Page 1

Four in Balance Monitor 2010

ICT inf ras tru ctu re

Ex pe rti se

ICT at Dutch schools

Visio n

Colla bora tion & lea ders hip


Four in Balance Monitor 2010 ICT at Dutch schools


Contents

4

Main topics

6

1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

What is Four in Balance? Four in Balance What do we mean by “balance”? Human factors Material factors About the Four in Balance Monitor

10 10 11 13 16 17

2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6

Benefits of using ICT Classifying ICT applications by pedagogical vision ICT and instruction Structured practice Inquiry-based learning Learning to learn Summary

19 19 21 23 26 27 29

3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5

Teaching and ICT use Teachers at school Teachers at home Pupils and computers Misconceptions Summary

31 31 36 38 40 44

4 4.1 4.2 4.3

Vision School managers Teachers Summary

45 45 47 51

5 5.1 5.2 5.3

Expertise Familiarity with ICT Teachers’ skills Summary

52 52 54 57

6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6

Digital learning materials Computer programs Sources of digital learning materials The teacher as a designer Use of digital learning materials Proposed solutions Summary

58 58 59 60 61 63 64

7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5

ICT infrastructure Computers Laptops Internet connections Interactive whiteboards Summary

65 66 67 70 71 72

8 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4

In Balance Priorities Leadership Cooperation Summary

73 73 76 78 79

9

Bibliography

80

About this publication

87

5


Main topics

Main topics The present document is a translation of the Four in Balance Monitor, which is published annually by Kennisnet and concerns the use and benefits of ICT in Dutch schools. It is based on independent research, including a study of international sources, and focuses on Dutch primary, secondary and vocational education and training. Below we summarize the most important trends and new insights into what does and does not work when using ICT in teaching.

Use Three quarters of teachers use computers during lessons. This number is growing by 2 to 3% annually. If this rate of growth continues, in ten years all Dutch teachers will be using computers in their lessons.

Benefit Eight out of ten school managers are satisfied with the benefits that their school has gained so far by investing in ICT. The most important contributions that they believe ICT has made to education are: • more interesting teaching/learning; • an enriched learning environment; • more opportunity for tailor-made teaching and independent learning. In addition to the views of educational professionals, there is a growing volume of empirical evidence that ICT can contribute to more effective, more efficient and more interesting teaching/learning. It should be noted, however, that such benefits are seldom exclusively due to the use of ICT. They are also related to a balanced use of the basic elements of vision, expertise, digital learning materials, ICT infrastructure and leadership.

Vision On average, teachers use computer applications for more than 8 hours a week in their lessons. They expect that in three years’ time, that will be approximately 11 hours a week, an increase of more than 30%. The ICT applications that they use most often are the Internet, practice programs, word processing software and electronic learning environments. A growing number of teachers are using a wider variety of applications. Their repertoire of ICT tools is therefore becoming more varied. Teachers estimate that pupils can spend between 8 to 15 hours a week working at a computer, at school. This may be more if pupils make more use of computers outside school to do their assignments. Teachers themselves spend an increasing amount of time doing school-related work on their home computers, an average of more than 5 hours a week. The expectation is that ICT will bring about increasing integration between learning at school and learning outside of school. Such integration will create richer learning conditions for pupils and lead to changes in the teaching profession.

6

School managers believe that their school has defined a central vision of the way ICT should be used. Teachers, on the other hand, believe that the use of ICT in teaching/learning is often left up to them. Most schools have not made agreements concerning the pedagogical use of ICT. Many teachers say they feel the need for a vision of how ICT should be used that has broad support within the school and has been developed in cooperation with the teaching staff. Teachers believe that knowledge transfer is and will remain the most important pedagogical principle, and they would like to make more use of ICT in the related teaching practice.

Expertise Expertise and vision are closely related. If teachers cannot support the vision on the use of ICT in teaching, then they will feel little motivation to learn the necessary skills or use ICT applications in their teaching practice. Teachers who are competent in ICT are experts in three areas: the subject matter, pedagogy and ICT. Teachers usually have the necessary technical ICT skills, but there is a fairly large group who are not familiar with how ICT can be used for pedagogical purposes. More than 40% of teachers feel inadequately equipped to use ICT confidently in their lessons.

7


Main topics

Infrastructure Schools tend to invest in faster Internet connections and in purchasing interactive whiteboards. Virtually all schools have purchased interactive whiteboards in the past three years. On average, schools have one computer for every four or five pupils. Desktop computers are gradually being replaced by laptops. Increasingly, pupils are also taking their own laptops with them to school. A growing number of teachers believe that for ICT to be used effectively in teaching, every pupil should have his or her own laptop.

Digital learning materials The computer software packages used most often in teaching are standard office applications such as word processors, Internet browsers and e-mail programs. These are tools, i.e. programs without any learning content. In addition, more than half of teachers also utilize subject-specific practice programs and software associated with a particular course/course book.

A growing number of ICT applications offer persuasive evidence that ICT can improve the quality and productivity of teaching/learning. In the near future schools face the challenge to make the use of ICT compulsory and to help more teachers derive more benefits from using it. School managers play a key role in this. They are the ones who create the underlying conditions needed to scale up the use of ICT. When teachers and school managers are asked what conditions have top priority in the period ahead, they give differing answers: teachers want better material facilities, whereas school managers believe that teacher skills and opinions must change. Resolving this difference of opinion will require effective leadership that focuses on developing a widely supported vision and shared objectives concerning the use of ICT. Neither teachers nor school managers can single-handedly improve the quality and benefits of teaching/learning by using ICT. Collaboration within and between schools is the most important source of sustainable innovation and continuing professional development.

Some 15% of the learning materials used at primary and secondary schools are digital. In vocational education and training, the figure is higher, namely 40%. In all three education sectors, the share of digital learning materials is expected to increase by 15 to 20% in the next three years. There is a huge demand for digital learning materials, but the past ten years have shown how difficult it is to develop materials that actually meet the needs of teachers. Experts believe that a breakthrough is possible, but only by combining different measures and with the use of technology and the involvement of teachers, school managers and the authorities.

Leadership and collaboration Among school managers, leadership mainly consists of giving teachers the leeway to experiment with the use of ICT. That means that managers support the digital pioneers, i.e. enthusiastic teachers who have an affinity for ICT and want to explore its opportunities. They offer too little support to teachers who have less affinity with technology, however.

8

9


1 - What is Four in Balance?

1 What is Four in Balance?

Cooperation

The Four in Balance Monitor is based on the Four in Balance model. This model summarizes what research has revealed about the successful introduction and use of ICT in education (Ict op School, 2004). Briefly, the Four in Balance model says that introducing ICT for educational purposes has a greater chance of success if four basic elements – vision, expertise, digital learning materials and ICT infrastructure – are in balance

Leadership

1.1 Four in Balance Vision

Expertise

Digital learning materials

ICT infrastructure

Pedagogical use of ICT for teaching/learning

Figure 1.1. Basic elements of Four in Balance.

Below, we briefly explain these four basic elements: • Vision: what the school believes good teaching is and how it intends to achieve it. Vision refers to the school’s objectives, the role of the teachers, pupils and management, the actual content to be taught, and the materials that the school uses. • Expertise: teachers’ knowledge and skills, which must be good enough to utilize ICT to achieve educational objectives. This involves not only technical skills, but also the ability to link these skills to pedagogical knowledge and knowledge of the subject matter. • Digital learning materials: all digital educational content, whether formal or informal. Formal learning materials are materials produced especially for educational purposes. Digital learning materials include computer programs. • ICT infrastructure: the availability and quality of computers, networks, and Internet connections. Electronic learning environments and the management and maintenance of the school’s ICT facilities are also considered to be part of the ICT infrastructure. The education sector’s task is to coordinate these four basic elements while engaged in designing, facilitating and implementing teaching/ learning processes. Teachers play a crucial role in this, but there is also a need for leadership to guide the process and create the right conditions for support and collaboration with other professionals (see Figure 1.1).

10

1.2 What do we mean by “balance”? In this Four in Balance Monitor we will look at each of the basic elements of the Four in Balance model separately so that we understand the priorities that schools set for themselves and the underlying conditions in which they invest. That gives us an idea of how things stand across the country. The questions we ask include: What kind of infrastructure do schools tend to emphasize? Do they have enough digital learning materials at their disposal, or are there bottlenecks? How much effort do schools put into developing a particular vision regarding the use of ICT in teaching? But the Four in Balance model is not only a useful conceptual framework for a national benchmark; it is also an implementation model for the sustainable use of ICT in education. Four in Balance is not intended to compel schools to use ICT. It is intended to help schools that want to use ICT make choices that will improve the quality of teaching/learning and the related benefits. In many cases, schools are unable to achieve the benefits that they were aiming for by using ICT. For example, a project fails because the teachers are not equipped to use the technology, or because the infrastructure that the school chose does not correspond sufficiently to the pedagogical approach that teachers favor. The project then becomes a one-time

11


1 - What is Four in Balance?

experiment (Van der Neut, in press). One well-known example of this was described by Zucker in an article in Science. Zucker had looked at the investment schools made in laptops in the United States (Zucker et al., 2009). Although the schools had spent a lot of money on the laptops and other technical facilities, teachers scarcely changed their lessons and failed to use many of the options now at their disposal. There was no impact on the way pupils thought or learned. Meyer and his colleagues reached a similar conclusion concerning the introduction of digital portfolios (Meyer et al., 2001).

Education-driven

Vision

Expertise

Digital learning materials

ICT infrastructure

Technology-driven Figure 1.2. Two types of coordination mechanisms: education-driven and technology-

The Four in Balance model allows schools to avoid such pitfalls by helping them to consider, in advance, how they want to design teaching/learning and how much they must invest to do so. Thanks to research, we learn more and more about how best to balance the four basic elements. There are no simple rules of thumb, unfortunately, for example “Spend the same amount of time, energy or money on each basic element” or “the more the better”. “Balance” does not simply mean “the same amount of everything” or even “as much as possible of everything”. It is about ensuring that vision, expertise, learning materials and technology are properly coordinated. What does that involve? One important conclusion that researchers have reached is that coordinating the four elements works best if we start with vision and expertise (what do we want and what are we capable of?) and then adapt the learning materials and ICT infrastructure accordingly. In other words: first take care of the human factors, and only then the material ones. In previous publications, we referred to this as “education-driven innovation” (Law et al., 2008; De Koster et al., 2009). The reverse route, which starts with technology or digital learning materials, can be referred to as “technology-driven” or “material-driven” innovation (Figure 1.2). Neither of these has a very good chance of succeeding (Kozma, 2003; Ten Brummelhuis et al., 2008). The examples listed above are an illustration of this.

12

driven. Education-driven coordination has a better chance of succeeding.

In the next two sections we explain why it is important to start with the human factors and how that affects the design of the material factors.

1.3 Human factors Vision “Vision” is the most abstract of the four basic elements. It describes what teachers consider good and bad teaching, how they think pupils ought to learn, and what they see as the role of teachers and management in that process. We can roughly divide these views into two categories (see also Chapter 2): (1) views that focus more on knowledge transfer (2) views that focus more on knowledge construction Although it is possible to adopt a position in between the two, teachers are not generally inclined to jump from one extreme to the other. Various researchers have argued convincingly that teachers’ views on teaching are part of their professional identity and they will therefore not easily relinquish these convictions (Ertmer 2005; Ertmer et al., 2009). If using ICT applications clashes with a teacher’s pedagogical convictions or “belief system”, there is little chance that he or she will in fact use such applications.

13


1 - What is Four in Balance?

