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Randori AS A MEANS OF PRACTICING HOKEI

THE COMMITTEE FOR THE RE-EVALUATION OF RANDORI WORLD SHORINJI KEMPO ORGANIZATION HEADQUARTERS TADOTSUO, JAPAN


TABLE OF CONTENTS

FOREWORD ......................................................................................... 2 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................... 3 The Definition of Randori ..................................................................... 4 The Role of Randori ............................................................................ 4 About the Use of Protective Equipment During Randori.................................. 4 TEACHING RANDORI............................................................................... 6 Points in Teaching Randori.................................................................... 6 Safety Guidelines............................................................................... 7 PRACTICING RANDORI ............................................................................ 8 GOHO RANDORI ................................................................................. 8 JUHO RANDORI................................................................................. 10 SPECIFIC METHODS OF MASTERING GOHO TECHNIQUES .................................... 11 SPECIFIC METHODS OF MASTERING GOHO TECHNIQUES .................................... 11 STEP I ........................................................................................... 11 STEP II........................................................................................... 12 STEP III .......................................................................................... 12 STEP IV .......................................................................................... 13 STEP V........................................................................................... 13 SUMMARY ....................................................................................... 13 IN CONCLUSION................................................................................... 14 GLOSSARY OF TERMS............................................................................. 15 APPENDIX .......................................................................................... 20 RANDORI USING PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT .................................................... 20

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FOREWORD On June 28, 1981, during Randori competition at the 19th Annual Kansai Regional Student Taikai, a participating Kenshi received a blow to the head. After leaving the court he fell, was taken to a hospital and treated, but died on July 1st as a direct result of injury received during that competition. Seeing this accident as a point where the controversy surrounding Randori had come to a peak, Kancho So Doshin II inquired as to what should be done to prevent tragic accidents like this, and to ensure that Randori is practiced properly according to the teachings of Kaiso So Doshin I. In answer, the Committee for the Re-evaluation of Randori was formed from one member of each of the other five Permanent Committees and on August 2, 1981, held the first meeting to evaluate once again the role of Randori in Shorinji Kempo from every possible angle. Although it was originally planned to examine Randori from fundamental, medical and legal viewpoints, due to limited time and lack of specialized knowledge, the Committee decided to examine Randori from a fundamental viewpoint, from such perspectives as “What is Randori”, ‘Safety During Randori” and “Teaching Randori”, The results of our decisions were compiled and Kancho gave her sanction. It was with this in mind that this pamphlet was written — with the express purpose of making the results thoroughly known to all Branch Masters and Kenshi. Furthermore, in order to assure that tragic accidents like this shall never occur again and in order to make sure that there are no people who deviate from the proper methods of practicing Kempo as a method of physical, spiritual and intellectual development, we hope that all Branch Masters. Coaches and instructors conduct Randori according to the guidelines explained herein. Lastly, it is essential that Branch Masters and instructors attend Leaders Seminars, Intensive Training Seminars and other meetings to reconfirm the proper methods of teaching Shorinji Kempo, conducting Randori, and maintaining safety. Gassho March 1, 1982 THE COMMITTEE FOR THE RE—EVALUATION OF RANDORI Tsunehiro Arai - Administrative Office, Headquarters Seiichi Goda - Technical Committee Jinya Hirota - Youth Committee Takahi Inden - Educational Committee Sadamu Iwata - Educational Committee Takashi Kimura - Student Committee Hideo Kosuge - Student Committee Yonezo Onodera - Youth Committee Yoshinaga Sakuyama - International Committee Domei Tamura - Technical Committee Hiromichi Yamazaki - International Committee

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INTRODUCTION

So Doshin I, in Book I of the Kyohan, describes Shorinji Kempo in the following way: Arahan no ken, the spiritual discipline which I mastered in China, is essentially different from other martial arts. Its purpose lies not in downing or beating an opponent but rather in enjoying the techniques while perfecting the mind and body. One doesn’t master an opponent, instead, one learns to master oneself. It is a distinctly unique art designed for the development of both the Self and others — an art having the three benefits of improved health, spiritual development and self-defense.

