 1958 was made from clay for the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament.

The group was getting ready for a big protest at Canterbury Cathedral.

Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes 30 March 1746 – 16 April 1828 was a Spanish romantic painter and printmaker. He is considered the most important Spanish artist of late 18th and early 19th centuries

They wanted a symbol they could wear as a badge, and hired a British graphic artist named Gerald Holtom to create one. After experimenting with designs involving a Christian cross inside a circle, he created the now-famous “crow’s foot” design. One of his inspirations was a painting called the Third of May 1808 by Francisco Goya.

The Dove and Olive branch

The dove and olive branch has been a symbol of peace since the early Christians. According to the biblical story in the book of Genesis, a dove was released by Noah after the flood in order to find land. It came back carrying an olive branch in its beak Do you and Noah that there know any was land. other symbols Since then Christians of peace? used Noah's dove as a peace symbol.


PEACE

Peace symbols have been used in many cultures. Symbols work because they can say much more than words can and their meaning

is easily recognisable. Think of all the symbols you know: the stop sign; or the power sign or play sign on a device. If you look around

Roerich’s peace banner

Nicholas Roerich, a Russian artist, cultural activist, and philosopher, founded a movement to protect cultural artifacts. The maroon-on-white emblem consisting of three solid circles in a surrounding circle has also been used as a peace banner. The surrounding circle represents culture, with the three dots being Art, Science, and Religion. The circle also represents the eternity of time (the past, present, and future.)

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your home you will probably ďŹ nd a few more symbols that you understand. Symbols are a laguage of their own.

The V sign

The V sign is a hand gesture, palm outwards, with the index and middle fingers open and all others closed. It was used to represent victory during the Second World War by British Prime Minister Winson Churchill. In the 1960s in the USA, people who were against war, particularly the Vietnam War used the gesture as a Design your own sign of peace. symbol of peace. Start

with listing the things that make you think of peace. Then try to draw them. Finally, use your imagination to combine two or more of the drawings together to make your new symbol.


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Alphabet News

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Stories from Child refugees

Refugees, immigrants, all travellers come from somewhere, right? Did you ever wonder where from? More than 60 million people in the world have been forced to flee from their homes because of danger. Any refugee crisis, is a problem for the whole world. Its solution has to apply to all the refugee crises too, not only the European one. You can find out more about Syrian refuges like Firas and Alaa and show your support for children affected by conflict by getting involved in Handicap International’s Forgotten 10 Challenge. Visit www.handicapinternational.org.uk/ F10schools to find out more. Or scan this code with a smart phone or tablet

Firas, 14

Why do you think people move from one place to another?

Firas, from Syria, loved riding his bike near his home. He had just got home from school when his life changed forever. A bomb hit Firas’s home and he was badly injured in the leg by shrapnel, and doctors had to amputate part of his right leg. Firas spent six months in hospital. His family, meanwhile, had to travel to the neighbouring country of Lebanon in order to be safe. When Firas eventually joined them he was so unwell that he couldn’t leave his home for two months. When he finally left the house he had to use a wheelchair. Other children made fun of him. “One day my family took me out in a wheelchair. All the kids laughed at me. “I wanted to have a prosthetic leg so that they would stop harassing me.” He really wanted an artificial leg so that he could go to school and start riding his bike again. Firas eventualy got his articifcial leg and some help to strengthen the muscles in his legs. Now he can walk and ride his bike again. Firas dreams of running a hospital when he grows up.


ALPHABET NEWS

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The Good News Even though many people have been forced to leave their homes as refugees, a large number have gone back home.

Around 155,000 people returned home to Mali.

Alaa, 11

The Azraq refugee camp in northern Jordan has more than 20,000 people living in metal shelters. Most of them are children. The United Natios (UN) says there are 367 disabled people in the camp and 11-year-old Alaa is one of them. Its a difficult place for anyone to live in, but especially so if you are in a wheelchair. The ground is rocky and it is very hot. Alaa has a muscular disease that affects his movement and when his family fled the bombing in Syria the journey was particularly difficult. The camp is divided into ‘villages’ and some shelters are several kilometres from the only school. Getting to some of the markets, clinics and mosques means travelling over the very rough ground.