The teacher must therefore be convinced of their added value first. Teachers who resist ICT are often not opposed to the use of ICT in and of itself (as is sometimes suggested). Their real objection is that using ICT will mean changing their pedagogical principles. Their resistance can also be emotional in nature. Teachers do want to use ICT in their lessons, only if doing so matches their views of teaching (Van Gennip et al., 2008). In general, however, teachers whose approach is based on knowledge construction tend to be more interested in using ICT than teachers who believe in knowledge transfer (Hermans et al., 2008), and teachers who have constructivist ideas are more inclined to use ICT as an information tool (Tondeur et al., 2008). The importance of a shared vision “Vision” not only describes the convictions of a single teacher or a group of individual teachers, but also the culture that prevails at a school. Like any other social group, teachers at a particular school will come to share certain views about teaching. In tight-knit communities like a school, it is difficult for an individual to deviate from the dominant culture. There may be scope to try out new things on a small scale (one time, or in a small group of teachers), but introducing a long-term change across the board requires first taking the school culture into account and generating broad support (Ertmer et al., 2009). Leadership Taking a particular vision as a basis can mean two things. The first possibility is: to accept the existing vision and improve the teaching that goes along with it by using ICT. The second possibility is: to continue developing the vision. This is a complex and dynamic process that can take many years (Hopkins, 2001; 2007). We do not really know enough about such processes yet, but research has shown that they demand leadership. Such leadership must focus on involving teachers in innovation, motivating them to do their best and to develop a shared vision of how ICT should be used

14

(Waslander, 2007). The challenge is to convince not only the trendsetters (“innovators” or “techies”) at the school, but also – and in particular – the more hesitant majority (Schut, in press). Expertise Expertise and vision are closely related. On the one hand, teachers have to want to learn. If they cannot support the vision that advocates the use of ICT in teaching, then they will feel little motivation to learn the necessary skills or put the knowledge and skills they have learned into practice (Voogt et al., 2010a). Once again, it is important to have a shared vision; teachers can then learn from one another, share their triumphs and failures, and encourage one another to go on. On the other hand, what is unknown is unloved. Teachers who are not familiar enough with ICT and its added value will hesitate to use it in their lessons, and they will be much more inclined to stick to their familiar routine (Voogt et al., 2010a). The degree to which a teacher feels comfortable using ICT is therefore one of the key factors for its effective use in teaching (Knezek et al., 2008). Unfamiliarity with what ICT can and cannot do leads teachers to persist in their misconceptions. Teachers who have negative opinions of ICT will not be inclined to think about how they might integrate ICT into their teaching. Examples of misconceptions (Angeli, 2004) that teachers see as reasons not to use ICT: • ICT makes pupils passive. • ICT isolates pupils. • ICT limits pupils’ imagination and creativity. • ICT offers “prepackaged knowledge”. Recent studies have also shown that teachers’ willingness to use ICT in their lessons depends to a large extent on how effective they believe ICT is and how they assess their own ability to use it (Van Buuren et al., 2010). Not only must teachers become familiar with the technology, but they

15


1 - What is Four in Balance?

must also integrate it into the particular subject matter and pedagogical methods that they use. This type of knowledge is referred to as TPACK, that is: Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge. A recent publication about TPACK with various detailed examples has appeared in the Kennisnet research series (Voogt et al., 2010a). Teachers cannot learn pedagogical ICT skills simply by taking a course; such skills are the result of a process that takes years and that in fact never really ends. Even teachers who have been in the profession for a long time often have trouble mastering these skills. It takes a long time and the teacher only starts seeing results after many years. That is why it takes experience and self-confidence (Van Eck et al., 2009; Ertmer et al., 2009). In a metastudy, Marzano concluded that teachers have to work with an interactive whiteboard for at least two years before this tool begins to generate added value in their teaching (Marzano et al., 2009).

more closely at what benefits ICT can offer within the context of different pedagogical visions and aims.

1.5 About the Four in Balance Monitor Benchmark The Four in Balance monitor provides figures on how Dutch schools integrate ICT into their work and the results they achieve by doing so. The data reveal trends and offer schools a benchmark for comparing their own situation with those of other educational institutions. In addition to surveying the present situation, the Monitor reviews what research has taught us about the benefits of ICT. By systematically generating knowledge about what does and does not work, we aim to enable schools to make well-informed decisions. This information also helps developers, educational support staff, policymakers, and commercial parties meet the support needs of schools that deploy ICT.

1.4 Material factors Digital learning materials and ICT infrastructure are much less problematical than the basic elements of “vision” and “expertise”. Vision and expertise are immaterial factors, and therefore difficult to change from the outside. Digital learning materials and infrastructure, on the other hand, are material factors: whether or not a school can develop or purchase them depends on its budget. As soon as a school knows what it wants and has the necessary money, it can acquire the relevant materials. The hardware and software that the school ends up purchasing obviously matters a great deal. Some schools want to set up a media library or computer room, while others prefer netbooks that pupils can consult no matter where they are or what time it is. Schools that operate on the basis of knowledge transfer can enhance their teaching by using interactive whiteboards or digital practice programs. Schools that base their methodology on knowledge construction, however, will want to use ICT to enable independent working and learning. But such decisions are easy, once a school knows what it wants and is able to do. The purpose of the following chapter is to help schools take such decisions by looking

16

Sources What we know about the benefits of ICT is based on the results of independent scientific research. A considerable percentage of that research is carried out on behalf of Kennisnet by various research institutions within the framework of the “Making Knowledge of Value” [Kennis van Waarde Maken] research program. To show how the current situation compares with previous years, we present comparative data collected in previous studies. We also use data taken from other Dutch and international studies to help us understand the basic elements of the Four in Balance model. Details concerning these sources can be found in the bibliography at the back of this publication. Virtually all the sources used can be consulted via the Kennisnet website (onderzoek.kennisnet.nl).

17


2 - Benefits of using ICT

Guide to this document The Four in Balance Monitor follows the structure of the underlying model as explained above. Chapter 2 looks at the impact, i.e. the benefits, of using ICT. Chapter 3 reviews actual pedagogical use of ICT for teaching/ learning. The subsequent chapters deal with the four basic elements that play a decisive role when it comes to using ICT and its benefits: vision (Chapter 4), expertise (Chapter 5), digital learning materials (Chapter 6), and the ICT infrastructure (Chapter 7). The final chapter zooms in on the relationship between these basic elements and the role of leadership and collaboration.

2 Benefits of using ICT What benefits can we expect the balanced use of ICT to produce for teaching? This chapter looks at the results of research on the benefits of ICT. We make a distinction between ICT applications that focus more on knowledge transfer and those that are more suitable for knowledge construction.

2.1 Classifying ICT applications by pedagogical vision Both in the Netherlands and elsewhere, there has long been debate about the design of the teaching/learning process. In essence, this debate can be traced back to the difference between knowledge transfer and knowledge construction (OECD, 2009b). In knowledge transfer, the teacher conveys knowledge to the pupil in small steps and the emphasis is on repetition and practice. The teacher determines what subject matter pupils should learn and when. An extreme example of knowledge transfer is a lecture or a “prepackaged” lesson. In knowledge construction, the teacher facilitates learning as part of a process of investigation. The pupils are given the chance to acquire knowledge actively, independently and in collaboration with others by finding solutions. When assessing pupil performance, the teacher looks not only at what pupils have learned but also at how they have learned it (Van Gennip et al., 2010b). In their most extreme forms, knowledge transfer and knowledge construction are each other’s opposite, as Table 2.1 shows.

18

19


2 - Benefits of using ICT

Kennisnet’s research program “Making Knowledge of Value” encourages research into the added value of ICT for all these teaching/learning methods. Although it is too early to draw definitive conclusions, our research does allow us to illustrate the role and added value of ICT for these four methods and to formulate a number of provisional, generally applicable, principles.

Knowledge transfer

Knowledge construction

Structure

Offering knowledge in a clearly defined and structured (step-by-step) manner

Focusing on the end product, facilitating the pupil’s investigation process

Timing

Teacher (or computer) decides what knowledge pupils are given and when

Pupil directs learning and is an active participant in knowledge acquisition

Epistemology

Well-defined and solvable problems, with correct solutions

Encouraging pupils to find new solutions

Classroom situation

Silence and concentration in the classroom

Active work attitude, independently and in collaboration, not limited to classroom

Tests

Pupils are tested on content

Assessing the learning process

2.2 ICT and instruction

Learning objective

Acquiring a knowledge of facts and concepts

Developing thinking and reasoning

Instruction means the direct transfer of new knowledge from teacher to pupil. By now, there have been plenty of studies confirming that ICT can enrich and reinforce the transfer of new knowledge. This is particularly true for methods in which teachers add something to existing practices but do not change those practices fundamentally.

Table 2.1 Comparing knowledge transfer and knowledge construction (based on OECD, 2009b, Chapter 4).

The difference between knowledge transfer and knowledge construction is based on ideals. Pure forms seldom occur in reality, however, and there are many different manifestations of both approaches. For example, knowledge transfer includes such methods as instruction and structured practice, while knowledge construction includes methods like inquirybased learning and learning to learn. In the classroom, teachers in fact use principles borrowed from both knowledge transfer and knowledge construction. ICT can be used in all cases, but the objectives will differ and so will the benefits. The table below lists the four teaching/learning methods listed above with a typical example of each one, and a typical learning objective: Pedagogical vision

Teaching/learning method

Typical example of ICT use

Learning objective

Benefit

Transfer

Instruction

Enriching instruction by using images on an interactive whiteboard

Gaining new knowledge

Sec. 2.2

Structured practice

Repetition on a computer

Consolidating knowledge and making it automatically accessible

Sec. 2.3

Inquiry-based learning

Physics computer simulation

Understanding and mastering principles

Sec. 2.4

Learning to learn

Using video and a digital portfolio to encourage reflection

Controlling one’s own learning process

Sec. 2.5

Construction

Table 2.2. Four teaching/learning methods and ICT use in each case (based on Lemke et al., 2006).

20

Interactive whiteboard When it comes to instruction, the use of an interactive whiteboard has produced particularly positive results. Teachers who support their traditional explanations on the whiteboard with images, sound and video can help pupils remember the material and are more likely to hold their attention. Another advantage is that the teacher can reuse the digital lessons and post them on the electronic learning environment (ELE), so that pupils can review the material later. Various studies have shown that the interactive whiteboard can help improve pupil performance and motivate pupils to learn. Much of this effect does depend on the teacher, however (Fisser et al., 2007; Van Ast et al., 2010; Heemskerk et al., 2010, Somekh et al., 2007; Marzano et al., 2009). The impact of an interactive whiteboard can be boosted by using voting panels, for example to check whether pupils have actually understood the material and to make lessons more interactive (Lemke et al., 2009). Multimedia One key result of previous research is that knowledge will be transferred more effectively if visuals and audio are combined (see also Kennisnet, 2009, Chapter 2). This effect – known as the multimedia principle – has

21


2 - Benefits of using ICT

been confirmed by various studies (Mayer et al., 2002). Van Ginkel (2009) offers a good example of this principle. She investigated the effects of combining visuals and audio in an instruction program for the Paint software. After three lessons, pupils who were given texts and illustrations and listened to a computer voice-over were able to complete more assignments correctly than pupils who had been given only the texts and illustrations. Visuals, particularly film, can be highly emotionally charged. According to Verleur, positive images are of benefit to production tasks and negative images to reproduction tasks (Verleur, 2009). The computer teaches A more radical method of using ICT in instruction is the digital tutor. This is an instruction program that pupils can use to learn with minimal interference by a teacher. This method is especially common in higher education (for example at the Netherlands Open University) and is also used sporadically in primary education. There is little evidence that using ICT in this way actually improves learning (compare Lemke et al., 2009). Dutch primary schools have experimented with using a digital tutor for English lessons (Hovius et al., 2010). The tutor spoke only English and talked the pupils through all kinds of different subjects on the interactive whiteboard. The pupils were also able to watch films and do assignments. Pupils who had had instruction from the digital tutor did not get higher marks (or lower marks) for motivation and performance than pupils in the control group. Notably, the teachers indicated that they used the digital tutor mainly because they felt their own English was not good enough. Video-conferencing A final example of how ICT can be used in instruction is to have an expert address the class via a video-conferencing system, or to teach a traditional classroom lesson remotely. So far, there have been too few studies into such applications to be able to say what their benefits are (for a smaller scale experiment, see Van der Neut et al., 2008, and Jonkman, 2008).

22

2.3 Structured practice Knowledge transfer focuses on giving pupils a solid knowledge base. It consists of conveying new knowledge (2.2), but it is also vital for that knowledge to “stick” and for pupils to be able to recall it immediately. The most suitable learning activity for this is practice. The point of practicing is to make tasks automatic, so that the pupil no longer has to think about them. We define practicing broadly to mean rote memorization of facts (for example words), applying learned rules (such as grammar rules) and skills exercises (for example learning how to touch type). Commercial practice programs are available to help primary and, increasingly, secondary school pupils “cram” for exams and learn to apply rules. They are producing positive results. Such programs must be closely matched to the pupil’s level of proficiency. Pupils can also easily get bored with them or find them too constricting. Rote learning A pertinent example of how ICT adds value for pupils who are learning facts by rote is the software program “Clever Cramming” [Slimstampen]. It is based on the insight that we remember facts best if we access them when we have almost forgotten them. When that ideal moment occurs differs from one person to the next and depends partly on the pupil’s prior knowledge. Software programs are able to identify that ideal moment to a fair level of accuracy. “Clever Cramming” uses the pupil’s reaction speed to decide whether or not the pupil needs to repeat an exercise. Studies show that pupils who work with this software do in fact remember facts better than pupils who decide themselves when they have learned a list of words (Van Rijn, 2009). Language educationalists emphasize that pupils cannot learn a language simply by memorizing words. They also have to actually use the words in a language-rich context (Suhre, 2008; Corda et al., 2010).