Kaiso here shows that Shorinji Kempo is indeed a unique art, quite unlike other martial arts which, whether they stress active attack or defense, place the ultimate emphasis on winning. In other words, most martial arts do not recognize the importance of spiritual factors, and therefore end up as mere “fighting arts”. The purpose of Shorinji Kempo lies not in defeating others but rather in the development of a complete and united self. Therefore, as long as the goal of self—development is held, the very structure and methods of practice must be in accordance with that goal. Kaiso has stated that the greatest characteristic of Shorinji Kempo is the use of Hokei Kumi Embu to educate and train people — to help them enjoy not only their own advancement, but to also delight in the progress of others, as a way to spiritual progress while putting the teaching of Jita Kyoraku into actual practice. Herein lays the greatest difference between Shorinji Kempo and other martial arts. The methods Shorinji Kempo uses to practice are designed to foster self-cultivation. They are based on cooperation rather than opposition, and constructiveness rather than destructiveness. In other words, practicing Hokei is the concrete embodiment of the philosophy and ideals central to Shorinji Kempo. This method of refining ones techniques, Hokei Enren, is rarely seen in other martial arts. It does not pit one against the opponent but rather stresses cooperation. However, it is a disappointing fact that there are some people who have chosen a method of practicing Kempo that is not in harmony with the basic ideals of Shorinji Kempo. Randori using protectors is nothing more than a supplementary method of mastering the practical application of the techniques. By placing Randori at the center of everyday practice, with the goal of practicing Kempo being the development of physical strength, one cannot help but to also place the purpose of practicing as mere winning. This, more than anything, would shatter the very basis of So Doshin’s teaching of the spirit of Jitta Kyoraku and drag Shorinji Kempo, a discipline originally designed for self--development, down to the level of a simple fighting art. Randori in Shorinji Kempo is a single method of learning the application of techniques and mastering Hokei. Yet it is not the only method. Because this point is often misunderstood, mistakes like those previously mentioned have occurred. Therefore, this Committee has examined Randori not as a separate method of practice, but rather has considered what role Randori is to have within Hokei Enren — the central

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practice method of Shorinji Kempo — and to clarify it definition and significance. In doing so, it is inevitable that Hokei Shuren must be concretely systematized anew.

The Definition of Randori Randori refers not to something to be considered separately from everyday Hokei Enren practice but rather refers to a method of restricted or free cooperative practice within the course of mastering the techniques and their practical applications. It is not to be conducted as a tournament or competition, nor without due consideration given as to whether protective equipment should be used.

The Role of Randori The core forming the method of spiritual training in Shorinji Kempo is the practice of Hokei, which represents the sublime culmination of the numerous ancients. However, as the basis of Hokei lies in the mastering of forms, it is easy for Hokei to be reduced to the rote memorization of set patterns. While it is easy to mechanically learn such forms, inflexible attachment to them will serve only to trap the practitioner in a set pattern, causing him to loose both freedom of mind and body. In order to avoid this, one must always keep adaptation in mind and be prepared to react to anything, even while practicing a single form. Therefore, in the course of mastering Hokei, in order to create a versatile form that is free from restrictions and attachments — one that can adapt to changes as the situation may require, as well as be useful for defense — it is necessary to have a training program that incorporates both free or limited attack and defense. One method is that called “Randori”. Randori is a single practice method included in the term °Hokei Enren” The term includes, of course, both Juho Randori and Goho Randori. What must not be forgotten is that Randori is not something that exists outside of Hokei Enren but rather is a part of practicing and mastering Hokei - a path to self-enlightenment.

About the Use of Protective Equipment During Randori Kaiso wrote the following passages concerning Randori using protective equipment: As Cole, Randori employing only punches and kicks is dangerous and has caused injuries in the past, some Branches practice it using a type of protective equipment..... However, as these forces the number of techniques which may be used to be limited, the beauty and pleasure of practicing the techniques is lost. One begins to think only of such things as beating and downing the opponent and before one realizes it, Shorinji Kempo ceases to be a method of mastering oneself. In using protectors, by limiting the techniques, and by teaching the students to place their goals in participating in competitions, the student begins to think only of earning points. One soon creates a type of person who, obsessed with winning, will not hesitate to stoop to anything to assure winning. This results in the formation of a wild, reckless, self-centered person who delights only when he has succeeded in defeating others.