How would you deal with a large number of extra people entering your country?

Alaa’s wheelchair is one of over 41,000 mobility aids distributed by Handicap International to injured and disabled people affected by the conflict in Syria. Physiotherapists have been working with Alaa to help strengthen his muscles and to teach him to use his new wheelchair and become more independent.

611,000 people went back home to the Central African Republic. 200,000 are back home in South Sudan 85,000 people have returned to Yemen.


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Refugees come from somewHere

refugee facts

there are 19.5 million refugees in the world today

Refuge a place or situation providing safety or shelter

Many of the world's refugees are in developing countries Turkey has more refugees than any other country in 2014 more than half of the worlds's refugees were under the age of 18

At the moment, many people are desperately seeking refuge in Europe, after making the dangerous journey across the Mediterranean Sea in small boats. 11,100 children (about 20 schools) arrived this way in Italy without their parents or families. In Serbia there are more than 7,500 unaccompanied children, all of whom have come through Greece. More than 3,000 refugees and migrants died this year making the dangerous journey across the Mediterranean sea.

Imagine how serious things must be if parents can choose to send their children to safety in this way.

Peril serious and immediate danger. Perilous exposed to imminent risk of disaster.

The European refugee crisis has become a world problem. It has been called the worst refugee crisis since the Second World War, when about 60 million Europeans became refugees. (almost the same size of the population of the United Kingdom). There are more than 6.5 million child refugees in the world, while hundreds of thousands of people are seeking refuge in Europe. At the moment, one out of every four refugees is a Syrian. This is because the civil war in Syria is particularly bloody and dangerous. As we move towards winter in Europe, crossing the sea in imsy boats becomes even more perilous.

To add to that, it is now more difficult for refugees to reach a European Union (EU) country safely and legally. The host countries are struggling to cope with the extra people. If they are not part of a resettlement scheme then countries demand that refugees can only claim asylum once they arrive in that country. These people are running away from war, poverty and persecution. They are so desperate that they are paying people to smuggle, or transport them illegally into European countries. Once they get there they find reception centres which are full. Families are forced to wait for months in temporary camps without the basic items they have at home. The numbers of people entering Europe are small compared to the size of the tragedy that is taking place in countries like Syria and her neighbours (Lebanon has 1.4 million Syrian refugees). Some children who have travelled alone are placed in reception centres and children’s homes, but many do not make it to these places. They sleep in sports halls and churches or sleep rough outside train and bus stations, or in abandoned houses. The authorities in Italy, Greece and the Western Balkans are, finding it hard to deal with the large numbers of people.

Asylum. the protection granted by a state to someone who has left their home country as a political refugee


REFUGEES

Save the Children is a charity that works to protect children. They work to make sure children are protected wherever possible. The charity also

works to ensure that the children understand their rights and know how to get care and support.

Can you find the Balkan states?

How many European countries can you identify?

Can you write "one out of four" as a fraction?

Can you find Syria?

Refugeee or Migrant?

According to the United Nations, refugees “are persons fleeing armed conflict or persecution”.

Migrants “choose to move not because of a direct threat of persecution or death, but mainly to improve their lives by finding work, or in some cases for education, family reunion, or other reasons”.

Knowing if a traveller is a migrant or a refugeee is very important because they are treated differently by the laws of each country.

Scan this code to visit the Save the Children website or type www.savethechildren.org into your web browser

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Nursery Rhymes by Hand

Ring a Ring O’Roses Ring a Ring o’ roses has been a favourite song and dance for many children. It was first printed in 1881 by Kate Greenaway. But do you know the origins of this sweet song? It comes from a dark time in English history, the Great Plague. Between 1665-1666, the Great Plague of London took around 70,000 lives out of the city’s total population of 460,000. Some people that believe the nursery rhyme has its origins during the plague because an early symptom of the plague was a red, circular rash (Ring a Ring o’ roses). Some people believed that posies protected against the plague (A pocket full of posies) so they carried the herb with them. It was also used to block the horrible smell. Sneezing or coughing was one of the last symptoms before death (A-tishoo! A-tishoo! We all fall down).