23


2 - Benefits of using ICT

Added value of ICT according to school managers An average of eight out of ten school managers are satisfied or very satisfied with the benefits that their school has gained by investing in ICT (TNS NIPO, 2009b). Table 2.3 lists the most important educational benefits that managers ascribe to using ICT. ICT makes a considerable or huge contribution to achieving the following objectives:

% of managers

More interesting teaching/learning

77

Creates enriched learning environment

76

Independent learning

74

Flexibility and tailor-made teaching

59

Table 2.3. Benefits of ICT according to school managers at primary, secondary and vocational schools (TNS NIPO, 2009b).

In addition to these benefits, which school managers in all three sectors noted, there were also sector-specific benefits. For example, in primary education, ICT also contributes to remedial teaching for pupils with special (learning) needs (79%); in vocational education, ICT fosters communication between instructors and students (65%).

Applying rules Pupils also use practice programs to practice applying rules. Exercises like these are also available in printed workbooks, but a computer program can match the pupil’s level of proficiency more closely and provide extra training in areas where the pupil’s skills are weaker. One example is a homework program [Muiswerk] that not only provides exercises but also subject matter. The program gives pupils direct feedback and keeps track of which material they have mastered and which not. Small-scale quasi-experimental research shows that pupils are capable of working on such exercises independently and of completing spelling and reading comprehension assignments with the help of an assistant teacher (Meijer et al., 2009).

24

It is crucial for practice programs to be suitable for the pupil’s level of proficiency. If the exercises are too difficult or unrelated to the subject matter studied, the pupils will get stuck, and take up a great deal of the teacher’s time (Ritzen, 2010). Another consideration is that pupils tend to have trouble working with practice programs that are constricting in their structure. If they get stuck, they want to be able to skip a sum, for example, and go on to the next one (Sneep et al., 2010). Practicing actively in a group Most practice programs resemble exercises in a printed work book. The primary school “De Arabesk” is experimenting with a very different form of practicing, with pupils working in pairs on arithmetic exercises on the interactive whiteboard. The sums were designed to get pupils actively involved: they require pupils to drag parts of the equation from one place to another, take turns writing on the whiteboard, consult one another and figure things out together, and even engage in physical activity, for example stretch out their arms in order to fill in an answer or point to something. Research has shown that pupils did indeed get actively involved in doing the sums, used inquiry-based methods, collaborated a great deal, and enjoyed working on the assignments. They also performed better (Coetsier et al., 2009). The experiment at De Arabesk is a good example of an ICT application that combines elements of knowledge transfer and knowledge construction. While the subject matter itself has a fixed structure, the pupils work on the assignments independently in pairs. Even more traditional exercises that use ICT are more pupil-centered; they are easier to adapt and better suited to the pupil’s level of proficiency and interests than a printed work book.

25


2 - Benefits of using ICT

2.4 Inquiry-based learning Inquiry-based learning means teaching methods in which pupils are more or less free to search for the answer to a question, look for information about a topic, study a concept or develop skills. The problems they are told to investigate are often complex ones that can be answered in several ways. The process – that is, how the pupil arrives at the solution – is one of the learning objectives. Computers – whether or not they are online – can be used to create environments in which pupils can work on a problem or question and access the sources that they need. The general impression is that such environments can offer added value in educational settings, but that they require a professional pedagogical design. Computer simulations Computer simulations enable pupils to experiment in an environment that imitates reality in the form of a model. Simulations allow pupils to develop practical skills or familiarize themselves with the basic principles of research, such as developing a hypothesis (De Jong et al., 2009). Games are also usually classified as computer simulations. There are games developed especially for the education sector, but if they have a good teacher, pupils can even learn from off-the-shelf games (Van Rooij et al., 2010; Verheul et al., 2009). Pupils can develop knowledge in simulated environments, but the environments must be carefully scaffolded. Pupils need to have sufficient prior knowledge to work in the environment, which in turn should give them something to go by (Hagemans, 2008; Van de Schaar, 2009). It takes time to develop a powerful simulation or game. It is also expensive and requires considerable professional expertise, with technicians, designers, pedagogical experts and subject specialists all working together (De Jong, 2009).

26

Searching the Internet The Internet is an almost inexhaustible font of information and as such is used a great deal in education. It is not, however, simply a learning environment on its own. In order to find the right information on the Internet, pupils need precisely the information skills that they so often lack. They seldom subject Internet sources to a critical evaluation. They mainly look at whether the information is available in Dutch, whether the site can answer their question quickly, and whether it looks good. Information skills are indispensable to using the Internet effectively (Kuiper, 2007; Walraven, 2008; see also Chapter 3).

2.5 Learning to learn Learning to learn is a teaching method that focuses primarily on the pupil’s learning process and on making him or her aware of it. The content is subordinate to the process. There is no sharp distinction between “learning to learn” and “inquiry-based learning”; pupils can only engage in the latter if they have learned to investigate, and learning to investigate is a form of learning to learn. ICT applications that support this approach to learning are still in their infancy. Schools are experimenting with ICT, but the working methods are still too indefinite to study their effects. There are therefore very few studies demonstrating that ICT can contribute to this method. Competence-based professional environments Environments that simulate professional settings are particularly in demand in competence-based education because they allow pupils to carry out the duties that they will have to perform later in their careers. Among the key learning objectives are the pupil’s ability to plan and control his or her own learning process. One example of such an environment is Schonenvaart. Pupils take on the role of an account manager and carry out a number of assignments. The effectiveness of the environment remains limited. Students do not see the relevance of the assignments, pupils who have trouble planning and who are not motivated do not improve on these points, and only a small

27


2 - Benefits of using ICT

percentage of the assignments are ever handed in. That is especially true of students who are already having trouble at school. The environment puts enormous demands on the teacher’s time and energy because he or she must continue to monitor students closely (Coetsier et al., 2008). We can draw similar conclusions from a study carried out by Dieleman (2010) into “meaningful learning” projects. Once again, it was not easy to put the intended teaching method into practice, and the results were disappointing. Reflection and ICT When teachers apply methods that focus on knowledge construction, it is important that their pupils think about their own learning process. Schools are experimenting with various ICT tools designed to stimulate such reflection skills. One example of a tool that can be used to encourage reflection is the digital portfolio. Pupils save their work in a digital portfolio; they also get feedback on their assignments and have a list of the assignments and projects that they have completed. Some schools are even extending this type of tool by giving all their pupils their own laptop (Weijs, 2010). Other examples are methods in which pupils record their own presentation on video and discuss it with their classmates (see Verbeij, 2009) or the use of weblogs (see Wopereis et al., 2009). There have not been many studies into these types of applications yet. Many of them are still in the drawing board stage and research is conducted simply to develop a working design. The few studies that have been conducted into the effects of these tools are inconclusive (see for example the study on digital portfolios in Meijer et al., 2009 or the study by Van Gennip et al., 2009). This may be due to the limited functionality of the digital portfolios examined in these studies. It is also difficult to assess the learning objectives set for these applications.

28

Computer-supported collaborative learning Willems asked teachers to consider five situations in which pupils were engaged in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL), ranging from relatively simple arrangements where pupils sat down together behind a computer to more complex arrangements where pupils collaborated while each one was at home working on his or her own computer. Teachers doubted whether such applications would be effective; they felt they did not have enough control over the learning situation and did not see CSCL as being of equal value to a normal lesson situation (Willems, 2010). This study confirms, once again, that it is proving difficult to use ICT in constructivist approaches to teaching/learning (see also Figure 4.6 in Chapter 4). That is particularly striking because it is precisely teachers with constructivist leanings who are often the most positive about using ICT (see Chapter 1).

2.6 Summary • ICT can contribute to more efficient, more effective, and more interesting teaching/learning. The contribution that ICT makes and evidence of its benefits varies depending on the teaching/learning method used. • Research on the benefits of ICT has revealed effects at three levels: pupils, teachers, and the school as a whole: - The pupils perform better and are more motivated. - The teachers are more efficient in their teaching and their profession is more attractive. - The school is more eager to explore innovation. • It is easier to derive benefits from ICT when it is used with teaching/ learning methods that focus on knowledge transfer (such as instruction and practicing) than when it is used with knowledge construction methods (such as inquiry-based learning and learning to learn). • Teachers who feel an affinity for knowledge construction are eager to embrace ICT in their lessons; they tend to have a much more open mind to it than teachers who are more focused on knowledge transfer. • Successful examples of using ICT for knowledge transfer do not fundamentally alter teaching practice. In these cases, ICT adds

29


3 - Teaching and ICT use

something (for example visual material) or replaces an existing part of the lesson (the practice worksheet). Even these applications take more time and effort than teachers initially expect. • In the area of knowledge construction, ICT is still unexplored territory. Designers are wrestling with such questions as: how much structure and guidance should an environment give pupils, and how can teachers keep control of a learning process that unfolds on a computer or network? As coaches and guides, teachers play a complex role, even without ICT, and that role cannot simply be programmed into software. When such applications do succeed, teachers find themselves having to give pupils a great deal of extra help and guidance, even though many of the programs are meant to get pupils working more independently. • It is difficult to study the benefits of ICT use for knowledge construction, and that is undoubtedly why so few studies have been carried out in this regard. The learning objectives set for knowledge construction are often difficult to measure because there is no relevant way of testing them yet. • When ICT was first introduced in education, the suggestion was made that ICT might some day replace teachers. Research results indicate that the opposite is true, however. The more powerful the ICT tool is, the more pupils need teachers who are equipped to use the potential of ICT to improve the quality of teaching/learning. One striking example concerns the ICT applications that encourage pupils to learn more independently: these applications in fact require much more from teachers than anticipated.

30

3 Teaching and ICT use ICT and teaching are inseparable. ICT has become increasingly integrated into teaching processes, for example preparing lessons, giving lessons and performing administrative duties – a development that has taken many years. The introduction of ICT in teaching has not led to any radical changes; it more closely resembles a process of evolution than a process of revolution. Teachers and school managers believe that they have yet to explore the full potential of ICT in teaching, and they expect that ICT use will continue to increase in the near future. The computer has developed into an essential tool for teachers in the past few years. This is especially apparent in their teaching (Section 3.1). In addition, computers are becoming increasingly important for other school-related tasks that teachers perform (often at home) (Section 3.2). Computers have also become a common learning tool for pupils (Section 3.3). At the same time, there is a danger of misconceptions and risks; we look at these in Section 3.4.

3.1 Teachers at school We know that many teachers use computers during their lessons, but how, and how often? We can measure this by looking at four indicators: 1. Quantity: the percentage of teachers who make use of computers in their lessons; 2. Intensity: the average number of hours in which teachers make use of computers in their lessons; 3. Diversity: the various applications that teachers use computers to run; 4. Familiarity: the extent to which teachers are familiar with computers.

31


3 - Teaching and ICT use

Quantity Three quarters of teachers use computers during lessons. This percentage does differ from one sector to the next, however. For example, more primary school teachers use computers in their lessons (89%) than teachers at secondary schools (64%) or vocational schools (71%) (Figure 3.1). % of teachers

% of teachers

100 80 60 40

100

20 89 0

80 71 64

trend

60

2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 56

62

66

66

67

70

72

75

expectation

88

Note: Data for 2003-2007 based on PRIM and SEC. Data from 2008 onward concern PRIM, SEC and VET.

40

Figure 3.2. Trend in average percentage of teachers who use computers in their lessons according to school managers (TNS NIPO, 2003-2009b). 20

0 PRIM

SEC

VET

Figure 3.1. Percentage of teachers who use computers during lessons, according to school managers (TNS NIPO, 2009b).

For several years now, almost 90% of primary school teachers have been making use of computers in their lessons. Although school managers believe that the remaining 10% will make the switch to computer use, that has not happened yet. Teachers themselves say that they have not made the switch because they lack the necessary conditions to do so.

The number of teachers who use a computer as a teaching aid is steadily increasing. In the past year, their numbers increased by 3% (TNS NIPO, 2009b). School managers expect that in three years’ time, almost nine out of ten teachers will be using computers in their lessons (Figure 3.2).

