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Pratt Institute ​hello I'm Simon Whistler you're watching top 10s and in the video today we're looking at the top 10 mysterious world landmarks the world is filled with ancient monuments built by master craftsmen in order to honor everything from kings and presidents to religious figures and although most of these landmarks have been carefully studied and researched by scientists and historians some are simply so old incomplete or obscure that we still don't know very much about why they were built or what purpose they served in the video today we're looking at ten world landmarks that whether by intention or simply due to the passage of time continue to baffle the people who study them the top 10 mysterious world landmarks number 10 the Chi okiya mounds kaya kheer is the name given to an Indian settlement that exists out of Collinsville Illinois the archaeologists estimate that the city was founded somewhere around 650 ad at its complex network of burial grounds and sophisticated landscaping proved that it was once a thriving community it has been estimated that at its peak the city was home to as many as 40,000 people which would have made it the most popular settlement in America prior to the arrival of the Europeans the most notable aspect of Cahokia today are the 80 mounds of Earth Sun as high as a hundred feet which dot the 2,200 acre site these helped create a network of plazas throughout the city and it is believed that important buildings like the home of the settlement chief were built on top of them the site also features a series of wooden posts that archeologists have dubbed woodhenge the posts are said to mark the solstices and equinoxes and supposedly figured prominently in the community's astronomical mythology the mystery although scientists are constantly discovering new information about the Cahokia community the biggest mystery the remains is which modern Indian tribe is descended from the residents of the ancient city as well as just what it was that caused them to abandon their settlement number 9 Newgrange considered to be the oldest and most famous prehistoric site in all of ireland Newgrange is a tomb that was built from earth wood clay and stone around 3100 BC some 1000 years before the construction of the pyramids in Egypt it consists of a long passage that leads to a cross a chamber that was apparently used as a tomb as it contains stone basins filled with cremated remains the most unique feature of Newgrange is its careful and sturdy design which has helped the structure remain completely waterproof to this day most amazingly of all the entrance to the tomb was positioned relative to the Sun in such a way that on the winter solstice the shortest day of the year the Rays from the Sun are channeled through the opening and down the nearly 60-foot passageway where they illuminate the floor of the monument central room the mystery archeologists know that Newgrange was used as a tomb but why and for who remains a mystery the painstaking design needed to guarantee that the yearly solstice event occurs suggests that the site was held in high regard but other than the obvious hypothesis that the Sun featured prominently in the mythology of the builders scientists are at a loss to describe the true reason for newgrange's construction number 8 the Yonaguni monument of all the famous monuments in Japan perhaps none is more perplexing than Yonaguni and underwater rock formation that lies off the coasts of the riyuku Islands it was discovered in 1987 by a group of divers who were there to observe hammerhead sharks and it immediately sparked a huge amount of debate in the Japanese scientific community the monument is made up of a series of striking rock formations including massive platforms carved steps and huge stone pillars that lie at depths of 40 to 50 meters there is a triangular formation that has become known as the turtle for its unique shape as well as the long straight wall that borders one of the larger platforms the currents in the area are known for being particularly treacherous but this is not stopped the Yonaguni monument from becoming one of the most popular diving locations in all of Japan the mystery the ongoing debate surrounding Yonaguni centers on one key subject is the monument a natural phenomena or is it man-made scientists have long argued that the millennia of strong currents in erosion have carved the formations out of the ocean floor and they point to the fact that the monument is one piece of solid rock as proof that it was not assembled by a builder others though point to the many straight edges square corners and 90-degree angles of Thor formation as proof this is artificial they often cite one formation in particular a section of rock that resembles a crude carving of a human face as evidence if they are right then an even more interesting mystery presents it self who constructed the Yonaguni monument and for what purpose number seven Verna's collins the Nazca lines are a series of designs and pictographs carved into the ground

