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Faculty of Social Sciences School of Languages

Subject: Grammar Section: 01

Topic: Magazine.

Professor Licda. Delmy Amaya

Student: González Alvarado, Karla Yamileth. Montoya Cañas, Kenny Rocío.


Ă?ndex Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 3 Part of speech .......................................................................................................................... 4 Summary table ................................................................................................................ 12 Examples. ........................................................................................................................ 14 Sentence strucuture ........................................................................................................... 16 Summary table ................................................................................................................ 19 Examples: ........................................................................................................................ 20 TYPES OF CLAUSES .................................................................................................................. 21 Independent clause............................................................................................................. 21 Dependent clause ........................................................................................................... 22 Mind map............................................................................................................................... 24 ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE .................................................................................................... 25 Active voice ..................................................................................................................... 27 SUMMARY TABLE .......................................................................................................... 29 Conclusion.............................................................................................................................. 30 Bibliography ........................................................................................................................... 31 ANEXXES ................................................................................................................................ 32


Introduction English is the second most widely spoken native language in the world. The English language has official status even in nations where it is not the primary spoken language, so the reasons to learn English as a second language might vary among to learn it because of the necessity or in order to get several job opportunities. Besides, if people learn English academically, then they have to know what the importance of learning deeply the parts of the speech, passive and active voice, type of sentences, and type of clauses is; it would influence a lot in their language development. Consequently, in this academic paper you will find the previous topics giving special emphasis on their particular importance in not only learning them but also practicing with the objective to improve the four skills. Therefore, the first topic is “The parts of the speech” which show how the words relate to each other. It helps to determine the meaning of an entire sentence. The second topic must be “The type of sentences” which allow to package information for expressing clearly and understanding what others say. The third matter is “The type of clauses” that are a group of related words to formulate complex thoughts. Finally, the last content is “The passive and active voice”, this is one of the most controversial and complex topic within the English structure and grammar.


Part of speech

The importance of learn the part of speech is because they show us the how the words relate to each other and as soon as we assign each word a role and put them into a sentence, we actually get something meaningful; However, if we change the role (part of speech) of a word, the meaning can become completely different. For this reason, we have to learn the eight parts. The nouns have different functions such as subject, direct object, indirect object and object of preposition.


A pronoun can be used to replace one of these nouns if you did not want to use the specific noun and when a pronoun is used in place of a noun, it must match the number, point of view, and gender of the noun it is replacing. In the same way, the pronouns are useful or expressing ideas about ourselves without having to use our own name for this reason is important that you have to be clear that without pronouns and everything we say will be full of repetitions. Pronouns should only be used after a noun has been used first, and it must be clear which noun the pronoun is replacing.


Verbs often change their form as different endings are added to them. These endings are changed to show a verb’s relationship to time, they are conjugated according to person, number, gender, tense, aspect, mood, or voice.


Adverbs can always be used to modify verbs; they are often formed by adding the letters “-ly� to adjectives. This makes is very easy to identify adverbs in sentences and adverbs can be used to modify an adjective and intensify the meaning.


Adjectives tell the reader how much—or how many—of something you’re talking about, which thing you want passed to you, or which kind of something you want. They can also act as a complement to linking verbs or the verb to be.


A conjunction is a part of speech that is used to connect words, phrases, clauses, or sentences. Conjunctions are considered to be invariable grammar particle, and they may or may not stand between items they conjoin.

 Subordinating conjunctions – Also known as subordinators, these conjunctions join dependent clauses to independent clauses.

 Coordinating conjunction – Also known as coordinators, these conjunctions coordinate or join two or more sentences, main clauses, words, or other parts of speech which are of the same syntactic importance.

 Correlative conjunction – These conjunctions correlate, working in pairs to join phrases or words that carry equal importance within a sentence.


Types of preposición 

Preposition for Time

Preposition for Place

Preposition for Direction

Preposition for Agent

Preposition for Instrument

Prepositional Phrase


Interjection: It can be at beginning of sentences, middle or end of sentences and stand-alone sentence. An interjection is essentially almost any word in English that you can insert into a sentence to convey emotions.


Summary table Part of speech Noun.

Pronouns.

Verbs.

Adverbs.