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With Shorinji Kempo, it is absolutely impossible to base ones practice on Randori alone. The foundation of ones training should be the practicing of techniques in pairs (Hokei Kumi Embu). The use of Randori employing protectors should be no more than a supplementary method of Goho Embu. In other words, the reason for using protectors in Randori is for safety, not so that it may be practiced as a type of tournament or competition. Randori should be practiced only as a supplementary, not the main method of developing proficiency in Goho techniques.

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TEACHING RANDORI In the fourteenth section of Book IV of the Kyohan, So Doshin clearly points out the faults and limitations of competitive Randori, and at the same time he stresses the necessity of Randori in everyday practice. He strictly prohibits competitive Randori as well as placing too much emphasis on Randori in training. The reason for this is that Shorinji Kempo strives for the development of the true Self through Kumi Embu, the enjoyment of both your own and your partner’s technical progress, and the realization that man not only lives, but is being helped to live by others. Practicing Randori merely as a means of fighting would cause one to totally loose sight of the most important facet of Shorinji Kempo — living in harmony and cooperation with others. In teaching Randori, the first point is to have the Kenshi thoroughly understand the meaning and purpose of Randori as herein explained. It is the responsibility of the instructor to see that Randori does not develop into a tournament where winners and loser’s are decided, or a competition wherein one can gain confidence and satisfaction solely by beating others. It is important for the instructor to be sure that the Kenshi know what Randori is, as well as make sure that it is conducted according to the following guidelines:

Points in Teaching Randori 1. Be sure that the kenshi know that Randori is neither a “match” nor a tournament, but rather a single method of mastering the techniques — one in which practical application and adaptation of the techniques are practiced along with the mastering of distance (maai) and timing (kyojitsu). 2. Randori must be practiced only when an instructor is supervising. 3. The instructor must be able to evaluate the progress of the Randori objectively, check for safety, and assure that Randori is being practiced properly. 4. Decisions which make either the participants or observers conscious of competition or winning are to be avoided. 5. As erroneous “spirit training” often leads to injuries, Randori shall at no time be compulsory.

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Safety Guidelines 1. The practice area and protective equipment should be checked in advance to assure safety. 2. The instructor/supervisor must be capable of administering first aid if necessary. 3. Those kenshi who are ill or those who are physically or emotionally unfit (i.e., those who are tired, those who are injured, those who become too emotional and repeatedly refuse to listen to the directions of the instructors) should not be allowed to participate in Randori. 4. Warm-up exercises as well as basic practice should be conducted before Randori. 5. Participating kenshi must wear the following protective equipment: (a) Chest protector (Do) (b) Gloves, or a wrist supporter which covers the knuckles (c) Headgear that adequately covers the base of the skull (d) Athletic supporter (with cup) (e) Any other protective equipment kenshi may need to wear (i. e. shin guards, forearm guards, etc.) 6. Even when participants are wearing protective equipment, all blows to the face or head must be pulled short (sundome). 7. In the case of Goho Randori wherein no protective equipment is available, all blows are to be pulled short. 8. In principal, Kyukenshi should not attempt free Randori. 9. The following are forbidden: (a) Attacks to the eyes (b) Attacks to the groin (c) Attacks to the neck or back of the head (d) Attacks to the opponent’s back (e) Strangling techniques (f) Throwing techniques which require striking a grabbed opponent (such as Maki-uchi Kubi nage, Bukkotsu nage) (g) Attacks to a fallen opponent (h) Any other techniques which may be determined dangerous by the instructor for the participants rank, condition, ability, etcetera.

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PRACTICING RANDORI In Shorinji Kempo, one first maintains a position wherein one can defend against any attack. Then, after creating that situation, one considers counterattack. Defense is primary, offense is secondary. In learning Shorinji Kempo, one must try to cultivate the technical ability and proper state of mind which would enable to block any attack. This is the reason that the mastery of Kempo begins with the learning of forms, or Hokei. These Hokei represent a polished compilation of techniques handed down through the centuries. Therefore, a student of Kempo must strive to master the basic forms which allow him to block an aggressor’s attack, Attempts to restrain an opponent with a complete disregard of Hokei forms, or concentrating practice on overcoming the opponent with attacks only may seem effective at the time, however, they will not allow the student to experience the subtlety of Shorinji Kempo’s techniques, nor aid in their mastery, It causes the student’s technical and spiritual progress to be stopped at that level kenshi should not be taken in by visible physical strength, nor misled by seeing the techniques as there “tricks”. One must rather strive for mastering the deep subtlety of Kempo throughout the course of ones life. In this chapter, we shall illustrate concretely the proper way to practice both Randori and Hokei, based on the concept of lifelong education rather than sudden mastery.