in the Nazca desert a dry plateau located in Peru they cover an area of some 50 miles and were supposedly created between 200 BC and 700 AD by the Nazca Indians who designed them by scraping away the copper colored rocks of the desert floor to expose the lighter colored earth beneath the lines have managed to remain intact for hundreds of years thanks to the region's arid climate which sees it receive little rain or wind throughout the year some of the lines span distances of 600 feet and they depict everything from simple designs and shapes to characterizations of plants insects and animals the mystery scientists know who made the Nazca lines and how they did it but they still don't know why the most popular and reasonable hypothesis is that the lines mr. figured in the Nazca people's religious beliefs and that they made the designs as offerings for the gods who would have been able to see them from the heavens still other scientists argue that the lines are evidence of massive looms that the Nazca had used to make tech stars and one investigator has even made the preposterous claim that they are the remnants of ancient airfields used by a vanished technically advanced society number six goseck circle one of the most mysterious landmarks in Germany is the goseck circle a monument made out of earth gravel and wooden Palisades that is regarded as the earliest example of a primitive solar observatory the circle consists of a series of circular ditches surrounded by palisade walls which have since been reconstructed that housed a raised mound of dirt in the center the Palisades have three openings or gates that point south east south west and north it is believed that the monument was built around 4900 BC by Neolithic peoples and that the three openings correspond to the direction from which the Sun rises on the winter solstice the history the monuments careful construction has led many scientists to believe that the goseck circle was built to serve them like some kind of primitive solar or lunar calendar but its exact use is still a source of debate evidence has shown that a so-called solar cult was widespread in ancient Europe and this is led to speculation that the circle was used in some kind of ritual perhaps even in conjunction with human sacrifice this hypothesis is yet to be proven but archeologists have uncovered several human bones including a headless skeleton just outside the palace a Wars number five sacsayhuamรกn not far from the famous Inca city of Machu Picchu lies SATA human a strange embankment of stone walls located just outside of Cusco if a series of three walls was assembled from massive 200 ton blocks of rock and limestone and they are arranged in a zigzag pattern along the hillside the longest is roughly a thousand feet in length and each stands some 15 feet tall the monument is in astonishingly good condition for its age especially considering the region's propensity for earthquakes but the tops of the walls are somewhat demolished as the monument was plundered by the Spanish to build churches in Cusco the area surrounding the monument has been found to be the source of several underground catacombs called cinque Ana's which were supposedly used as connecting passageways to other Inca structures in the area the mystery most scientists agree that the sacsayhuamรกn served as a kind of fortress or barrier wall but this has been disputed the strange shape and angles of the wall led some to speculate that it may have a more symbolic function one example being that the wall when seen next to cusco from above forms the shape of the head of a cougar even more mysterious than the monuments used though are the methods that were used in its construction like most inca stone works sacsayhuamรกn was built with large stones that fit together so perfectly there not even a sheet of paper can be placed between the gaps between them just how the Incas managed such expert placements or for that matter how they managed to transport and lift the heavy hunks of stone is still not fully known before the Easter Island moai II one of the most iconic series of monuments in the Pacific Islands is the moai a group of huge statues of exaggerated human figures that are really found on the small isolated island of Rapa Nui or Easter Island the moai were carved sometime between 1250 and 1500 AD by the islands earliest inhabitants and are believed to depict the peoples ancestors who in their culture were held in the same regard as deities the moai were chiseled and carved from tough volcanic rock that is prevalent on the island and they all featured the same characteristics of an oversized head broad nose and a mysterious indecipherable facial scientists have determined that as many as 887 of the statues were originally carved that years of infighting among the islands clans led to many being destroyed today only 394 is still standing the largest of which is 30 feet tall and weighs over 70 tons of a mystery while there is a fairly solid consensus on why the moai were erected how the Islanders did it is still up for debate the average my e weighs several tons and for years scientists were too lost to describe how the monuments were transported from rano raraku where most of them are constructed to their various locations around the island in recent years the most popular theory is that the builders used wooden sleds and log rollers to move the moai an answer that would also explain how the once verdant island also became totally barren due to deforestation number three the Georgia Guidestones what most of the mysterious monuments on this list a became that way is centuries past the Georgia Guidestones also known as American Stonehenge a one landmark that was almost always intended to be an enigma the monument which consists of four monolithic slabs of Granite's that support a single capstone was commissioned in 1979 by a man who went by the pseudonym of RC Christian a local Mason carefully crafted it so that one slot in the stones aligned with the Sun on the solstices and equinoxes and one small hole is

