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WATER FORMS IN THE PHILPPINES A. CHANNEL is the physical confine of a river, slough or ocean strait consisting of a bed and banks.

 Babuyan Channel is surrounded by islands in the northern part of the Philippines. The islands     

of Babuyan can be seen in the Luzon Strait in the part of Batan Island and Balintang Channel. The channel is surrounded by Babuyan, Camiguin, Calayan, Fuga, and Dalupiri islands. Balintang Channel is the small waterway that separates the Batanes and Babuyan Islands, both of which belong to the Philippines, in the Luzon Strait. Bashi Channel is a strait between the Y'Ami Island of the Philippines and Orchid Island of Taiwan Canigao Channel is a body of water in the Philippines that connects the Bohol Sea with the Camotes Sea. It lies between Bohol and Leyte. Hilutangan Channel is a deep water channel that separates Mactan Island from Olango Island. Jintotolo Channel (or Jintotolo Strait) is the body of water that connects the Sibuyan Sea with the Visayan Sea. It is located between the Philippine islands of Panay and Masbate, and is an important shipping route to and from the Central Visayas.

B. STRAIT is a narrow, navigable channel of water that connects two larger navigable bodies of water. It most commonly refers to a channel of water that lies between two land masses, but it may also refer to a navigable channel through a body of water that is otherwise not navigable,  Balabac Strait is a strait in the South China Sea,. It separates the Balabac island (Palawan province), Philippines from the islands north of Borneo that are a part of Malaysia's Sabah state.  Cebu Strait, sometimes called Bohol Strait, is a strait in the Philippines that separates the island provinces of Cebu and Bohol. The Cebu Strait connects the western part of Bohol Sea with Camotes Sea, and is a major sea-lane connecting Cebu City on its northern end with port cities in the south such as Dumaguete City and Cagayan de Oro City.  Luzon Strait is an important strait connecting the Philippine Sea, in the western Pacific, to the South China Sea, between Taiwan and Luzon in the Philippines.  Mindoro Strait is a strait in the Philippines, separating Mindoro island from Busuanga island (Calamian Islands) of Palawan. Located within its waters is the Apo Reef, the largest coral reef system in the Philippines.  San Bernardino Strait is a strait in the Philippines. It separates the Bicol Peninsula of Luzon island from the island of Samar in the south.  San Juanico Strait is a narrow strait in the Philippines. It separates the islands of Samar and Leyte.  Surigao Strait is a body of water in the Philippines located between the islands of Mindanao and Leyte. This strait connects the Bohol Sea with Leyte Gulf and is regularly crossed by ferries that transport goods and people between Visayas and Mindanao.  Tablas Strait is a strait in the Philippines. It separates the Mindoro and Panay islands.  Tañon Strait lies between the islands of Negros and Cebu in the Philippines. The strait connects the Visayan Sea to the Bohol Sea. C. SEA generally refers to a large body of salt water, but the term is used in other contexts as well. Most commonly, the term refers to a large expanse of saline water connected with an ocean, and is commonly used as a synonym for ocean. It is also used sometimes to describe a large saline lake that lacks a natural outlet,


 Bohol Sea, also called the Mindanao Sea, is located between Visayas and Mindanao in the Philippines. It lies south of Bohol and Leyte and north of Mindanao. Siquijor and Camiguin are its two major islands.  Camotes Sea is a small sea within the Philippine archipelago, between the Eastern Visayas and the Central Visayas. It is bordered by the islands of Leyte to the north and east, Bohol to the south, and Cebu to the west. The sea is connected to the Visayan Sea to the northwest, and to the Bohol Sea to the south by the Canigao Channel and Cebu Strait. It contains the Camotes Islands and Mactan Island.  Celebes Sea of the western Pacific Ocean is bordered on the north by the Sulu Archipelago and Sulu Sea and Mindanao Island of the Philippines, on the east by the Sangihe Islands chain, on the south by Sulawesi, and on the west by Kalimantan in Indonesia .  Philippine Sea is a part of the western Pacific Ocean bordered by the Philippines and Taiwan to the west, Japan to the north, the Marianas to the east and Palau to the south.  Samar Sea is a small sea within the Philippine archipelago, between the Eastern Visayas and Luzon.  Sibuyan Sea is a small sea in the Philippines that separates the Visayas from the northern Philippine island of Luzon. It is bounded by the island of Panay to the south, Mindoro to the west, and to the north the Bicol Peninsula of Luzon island.  Sulu Sea is a large sea in the southwestern area of the Philippines. It is separated from the South China Sea in the northwest by Palawan, and from the Celebes Sea in the southeast by the Sulu Archipelago. Borneo is found to the southwest and Visayas to the northeast.  Visayan Sea is a small sea within the Philippine archipelago, surrounded on three sides by the islands of the Visayas. The Eastern Visayas and Western Visayas lie to the east and west, while the Central Visayas lie to the south. It is bounded on the north by Masbate, on the east by Leyte, on the south by Cebu and Negros, and on the west by Panay. D. BAY is an area of water mostly surrounded or otherwise demarcated by land. Bays generally have calmer waters than the surrounding sea, due to the surrounding land blocking some waves and often reducing winds. It can also be an inlet in a lake or pond.  Baler Bay is a bay in the northeastern part of Luzon island, Philippines  Batangas Bay is located in the Philippines. Batangas City, the capital of Batangas Province is located on the coast of the bay.  Butuan Bay is a bay in the northeast section of Mindanao in the Philippines. It is part of the Bohol Sea. The Agusan River empties into the bay. Butuan City lies at the base of the bay.  Iligan Bay is a bay in Mindanao in the Philippines. It is part of Bohol Sea and cuts into the northern portion of the island of Mindanao  Illana Bay is a large bay in the southwestern part of Mindanao island, Philippines,  Lamon Bay is a large bay in the southern part of Luzon island, Philippines,  Macajalar Bay is a deep water bay located north of the Province of Misamis Oriental on the Mindanao island, southern part the Philippines.  Manila Bay is one of the finest natural harbor in the world which serves the port of Manila (on Luzon), in the Philippines.  Ormoc Bay is a bay on the island of Leyte in the Philippine  Panquil Bay, an arm of Iligan Bay, is a bay in Mindanao in the Philippines. The bay forms the natural boundary separating the Zamboanga Peninsula from the rest of the island of Mindanao  San Miguel Bay is a large bay in the southern part of Luzon island, Philippines,  San Pedro Bay is a bay in the Philippines, at the northwest end of Leyte Gulf. The bay is bounded on the north and east by Samar and on the east by Leyte Island. It is connected by San Juanico Strait to Carigara Bay of the Samar Sea.  Sibuguey Bay is a large bay in the southwestern part of Mindanao island, Philippines  Sorsogon Bay is a large bay in the southern part of Luzon island, Philippines,  Subic Bay is a Headlands and bays|bay on the west coast of the island of Luzon in the Philippines