32

33


3 - Teaching and ICT use

Intensity On average, teachers use computer applications for more than 8 hours a week in their lessons. They expect that in three years’ time, that will grow to approximately 11 hours a week, an increase of more than 30%. The differences between the sectors in computer use can be expected to decrease in future. This means that in the near future, secondary schools will start to catch up with primary and vocational schools with respect to computer use (Figure 3.3). number of hours a week

Diversity The ICT applications used most often in teaching are the Internet, practice programs, word processing software and electronic learning environments. On average, a teacher uses these applications in his or her lessons eight times a month. Games, Web 2.0 and digital tests are the least popular applications (Figure 3.4). A growing number of teachers are using a wider variety of applications. Their repertoire of ICT tools is therefore becoming more varied. look up information on Internet

14 12

8 80 8

practice program

79

10 7

word processing

8

75 8

ELE

6 4

65 7

cooperation

54

2 0

5

scheduling 2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

45

2013

3

portfolio PRIM

7

8

8

11

SEC

5

5

6

9

VET

8

8

12

13

Figure 3.3. Average number of hours a week that teachers use computers in their lessons, and projections for the near future (TNS NIPO, 2008; 2009a; 2009b).

In addition to teacher and school manager self-reporting on computer use, an observation study on ICT use was carried out in more than 800 primary school classrooms. The study revealed that teachers mainly make use of the interactive whiteboard during lessons (an average of 2.3 hours a week). At any given moment, one out of 25 pupils is using the computer (4%). Both teachers and pupils use computer equipment mainly for doing sums and for language learning (Berenschot, 2009).

34

37 2

games

29 2

web 2.0

29 1

tests

30 0

20

40

60

80

100

number of times per month % of teachers

Figure 3.4. Percentage of teachers who use ICT applications once a month or more during their lessons and average number of times per month that ICT applications are used (TNS NIPO 2009b).

35


3 - Teaching and ICT use

Familiarity More than half of teachers describe their use of computers in lessons as “advanced” or “very advanced” (Figure 3.5). These teachers are familiar with ICT and their number increases every year. Familiarity with ICT is an important factor in the effective use of ICT in teaching. More teachers in primary and vocational schools are competent at using ICT for pedagogical purposes than teachers in secondary education (see also Chapter 5). % of teachers 100

This information emphasizes that computers represent more to teachers than only a pedagogical tool that they use in their lessons. Computer applications also play a vital role in other work that teachers do. % of teachers

>10 hours 5-10 hours 2-5 hours

17

24

<2 hours

2008 2009 2010

80

74 64

60 52

54

59

64

44

related work (TNS NIPO, 2009).

46

20

0 PRIM

27

Figure 3.6. Number of hours a week that teachers use a computer at home for school41

40

32

SEC

VET

ICT blurs the boundary between school and home According to teachers, one of the ways ICT can be used more effectively is to make pupils more eager to learn by having them use ICT when studying outside of school. This illustrates that teachers would like to see closer links being forged between formal learning (at school) and informal learning (at home, in pupils’ spare time).

Figure 3.5. Percentage of teachers who make advanced or very advanced use of computers during lessons (TNS NIPO, 2009b).

3.2 Teachers at home Virtually all teachers also work on school-related matters on their home computer (Figure 3.6). They use their computer at home mainly for administrative work and to search for, work on, or develop learning materials. They also often use their home computer to keep in touch with colleagues, pupils, and/or other people with whom they share professional interests. The amount of school-related computer work that teachers do at home is gradually increasing. Half of teachers now spend more than five hours a week on their home computer doing school-related work.

36

Teachers believe that the amount of time that pupils can spend working at a computer at school is limited to a maximum of 8 to 15 hours a week (Figure 3.7). That is an average of about 1 to 2 hours a day. Teachers believe that pupils can effectively work on school assignments a further 6 to 10 hours a week on their home computers. The number of hours a week that pupils can work effectively on school assignments using ICT tools at home or at school is about the same for secondary and vocational school (23 to 25 hours per week). Teachers expect that primary school pupils can work effectively on a computer, both at school and at home, for more than 14 hours a week.

37


3 - Teaching and ICT use

number of hours per week

20

at school

100

% of pupils

88

at home 80

15

15 12 11 10

60

57

10

45

8

40 6

5 20

0

0 PRIM

SEC

VET

PRIM

SEC

VET

Figure 3.7. Views of teachers regarding the number of hours that pupils can learn

Figure 3.8. Percentage of pupils who make at least weekly use of the Internet at school

effectively using a computer (TNS NIPO, 2009b).

for educational purposes, according to teachers (TNS NIPO, 2009b).

3.3 Pupils and computers

Homework assignments that pupils do on their home computers are most common in vocational school. Such assignments are very rare in primary education.

Ninety-three percent of pupils age 6 to 17 use the Internet at home (De Haan et al., 2010). It is by no means certain that pupils will also become acquainted with the Internet at school. Fewer than half of teachers in secondary school have pupils use the Internet regularly (once a week or more). Notably, primary school teachers have their pupils work with the Internet more often than their colleagues at secondary schools (Figure 3.8). The Internet is used most intensively in vocational education.

% of teachers

100

2008 2009 2010

80

61

60

65

68

44 39

40

20 13

14

39

11

0 PRIM

SEC

VET

Figure 3.9. Percentage of teachers who give pupils at least one assignment a week to

38

complete on their home computers (TNS NIPO, 2008; 2009a; 2009b).

39


3 - Teaching and ICT use

Internet supports learning at home The vast majority of secondary school pupils (83%) say that when they use the Internet at home to do schoolwork, they mainly use it to search for information – the same as at school. More than half of the pupils (60%) also say that ICT enables them to cooperate with other pupils on school assignments from home (Van Rooij, 2009). Pupils say that they use the Internet at home mainly to search for information and to cooperate with others on schoolwork, but some pupils also use it for other reasons, for example to take practice tests, to turn in homework, and to ask their teachers questions. A list of the school-related activities that pupils carry out on the Internet at home is given in Table 3.1. % of pupils School activity

% of pupils Skill

2007

2008

2009

I can surf the Internet.

87

89

89

I can use a search engine (for example Google).

87

90

89

I can use MSN.

85

85

84

2007

2008

2009

Searching for information

73

79

83

I can download a file from the Internet.

77

77

75

Working on assignments with other pupils

45

52

60

I can create my own homepage or profile site.

61

64

63

Contact with fellow pupils regarding schoolwork

37

36

36

I can chat on a chat site.

62

59

58

Doing practice tests

31

25

27

I can use a webcam.

63

58

58

Submitting homework by e-mail

20

22

24

I can blog.

43

45

44

Checking what homework has been assigned

13

19

21

Asking the teacher a question by e-mail

11

11

17

Constructing and maintaining a website

9

9

7

Asking an expert a question by e-mail

6

6

6

Finding ready-made assignments to copy

4

5

6

Note: this table is based on information provided by pupils in their first and second years of secondary school.

Table 3.1. School-related activities for which pupils use the Internet at home (Van Rooij, 2009).

3.4 Misconceptions There are various misconceptions about how pupils use ICT (Maddux et al., 2009). Two that have a close association with education concern the information skills and learning styles of the “digital generation”.

40

Information skills One of the most persistent misconceptions about education and ICT is that school children no longer need to be taught how to use ICT tools. In other words, we tend to overestimate children’s skill with computers. Table 3.2 shows that pupils who have grown up with computers are generally quite ICT-proficient, but that does not mean that they have the skills needed to learn effectively using ICT and to use ICT responsibly, critically and creatively (OECD, 2010; Van den Berg et al., 2010; Kanters et al., 2008).

Note: this table is based on information provided by pupils in their first and second years of secondary school.

Table 3.2. Pupil computer skills (without the assistance of others) (Van Rooij, 2009).

But those skills are not yet considered vital in education. For example, in the Netherlands schools are free to decide how much time to spend teaching information skills. In actual practice, this means that schools and teachers can decide, at their discretion, whether or not to teach information skills. The same applies to other subjects that help to prepare young people for their role in an ICT-driven society. For example, pupils are taught little about using the Internet securely or about such issues as “netiquette”, cyber-bullying and copyright. The digital literacy that will be required of everyone in the future – also referred to as 21st century skills (Voogt et al., 2010b) – therefore depends on the situation at home and what schools and teachers happen to offer.

41


3 - Teaching and ICT use

The fact that the education sector has not identified any learning objectives for dealing with digital information could end up dividing young people into two camps: those who do and those who do not know how to deal effectively with digital information (Kuiper, 2010; OECD, 2006; European Communities, 2007). This division into two camps is closely related to the social and economic background of pupils (OECD, 2010). If the education sector acts quickly to teach pupils digital skills that not only support their learning but also contribute to lifelong learning, pupils will have more opportunities to develop their talents (Ten Brummelhuis, 2010). The learning styles of the “digital generation” Another misconception is that we need new methods to teach the Internet generation. There is no empirical evidence for the claim that the entire younger generation possess an in-depth knowledge and outstanding skills when it comes to new technology (“digital natives”) and that they have their own particular learning style as a result. Four out of ten young people use the Internet mainly to perform basic activities that have been around for a while: e-mailing, surfing the Web, searching for information and chatting in MSN. This group can be described as the Traditionalists (Van den Beemt, 2009). Additionally, more than 40% of pupils can be described as Networkers (Figure 3.10). These are mostly girls. They use various types of social software – such as Facebook and MSN – to communicate with friends. The third group with a specific user profile consists of Gamers (9%), who use all kinds of gaming applications, for example PC games, online games, console games and games on mobile devices. They, like the other groups, also use the basic Internet functions. The final group, which is about the same size as the Gamers, consists of the Producers (9%). They use MSN, YouTube, Flickr, Facebook and MySpace to show other people what they find interesting or to find out things about other people.

42

Networker

% of young people

Traditionalist Gamer Producer

9 9 42

40

Figure 3.10. Breakdown by user category of young people who use new media (Van den Beemt, 2009).

Teachers who understand how young people combine different media applications see that those combinations can serve as a framework and model for their teaching. The four user groups shown in Figure 3.10 have several striking similarities with categories of learning style. For example, Traditionalists consume text, Gamers are focused on images, Networkers tend to produce text and Producers create combinations of visuals, audio and text. The link between media consumption and learning styles may be stronger than has been described until now. A teacher who understands the media consumption habits of his pupils may, for example, find it useful to use Web 2.0 applications when teaching a class full of Producers. Web 2.0 applications would be less effective if his pupils are overwhelmingly Traditionalists or Networkers.

43


4 - Vision

3.5 Summary • A growing number of teachers are increasingly using a wider variety of ICT applications. Three quarters of teachers now use computers an average of 8 hours a week during lessons. In the past year, the number of teachers using computers increased by 3%. In three years’ time, 90% of teachers are expected to use computer applications in their lessons for an average of 11 hours a week. • Teachers are becoming more familiar with ICT applications. • ICT is not only used in the classroom, but also for a variety of other school-related work, such as preparing lessons and record-keeping. ICT is integrated into the entire spectrum of activities in which teachers are engaged as professionals.. • Teachers increasingly do school-related work on their home computer. Teachers also expect that the time pupils spend learning can be extended by using ICT applications to facilitate learning at home. For both teachers and pupils, the boundaries between intramural and extramural educational activities are blurring. • Computers are often used to look up information. Fewer than half of pupils consider that they get good tips at school about how to search for information on the Internet. • It is a misconception that pupils acquire information skills spontaneously and that all pupils are familiar with ICT to the same extent and in the same way.

4 Vision Using ICT improves the quality of education, but only if the necessary underlying conditions are in place. One of the most important of these is that the ICT applications used must match the vision that the school or teacher has regarding teaching/learning. Differences in such visions can be traced back to the difference between knowledge transfer and knowledge construction. The choice between the two is often left up to the teacher. To get more out of ICT, school managers should encourage consensus among teachers in this respect, but that does not happen at many schools. This chapter reviews the current state of affairs with respect to vision and ICT from two different perspectives. The first is the perspective of school managers, in particular the extent to which they have integrated the school’s vision of ICT use into its policy (Section 4.1). The second perspective concerns the extent to which teachers, in their everyday work, feel that their school does in fact have a particular vision of the way ICT should be used in teaching (Section 4.2). We also explore the role that teachers ascribe to ICT in their vision of teaching, both now and in the future.

4.1 School managers One of the gauges for how important ICT is at a school and whether it is an integral part of teaching is the presence of an ICT policy plan. Almost nine out of ten schools have an ICT policy plan (Figure 4.1). At approximately a third of schools, the plan is available in writing but has never actually been implemented.