GOHO RANDORI One should not start off with free Randori, but rather begin with limited Randori — Randori using a limited number of prearranged techniques within the limit of the kenski’s ability and rank. An example is given on the following page. A. DEFENSE AGAINST JODAN ZUKI

Attack - Various combinations of upper single attacks such as jun and gyaku zuki, straight punch (chokuzuki) and curved punch (kyuosenzuki) Defense 1) Using several prearranged blocks. 2) Using several prearranged blocks after which a punch or kick is delivered as a counter attack. Example – The attack is limited to straight Punches. The defense may use uwa uke and uchi uke to block. After proficiency in blocking has been developed the defending kenshi then practices counterattacks such as uwa uke zuki, uwa geri, uchi-uke zuki, uchi uke geri. Next the attack is limited to curved punches, and the student defends with soto oshi uke and kusshin. After proficiency is developed, he may add counterattacks making for the forms soto oshi uke zuki, soto oshi uke geri, kusshin zuki, kusshin geri, etc.

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Next the attacker may use chokuzuki or kyokusen zuki and the defender use uwa uke, uchi uke, soto oshi uke and kusshin as appropriate. When this has been mastered, he may add counterattacks. The above is an example of how the practice of uchi uke, uwa-uke, soto oshi uke and kusshin may be centered around the discrimination between chokuzuki and kyokusen zuki. B. DEFENSE AGAINST CHUDAN ZUKI Attack - Various types of punch to the chest, such as jun zuki, gyaku zuki kagi zuki, and others. A. Using a Prearrange block. B. Using a prearrange block, after which a punch or kick is delivered as a counterattack C. DEFENSE AGAINST CHUDAN ZUKI Attack - Various types of single kicks, such as fun geri, mawashi geri, sokuto geri, etc. Defense 1) Using several prearranged blocks, such as harai uke, juji uke, shita uke. 2) Using a prearranged block, after which single (tan), double (ren) or multilevel (dan) kicks are delivered as counterattacks. D. DEFENSE AGAINST COMPLEX ATTACKS Attack - Two or three punches or kicks delivered in rapid succession. Defense 1) Using prearranged blocks, such as dan-uke or ren-uke. 2) Using prearranged blocks, after which punches or kicks are delivered as counterattacks. Example - This is an opportunity to practice such techniques as Tsuki ten ichi, ni and san; Keri ten san, Furi ten ni or at a higher level Hangetsu gaeshi. E. DEFENSE USING MULTI-LEVEL COUNTERATTACKS Attack - Straight single punch (tan) to jodan or chudan. Defense - Dan counterattacks, such as those employed in the techniques of Byakuren Ken and Nio Ken. In all the steps from A to E, the attacks have been restricted. In this type of practice, the attacker may polish his attacks while the defender is given the opportunity to perfect his blocks and counterattacks. According to their progress, one may have the kenshi practice a combination of the above, for example Step A and Step B or Step A and Step C.

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By practicing and mastering limited Randori, one may gradually progress towards free Randori, that is to say, Randori in which neither the attack nor the defense are prearranged.

JUHO RANDORI Juho Randori should encompass the techniques which the kenshi has already learned. Some specific examples follow below: A. Defense using the Ryuo Ken techniques, where both the attack and defense are prearranged. B. Defense using the Ryuka Ken techniques, where both the attack and defense are prearranged. C. Defense using the Rakan Ken techniques, where both the attack and defense are prearranged. D. A combination of the above three, where the attacks alone have been prearranged. E. A combination of A through C where the attacks have not been prearranged, but one must defend using techniques from Ryuo Ken, Ryuka Ken or Rakan Ken. F. Progressively free Juho Randori according to ones level of mastery.

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SPECIFIC METHODS OF MASTERING GOHO TECHNIQUES In this chapter, Uchi-uke zuki will be used as an example. There are actually a number of sub-forms that are incorporated under the name “uchi-ukezuki”. Interpreting it to mean merely one set pattern causes its essence as an adaptable Hokei form to be lost. The following is an example of how this may be avoided.