Adjectives

definition The noun is a word used to mention the name of a person place or idea and it has different functions. a pronoun is defined as a word or phrase that may be substituted for a noun or noun phrase, which once replaced, is known as the pronoun’s antecedent. Show an action, an occurrence, or a state of being. Whether mental, physical, or mechanical, verbs always express activity. is a word that is used to change or qualify the meaning of an adjective, a verb, a clause, another adverb, or any other type of word

Adjectives are words that describe or modify other words, making

classification Proper. Common. Compound. Countable. Uncountable. Collective. Concrete. Abstract. Indefinite . Personal. Reflexive. Demonstrative. Possessive. Relative. Interrogative. Reciprocal. Intensive.

examples -John started to run.

Linking. Auxiliary. Modal. Active. Transitive. Intransitive.

-I hear the train coming.

Manner. Time. Place. Degree.

Possessive. Demonstrative. Numbers. Interrogative. Descriptive.

-Elephants never forget. -Throw the ball. -Follow the rules. -We are going on vacation. -Richard stared at himself in the mirror. - I’m not sure which is worse: rain or snow.

-I know the answer. -Do you believe everything people tell you? -She was walking rapidly. -The kids love playing together in the sandbox. -Please come inside now. -His jokes are always very funny. -You don’t really care, do you? -they live in a big, beautiful


-Since it’s a hot day, Lisa is wearing a sleeveless

your writing and speaking much more specific, and a whole lot more interesting.

-The mountaintops are covered in sparkling

Conjunctions. is used to Subordinating. connect words, Coordinating. phrases, clauses, Correlative. or sentences. Conjunctions are considered to be invariable grammar particle.

-On her birthday, Brenda received an antique vase filled with fragrant - I tried to hit the nail but hit my thumb instead. - I have two goldfish and a cat. - I’d like a bike for commuting to work. - Neither the black dress nor the gray one looks right on me.

Preposition.

Prepositions are the words that indicate location. Usually, prepositions show this location in the physical world.

Time Place Direction Agent Instrument Phrase

-I prefer to read in the library. -He climbed up the ladder to get into the attic. -He swam across the pool. -Take your brother with you.

Interjection

An interjection is a word solely designed to convey emotion. It expresses meaning or feeling.

Greeting Joy Approval Attention Surprise Sorrow

-Hurray! It is a snow day and school is cancelled. -Oh! I can’t believe how nice you look.


Examples. Nouns examples: In the first sentence, the word “DRESS” is a concrete noun however in the second sentence the words “SMITHS” and “SWITZERLAND” both are proper nouns Pronouns examples: The word “SHE” is showing who is the subject and it is a pronoun that is replacing a name.

Verbs examples:

Adverb examples: In the example the word “LARGELY” is an adverb that is modifying the word “TABLE” that is a name.

In the example the word WRITES is a verb that is being modified by the word QUICKLY that is an adverb. Adjective examples:


the word “CHOCOLATE” is being described by the word BEST that is an adjective.

In this example one adjective is being modified by another adjective.

Conjunctions examples: In the first sentence the conjunction “AND” is connecting two nouns, in the second

“OR” is connecting two phrases and ideas, in the last one the connection between two clauses is “AND” Preposition examples: In the sentences the prepositions are showing location (throughout), direction (toward), time (for), cause (because) and possession (from).

Interjection examples: The interjection “HURRAH”, “OUCH” AND “BRAVO” are expressing different emotions such as pain and happiness.


Sentence strucuture

The sentences are important because they provide us with the framework for the written expression of our ideas or thougths and is important to say that the vary the sentence structure will help emphasize different words or ideas however first we need to learn which are all the sentence structure and how we have to use them so that they make sense.


Summary table Type

Definition

Simple sentence.

A simple sentence contains only one independent clause. An independent clause is a group of words (with a subject and a verb) that expresses a complete thought.

A complex sentence has a main clause and one or more adverbial clauses. Adverbial clauses usually come after the main clause

A compound sentence has two or more clauses. The clauses in a compound sentence are joined by coordinating conjunctions.

Complex sentence.

Compound sentence.

Examples

 

The children were laughing. John wanted a new bicycle. All the girls are learning English. When the cost goes up, customers buy less clothing. Because I had to catch the train, and since we were short on time, I forgot to pack my toothbrush for our vacation. John shouted and everybody waved.

 We looked everywhere but we couldn’t find him. 

Compoun complex sentence.