44

45


4 - Vision

% schools

100 9

no policy plan

13

18

policy plan is not implemented policy plan is implemented

80

28

28 35

60

School managers find the use of computers in lessons an important issue (Figure 4.3). Compared with other issues that demand attention, ICT is the most important issue for primary schools (90%) and of somewhat lesser importance for secondary (83%) and vocational schools (77%). % schools

100 90 83 80

40 63

77

59 47

20

60

0

40 PRIM

SEC

VET

Figure 4.1. Presence and use of ICT policy plan (TNS NIPO, 2009b). 20

At six out of ten schools, school managers have a centralized vision with respect to ICT use. In addition, more than 20% of schools are currently developing such a vision (Figure 4.2).

0 PRIM

SEC

VET

Figure 4.3. Percentage of schools at which the management find the issue of computer % schools

100

80

26

in development

use during lessons to be important/very important compared to other matters

vision has been defined

demanding their attention (TNS NIPO, 2009b).

22 21

We may conclude that school managers consider ICT to be fairly well integrated into the school policy.

60

4.2 Teachers

40 64

66

PRIM

SEC

56

20

0 VET

Figure 4.2. Percentage of schools that have developed a centralized vision of how ICT should be used in teaching, according to school managers (TNS NIPO 2009b).

46

Most teachers (67%) generally decide themselves how ICT should be used in their lessons and for what subject matter (Figure 4.4). According to teachers, it is often up to them to decide whether or not to use ICT. That means that most schools have not made agreements concerning the pedagogical use of ICT for various subject matter components. Approximately four out of ten primary and vocational school teachers do work in teams in which such agreements have been made. Only 15% of secondary school teachers work in schools in which agreements have been

47


4 - Vision

made concerning the subject matter components that are to be taught using ICT.

% teachers

100

80 % of teachers

100

teacher chooses him/herself agreements made within team

65 60

80 58

59 85

60

49

40

20

40

20

44

42

41

0 PRIM

SEC

VET

Figure 4.5. Percentage of teachers who feel the need for school managers who

15 0

collaborate with the teaching staff in developing a broadly supported vision of ICT PRIM

SEC

VET

use (TNS NIPO, 2009b).

Figure 4.4. Teacher discretion with respect to using ICT at their school (TNS NIPO, 2009b).

Although school managers often believe that a particular vision concerning the use of ICT has been defined, many teachers say they feel the need for a vision that has broad support within the school and has been developed in cooperation with the teaching staff. Approximately half of teachers say they feel the need for school managers who collaborate with teachers on developing a broadly supported vision of how ICT should be used (Figure 4.5). That applies at primary schools (44%), secondary schools (49%) and vocational schools (65%).

Knowledge transfer and knowledge construction In Chapter 2, we distinguished between two pedagogical visions: knowledge transfer and knowledge construction. Kennisnet helps schools elucidate their pedagogical vision. We do that by offering schools the opportunity to use the “Pedagogy in Balance” research tool [Didactiek in Balans]. In the past year, almost 6000 teachers employed at more than 600 primary schools took part in this study. The data they provided offer us a good picture of teaching practice now and in the future and the role that ICT can play within that context. Right now, the most common practice involves knowledge transfer without the use of ICT (Figure 4.6). Teachers differ little from one another on this point. Teachers expect that knowledge transfer will continue to be important, and a small group even expects its importance to increase. Knowledge construction that does not involve the use of ICT – with pupils working on assignments and the teacher providing guidance – is less common than knowledge transfer without ICT. Teachers differ considerably in the amount of time that they devote to knowledge construction, ranging

48

49


4 - Vision

from “occasionally” to “frequently”. Teachers are more unanimous in their opinion that knowledge construction will become more important in teaching in the future. At the moment, ICT is only rarely used for purposes of knowledge construction. Teachers anticipate that there will be many more ICT applications of this kind in the future, but that they will differ considerably in the extent to which they use ICT for knowledge construction. knowledge transfer without ICT knowledge construction without ICT knowledge transfer with ICT knowledge construction with ICT

frequency

never/ hardly ever

now and again

quite frequently

often

very frequently

4.3 Summary • Six out of ten schools have defined a centralized vision of the way ICT should be used. Approximately half of teachers say they feel the need for a vision that has broad support within the school and has been developed in cooperation with the teaching staff. According to teachers, it is usually up to them to decide whether or not to use ICT. • In the future, knowledge transfer will continue to be an important part of the pedagogical repertoire of teachers. Knowledge construction will become more important. • Teachers differ and will continue to differ when it comes to the amount of time that they devote to knowledge transfer and knowledge construction in their lessons. Despite the differences in their pedagogical visions, teachers agree that the use of ICT applications will increase in the future. This applies both for applications that support knowledge transfer and for applications that focus more on knowledge construction.

now in three years’ time

Explanation: The length of the bar represents the range of scores for the middle fifty percent of respondents, i.e. the second and third quartiles.

Figure 4.6. Pedagogical practices of primary school teachers (Van Gennip et al., 2010a).

50

51


5 - Expertise

5 Expertise

% of respondents

100

school managers teachers

86

Teachers who wish to integrate ICT into their teaching need to be experts in three different areas: the subject matter, pedagogy and ICT. In addition, knowing which applications do and do not work in teaching plays an important role. It is important for every teacher to have this knowledge base, so that they can help pupils develop their talent to the full and prepare them for life in the knowledgedriven society.

80 72

68

65

67

59

60

40

20

Teachers worldwide say that what they need most is help in making better use of the potential of ICT in teaching. They believe that knowing more about the pedagogical use of ICT will help them become more effective teachers (OECD, 2010). This chapter looks at the degree to which teachers in the Netherlands are familiar with the possibilities of ICT (Section 5.1) and what ICT skills they actually possess (Section 5.2).

5.1 Familiarity with ICT The degree to which a teacher feels familiar with and confident using ICT is one of the key factors for the effective use of ICT in teaching (see Chapter 1).

0 PRIM

SEC

VET

Figure 5.1. Percentage of teachers who are sufficiently or more than sufficiently familiar with computer applications that they can use in their own teaching, according to school managers and teachers themselves (TNS NIPO, 2009b).

Figure 5.2 shows that teacher familiarity with ICT is improving gradually. There is still a fairly large group (more than a third) who are insufficiently familiar with what ICT can and cannot do.

More than six out of ten teachers feel that they are sufficiently or more than sufficiently familiar with the various options that ICT can offer them in their teaching. School managers in vocational education are less certain about teacher familiarity with ICT than the teachers themselves. In primary and secondary education, it is teachers who are less positive than school managers about their familiarity with ICT (Figure 5.1).

52

53


5 - Expertise

% of teachers

100

2008

% of teachers

100

2009 2010

80 64 60

57

57

59

59 54

60

20

20

0

0 VET

74

70

40

SEC

78

80

40

PRIM

pedagogical ICT skills

85

67

65

basic ICT skills

55

PRIM

SEC

56

VET

Note: VET data for 2008 is unavailable

Figure 5.3. Percentage of teachers who have adequate skills, according to school

Figure 5.2. Percentage of teachers who themselves feel they are sufficiently or more

managers (TNS NIPO, 2009b).

than sufficiently familiar with computer applications that they can use in their own teaching (TNS NIPO, 2008; 2009a; 2009b).

5.2 Teachers’ skills Using ICT in teaching requires teachers to be competent not only in the subject matter, but to also have ICT and pedagogical skills. Being able to operate a computer and use standard applications such as word-processing software and e-mail, constitute basic ICT skills. Pedagogical ICT skills specifically involve using ICT in learning situations; in other words, using the right combinations of subject matter, pedagogy and ICT.

The number of teachers who possess ICT skills has increased in the past year (Figure 5.4). This refers to both basic ICT skills (+8%) and pedagogical ICT skills (+4%). In addition to the improvement in skills, Figure 5.4 also shows that, according to school managers, one out of five teachers has inadequate basic technical skills, for example the ability to do word processing and use the Internet. School managers also say that two out of five teachers are insufficiently equipped to use ICT in teaching.

School managers in all three sectors say that more teachers possess technical ICT skills than pedagogical ICT skills (Figure 5.3).

54

55


5 - Expertise

% of teachers

100

5.3 Summary • Teachers are more likely to have the technical skills they need to operate a computer than the pedagogical skills necessary to teach using a computer. • Teachers are gradually becoming more familiar with ICT, but there is still a fairly large group who are insufficiently familiar with what ICT can and cannot do. • More than 40% of teachers feel that they are inadequately equipped to use ICT confidently in their lessons

80 60 40 20 0

2009

2010

basic ICT skills

71

79

pedagogical ICT skills

56

60

Figure 5.4. Average percentage of primary, secondary and vocational school teachers who have adequate skills, according to school managers (TNS NIPO, 2009a; 2009b).

Data provided by teachers also reveal that they feel increasingly confident using the computer as a pedagogical tool. Despite this gradual improvement, more than 40% of teachers feel inadequately equipped to use ICT confidently as a pedagogical tool during lessons (Table 5.1). Teachers are mainly uncertain about the skills they need to prepare, organize and integrate ICT into teaching. % of teachers Pedagogical ICT skills

2009

2010

Use ICT to communicate with pupils

55

61

Use computers as pedagogical aid

51

58

Use digital pupil information management system

48

60

Organize lessons in which ICT is used

46

54

Use educational software

44

51

Integrate ICT into teaching

40

48

Assess usefulness of educational software

37

46

Use electronic learning environment

37

43

Adapt Internet-based digital learning materials for use during lessons

35

40

Table 5.1. Average percentage of primary, secondary and vocational school teachers with advanced or very advanced pedagogical ICT skills (TNS NIPO 2009a; 2009b).

56

57


6 - Digital learning materials

6 Digital learning materials % of teachers

Teachers expect the use of digital learning materials to increase by 20% in the next three years, as they did last year. Despite their ambitions in this respect, use of ICT has scarcely increased in the past year. The availability of truly practical digital learning materials continues to be one of the toughest barriers to the further integration of ICT in education. This chapter discusses the computer programs used most often (Section 6.1), the sources of digital learning materials (Section 6.2) and the contribution that teachers make to producing digital learning materials (Section 6.3). Section 6.4 reveals what percentage of learning materials are currently digital, and future projections in that regard. Section 6.5 looks at possible solutions.

Computer programs

2009

2010

Office applications (e.g. word processing, presentation software)

74

80

E-mail program

67

74

Software associated with a particular course/coursebook

52

54

Specific software for practice exercises

49

53

Graphics software (e.g. photo software, video software)

26

25

Software to collaborate on a task (e.g. Wiki, Google Docs, blog)

16

18

Simulation software (e.g. to simulate experiments)

14

14

Games

11

13

Table 6.1. Average percentage of primary, secondary and vocational school teachers who make daily or weekly use of computer programs for teaching purposes (TNS NIPO, 2009a; 2009b).

6.2 Sources of digital learning materials 6.1 Computer programs Most teachers use computer programs that match their existing working methods or that fit in easily with those methods. The computer programs most frequently used in education were not developed specifically for educational purposes, for example standard office applications and e-mail (Table 6.1). These are tools, i.e. programs without any learning content. In addition, somewhat more than half of teachers also utilize subject-specific practice programs and software associated with a particular course/ coursebook. These are digital learning materials that focus on specific subject matter (Leendertse et al., in press). Graphics software, software that permits collaboration between pupils and games or simulations are used much less frequently. Table 6.1 shows that gradually, a growing number of teachers are making more frequent use of various types of computer program. They are making more use both of tools and of learning materials focusing on specific subject matter.

58

Teachers use various sources to acquire digital learning materials. Most of them look for material themselves on the Internet, adapt existing material, or receive learning material from colleagues. Almost two thirds of teachers use the ICT material provided with textbooks (Table 6.2). Table 6.2 shows that, compared to last year, more teachers are now obtaining learning materials from a growing list of sources. % of teachers Sources of digital learning materials

2009

2010

Found on Internet

62

68

ICT material supplied with textbook

58

63

From colleagues

45

47

From Kennisnet

33

38

Self-developed materials or adapted existing materials

44

48

Table 6.2. Sources of digital learning materials, according to primary, secondary and vocational school teachers (TNS NIPO, 2009a; 2009b).

59


6 - Digital learning materials

6.3 The teacher as a designer

% of teachers

In all three sectors, the number of teachers who develop digital learning materials themselves is increasing. In the past year, this number increased from an average of 24% to 32%. Teachers at secondary and vocational schools develop digital learning materials more frequently than their counterparts at primary schools (Figure 6.1). % of teachers

100

yes, definitely yes, but with reservations

80 55

50

26

29

19

21

2009

2010

60 40

100

no, and I don’t plan to 36

80

not yet, but I plan to 42

20

yes

61

0

60 29

18

40

Figure 6.2. Willingness of primary, secondary and vocational school teachers to make self-developed learning materials available to other teachers on the Internet (TNS

18 20

no

35

40

SEC

VET

NIPO, 2009a; 2009b).