always pointed in the direction of the North Star most interestingly though are the inscriptions on the slabs which an accompanying plaque describes as the guide stones to an age of reason in eight different languages the slabs offer a strange ten-point plan to ensure peace on earth that includes vague proclamations like prized truth beauty love seeking harmony with the infinite to very specific commands like maintain humanity under five hundred million in perpetual balance with nature comments like this one have made the guide stones one of the most controversial landmarks in the United States and they have long been protested and even vandalized by groups that would like to see them demolished the mystery for all their controversy very little is known about who built the guide stones or what their true purpose is nasty Christian claimed he represented an independent organization when he commissioned the landmark but neither he nor his group has spoken up since its construction since the monument was built during the height of the Cold War one popular theory about the group's intentions is that the guide stones were to serve as a pro how to rebuild society in the aftermath of a nuclear holocaust number two the Great Sphinx of Giza Spinks is our massive stone statues that depict the body of a reclining lion with the heads and face of a human the figures are found all over the world in different forms but they are most commonly linked with Egypt which features the most famous example in the form of the Great Sphinx of Giza incredibly the statue is carved out of one monolithic piece of rock and is 240 feet long 20 feet wide and 66 feet tall and it is considered to be the biggest monument of its kind in the world historians largely accept the function of the Sphinx to have been that of a symbolic guardian since the statues were strategically placed around important structures like temples tombs and pyramids the Great Sphinx of Giza appears to be no different it stands adjacent to the pyramid of the Pharaoh Khafre and most archeologists believe that his face is depicted on that of the statue the mystery despite its reputation as one of the most famous monuments of antiquity there is still very little known about the Great Sphinx of Giza Egyptologists might have a small understanding of why the statue was built but when how and by who is still shrouded a mystery the Pharaoh Khafre is the main suspect which would date the structure back to around 2500 BC but other scientists have argued that evidence of water erosion of the statue suggests that it is much older and perhaps even predated the dynastic era of the Egyptians this theory has few modern adherents but if true it would mean that the Great Sphinx of Giza is even more mysterious and previously believed number one Stonehenge of all the world's famous monuments none has gained as much of a reputation for pure simple mystery as Stonehenge Stonehenge has been inspiring debate among scholars scientists and historians since the Middle Ages located in the English countryside the landmark is believed to date back to 2500 BC and consists of several mammoth pieces of rock arranged and piled on top of one another in what appears to be a first a random design the site is surrounded by a small circular ditch and is flanked by burial mounds in all sides although the rock formations that still remain today are undoubtedly impressive it is thought that the modern version of Stonehenge is only a small remnant of a much larger monument that was damaged with the passing of time and it is largely believed that the building process was so extensive that it could have lasted on and off for anywhere from between 1,500 to 7,000 years the mystery stonehenge has become renowned for puzzling even the most brilliant researchers and over the years the many gaps in the history of its construction the nature of its use and the true identity of its builders has become known as the mystery of Stonehenge the Neolithic people who built the monument left behind no written words so scientists can only base their theories on the meager evidence that exists at the site this has led to wild speculation that the monument was left by aliens or that it was built by some eons old Society of technically advanced super humans all craziness aside the most common explanation remains that stonehenge served as some kind of graveyard monument that played a role in the builders version of the afterlife a claim that is backed up by its proximity to several hundred burial mounds yet another theory suggests that the site was a place for spiritual healing and the worship of long dead ancestors so I really hope you enjoyed that video about mysterious world landmarks if you did be sure to click that like button below it really helps us out and if you like this video you're going to like some of our other stuff so click that subscribe button below me now we put our brand new stuff like this seven days a week also over there on the right a couple of other videos you might be interested in if you liked this one the first one up there is the top ten mind-bending theories about the universe and below that there's the top ten awesome animals that humans lets go extinct so you'll probably enjoy those and thanks for watching you Mercy College.