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Nursery rhymes by hand is a collection of 12 English poems, illustrated by hand. We’ve included where and when they come from to help make the picture of what life was like when they were written.


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THE ROMANS omulus and Remus are the World’s most famous twins. They are part of the myth of how the city of Rome and the Roman civilisation was formed. The story begins in the Alba Longa region in central Italy...

BCE (Before the Common Era), therefore it is MORE than 2016 years ago.

Aeneas, son of the Greek Goddess Aphrodite, fled there after the capture and burning of Troy in about 1250bce. The Greeks used the Trojan horse, which is another story for another time. Back to Italy, where Aeneas married a

princess and they had twin sons called Romulus and Remus. Their uncle Amulius wanted more than anything to be king. So,one night he ordered the twins to be killed. They were taken to the river Tiber in a trough and thrown in. Uncle

(See below)

AENEAS Aenea escapes after Troy is burned down

AMULIUS

Romulus and Remus build Rome BCE- Before the Common Era

1250 bce

800 bce

YEAR 0

Amulius was not a nice man. The twins did not drown as expected, but the trough floated down the river and was caught in a thorny bush, where the two babies were found by a she-wolf. The she-wolf fed them her own milk and raised them until they were found by a shepherd.

SHE WOLF


THE ROMANS

Archaeologists believe that Rome began around 800 BCE as a collection of huts built on the hilltops near the River Tiber.

These villages grew into a city about 50 years later which spread across seven hills, known as the seven hills of Rome.

The myth of Romulus and Remus Some is an important part of the culture and beliefs from that time.

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RIVER TIBER

SHEPHERD AND WIFE He and his wife took care of them until they were adults.

The twins each wanted to rule the city on their own.

The two young men went back to the thorn bush which had saved them when they were babies and started to build a city.

Eventually Romulus had some men dig a ditch around the city boundary. When Remus returned he told him that if he crossed the line there would be trouble.

People moved to the new city which became more successful.

REMUS

ROMULUS

Remus leapt across the line and the brothers had a bitter fight. In the end Remus lay dead in the ditch while Romulus stood victorious. He named the city Rome, after himself and ruled it until he disappeared in a storm and became a god.

Fill in any important years on the timeline

YEAR 2016

YOU ARE HERE


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How Diamonds bend light

Dense. density: How compact a substance is. Density can affect speed and direction.

Refraction happens when light waves travel through a certain substances at an angle (an obique angle, to be precise)

slows light to less than half that speed. It also refracts and splits light into all the colours of the rainbow.

The light’s speed is changed as its direction is changed.

While refraction can cause rainbows, it can also produce other optical phenomena, like mirages and Fata Morgana.

Refraction is all about light bending. A ray of light bends as it enters and leaves glass, for instance, even though it is not very noticeable. But light passing through a diamond is very noticeable. Light normally travels at 186,000 miles per second, but a diamond is so dense it

These are caused by the change of the refractive index of air with temperature. Understanding this concept led to the invention of lenses and the refracting telescope.

Lewis Malka is a diamond specialist and an author. He explains how diamonds affect light.

Fata Morgana from the Italian, is an unusual form of mirage that is seen in a narrow band right above the horizon. Morgana was the sorceress, in the King Arthur story.


NEWS DJ

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The best thing about music is that it brings people together. Whatever you are feeling, you are not alone! Music creates communities and helps people change.

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Every period in history has its own set of songs, or playlists. News DJ is going to tell you about a place or a time through the music that was played. Hit it, DJ!

VIETNAM WAR

This is the chorus of one of the most famous protest songs ever. It was made famous in 1970 and is still very powerful and popular today. But, was life so bad in the 1970s?

Protest song. A song that is associated with a movement for social change. It may be folk, classical, or pop music.

