Endangered Animals Poster:
The letter J:
Elephant by Jane Ray
from jam to jazz The story of Tennis
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Welcome to the summer issue of chicken! I am visiting from France for the summer and have been working for chicken! Everything is different here in the UK: people eat in the middle of the afternoon (in France, the meals are very scheduled), people drive on the left hand side of the road, the weather changes all the time, the wall sockets are different and children wear uniforms to school... But it is fun! The theme of this issue is sport. You will discover new sports and learn more about how to combine nutrition and sport. As always, there is news from the world too, and some very interesting facts. Finally, the featured letter of the issue is J, like joy, journey and July… 5+
In this issue you'll find the new suggested reading age symbol. We decided to help readers of all levels find articles that are just right for them.
Many of our articles are influenced by The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). These are promises made to make life better for all of us. From 2016 to 2030 the world's governments will do their best to make them happen. When today's children are grown up citizens, we will see how many promises came true. We read the world's newspapers and magazines, watch news and current affairs programs, work with writers, illustrators and photographers to carefully pick our stories in each issue. We talk to teachers about their favourite lessons and subjects. So enjoy this latest issue and have good summer holidays! Floriane Wund, Guest Editor
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Inside Alphabet: The Letter J
Activity: J is for...
Country: J is for Jamaica
Information: J is for Jazz!
Informtion: Game Set and Match!
Celebrations around the World 12 Sports: Jai Alai 14 Sports: Nutrition
Engangered animals: Elephant by Jane Ray 16 Alphabet News: Activity: Shapes
Nursery Rhyme: Jack and Jill
Food: From Dough to Pizza
Try this: Bake a Plesniak cake
The Story of Money: Bank Notes
Reveiws: Rainbow Library 28 Books: How I write- Ifeoma Onyefulu
Supporters and Sponsors 31 Chicken Heroes: Thomas Coram
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The letter J
J is the tenth letter in the modern alphabet and is a consonant. The letter J was created when the sound 'djay' first appeared which was about 400 or 500 years ago. Before this time, the sound was pronounced as the current English letter Y (Jesus was pronounced "Iesus"). It was important to create this new letter because very famous names were starting with that pronunciation, like for instance Jesus, Joshua, and Justinian. As you can see by the look of a J, it is a variant of the letter I. But what about other languages? In many Slavic languages of Eastern Europe, or in Germany, the letter J still has the sound of “Y” in English. In the Hebrew and Greek alphabets, there is no equivalent of the letter “J”. In modern Dutch, the combination of 'i' and 'j' is used to
make a long “i” sound. So, it is used as a vowel the word “koninklijk” (“royal” pronounced koninklik). A capital “Y” or a small “i” was used to represent the soft “j” sound in French. This makes sounds like “je” (“I”) or “jaune” (“yellow”) or “joli” (“beautiful”). Words beginning with a J are quite new in Italian and come from other languages, like “jazz” or “jet”. In Spanish, the letter J is called the jota (pronounced “hota”). It sounds unlike anything in English and is made by forcing air through the slightly constricted back part of the mouth. Imagine Darth Vader’s breathing…
Words beginning with a J are quite new in Italian and come from other languages, like “jazz” or “jet”.
Draw your own letter J
J is for...
Draw a line to match the word with the picture. If there is no picture, draw one to match the word.
Joyful Jacket Juice Jockey Journalist Jackal Jackdaw Jalapeno Jalopy Jam Jelly Jet Javelin Jigsaw Journal
Illustrations ÂŠ 2015 Ken Wilson-Max
Where is it?
How big is it?
What is the Capital?
Kingston How many people live there?
2,889,187 What is the Currency?
Jamaican dollar How many languages?
English Jamaican Patois
Jamaica is the third largest of the GreaterAntilles islands. It was made part of the British empire in 1655 and gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1962. Sugar is the biggest export from Jamaica and the rest of the Caribbean. There are many plantations throughout the region and the main source and labour for African slaves. The country is now best known for its music and sport culture. Jamaican music culture includes lots of different music types. It emerged at the end of the 1960s’.