21 0

PRIM

Figure 6.1. Percentage of teachers who develop digital learning materials themselves (TNS NIPO, 2009b).

Of the teachers who already develop digital learning materials and/or plan to do so, half are definitely willing to make their materials available to other teachers on the Internet (Figure 6.2). Compared to last year, teachers are now somewhat less willing to share their materials with others.

6.4 Use of digital learning materials Although the number of teachers who use computer programs and who look for and develop their own digital learning materials is growing, there has been no increase in the share of digital learning materials vis-à-vis books. Right now, a sixth of the learning materials used at primary and secondary schools are digital. That is about the same as last year. Primary and secondary school teachers expect the use of digital learning materials to double in the next three years (Figure 6.3) and also believe that a third of all learning materials will be digital in three years’ time. In vocational education and training, 40% of learning materials are already digital. Vocational school teachers assume that even more learning materials will be digitized in the years ahead. They anticipate that in three years’ time, half of all learning materials will be available to their students in digital form.

60

61


6 - Digital learning materials

% digital learning materials

by the study was able to meet these requirements. The conclusion must be that the lack of useful, practical digital material is a complex problem that involves both the features of the material itself and the underlying conditions for its use.

100 80 60

6.5 Proposed solutions

40 20 0

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

PRIM

13

15

14

33

SEC

16

17

16

37

VET

35

36

40

54

Figure 6.3. Current share of digital learning materials (2008-2010) and increase projected by teachers between now and 2013 (TNS NIPO, 2008; 2009a; 2009b).

Like teachers, school managers expect the use of digital learning materials to increase sharply in the years ahead (TNS NIPO, 2009b). They anticipate that the share of digital learning materials will increase by 20% in the coming three years. A study by the Secondary Education Council (Simon Thomas et al., 2010) shows that schools expect digital learning materials to contribute to the following: • teaching that involves pupils actively • individualization • more relevance to pupils’ lives, both in school and out • more variety in teaching The study also points out a number of problems that prevent an increase in the use of digital learning materials. For such use to increase, schools must have a sufficient number of computers, a flawless and fast Internet connection, simple log-in procedures, a reliable electricity supply, and teachers with good ICT skills. But not a single one of the schools covered

62

Although teachers and school managers expect there to be a rapid increase in the use of digital learning materials, that increase has, until now, turned out to be difficult to achieve in actual practice. In the 2008-2009 school year, for example, teachers and managers expected a 6-7% increase; in reality, the share of digital learning materials scarcely increased at all. There has been extensive analysis of the barriers that prevent teachers from considering the available material truly practical. That analysis has led to various proposed solutions (Ten Brummelhuis et al., 2009). Technology The first solution is: make it easier to find digital learning materials. The focus should be on using metadata to classify and categorize materials. This solution assumes that teachers’ problems can be solved by making clever use of technology. Teacher The second solution is to get teachers themselves more closely involved in developing digital learning materials. Giving teachers “ownership” is considered an essential factor in gaining acceptance of the materials and increasing their ease of use. In this approach, teachers themselves hold the key to solving the problem. School principal The third solution focuses on the school principal. It is his or her task to clarify the school’s aims and needs with respect to digital learning material. The role of the school principal is also highlighted in an analysis conducted in the Scandinavian countries into the barriers preventing the use of digital learning materials (OECD, 2009a). That role is vital to identifying the specific demand for digital learning material – a demand

63


7 - ICT infrastructure

that must be based on the school’s pedagogical vision and that must have the broad support of the teaching staff. Developers and providers of digital learning materials can then provide ICT applications that meet teachers’ needs. Government The Scandinavian analysis (OECD, 2009a) also reveals that government policy can help encourage teachers to use digital learning materials. What is especially effective is to make the use of ICT obligatory. The authorities can indicate what they, and society in general, expect from using ICT in education. It is particularly important to require teachers, aspiring teachers and teacher trainers to possess certain skills related to developing, arranging, assessing and using digital learning materials.

7 ICT infrastructure Of the four basic elements that influence the effective use of ICT in teaching, ICT infrastructure is the most high profile. For example, virtually all schools have purchased interactive whiteboards in the past three years. Rapid changes are mainly the result of financial incentives that enable schools to purchase material facilities. It is much more difficult to integrate this equipment into the teaching curriculum, however. This chapter addresses the ICT infrastructure at schools. It covers the availability of computers (Section 7.1), laptops (Section 7.2), Internet connections (Section 7.3) and interactive whiteboards (Section 7.4).

6.6 Summary • There is a huge demand for useful, practical digital learning materials. Until now, it has been almost impossible to provide digital learning materials that meet the needs of teachers. • A third of teachers develop their own digital learning materials. Approximately half of the teachers who do or who plan to are willing to share their learning materials with other teachers. • A sixth of the learning materials used at primary and secondary schools are digital. In vocational education, that is a third • A combination of different measures is needed to resolve the present impasse, i.e. the shortage of useful, practical learning materials. Experts believe that technology, teachers and school principals, and government all have a role to play in this issue.

64

65


7 - ICT infrastructure

7.1 Computers

7.2 Laptops

Schools invest a considerable amount in expanding and updating their computer equipment. Every year, schools replace 15 to 20% of their computers. They also purchase additional computers, so that more of their pupils can work on assignments digitally at the same time. Primary schools now have one computer available for every five pupils. Secondary and vocational schools have one computer available for every four to five pupils (Figure 7.1).

Desktop computers are gradually being replaced by laptops in every sector. An average of 15% of all computers used in education are now laptops. In 2009 that figure stood at 12%. Figure 7.2 shows the trend per sector.

number of pupils per computer

% of laptops

20

15

10

10 9 8

5

7 6

0

5

2009

2010

PRIM

9

12

SEC

13

18

VET

13

17

4 3 2 1 0

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

PRIM

7

7

7

6

6

5

SEC

9

7

7

6

6

4

VET

Figure 7.2. Percentage of laptops versus total number of computers in schools (TNS NIPO, 2009a; 2009b).

4.5

Figure 7.1. Ratio of computers to pupils (TNS NIPO, 2005-2009b).

66

67


7 - ICT infrastructure

Pupilsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; own laptops In addition to the growing number of laptops that schools themselves are purchasing, pupils at many schools take their own laptops with them to class. This applies at 19% of primary schools, more than half of secondary schools and virtually all vocational schools (Figure 7.3). Strikingly, only a small percentage of pupils are concerned. Of the entire pupil population, 0.4% of primary school pupils, 3% of secondary school pupils and 16% of vocational school students take their laptops with them to class (TNS NIPO, 2009b). % of schools

100

% of teachers

100

80

60 45 40

40 91

80

20

60

14

0

55

PRIM

SEC

VET

Figure 7.4. Percentage of teachers that believe that the effective use of ICT requires 40

20

every or almost every pupil to have access to a computer (TNS NIPO, 2009b).

19

0 PRIM

SEC

VET

Figure 7.3. Percentage of schools at which pupils take their own laptops with them to class (TNS NIPO, 2009b).

A laptop for every pupil A growing number of teachers think that for ICT to be used effectively in teaching, every pupil should have access to a computer or laptop. More than 40% of secondary and vocational school teachers believe this. That need is not as pressing in primary school, where one out of seven teachers believes that effective ICT use depends on having a laptop for every pupil (Figure 7.4).

68

Changes The number of learning environments in which every pupil has access to a laptop is increasing, both in the Netherlands and abroad (Pedro, 2010). This trend will soon have an unmistakable impact on the purchase and management of school infrastructure facilities. The same will probably be true for the indicators used to monitor trends in ICT facilities. Now that the pupil-computer ratio is approaching the 1:1 ceiling, more specific indicators are needed to investigate the learning infrastructure available to pupils at school. One indicator that will be relevant in the future is the number of megabits or gigabits per second available to pupils at school.

69


7 - ICT infrastructure

7.3 Internet connections

7.4 Interactive whiteboards

Virtually all computers used in teaching (98%) have an Internet connection (TNS NIPO, 2009b). Two out of five primary schools have wireless Internet or a fiber-optic connection. Secondary and vocational schools invest much more in faster and wireless Internet connections than primary schools. More than 80% of secondary and vocational schools have a fiber-optic connection, and three fourths are equipped with wireless Internet. The expectation is that even more schools will make the switch in the next few years (Figure 7.5).

In the past three years, schools have purchased interactive whiteboards at an unprecedented rate (Figure 7.6). Around 80% of vocational schools and more than 90% of primary and secondary schools now have an interactive whiteboard. The introduction of the interactive whiteboard has gone even faster than school managers anticipated in previous surveys (Kennisnet, 2009).

% of schools

100

% of schools

% of schools

80

100 5

80

8 4

7 7

7 12

20 0

12

80

60

2 7

40 60

60 40

100

69

75

40

28 SEC

20 78

74

9 20

PRIM

14

VET

a. Wireless Internet

0

0

2007

2008

2009

2010

26 PRIM

SEC

VET

b. Fiber-optic connection

PRIM

10

48

67

90

SEC

40

60

93

94

40

67

78

VET projected increase within two years increase in 2010

Figure 7.6. Percentage of schools with at least one interactive whiteboard (Intomart,

2009

2009a; 2009b).

Figure 7.5. Percentage of schools with (a) wireless Internet and (b) a fiber-optic connection (TNS NIPO, 2009a; 2009b).

70

The group of teachers who use an interactive whiteboard in their lessons is largest in primary schools (70%), where there is one interactive whiteboard available for every three or four classrooms, on average. All the teachers who have access to an interactive whiteboard use it virtually on a daily basis. Half of teachers in secondary education work with an interactive whiteboard (one for every six or seven classrooms) and 33% of teachers in vocational education (one for every 16 or 17 classrooms).

71


8 - In Balance

% of teachers

8 In Balance

100

80 70 60 51 40 33 20

0 PRIM

SEC

VET

Figure 7.7. Percentage of teachers who use an interactive whiteboard (Intomart, 2009a).

7.5 Summary • Schools invest in continuously improving the availability and quality of their computer facilities. Specifically, this means that virtually all schools are purchasing more computers, faster Internet connections, and interactive whiteboards. • Schools now also have more computers available because pupils take their own laptops with them to class. This is especially true in vocational schools, but it is also a factor in primary and secondary schools. • A growing number of teachers believe that for ICT to be used effectively in teaching, every pupil should have his or her own laptop.

School managers and teachers both want to get more out of ICT in the near future. Managers are more ambitious than teachers in that regard: they want teachers to use ICT much more in their lessons than teachers themselves do. If it were up to school managers, knowledge transfer methods that do not make use of ICT would become rare in the future. Teachers continue to find this the most important teaching method, however. School managers also believe that the important thing now is to change teachers’ opinions and upgrade their skills, whereas teachers feel that having access to better material facilities is top priority. Resolving this difference of opinion requires effective leadership. According to teachers, school managers currently support the introduction of ICT mainly by giving them leeway to explore new options. It is rare for managers to display leadership in achieving school-wide coordination and the permanent integration of ICT. The essence of Four in Balance is that the long-term introduction of ICT requires the four basic elements to be in balance. School principals can play a vital coordinating role in this, the aim being to develop a broadly shared vision of how ICT should be used in teaching and striking a good balance between human and material factors (Chapter 1). This chapter looks at the balance between the underlying conditions that make ICT use possible. Are school managers and teachers on the same track (Section 8.1)? How do school principals guide the use of ICT (Section 8.2)? To what degree does cooperation within the school contribute, and where do schools turn for more support (Section 8.3)?

8.1 Priorities In previous chapters we described the current status of the four basic elements that help improve quality and productivity when using ICT in teaching. These basic elements can basically be reduced to two main conditions, namely material and human. ICT infrastructure and digital learning materials can be categorized as material conditions, whereas vision and expertise are human conditions. When teachers and school

72

73


8 - In Balance

managers are asked what conditions have top priority in the period ahead, they give differing answers: teachers tend to want better material conditions, whereas school managers see improvements in teacher skills and opinions as a priority (Figure 8.1). These results show that although teachers and school managers both want to get more out of ICT in the near future, their opinions differ considerably with respect to how to achieve that aim. By making human factors a priority, school managers are emphasizing a more drastic process than teachers (see 1.3). % of respondents

100 80

human conditions material conditions 41 64

60

In short, managers are more ambitious than teachers when it comes to using ICT.