Edwin Starr's version of "War" was a numberone hit on the Billboard Hot 100 chart in 1970. It is not only the most successful record of his career, but is also one of the most popular protest songs ever recorded. Edwin Starr had only one major hit to his name before this song was released. But that all changed in June 1970, when "War" became a runaway hit and held top position on the Billboard Pop Singles chart for three weeks in the summer of 1970. It was his most successful song. The song protested the war in Vietnam and had previously been sung by the famous goup the Temptations.

Edwinn Starr

Born Charles Edwin Hatcher January 21, 1942 in Nashville, Tennessee, United States Died April 2, 2003 in Bramcote, Nottinghamshire, England

Scan the code with a smart phone to watch a video of “War"

Find out more from those who were children in 1970. What do they remember? How different is it from your childhood?

The 1970's

1970 to 1979 might have been a hard decade for some, with many problems across the world, but for children, it was super cool! Here are a few inventions from the 1970s:

Cassette tape recorders 1971 Platform shoes 1972 Roller skates 1973 Chopper bikes 1975 Monopoly 1977 Flared trousers 1976 Punk Rock 1976 Concorde 1977 Star Wars 1977 Skate boards 1971 Digital watch 1971 E-mail 1971 Pocket calculator 1971 Personal computer 1975 Digital camera 1979 Post-it notes 1979 Mobile phone 1979 Walkman (personal tape music player)

The Vietnam War was between the communist regime of North Vietnam and its southern allies, known as the Viet Cong, against South Vietnam and the United States. More than 3 million people, including 58,000 Americans, were killed. The war became unpopular in the U.S. It ended with their forces leaving in 1973 and the unification of Vietnam under Communist control in 1975. Scan this QR code with a smartphone or tablet to visit the History Channel's web page of the Vietnam war.


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NURSERY RHYMES

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A Lullaby from

RUSSIA

Спи, моя радость, усни.

Sleep, little sweetheart, go to sleep,

Спи, моя радость, усни. В доме погасли огни. Пчёлки затихли в саду, Рыбки уснули в пруду.

Sleep, little sweetheart, go to sleep, Lights in the house go dark, Quiet is the buzz of the bees, Quiet are the fish and the trees.

Месяц на небе блестит, Месяц в окошко глядит. Глазки скорее сомкни, Спи, моя радость, усни. Усни, усни…

The silvery moon beams so bright, Down through the window give light. Sleep, little one, go to sleep, Good night, good night.

Many thanks to Марина Заутдинова (Marina Zautdinova),


RADIO

The radio is a part of everyday life. It is used to play music, in phones, baby monitors, garage door openers, toys, satellites, and radar.

Electromagnetic waves are a combination of electrical and magnetic fields. Morse code an alphabet where letters are represented long and short light or sounds signals. Named after Samuel F. B. Morse (1791–1872) American inventor

The radio was the first device to allow people to communicate with others over a long distance. A radio receives the electricity through the air by a radio transmitter. The radio converts these electromagnetic waves into sounds that humans can hear. Between 1886 and 1888 the phycsist Heinrich Rudolf Hertz experimented electromagnetic waves. As a result radio waves were first called “Hertzian waves”. A few years later in 1893 Serbian inventor Nikola Tesla demonstrated ‘wireless radio communication’ in St. Louis, Missouri, USA. In 1896 the Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi was awarded the patent for the radio by the British Government. The word “radio” nowadays means any of three things: electromagnetic, or radio waves, wireless communication and radio broadcasting. At first radio was used to contact ships at sea using Morse code. But during World

War I many advancements made it smaller and more powerful. It became a very useful tool for armies. In 1922 British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) radio services began. I was part of the General Post Office at the time. In 1923 Edwin Armstrong invented the superheterodyne radio which allowed signals to be tuned. It is still in use today. In 1926 after a newspaper strike in England the BBC started to broadcast information to the public. All over the world new radio stations started broadcasting. In a short time radio became essential to many households. Modern radios combine with computers connected to the Internet via satellites. This new digital radio signal brings with it a high quality sound like that found on a CD. Radio is still very much alive.