STEP I Below is a listing of the different sub-forms that make up the Hokei form “Uchi-uke zuki”. There are basically right and left blocks, both inside (omote) and outside (ura) techniques. In addition, different stances, footwork as well as fun and gyaku blocks make for a total of thirty-two unique sub-forms. The first step consists of thoroughly practicing these sub-forms. UCHI-UKE ZUKI Stance

Block

Attack

Tai gamae 1) Right

Counter attack

jun

gyaku zuki

gyaku

jun zuki

jun

gyaku zuki

gyaku

jun zuki

jun

gyaku zuki

gyaku

jun zuki

jun

gyaku zuki

gyaku zuki

2) Left

jun zuki

sashikae jun zuki

1) Right 2) Left

sashikae gyaku zuki gyaku

Hiraki gamae

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jun zuki


STEP II At this stage, two or more of the previously mentioned sub-forms should be practiced freely within the limits established in the chart below. One should not, however, loose sight of the fact that this is still an exercise for mastering uchi uke zuki. Number of

Attack

Defense

Level 1

Limited

Semi—free

2, 3, 4 or more

Level 2

Semi-free

Limited

2, 3, 4 or more

Level 3

Semi-free

Semi-free

2, 3, 4 or more

Level 4

Free

Free

2, 3, 4 or more

Sub-forms practiced

Limited ………. Only one technique is practiced Semi-free …… Several selected techniques are used Free ………….… No restrictions on which techniques may be used

STEP III The form should now be practiced in connection with other Hokei forms. Be sure that all other Hokei forms employed have been practiced at Step I and Step II. The following is a chart showing which types of techniques might be grouped together at what level.

Level 1

Technique

Relationship

Uchi- uke geri

Uses same block

Soto uke geri Uchiage uke zuki Level 2

Uwa uke zuki

All use same counterattack (punch)

(or Uchi uke zuki plus two or three of the above) Oshi- uke zuki Level 3

Shita uke zuki Uwa-uke zuki

All represent adapted defenses based on a change in attack.

Ryusui geri

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STEP IV The form should now be practiced against attacks consisting of punches, kicks, or combinations thereof. Be sure that all techniques involved have been practiced from Step I through Step III. Level 1

Against single attacks (tan—geki), gradually incorporating more techniques.

Level 2

Against complex attacks Niren ko or Sanren ko, gradually incorporating more techniques

Level 3

Against a combination of single and complex attacks (Tan-geki, Niren-ko, Sanren-ko)

Level 4

Against free attack. One Kenshi assumes offense, one assumes the defense.

Based on proper instruction, progress in Step IV will allow the practitioner to realize once again the importance of Steps II, III and especially Step I.

STEP V Step V is the stage of free Randori, where both kenshi simultaneously assume both attack and defense. Although free Randori can only come after mastering Step I, it does not necessarily have to be practiced after completing Steps II and III. This should be left to the discretion of the instructor.

SUMMARY The preceding chapters have been an explanation of how Juho and ho Hokei should be practiced. However, as it is difficult to go through the entire process for each and every technique, it is recommended that practical and frequently used techniques be selected for practice using this method.

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IN CONCLUSION As mentioned in the Foreword, this Committee was originally formed with the purpose of examining Randori from fundamental, medical and legal viewpoints and to make a concrete decision as to its practice. Unfortunately, due to lack of time and expert knowledge, the Committee decided to examine the issue from a fundamental technical and philosophical viewpoint only. In the course of its analysis, this Committee brought to light a number of individual topics for further discussion. Those left for future study are listed below: 1-) A medical inquiry into the effects of atemi on the human body 2-) Legal responsibility for accidents during Randori 3-) Rules for judging Randori and Randori competition 4-) The improvement of protective equipment It is the opinion of this Committee that these points are in need of further consideration, by the Committee for the Re-evaluation of Randori, one of the five Permanent Committees, or by special research teams. Last, in order to prevent further tragic accidents from occurring and to assure that there are no persons who practice Shorinji Kempo merely as a means of fighting, this Committee deems it necessary to educate the instructors of Shorinji Kempo in safety as well as in proper methods of teaching and conducting Randori. Though incomplete, we of the Committee for the Re-evaluation of Randori hereby present this pamphlet as the result of our study. Gassho