A compound-complex sentence is made from two independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.

They are coming by car so they should be here soon. When I grow up, I want to be a ballerina, and my mom is proud of me. I will get to watch television, but first, I have to clean up the dishes after we finish eating.


Examples:


TYPES OF CLAUSES

A

clause is small part of a subject, also is basically a phrase (but a phrase does not contain a finite verb) that it is able to express a complete meaning and contain at least a subject and a verb. There are two main types of clauses: Dependent and Independent, which are really important because when we join it, the result is a sentence. This two types of clauses have their own subdivision of clauses. As a teacher is important to learn and know all those topics and also as an English speaker because when we speak or when we are talking we construct sentences and if we do it well we are avoiding fragments without sense, also we must learn how to use it because all forms of writing and speaking better.

Independent clause An independent clause can express a complete thought. It makes sense by itself or be combined with other clauses and then form a sentence, are also known as Main clause. Independent clauses are the ones joined by coordinating conjunctions or better known as fanboys, a conjunctive adverb, correlative adverb, semicolon and also colon.

If a clause is independent is mean that does not need help and can stand by itself as a separate sentences and does not start with a subordinator word.


Following there some explained examples.

In the last sentence, the clause “I will wait to buy a car” is an independent clause because it contains the subject I and the verb phrase will wait. The clause expresses a complete thought and can stand on its own as a sentence.

The last clause is an independent clause because it contains the subject we and the verb phrase will surprise. The clause expresses a complete thought and can stand on its own as a sentence.

Dependent clause The depend clauses could be divided as adjective, adverb, or noun clauses, it is depending how they are used in a sentences. A dependent clause is also known as subordinate clause and it cannot stand as a sentence by itself. The dependent clauses begin with words such as after, although, because, before, if, since, that, until, what, when, where, who, which, and why. A dependent clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone and also start with a subordinator word such as “when”, “if” or “which”. Depend clauses can function as nouns, adjectives and adverbs. 

Noun Clauses: This are the type of clauses that can replace any noun in a sentence.


Adjective Clauses: This clause describes a noun just like an an adjective.

The relative clauses are also called relative clauses; they are restrictive or nonrestrictive clauses. 

Adverb Clauses: The clauses that express when, where, why and how something occurs.

Following there are some easy examples of dependent clauses.

In the last sentence, the clause “When we get enough snow” is a dependent clause. It contains the subject we and the verb get. The clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand on its own as a sentence

The clause, “Which book I want to read next” is a dependent clause. It contains the subject I and the verb want. The clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand on its own as a sentence.


Mind map

CLAUSES Group of words that has a subject and a verb.

There are two main types of clauses:

Dependent Clauses

Depends on an independent clause Noun, adjective, adverb clauses

Independent Clauses


ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE The active and passive voice are important, basically because let you know that there are two types of sentences (active and passive), is also important because as English learners is really useful we can use them and also understand when we read or hear them. Normally, we use active sentences but sometimes is better to use the passive voice such as when we want to tell about an action, but you do not want to mention who do it. The are some examples about the difference of both. The party was ruined This example describes what happened, without who actually did it and it. Ulises ruined the party It is clear who did it. Also another reason to use the passive voice instead of the active voice is when we want to emphasize the object instead of the subject. The market is closed In this example the emphasis is on the fact that the market is closed. Mark closed the market. In this example the emphasis is on who did the action.


Passive voice Passive voice is when the object of the verb becomes the subject. When writing lab reports, particularly the methods section, you’ll want to use the passive voice because this emphasizes the person or object receiving the action, the passive voice is used less frequently than the active voice, in other words the passive voice is useful to switch the focus from who is doing something to what is being done. The Passive Voice structure is: Passive Subject + To Be + Past Participle The house was built in 1989. In this example the verb 'be' is conjugated followed by the participle form of the main verb.

In this example the subject is not doing the verb, in fact the verb was done to the subject.

In this example the subject is not doing the verb, as the other example the verb was done to the subject.


The passive voice has some ways to use it such as:  Using the agent: The person or people taking an action are referred to as the agent. If the agent (the person or people performing an action) is not important for understanding, drop the agent. For example: The test will be given at four o'clock. If the agent is important, use "by" followed by the person or people who perform the action. This use is common when speaking about artworks, books, or other creative endeavors. The Flight to Brunnswick" was written in by Tim Wilson. 