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Three Pioneers

Heinrich Rudolf Hertz Photo: Robert Krewaldt

Nikola Tesla Photgrapher Unknown

Guglielmo Marconi Photo: Pach Brothers - from the United States Library of Congress’s Prints and Photographs Division


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ow, row, row your boat Gently Down the stream. Merrily, merrily, merrily, merrily, Life is but a dream.

Row, row, row your boat Gently Down the stream. If you see a crocodile Don’t forget to scream


SONG

Row, row, row your boat Gently Down the stream. Merrily, merrily, merrily, merrily, Life is but a dream.

Row, row, row your boat Gently Down the stream. If you see a crocodile Don’t forget to scream

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The earliest printing of the song is from 1852. It had similar lyrics to those used today, but a different tune. It was reprinted two years later with another tune. The modern tune was first recorded with the lyrics in 1881. No one knows who wrote it, but Eliphalet Oram Lyte is mentioned in ‘The Franklin Square Song Collection’.


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REVIEWS

Rainbow Library

The Rainbow Library was set up in 2013 to put good quality books into the hands and hearts of the children who need them most. It supports nurseries and schools with books to help them create their own libraries, as well as resources such as story sacks, activity sheets and reading

sessions.If you would like to find out more about The Rainbow Library, email Carmen at Carmen.agate@gmail.com Carmen Haselup – Creator of Rainbow Library and RhinoReads

Elliot’s Arctic Surprise By Catherine Barr and Francesca Chessa 4+

Mango & Bambang: The Not-a-Pig By Polly Faber and Clara Vulliamy Walker Books. 7+

The Wolf Wilder By Katherine Rundell Bloomsbury Publishing 9+

When Elliot finds a message in a bottle from Father Christmas, asking for URGENT help to save his home from the oil drillers, he hitches a lift from a kind old sailor and together with children from all over the world, they set sail to confront the oil men. Will the children be able to stop the oil drillers and save Christmas? This book has a beautiful sense of adventure, lovely bright illustrations, and a surprising twist at the end. If you love animals and like to learn about the world around you, Elliot’s Arctic Surprise should be on your Christmas list.

Mango Allsorts is a girl good at all sorts of things, not just karate and chess. Bambang is an Asian tapir and most definitely not-a-pig. When Mango meets Bambang a friendship begins. Whether escaping tigers, high diving or trying banana pancakes, both will discover that adventures are better together. Mango and Bambang is beautifully designed and illustrated, with four fun, fast-paced stories full of wit and adventure. Mango is a fabulously feisty character who understands the benefits of being polite but is not afraid to karate kick a door down when a rescue is required. She is fast becoming my hero! A must read for fun-loving adventurers.

Feo could not remember a time when she had not known and loved the wolves. It was impossible not to love them... She could howl, her mother used to say, before she could talk. Wolves made sense to her; wolves, Feo thought, were one of the few things worth dying for. This is an incredible read. Beautifully written and full of adventure, courage and wildness. Fans of the Northern Lights trilogy will love this fierce story of loyalty, love and bravery in snowbound Russia. And if you haven’t read Katherine Rundell’s previous book, Rooftoppers, get on it - you are seriously missing out!

George By Alex Gino Scholastic. 8+ When people look at George, they think they see a boy. But she knows she’s not a boy. She knows she’s a girl. George thinks she’ll have to keep this a secret for ever. Then her teacher announces that their class play is going to be Charlotte’s Web. George really, really, REALLY wants to play Charlotte. But the teacher says she can’t even try out for the part... because she’s a boy. With the help of her best friend, Kelly, George comes up with a plan. Not just so she can be Charlotte- but so everyone can see who she truly is. This is a brilliantly hopeful book celebrating friendship, the power of books and the importance of being yourself. Perfect for anyone who feels a little bit different; anyone who would like to be exactly who they are meant to be. 