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GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Arahan no ken (Chin. A Luo Han Zhi Quan) A Chinese martial art of the Northern Shaolin Style (Jap — Kita Shorinji Giwamon Ken or Chin — Bei Shaolin si Ihomen xi) that So Doshin I studied in China and became the 21st successor to at a ceremony held at the Shaolin Temple in Hunan Province in 1936. Atemi A blow to the body using the hand or foot as a weapon. While is does not necessarily refer to one directed to a kyusho (pressure point. the roost effective atemi are those that are in accordance with the Five Principals of Atemi. Byakuren-ken The group of techniques where a single punch to the face (jodan tangeki) is deflected and a counterattack is delivered with the same hand. Examples are tsubame gaeshi, chidori gaeshi, mikazuki gaeshi, and suigetsu gaeshi. Chokuzuki A straight’ punch. A punch that is not curved, but rather proceeds on a straight line. (see kyokusen-zuki) Chudan-zuki A punch to the chest or mid-section. Dan-geki Two punches delivered in rapid succession with the same hand. Dan-geri Two kicks delivered in rapid succession with the same leg. Dan-uke Two blocks performed in rapid succession with the same arm. Educational Committee The committee involved in the research, development and teaching of the philosophy of Kongo Zen both to kenshi and to society at large. Free Randori Randori in which both students simultaneously assume both attack and defense (see ‘Randori’) Gentei Randori See “Limited Randori” Goho

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The “hard techniques”, or the branch of 11 types of techniques including punching techniques, striking techniques, hitting techniques, kicking techniques, “reaping techniques” (leg sweeps), “stamping techniques” (kicks to a downed opponent), blocks, techniques using the body in general to attack (such as shoulder slams, head butts, etc. and the three types of techniques using the traditional weapons of the Dokko (a Buddhist ceremonial ornament), the Nyoibo (a short club used by monks) and the Shakujo (priest’s staff). Gyaku Any techniques using the reverse or back hand — for example, in a right chudan gamae, the left hand would be the gyaku hand. Any block with that hand would be a gyaku block (gyaku-uke) and any punch would be a gyaku punch (gyaku-zuki). Gyaku zuki See “Gyaku” Hiraki Gamae The state where both kenshi have adopted opposing stances (i.e. right ichiji gamae and left ichiji gamae) Hokei The techniques and practice methods which concretely embody the philosophy of Shorinji Kempo. Each one of the forms may be used for selfdefene, but more importantly, through their everyday practice, one will be able to understand the true meaning of Kempo. Hokei Enren The practicing of Hokei Hokei Kumi Embu An embu involving a number of Hokei grouped together. International Committee The advisory committee for international affairs. Jita Kyoraku One of the teachings of Shorinji Kempo. “Ji” means self, “ta”, others. “Kio” means together and ‘raku” means pleasure or happiness, It refers to the goal of living together in harmony and happiness with others, thinking not only of ones own happiness, but also of the happiness of others. The desire to develop oneself and to help others to develop themselves. Jiyu Randori See “Free Randori” Jodan Zuki A punch to the face. An upper punch.

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Juho The “soft techniques” of Shorinji Kempo. The branch of ten types of techniques which include: 1. Throwing techniques

6. Techniques using pressure points

2. Techniques using the joints

7. Techniques used to free the hand

3. Pinning techniques

8. Techniques used to free the body

4. Strangling techniques

9. Shuho or protective techniques

5. Restraining techniques

10. Tying techniques

Jun Any techniques using the forward or front hand. In a right chudan gamag, the right hand would be the Jun hand. Any block with that hand would be a Jun block (Jun-uke) and any punch with that hand would be a Jun punch (jun-zuki) Kaiso Literally meaning “Founder”, “Kaiso” is the posthumous title of So Doshin I. Kancho The chief abbot of a Buddhist temple. It is the title of So Doshin Ii. Kansai The region comprising western Japan, including Osaka, Kyoto and Nara. Kenshi A person practicing Shorinji Kempo. Kumi Enren Practicing in pairs. Kyohan The master text written by So Doshin I, detailing the techniques and philosophy of Shorinji Kempo. Kyojitsu Avoidance of the opponent’s strengths while at the same time attacking his weak points with ones own strength. Strength not only refers to physical strength, but also to technical skill and experience. A term borrowed from ancient Chinese medicine. Kyokusen zuki A curved punch. One that proceeds on an arc, like furi zuki or kagi zuki. Kyukenshi Those kenshi who do not yet hold a Dan ranking.