Passive voice used with transitive verbs.

Transitive verbs are verbs that can take an object

Only verbs that take an object can be used in the passive voice. In other words, the passive voice is used only with transitive verbs.

Active voice The active voice is actually the most common voice used, and it describes the subject actually doing the action. We usually think of verbs as “doing” words. They describe an action, like running, walking, eating, making and bunch more. Active voice can make your sentences clearer and easier for readers to understand, also keep sentences from getting too complicated and wordy, are clearer and direct towards the topic and conveys more information. There are some examples about Active Voice.


This is an example about active voice because the sentences subject performs the action.

This is also an active voice example because the sentence subject performs the action. Active voice is used for most non-scientific writing. Even in scientific writing, too much use of passive voice can cloud the meaning of your sentences.


SUMMARY TABLE ACTIVE VOICE Is the most common voice used.

PASSIVE VOICE Is the less common voice used

Describes an action

Describes a verb being happened to the subject of the sentence

The subject performs the action of the verb Example: I love you The subject (“I”) is the one performing the action (“loving”).

The subject is still the main character of the sentence Example: You are loved by me The subject (“You”) sits passively while the action (“loving”) is performed by somebody else (“me”)


Conclusion The correct grammar is something really important for English students, there are topics that are really useful to get a great, spelling, writing and speaking. For example, the part of speech that has their purpose, a sentence to get the meaning is needed to gather either some or all part of speech. Passive and Active voice play an important role in every sentence and every paragraph as well, by using these ones we can focus and make our paragraphs more attractive to all readers, but the importance goes beyond to enhance readers interest but make them feel excited about what they are reading, so all the little details would help a lot. Clauses, sentences, partsof speech, passive and active voice help to every written to play with them in a paragraph, also goes a variety of words, and structures with the objective of making writing interesting, not only with the content but it’s variety of patterns among the sentence. Working in this magazine have been really useful for us as English students, at the very start was a little bit difficult to get the information because we already know all the topics but we don’t really realize their importance and also we don’t have idea about how to explain them, thus we have lots of activities and sometimes we do not have enough time to do it but we did our best and kept working deepest in the topics and we could learn a lot doing our activity and finally it was easy for us because we read about the topics and also understand them.


Bibliography http://advice.writing.utoronto.ca/revising/passive-voice/ http://partofspeech.org/ http://www.butte.edu/departments/cas/tipsheets/grammar/parts_of_speech.html


ANEXXES 1. A few, few, a little, little Those are quantifiers that we often use interchangeably in English, the most common mistake is that we get confuse in which one is used for Countable nouns and which one for uncountable nouns. Little and a little are for uncountable and is used with the singular form.

2. Time expressions Time expressions as the name said, express something that happens in an specific moment a common mistakes is using or combining verb with time expression because for example in “In the morning, I like to drink coffee� the expression of time tell us that the action is in past and the verb does not need to be past.

3. Possessive adjectives


Possessive adjectives are the ones that shows that something belongs to someone. People used to confuse this adjective with the contraction of the verb be for example “your” with you’re” or the contraction “they’re with the possessive adjective “their” this ones are just some common mistakes that we used to do.

4. Voice

Active and Passive

Active and passive voice are two types of sentences and sometimes is a little bit difficult to use it because of the verbs and the sentence structure that change a lot in each one.

5. Article “A” “An” “The” Some common mistakes with those articles are that people get confuse about how to use “a” or “an” and also with the pronunciation of “the” that change depends of the following words in phrases, such as “A apple” instead of “an apple”.


6. Connectors. This are the words used to connects two or more ideas or phrases, one common mistake is when use “so” and “then”. The first one is to talk about consequence and the second one is used to location event within a serie of other event.

7. Too much and too many Much is used with uncountable nouns and Many with noun that are countable, “too” express that something is more than enough or that you don’t like some situation. The most common mistakes here are that we don’t know which are the countable or uncountable nouns and also that we do not know which is for countable or uncountable nouns.

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This is our Grammar Magazine about Part of speech, Types of Sentences, Types of Clauses and Active and Passive voice. A creative way to lear...

Magazine  

This is our Grammar Magazine about Part of speech, Types of Sentences, Types of Clauses and Active and Passive voice. A creative way to lear...

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