40 59 20 0

become the most important pedagogical method. They also believe that if teachers used ICT more in knowledge transfer methods, schools would not need to invest as heavily in knowledge transfer methods that do not make use of ICT. If it were up to school managers, knowledge transfer methods that do not make use of ICT would become rare in the future. Teachers continue to find this the most important teaching method, however. • School managers expect that knowledge construction methods that make use of ICT will play a much more important role in the future. They believe that this method is currently the least common, and they would like it to become ubiquitous in the future. Teachers, on the other hand, would prefer it to remain the least common method.

frequency

very frequently

36 frequently teachers

school managers fairly frequently

Figure 8.1. Priorities according to material and human conditions (TNS NIPO, 2009b).

School managers and teachers also differ in what they want from teaching in the future and the role that ICT will play in that regard. This is apparent from data gathered at primary schools in the past year with the research tools Pedagogy in Balance (for teachers) and Leadership in Balance (for school managers), as shown in Figure 8.2.

now and again

never/hardly ever

what school what teachers what teachers what school managers think managers want think want knowledge transfer without ICT

The figure shows that managers and teachers want to increase the use of ICT to support both knowledge transfer and knowledge construction. Both groups believe that knowledge transfer is the most common pedagogical approach. There are, however, notable differences between teachers and school managers in terms of their aims.

knowledge transfer with ICT knowledge construction without ICT knowledge construction with ICT

Figure 8.2. Average frequency of pedagogical practices now and in the future, according to primary school teachers and school managers (Van Gennip, 2010a).

• M anagers want to use ICT as much as possible for knowledge transfer, and believe that the combination of ICT and knowledge transfer will

74

75


8 - In Balance

It is worth looking at how teachers and school managers see current teaching practice and the practice as they think it will develop in the future. That will help schools get a clearer picture of what teachers and school managers expect of ICT’s role in teaching and what benefits it can produce. To help them in this, Kennisnet makes the research tools Pedagogy in Balance and Leadership in Balance available. The results help schools to develop a broadly supported vision of how ICT should be used for educational purposes.

8.2 Leadership

% of teachers Activity

PRIM

SEC

VET

Giving teachers scope to experiment with ICT in their teaching

75

74

67

Making the time and means available for educational planning with ICT

61

51

40

Giving teachers support in using ICT in their teaching

63

52

48

Discussing state of affairs in ICT use with teachers

58

37

33

Keeping track of what teachers do as regards ICT in their teaching

51

44

43

Monitoring compliance with agreements regarding use of ICT in teaching

57

39

43

Encouraging and organizing professional development of teaching staff regarding pedagogical use of ICT

57

46

42

Increasingly, school principals are expected to be effective leaders. That means that they can generate broad support for a particular pedagogical vision, set shared goals and create conditions that allow teachers to carry out their teaching duties as effectively as possible (OECD, 2009b). A lack of leadership appears to be paired with a noncommittal attitude. School principals have a huge impact. In general, the conditions that school principals create for teachers to allow them to carry out their teaching duties have an enormous influence on teacher productivity and pupil performance (Marzano et al., 2005; Pont et al., 2008).

Table 8.1. Percentage of teachers who feel school managers are engaged in activities

It does not really matter who takes the initiative; what does matter is for the roles to be clearly defined. The school principal must create the conditions, and the teachers must decide how to structure their teaching (Van Eck et al., 2010).

If we take the mean of Table 8.1, we see that more primary school teachers believe that school managers engage in activities that indicate their ICT leadership than secondary and vocational school teachers (Figure 8.3).

When teachers are asked what support school managers offer to encourage them to use ICT, most reply that they are given scope to experiment with ICT in their teaching (Table 8.1). That means that school managers mainly support enthusiastic teachers who have an affinity for ICT and who are attracted by the idea of exploring new opportunities. What school managers do least is engage in activities focusing on coordination and the permanent integration of ICT into the curriculum. These activities include: • discussion with teachers about how the school should use ICT; • monitoring compliance with agreements regarding the use of ICT; • encouraging the professional development of teachers in the pedagogical use of ICT.

indicating their ICT leadership (TNS NIPO, 2009b).

The support that school managers mainly offer the “innovators” or “techies” is not enough for teachers who have less affinity for technology. They require other adoption and support factors. They are more likely to be convinced that ICT is useful and necessary if it helps them achieve the educational objectives that they find important. Proving that ICT has added value can play a key role in this (Bartling, 2009).

% of teachers

100

80

60

59 49

45

40

20

0 PRIM

SEC

VET

Figure 8.3. Presence of ICT leadership activities, according to teachers (TNS NIPO, 2009b).

76

77


8 - In Balance

8.3 Cooperation Cooperation means sharing expertise and materials in order to reach a common goal. Many teachers and school managers feel that cooperation and information-sharing with colleagues is their most important resource for continuing professional development. Teachers feel they get the most support from fellow teachers in their own school (73%), but teachers at other schools also play an important role (45%). That means that cooperation takes place in two directions: within schools and between schools. Other important sources of support are partnerships in which teachers or schools collaborate (51%) and educational publishers (58%) (Intomart, 2009b). 73

teachers at own school 58

educational publishers 51

partnerships 47

teachers at other schools Kennisnet

40 0

20

40

60

80

100

% of teachers

Figure 8.4. Top five sources of support for schools when it comes to computer use, according to teachers (Intomart, 2009b).

In the Netherlands, we see that – in addition to the help that teachers offer one another – an average of four out of ten primary, secondary and vocational school teachers say that they feel supported by Kennisnet. Teachers indicate that without that support, they would not be using computers in their teaching as they are now (Intomart, 2009b).

8.4 Summary • School managers and teachers both want to get more out of ICT in the near future. Managers want to go much further than teachers in that regard, however, and make more drastic changes to teaching. Teachers want better material facilities, whereas school managers believe that the priority is to change teacher skills and opinions. • School managers tend to focus on supporting the “innovators”. What is lacking is school-wide coordination and the permanent integration of ICT into the curriculum. • Teachers feel that cooperation and information-sharing with fellow teachers is their most important resource for continuing professional development. Studies show that successful changes are embedded in regional or national networks within which members share information and expertise. About half of teachers say that they are currently benefiting from similar partnerships.

Kennisnet Schools need more support when introducing ICT than teachers and school managers can offer one another. That became clear in an international analysis of schools that have succeeded in permanently integrating innovative ICT applications into their teaching (Kozma, 2003). Teachers and school managers simply do not have enough time to explore everything on their own and put their findings into practice. One feature of a successful school is that it does not work alone but is part of a national or regional network. Successful change does not take place in isolation but is embedded in a broader program that involves other schools as well. Schools get the help they need to develop, share and use expertise within such contexts (Ten Brummelhuis et al., 2007).

78

79


9 - Bibliography

9 Bibliography

80

• Anderson, R. (2008). Implications of the information and knowledge society for education. In J. Voogt & G. Knezek (Eds). International handbook of information technology in primary and secondary education (pp. 5-22). New York: Springer. • Angeli, C. (2004). Transforming a teacher education method course through technology: Effect on preservice teachers’ technology competency. Computers and Education, 45, 383-398. • Ast, M. van, Bergen, H. van & Koenraad, T., Winden, E. van (2010). Meerwaarde van het digitale schoolbord. Zoetermeer: Kennisnet Research Series, no. 24. * • Bartling, J. (2009). Enthousiasme als valkuil, realistische aanpak als uitdaging. In A. ten Brummelhuis & M. van Amerongen (Eds.). “Hier heb ik niets aan!” (pp. 146-151). Zoetermeer: Kennisnet Research Series, no. 18. * • Beemt, A. van den (2009). Jongeren en interactieve media. Zoetermeer: Kennisnet Research Series, no. 17. * • Berenschot (2009). ICT-gebruik in primair onderwijs. Validatie en verdieping van ICT-gebruik op basis van Vier in Balans. Utrecht: Berenschot. * • Berg, B. van den, Jager, C.J. & Gillebaard, H. (2010). Behoeftenonderzoek Mediawijzer. Utrecht: Dialogic. * • Brummelhuis, A.C.A. ten (2010). Onderwijs. In J. de Haan & R. Pijpers (Eds.). Contact: kinderen en nieuwe media (pp. 181-196). Houten: Bohn Stafleu van Loghum. • Brummelhuis, A.C.A. ten & Plomp, Tj. (2007). Voorbereiden op onderwijs in de informatiemaatschappij. In M. Popkema, P. Wilhelm & K. Boersma (Eds.). Onderwijs in de kennissamenleving (pp. 185-213). Amsterdam: Aksant. • Brummelhuis, A.C.A. ten & Kuiper, E. (2008). Driving forces for ict in learning. In J. Voogt & G. Knezek (Eds.). International Handbook of Information Technology in Primary and Secondary Education (pp. 321331). New York: Springer. • Brummelhuis, A.C.A. ten & Amerongen, M. van (Eds.) (2009). “Hier heb ik niets aan!” Essays over bruikbaar digitaal leermateriaal. Zoetermeer: Kennisnet Research Series, no. 18. * • Buuren, H. van, Acker, F. van, Kreijns, K. & Verboon, P. (2010). Nulmeting

• •

Wikiwijs. Available at http://content.wikiwijs.nl/ nulmetingwikiwijs2009. * Coetsier, N. & Kral, M. (2008). HomoZappiens@Schonenvaart.mbo; Een praktijkonderzoek naar de effectivieteit van een leerarrangement met de virtuele leeromgeving Schonenvaart in de sector economie van ROC Nijmegen. Nijmegen: Hogeschool van Arnhem en Nijmegen. Also published as part of the Kennisnet Research Series under the title ‘Homozappiens@ Schonenvaart.mbo’, 2008, no. 10. * Coetsier, N., Kok, R. & Kral, M. (2009). Zelfstandig leren rekenen met het digibord. Nijmegen: Hogeschool van Arnhem en Nijmegen. Also published as part of the Kennisnet Research Series under the title ‘Zelfstandig leren rekenen met het digibord’, 2010, no. 21. * Corda, A. & Westhoff, G. (2010). Wat weten we over ict en... Het leren van moderne vreemde talen? Zoetermeer: Kennisnet Research Series, 2010, no. 22. * Dieleman, A. (2010). Projecten van Codename Future in ogenschouw. Available at http://onderzoek.Kennisnet.nl/onderzoeken/rendement/ projectencnf. * Eck, E. van, Heemskerk, I. & Meijer, J. (2009). Rapportage Schoolontwikkelingsonderzoek, uitgevoerd in het kader van LMME2. Amsterdam: Kohnstamm Instituut. * Eck, E. van, Heemskerk, I. & Meijer, J. (2010). Opbrengsten van Leren met meer effect. Zoetermeer: Kennisnet Research Series, no. 23. * Ertmer, P.A. (2005). Teacher pedagogical beliefs: The final frontier in our quest for technology integration? Educational Technology Research and Development, 53 (4), 25-39. Ertmer, P.A. & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A.T. (2009). Teacher Technology Change: How Knowledge, Beliefs, and Culture Intersect. Available at http://onderzoek.Kennisnet.nl/onderzoeken/rendement/ teachertechnologychange. * European Communities (2007). Key competences for lifelong learning. Luxembourg: Office for official publications of the European Communities. Available at http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/education_ culture/publ/pdf/ll-learning/keycomp_en.pdf Fisser, P.G.H. & Gervedink Nijhuis, G.J. (2007). Eindrapportage digitale schoolborden. Enschede: Eindhoven University. Also published as part of the Kennisnet Research Series under the title ‘Digitale Schoolborden in het po’, 2008, no. 6. *