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Limited Randori Randori using a limited number of prearranged techniques within the limit of the kenshi’s ability and rank. Maai Distance Nio Ken A group of Goho techniques in which single punches to the face are blocked and a punch or kick is delivered as a counterattack. Some techniques include ryusui geri, (uwa uke zuki, uwa uke geri, uchi- uke zuki, kaiskin zuki. Omote A block that would leave the front of the opponent open to counterattack. Rakan Ken The group of Juho techniques comprised of throwing and gyaku waza applied when sleeves or clothing is grabbed. Examples are katamuna otoshi, sode maki, juji nage, and johaku dori. Randori A method of cooperative practice wherein free attack and defense are practiced in order to master the techniques and their practical applications. Ren—geki Two punches delivered in rapid succession with opposite hands. Ren-geri Two kicks delivered in rapid succession with opposite legs. Ren-uke Two blocks performed in rapid succession with opposite arms. Ryuka-ken The group of Juho techniques comprised of adaptations of the Ryuo -ken techniques including throwing techniques and gyaku waza. Some examples are: gyaku gote, okuri gote, kiri gote, ryu nage. Ryuo-ken The group of Julio techniques comprised of nuki waza. Sashikae A step-in punch or block, where the techniques is not delivered from the present stance but is delivered after stepping in and changing stance. Student Committee The Committee in charge of instructing and advising the members of the more than 300 university Shorinji Kempo clubs in Japan. Sub-form A specific pattern comprising the larger Hokei form.

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Sundome Stopping a blow, or “pulling it short� during practice, before it actually hits ones partner. Tai Gamae The state in which both kenshi adopt the same stance (i.e. right ichiji gamae and right ichiji gamae) Taikai Large demonstrations meet where Embu are shown and formerly Randori competition was conducted. The three goals of a Taikai are deepening the friendship and sense of unity among kenshi, technical exchange, and helping to foster understanding and cooperation between the kenshi and the local community. Tan-geki A single attack where the opponent delivers only one punch or kick. Technical Committee A committee designed to research, develop and organize the techniques of Shorinji Kempo. Ura A block that would leave the back of the opponent open for counter attack. Youth Committee A committee involved with the planning of training programs and activities for kenshi aged 3-12.

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APPENDIX RANDORI USING PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT SO DOSHIN I Kyohan, Book IV, Section Fourteen The greatest distinguishing feature of Shorinji Kempo, as shown by the ancient murals in the Shaolin Temple, is the practicing of the various techniques in pairs. In practicing Kempo as a means of self-defense, or even as a way to improve ones health, it is necessary to have a partner with whom to practice. If one seeks to master Kempo as Budo — a means by which to dispel violence and bring order — it is imperative to consider an opponent who might use any sort of attack. If one who has never practiced with a partner were ever forced into a situation where he would have to defend himself against such an aggressor, no matter how much he has toughened his hands or legs, or how perfect his kata may be, he will never be able to defend himself against a moving opponent who may use any attack whatsoever. Therefore, in order to make Shorinji Kempo practical as a method of self-defense, there is a need to practice free Randori in order to master adaptations and combinations of the techniques. Kihon and individual Hokei practice alone are not enough. However, as Goho Randori employing only punches and kicks is dangerous and has caused injuries in the past, some people practice Randori using a type of protective equipment. Although the use of such equipment does contribute to safety, there are a number of disadvantages, such as those listed below. 1) When wearing gloves, one cannot use Ryu Ken, Ryuka Ken, or other techniques which require delicate and precise movements of the hand. One is thereby reduced to using punches and kicks only. By reducing the number and variety of techniques which may be used, the beauty and appeal of practice is lost and students soon loose their interest. In the end, Randori becomes a matter of who scored more points or who punched and kicked his partner more. 2) If one is wearing protective equipment, he can be kicked or punched without being injured. This has led to an increase in the number of students who purposely let themselves, be kicked in the chest, hoping to deliver a blow to their opponent’s face during the split-second he is off balance after completing the attack. One also finds these who, even though they have been punched and kicked, will try to grab and throw their opponent. It becomes less like Kempo and more like Judo or even Sumo! These students become obsessed with downing their partner and somewhere forget that they are practicing Kempo in order to master themselves. In Japan’s past, there is a good example of where this type of training failed. Around 1924, a Karate Club was formed at the Tokyo Imperial University by students of Gichin Funakoshi. As they practiced kata only, disillusioned students seeking to learn more