Bob Marley (6/02/1945 - 11/05/1981) Bob Marley was a reggae singer, musician and guitarist. He started his career in a group called The Wailers. In 1974, he started his solo career. His best known album is Exodus, released in 1977. He is considered the father of reggae and is one of the world’s best-selling singers of all time with75 million record sales.
Reggae is a reinterpretation of American blues and became popular around the world thanks to artists such as Bob Marley.
Reggae is influenced by African, European, Indian and Indigenous cultures.
Blues and became popular thanks to artists such as Bob Marley. The Jamaican sound is important in the history of modern music because the idea of deejays started there. Deejays created their own instrumental versions of popular vocal songs. In the late 1960s’, some of them began 'toasting', (using rhyme, humour and provocation in their music). Some famous Deejays went to New York, and toasting evolved into… rap music! As well as their musical skills, Jamaican people like sports from the United Kingdom, including cricket,
Some famous Deejays went to New York, where this toasting evolved into… rap music! football and athletics. The Jamaican national cricket team won the Cricket World Cup in 1975 and in 1979, and the national football team has won the Caribbean Cup five times. The sprinter Usain Bolt is the first man to hold both the 100 meters and the 200 meters world record. He is also the first man who has won six Olympic gold medals in sprinting and has been eight time world champion. Usain Bolt is the fastest person ever and has been nicknamed “lighting bolt”. Ibrahim Karayilan Ibrahim is from Istanbul in Turkey. He is a travel agent who knows a lot about the Caribbean. www.mydelightcaribbean.co.uk
J IS FOR JAZZ
Jazz music was born in America. It was influenced by African slaves, marching army bands and the church. The American civil war ended in 1865 and many of the military musicians left who left the army went back home to look for work. Some played in marching bands. They played for political rallies, circuses, minstrel and medicine shows, carnivals, picnics, dances, athletic contests, reunions, seasonal parades, serenade fairs, and holiday gatherings. By the end of the nineteenth century, marching bands and Minstrel shows were very popular in the United States. Famous jazz musicians who began their careers as minstrel performers were “‘Father of the Blues’ W.C. Handy, vaudevillian Tom Fletcher, musical comedy and ragtime composer Ernest Hogan, Gertrude ‘Ma’ Rainey, and Bessie Smith. In the mid-nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the city of New Orleans became a hotbed of fine brass bands. Many famous jazzmen came from there, like Lester Young and Sidney Bechet. Louis Armstrong was another famous jazz musician that played with the marching bands of New Orleans. After the Great War of 1914-1918, America entered the Prohibition Era, when alcohol was banned. This was the time of the 'Speakeasy', illegal bars which sold alcohol called 'Moonshine', and, of course, there was music. Speakeasys offered opportunities for musicians to earn a living. Often there was only a piano and room for maybe two or three musicians at a time to play together. Jazz became linked to tales of gangsters and crime in early twentieth century America. They were the ones who owned the speakeasys, and needed the musicians to provide the best entertainment to attract more business. Fats Waller, a famous jazz pianist, was once kidnapped after leaving a club and taken to a speakeasy where he was ordered to play for the gangster Al Capone’s birthday party. It was a party that lasted for three days! Jazz is a music has accompanied America through all of its times, both good and bad. Jazz is the music of America. Stephen Giachardi is jazz fan who runs a blog called Blewnotes http://blewnotes.tumblr.com
“GAME, SET AND MATCH” The history of tennis:
Tennis is a sport that you play with a racquet against one person (singles), or with a friend and play against two other people (doubles). Over 75 million people play tennis in the world, but do you know where this game comes from?