81


9 - Bibliography

82

• Gennip, H. van, Rens, C. van & Smeets, E. (2008). Didactiek in balans. Nijmegen: ITS. * • Gennip, H. van, Rens, C. van & Mooij, T. (2009). Ander onderwijs met digitaal portfolio? Nijmegen: ITS. * • Gennip, H. & Rens, C. van (2010a). Didactiek en Leiderschap in Balans 2010. Nijmegen: ITS. * • Gennip, H. van, Rens, C. van & Smeets, E. (2010b). Didactiek in Balans Lerarenopleiding 2010. Nijmegen: ITS. * • Ginkel, M. van (2009). Het effect van multimediagebruik op het leren van vaardigheden in het Praktijkonderwijs. Groningen: research internship Groningen University. * • Haan, J. de & Pijpers, R. (Eds.) (2010). Contact: kinderen en nieuwe media. Houten: Bohn Stafleu van Loghum. • Hagemans, M.G. (2008). Het aanbieden en de timing van domeininformatie tijdens onderzoekend leren met computersimulaties. Enschede: Master’s thesis, University of Twente. * • Heemskerk, I., Eck, E. van & Meijer, J. (2010). Digitaal schoolbord en elektronische leeromgeving in het wiskundeonderwijs; Gebruik en percepties van docenten en leerlingen. Amsterdam: Kohnstamm Instituut. * • Hermans, R., Tondeur, J., Braak, J. van & Valcke, M. (2008). The impact of primary school teachers’ educational beliefs on the classroom use of computers. Computers and Education, 51, 1499-1509. * • Hopkins, D. (2001). School Improvement for real education and change development. London: RoutledgeFalmer. • Hopkins, D. (2007). Every School a Great School: Realizing the Potential of System Leadership. London: Open University Press. • Hovius, M., Kessel, N. van & Linden, M. van der (2010). Engels met digibord of boek? Nijmegen: ITS. * • Ict op School (2004). Vier in Balans Plus. Den Haag: Stichting ICT op School. Available at http://onderzoek.Kennisnet.nl/vierinbalans. * • Intomart (2009a). Klantentevredenheidsonderzoek 2008. Hilversum: Intomart. The relevant data can be requested from Kennisnet. • Intomart (2009b). Rapport Klantentevredenheidsonderzoek Kennisnet 2009. Hilversum: Intomart. The relevant data can be requested from Kennisnet. • Johnson, L., Levine, A., Smith, R. & Stone, S. (2010). The 2010 Horizon report. Austin, Texas: The New Media Cosortium.* • Jong, T. de (2009). Een vak apart: hoe krijgen we echt innovatieve

• •

• •

• •

• •

software in de klas? In A. ten Brummelhuis & M. van Amerongen (Eds.). “Hier heb ik niets aan!” (pp. 30-35). Zoetermeer: Kennisnet Research Series, no. 18. * Jong, T. de & Jolingen, W. van (2009). Wat weten we over... Computersimulaties in het VO? Zoetermeer: Kennisnet Research Series, no. 24. * Jonkman, R. (2008). Onderwijs op afstand: het resultaat. Available at: http://computersopschool.nl/LNTT/images/C2602-p22-23.pdf. Kanters, E., Vliet, H. van, Ringersma, D., Zwaan, M. & Kokkeler, B. (2008). Wat punt nul...? Web 2.0 en MBO leerlingen. Zoetermeer: Stichting Kennisnet. Also published as part of the Kennisnet Research Series under the title ‘Web 2.0 als leermiddel’, 2009, no. 11. * Kennisnet (2009). Vier in Balans Monitor 2009. Zoetermeer: Kennisnet. * Knezek, G. & Christensen, R. (2008). The importance of information technology attitudes and competencies in primary and secondary education. In J. Voogt & G. Knezek (Eds.). International Handbook of Information technology in Primary and Secondary Education (pp. 321331). New York: Springer. Koster, S. de, Kuiper, E. & Volman, M. (2009). Een andere aanpak voor de integratie van ICT in het basisonderwijs: het onderwijsconcept van de school als uitgangspunt. Zoetermeer: Kennisnet. Also published as part of the Kennisnet Research Series under the title ‘Eerst onderwijsvisie, dan techniek’, 2009, no. 20. * Kozma, R.B. (Ed.) (2003). Technology, innovation and educational change: a global perspective. Eugene, OR: International Society for Technology and Education. Kuiper, E. (2007). Teaching Web literacy in primary education. Amsterdam: VU Amsterdam. * Kuiper, E. (2010). Informatievaardigheden. In J. de Haan & R. Pijpers (Eds.). Contact: kinderen en nieuwe media. Houten: Bohn Stafleu van Loghum Law, N., Pelgrum, W.J. & Plomp, T. (2008). Pedagogy and ICT Use in Schools Around the World. Hong Kong: CECR Studies in Comparative Education, #23. Leendertse, M. & Slot, M. (in press). Businessmodellen digitaal leermateriaal. Delft: TNO. Lemke, C. & Fadel, C. (2006). Technology in Schools: What the Research Says. Culver City: Metiri Group.

83


9 - Bibliography

84

• Lemke, C. & Fadel, C. (2009). Technology in Schools: What the Research Says. A 2009 Update. Culver City: Metiri Group. • Maddux, C.D. & Johnson, L.D. (2009). Information technology in education: the need for a critical examination of popular assumptions. Computers in the schools, 26 (1), 1-3. • Marzano, R.J., Waters, T. & Mcnulty, B.A. (2005). School leadership that works: from research to results. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. • Marzano, R. & Haystead, M. (2009). Evaluation Study of the Effect of Promethean ActiveClassroom on Student Achievement. Centennial, CO: Marzano Research Laboratory. Consulted on 20 March 2010 at files. solution-tree.com/MRL/documents/finalreportonactivclassroom.pdf. • Mayer, R.E. & Moreno, R. (2002). Aids to computer-based multimedia learning. Learning and Instruction, 12, 107-119. • Meijer, J., Eck, E. van & Heemskerk, I. (2009). Rapportage retentiemeting en herhaalde experimenten. Uitgevoerd in het kader van Leren met meer Effect 2. Amsterdam: Kohnstamm Instituut. Also published as part of the Kennisnet Research Series under the title ‘Opbrengsten van Leren met meer effect’, 2010, no. 23. * • Meyer, E., Abrami, P.C., Wade, C.A., Aslan, O. & Default, L. (2001). Improving literacy and metacognition with electronic portfolio’s: Teaching and learning with ePEARL. Computers and Education, 55, 8491. • Neut, I. van der (in press). Wat weten we over de effectiviteit van stimuleringsmaatregelen? (working title). To be published as part of the Research Series, autumn 2010. • Neut, I. van der & Teurlings, C. (2008). Onderwijs via afstandleren. Available at: http://computersopschool.nl/LnTT/images/C2004_p3031.pdf. * • OECD (2006). The new millenium learners: challenging our views on ICT and learning. Paris: OECD-Ceri. Available at http://www.oecd.org/ dataoecd/1/1/38358359.pdf. • OECD, (2009a). Beyond textbooks. Digital learning resources as systemic innovation in the Nordic countries. Paris: OECD. Centre for Educational Research and Innovation. • OECD (2009b). Creating effective teaching and learning environments. Teaching and learning international Survey (TALIS). Parijs: OECD. Consulted on 21 July 2010 at http://www.oecd.org/document/54/0,3 343,

• •

• •

• • • •

• • •

en_2649_39263231_42980662_1_1_1_1,00.html. OECD (2010). Are the new millennium learners making the grade? Paris: OECD. Pedro, F. (2010). 1-to-1 in Education. Current practice, international comparative research evidence and policy implications. Background paper International Conference 22-24 February 2010, Vienna. Paris: OECD. Pont, B., Nusche, D. & Moorman, H. (2008). Improving school leadership, Volume 1: Policy and practice. Paris: OECD. Rijn, H. van (2009). SlimStampen; Optimaal leren door kalibratie op kennis en vaardigheid. Consulted on 15-06-2009 at www.van-rijn.org/ Dutch/slimstampen.pdf. * Ritzen, C. (2010). Onderzoek naar het bestrijden van rekendeficiënties. Hilversum: Intomart. * Rooij, A.J. van (2009). Internet op school: ontwikkelingen van 2006-2009. Rotterdam: IVO. * Rooij, A.J. van, Schoenmakers, T. & Jansz, J. (2010). Wat weten we over... Effecten van games. Zoetermeer: Kennisnet Research Series, no. 25. * Schaar, J. van de (2009). Een leerlinggestuurde leeromgeving voor het oplossen van toepassingsopgaven rekenen; Een verkennend onderzoek in de basisschool. Groningen: Report on research internship, Groningen University. * Schut, S. (in press). Innoveren met ict; de rol van schoolleiders. (Werktitel). Graduation thesis, Utrecht University. Utrecht. * Simon Thomas, V., Ebbers, D., Ekens, T. (2010). Het leermiddel, de docent, zijn leerling en hun toekomst. Utrecht: VO Raad. Sneep, M. & Kuiper, E. (2010). Methodegebonden rekensoftware in het basisonderwijs: de mening van leerlingen. Een pilotstudie in opdracht van Stichting Kennisnet. Amsterdam: VU Amsterdam. * Somekh, B., Haldane, M., Jones, K., Lewin, C., Steadman, S., Scrimshaw, P., e.a. (2007). Evaluation of the Primary School Whiteboard Expansion Project. Consulted on 20-01-2009, at partners.becta.org.uk/uploaddir/ downloads/page_documents/research/whiteboards_expansion.pdf. Suhre, C.J.M. (2008). Ict ondersteunend spreekonderwijs in het vmbo. Onderzoek naar de uitvoerbaarheid en de effectiviteit. Groningen: Universitair Onderwijscentrum Groningen. Also published as part of the Kennisnet Research Series under the title ‘Samen Engels leren spreken’, 2009, no. 14.*

85


• TNS NIPO (2001 - 2009b). ICT op school. Onderzoek onder leerkrachten en ict-managers in primair, voortgezet en beroepsonderwijs. Amsterdam: TNS NIPO. Data on 2009 are taken from the April 2009 report (2009a), data on 2010 are taken from the October 2009 report (2009b). • Tondeur, I., Valcke, M. & Braak, I. van (2008). A multidimensional approach to determinants of computer use in primary education: teacher and school characteristic. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 24, 494-506. • Verbeij, N. (2009). De magie van video en leren. Zoetermeer: VKA. * • Verheul, I. & Dijk, W. van (2009) Effectiviteit van een COTS game in het MBO: Oblivion. Utrecht: CLU, Utrecht University. * • Verleur, R. (2009). Ict-toepassingen met gevoel dragen bij aan leren. Available at http://onderzoek.kennisnet.nl/onderzoeken/rendement/ icttoepassingen * • Voogt, J., Fisser, P. & Tondeur, J. (2010a). Wat weten we over… TPACK? Zoetermeer: Kennisnet. Also published as part of the Kennisnet Research Series under the title ‘Maak kennis met TPACK’, 2010, no. 26. * • Voogt, J. & Pareja Roblin, N. (2010b) 21st century skills. Enschede: Twente University. * • Walraven, A. (2008). Becoming a critical websearcher: Effects of instruction to foster transfer. Heerlen: thesis, Open University of the Netherlands. * • Weijs, R. (2010). An Apple a day… Een laptop per leerling. The Hague: Provenpartners.* • Willems, A. (2010). Kansrijkheid met interactie in computerondersteunend samenwerkend leren; Een onderzoek onder docenten en ICT managers in het voortgezet onderwijs. Utrecht: Final report on graduation internship, Utrecht University. * • Wopereis, I. & Sloep, P. (2009). Het weblog als instrument voor reflectie op leren en handelen. Heerlen: CELSTEC. * • Waslander, S. (2007). Leren over Innoveren. Overzichtstudie van wetenschappelijk onderzoek naar duurzaam vernieuwen in het voortgezet onderwijs. Utrecht: VO-Project Innovatie. • Zucker, A & Light, D. (2009). Laptop Programs for Students, Science, 323, 82-85. *) Available on the Kennisnet website: onderzoek.kennisnet.nl.

86

About this publication Four in Balance Monitor 2010 © Kennisnet, Zoetermeer, The Netherlands, 2010 Text: Text editing: Translation: Design: Printing: ISBN:

Alfons ten Brummelhuis & Melissa van Amerongen, Stichting Kennisnet Het Laatste Woord, Bennekom Balance Texts and Translations, Maastricht GOfor Design, The Hague Gravo Offset 9789077647424

All rights reserved. Although this publication was prepared with the greatest care, the author(s), editor(s), and publisher of Kennisnet accept no liability in respect of any errors or deficiencies. No part of this publication may be duplicated (including by means of storage in a computerized database) or published, in any way whatsoever, unless duplication of the content of this publication takes place under the Creative Commons license “Attribution + Non-commercial + No Derivative Works”.

Attribution + Non-commercial + No Derivative Works 2.5 Netherlands The user may: •

copy, distribute, display and perform the work on the following conditions: Attribution. The user must attribute the work to Kennisnet.

Non-commercial. The user may not use the work for commercial purposes. No derivative works. The user may not adapt the work. •

In the event of re-use or distribution, the user must notify third parties of the license conditions for this work.

The user may only deviate from one or more conditions with the prior consent of Kennisnet.

The above shall be without prejudice to the legal restrictions that apply to intellectual property. (www.creativecommons.org/licenses)

This is a publication of the Kennisnet Foundation. Kennisnet.nl


Kennisnet Foundation Address Paletsingel 32 NL-2718 NT Zoetermeer Correspondence address Postbus 778 NL-2700 AT Zoetermeer T 0800 - KENNISNET F +31 79 321 23 22 I www.kennisnet.nl

Kennisnet. Learning to innovate.

Four in Balance Monitor 2010  

Four in Balance Monitor 2010

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you