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went as far as Okinawa to study during their Summer vacations. But no matter what teacher they approached, all would teach only one or two set katas, such as Passai, Pinyan, or Sanchin. Since it was uninteresting and there was little encouragement, they decided to create a new form of Karate, one that involved competition. The members of the club began to experiment, and with such protectors as a converted baseball facemask and specially ordered steel-reinforced shin guards, set about their task looking like medieval knights. As fate would have it, this project died out without much ado after a few years. The reason it folded so quickly was that, by using protectors, it was difficult to determine merely by punches or kicks who won the match. As the participants were protected against the effects of the blows, it was difficult to determine whether the attacks were effective or riot. This led to the practice where the deciding blow was always delivered after grabbing the opponent or throwing him to the floor. Like the Japanese generals of the 1400s who would often say Attacking from a distance (with punches or kicks) is troublesome. When in danger, choose to grapple at close quarters”, the students ended up relying on throws or sweeps to determine victory. They were then faced with the same drawback as in Judo — namely that the stronger, larger opponent has the advantage. So when it came to grappling, the students figured they would have done better to have learned Judo and gave up. Next, let us examine the case of a fight — an actual application without protectors. Leaving aside the cases where the opponent knows either Judo or Sumo, he would most likely kick, punch or throw using wrist locks. It would be next to impossible to get in, get a good hold on, and throw such an opponent. This is not merely my own opinion; it is a fact backed by the experiences of a number of high-ranking practitioners of Judo who have begun to practice Kempo. With Shorinji Kempo, it is absolutely impossible to base ones practice on Randori alone. However, it should be mentioned that Randori does have its place as an auxiliary method of Goho Kumi Embu. As explained earlier, the greatest distinguishing feature of Shorinji Kempo is its use of Hokei Kumi Embu as a means of developing character, delighting in both you and your partner’s progress, and as a way to enjoy practice while progressing towards the realization of Jita Kyoraku This essential point is a worthy and spiritual goal that cannot be realized by martial arts or sports which strive only to defeat other. “Respect and help others to live, while you yourself live in harmony with all” — this extraordinary teaching of the ancients would be totally lost in a Shorinji Kempo dominated by Randori. In using protectors, limiting techniques, by teaching students to place their goals in participating in competitions, the student thereby begins to think only of earning points and one soon creates a type of person who, obsessed with winning, will not hesitate to stoop to anything to assure winning. This results in the formation of a wild, reckless self—centered person who delights only when he has succeeded in defeating others.

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This fact can be seen clearly by closely examining Boxing or Sumo. From the instant the competitor wins, he acts an if he were the greatest being on earth, This lasts until he is defeated, and the challenger takes the spotlight while he retreats to the lonely life of a former winner. From the moment he looses, no one will have anything to do with him. He resigns himself to slowly fading away alone. Practicing Randori as a form of competition can only contribute to the formation of such a pitiful personality. For a person to fight others just so he may boast of his might or, like a cheap performer, flock after the applause of the crowd for winning a tournament, will hardly make one the type of person who could contribute constructively to a modern society which is based on the ideals of cooperation and mutual prosperity. One must realize that the popularity a fighter receives is merely an attraction to him as either the center of a show or the object of a wager and not because of an admiration for his personality or virtues. This is quite clear in both Boxing and Sumo. One can understand well by looking at the future of those who say “I used to be a champion. By considering these examples, by following the teachings of the many teachers and masters before us, we should be sure that Shorinji Kempo does not deteriorate into a sport or martial art blinded by the fleeting glitter of winning. Instead, we must work towards an art one step higher. We must never forget that we are practicing Kempo for self-development and not to become fighters or cheap showmen.

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Randori  

AS A MEANS OF PRACTICING HOKEI