Beautiful Birds Colouring Book By Emmanuelle Walker Flying Eye Books. Al ages You are never too old for colouring in! The craze for colouring books for grown ups has swept the nation. But this one is a bit different. The Beautiful Birds Colouring Book is uniquely designed to appeal to all ages, with loads of different designs that range in difficulty. From cute to comical, seasonal to symmetrical, there is something here for everyone. Each double page spread is different but always beautiful. Perfect for sharing with friends at break time, displaying in a quiet corner of the library, or tucking under your pillow for late night creativity.

Binny in Secret by Hilary McKay Hodder Children’s Books 8+ With stuckup classmates and an awful uniform, Binny’s new school is horrible, but a storm brings a new house and new secrets. James’ chicken is stolen and there are strange footprints in the garden... What is lurking in the undergrowth? If you dream of being a writer then this book is for you. A masterclass in awesome writing, Binny in Secret is full of surprises and so-brilliant-it-hurts phrasing. McKay has a real knack for creating characters so full of life that they jump off the page, grab you by the hand and whisk you off on an adventure. You will want Binny’s family to move in next door! Don’t miss the first Binny book, Binny for Short.


HOW I WRITE

Rebecca Tudor is a children’s author. Her first novel – Box 1571 – is out now. Find out more about Rebecca on her website: www.rmtudor.com

Scan the code to get there quickly from a smart phone or a tablet

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7+

READ THIS

So, you want to be a writer? Are you a budding young writer? Do you enjoy playing with words? Writing is great fun and a fantastic way of sharing your ideas. Since the theme of this issue is ‘R’, I thought I’d suggest some words beginning with ‘R’ to start you on the road to becoming a revered writer!

READ!

RESPOND!

WRITE!

It sounds obvious, doesn’t it? Read anything and everything. Start with what you enjoy and then try reading other books, comic strips, websites or articles. Reading can help with your writing in so many ways. It helps you to gain ideas for your own stories and makes you more familiar with different types of writing. I remember loving Roald Dahl’s ‘Revolting Rhymes’ when I was a child, and then trying to write my own poem based on a well-known tale, just like he had. Reading can also help with sentence structure and understanding different ways of getting your message across. All of that is really important when you want to write.

Reading to yourself is a lot of fun, but it’s even better if you can share it with others! Talk to your friends or family about what you’ve read and ask them about what they’ve read too. You can get great ideas about what to read next! Also, you start to understand why you enjoyed a story and what it was about a character or setting that you loved so much. If you understand why you like something, it’s easier to make your own characters just as realistic as the ones you’ve read about.

I know, I know, ‘write’ doesn’t begin with ‘R’, but I had to include it. There’s no better way to improve your writing than to practise! Write about whatever you want and don’t worry about it too much yet. Just enjoy!


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Myasthenia gravis is a rare long-term condition that makes muscles become weak.

“Mum, there’s a tutor on my tablet.”

My Tutor on the Web Our tutors teach in one-to-one online classrooms that you can join with a click of your mouse from an ordinary computer or laptop. They can help with anything from multiplication to metaphors. It can be fun finding a private tutor online….

You can talk to a live tutor on your screen… just as if they were in the same room. There are some cool extras too. You’ll have a shared drawing space, where you can add questions, pictures, or just doodle. Tutorials are recorded so you can play them back afterwards. All the tutors at MyTutorWeb are bright, friendly and enthusiastic… All the tutors at MyTutorWeb are top students at the best universities and they know how to make the complicated stuff sound simple - and how to make work fun. You’ll have a tutor all to yourself, so you can ask them whatever you want. You may even help to save the planet (and the family petrol bill)…because there’s no need to drive anywhere.

Your very own private tutor…for free

We are offering every young Chicken! reader an hour with their very own (top-rated) private tutor. And because we come to you, it doesn’t matter where you live. Parents…. To claim a free one-hour tutorial for your chick, scan the code with your smartphone or tablet create an account with mytutorweb.co.uk and enter the promo code: “Chicken!”, or call 0203 773 6020 if you are in the UK and tell them Chicken! sent you.

It mainly affects muscles, like those that control eye and eyelid movement, facial expression, chewing, swallowing and talking. Sometimes, the muscles that control breathing, the neck and limbs are also affected. In most cases, treatment and rest can help a person lead a normal life.