racquet (or racket) is a bat with a round frame strung used in tennis, badminton and squash
Historians think it has its origins in the North of France in the 12th century. At the time, players weren’t using racquets but only gloves to protect the palms of their hands. That’s why it was called “jeu de paume” in French, which means “game of the palm”. Racquets came into use in the 16th century. The game spread very rapidly all over the world, but with different names: while it was called “real tennis” in the UK, it was “royal tennis” in Australia and “court tennis” in the United States. But where does the word “tennis” come from? As you now can imagine, it comes from the French word “tenez”, which means “hold”, “receive” or “take”. Now let’s play! Tennis competitions are played on a rectangular court, usually covered with grass, concrete or clay. Players face each other with a net in the middle of the court. Each player has the chance to hit, or serve, the ball to the other. The first player who manages to win 4 points and has at least two points more than his opponent wins the game. In typical English fashion, the way the points are given is not that
obvious. When you have no point, it is called “love”. When you win a point, you actually have 15. Two points gives you 30 and with three points you have 40. When both players have 40, it is called “deuce”. To understand how tennis is scored, imagine a set of Russian dolls. The smallest doll is the “game” made of a sequence of points. The larger doll is a “set”, which is a sequence of games. The service is alternating, and the first player who manages to win 6 games and has at least 2 games more than his opponent wins the set. Finally, the largest doll is “the match”, which is a sequence of sets. It might be played either 3 sets, or 5 sets. Now you know why the umpire says at the end of a tennis competition “Game, set, match!” With the name of the winner just after!
The word “tennis” comes from the French word “tenez”, which means “hold”, “receive” or “take
THE STORY OF TENNIS
WHAT HAS “LOVE” TO DO WITH TENNIS? It is thought to come from the French word (again!) “l’oeuf” (the egg) because a
When you have no point, it is called “love”.
When you win a point, you actually have 15.
Two points gives you 30
zero has the shape of an egg. The word “l’oeuf” probably transformed into “love”.
Three points you have 40.
If both players have 40, it is called “Deuce”.
The next point after deuce is called Advantage
The winning point is called 'Game'
Jeu de paume and the French revolution
The French game “Jeu de paume”, or “game of the palm”, is hundreds of years old. Players stand on a court with a net in the middle, much like tennis. They have to hit the ball over the net with their palms. In the 13th century, players wore leather gloves. The first wooden racquet was used in 1505. Players start 60 feet from the net. When a player wins a point, he takes 15 steps forward to get closer to the net. When he wins 2 points, he can take 30 steps forward, and with 3 points, 40 steps. This is where the scoring system of tennis comes from. This game was popular with King Louis XIV of France (1661 to 1715), who had a room built specially for the game in the Château de Versailles. The room played an important role in French history, as it is where the
“Serment du Jeu de Paume”, the Tennis Court Oath, was made. The Oath was signed by 576 of the 577 members of the Third Estate (people who were neither members of the church, nor aristocrats). The group called itself the National Assembly. They promised a new constitution where French people could govern themselves without an authoritarian King. They wanted power to be shared, so one person was in charge of making the law, another one of applying it and a last one of punishing those who didn’t respect it. This major event in French history was the first time French citizens dared to oppose the supreme power of their King. The Tennis Court Oath marks the end of French monarchy.
The biggest Tennis tournaments Wimbledon French Open AustralianOpen US Open
The longest tennis game: At Wimbledon, 2010, the game lasted 11 hours, five minutes. The shortest tennis game: An ATP tournament game in 2001 lasted only 25 minutes
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Here is an explanation of the science behind myasthenia. Myasthenia gravis is a rare long-term condition that makes muscles become weak. It mainly affects muscles, like those that control eye and eyelid movement, facial expression, chewing, swallowing and talking.
Sometimes, the muscles that control breathing, neck and limb movements are also affected. In most cases, treatment improves muscle strength and a person can lead a relatively normal life.
Your brain sends electrical waves to your nerves to move the muscles. This sends hundreds of AC h (Acetyl-Choline) antibodies to the nerve endings. Letâ€™s call these keys. Upon the muscle is the AC h receptor, the lock. The keys arrive at the lock and switch the muscles into action. Normally, there are more keys than necessary, so the chemical AChe (Acetyl-Choline Esterase) gets rid of the extra keys and the muscle relaxes again.
In myasthenia an immune attack destroys many of the locks so there are too few to trigger the muscles. Drugs like Mestinon (pyridostigmine) stop the AChe from getting rid of the keys so there is a better chance of them getting to the locks. If youâ€™d like to find out more about Myasthenia gravis, myaware and how to help, get in touch. Send an e-mail to: firstname.lastname@example.org Or, visit the myaware website: http://myaware.org
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