Research

Scientists are still trying to find out what causes the condition and to understand the relationship between the thymus gland and myasthenia gravis. They know that Myasthenia gravis is caused by a problem with the transmission of nerve signals to the muscles, but they do no know why the body’s immune system attacks its own tissues. They believe the thymus gland, which is a part of your immune system in the upper chest beneath your breastbone, may hold the key to understanding myasthemia gravis fully. Scientists are studying the human nervous system and the thymus gland. In children, the thymus gland is large and gradually gets smaller when they become grown ups. But some adults with myasthenia gravis have large thymus glands.


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The human nervous system and the thymus gland

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The Brooke Consultancy LLP www.thebrookeconsultancy.com

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Paul Harrison www.heshape.com

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Brand Africa Global audra@brandafricaproject.com

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Productive PA www.productivepa.com

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Hudson Clark Associates www.hudsonclarkassociates.co.uk

❶ The brain ❷ The thymus gland is part of your immune system. It is in you chest, beneath your breast bone. ❸ The nervous system is like a set of electrical wires running through your body carrying small amounts of electricity or chemicals from the brain. Most of these wires are protected by your spine. It helps us move, or helps our bodies react to sicknesses.

www.eliteretreatitalia.com

www.rhinoreads.co.uk

www.HandicapInternational.org

www.SavetheChildren.org

www.MyTutorWeb.co.uk

www.bragagnini.co.uk

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CHICKEN HEROES

Rescue In 1988 Mr Winton's wife found an old notebook of names, pictures and documents that told an amazing story of rescue. She had no idea that her husband had done this because he never mentioned it. In December, 1938 visiting Prague, Mr. Winton saw many refugees living in terrible conditions. He felt that a war was coming and came up with a plan to save children who would end up being in danger. Between March and August, 1939 he arranged for eight trains to carry children to the UK. Only seven trains made it through and 669 chilcdren were saved. The 250 children on the last train were never seen again.

The United Kingdom took in nearly 10,000 predominantly Jewish children from Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, and the Free City of Danzig. The children were placed in British foster homes, hostels, schools and farms.

Nicholas Winton organized the escape of 669 mostly Jewish children from Czechoslovakia on the eve of World War II. He died at the age of 106 in July 2015. Nicholas George Wertheim was born in London on May 19, 1909. He was one of three children and his parents were German-Jews who converted to Christianity and changed the family name to Winton. His father was a merchant banker, and Nicholas, Bobby and Charlotte grew up in a 20-room mansion in West Hampstead, London. He and his brother Bobby were good at fencing and late in life started a major British competition in the sport called the Winton Cup. Nicholas went to Stowe School in Buckingham,. He worked in banks in Hamburg, Berlin and Paris. He spoke German and French. In December 1938 he flew to Prague, Czech Republic to help refugees in the Sudetenland, the western region of the country. Many Jewish families were suffering in refugee camps. Mr. Winton and his friends arranged for eight trains to carry

children to Liverpool Street Station in London. Each refugee child had a small bag and a name tag. Nearly all the saved children were orphans by end of the war, their parents killed at one of many concentration camps. After the war, many stayed in Britain, but others returned to Czechoslovakia (as it was called then) or emigrated to Israel, Australia and the United States. Many survivors are now in their 70s and 80s, but still call themselves “Winton’s Children.” After the war he worked for refugee organizations and the Abbeyfield Society, a charity that assists the elderly. He raised more than £1 million in one fund-raising drive. In 1983, he was made a member of the Order of the British Empire for his charity work.

Many survivors are now in their 70s and 80s. They are still callled “Winton’s Children.”

Profile for Afronaut Press

Chicken issue 6  

The latest issue of chicken! Newspaper for children features the letter R and the theme PEACE. Its a boldly designed current affairs newspap...

Chicken issue 6  

The latest issue of chicken! Newspaper for children features the letter R and the theme PEACE. Its a boldly designed current affairs newspap...

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