 Tayabas Bay is a large bay in the southern part of Luzon island, Philippine E. LAKE is a terrain feature (or physical feature), a body of liquid on the surface of a world that is localized to the bottom of basin (another type of landform or terrain feature; that is, it is not global). Another definition is a body of fresh or salt water of considerable size that is surrounded by land.                            

Balukbaluk Lake is located in the Province of Basilan. Lake Buhi is found in Buhi, Camarines Sur. Bulusan Lake is located in Bulusan, Sorsogon. Lake Caliraya is a man-made lake situated in the towns of Lumban, Cavinti, and Kalayaan in Laguna province, Philippines. Dagianan is located in the Province of Lanao del Norte. Laguna de Bay is the largest lake in the Philippines and the 2nd largest inland freshwater lake in Southeast Asia after Lake Toba in Sumatra, Indonesia. It is located in the island of Luzon between the provinces of Laguna to the south and Rizal to the north Lake Baao is approximately 4.8 km northwest of Baao Town, Camarines Sur Province, southeastern Luzon. Lake Buluan is located southeast of Buluan Town, on the boundary between Maguindanao and Sultan Kudarat Provinces, south-central Mindanao. Lake Danao is located in Camotes Island in Cebu City and is known to be the largest in the the Visayas and Mindanao. Lake Danao in Leyte is a lake located in the middle of mountain ranges in the central part of the Leyte island between Ormoc City, Albuera, Burauen and Dagami. Lake Dapao is a deep freshwater lake in Pualas, Lanao del Sur, it is located in the hills southwest of Lanao Lake Dasay Is located in the town of San Miguel.It is the second largest mountain lake in the province Zamboanga del Sur. Lake Lahit is a relatively small lake compared to other lakes. It is located on top of the mountains and is one of the lakes in the small town of Lake Sebu in South Cotabato. Lake Manguao is a lake located in the Northernmost region of the island of Palawan in the Philippines. Lake Maragang is located in Zamboanga del Sur. Lake Maughan is a volcanic lake located in T'Boli, South Cotabato in Mindanao. Lake Nabua is located in Camarines Sur. Lake Nunungan is located in Lanao Del Norte Lake Panamao is located in Jolo, Sulu, Mindanao. Lake Pantabangan is located in Nueva Ecija, Philippines. Lake Paoay is a freshwater lake situated 3 kilometers from the sea in the Province of Ilocos Norte. Lake Pinamaloy is a lake located in the municipality of Don Carlos, Bukidnon in the Philippines. Lake Pinatubo is a crater lake in the mouth of Mount Pinatubo, a volcano located on the borders of Zambales, Tarlac, and Pampanga in the Central Luzon region Lake Sampaloc is located in San Pablo City Lake Venado is one of smallest lakes of the Philippines located at the foot of Mount Apo in Mindanao. Lake Lanao is a large lake in the Philippines, located in Lanao del Sur province in the country's southern island of Mindanao. Naujan Lake is the fifth largest lake in the Philippines, in the northeastern corner of the province of Oriental Mindoro on Mindoro Island. Paoay Lake is a freshwater system in Paoay, Ilocos Norte.


 Pulangi Lake is one of the smallest lakes of the Philippines. It is located in Maramag, Bukidnon in the island of Mindanao.  Lake Sebu is a 2nd class municipality in the province of South Cotabato, Philippines.  Taal Lake is a freshwater lake in the province of Batangas, on the island of Luzon, Philippines.  Tadlac Lake is located in Laguna.  Lake Mainit is the fourth largest lake in the Philippines shared by of Agusan del Norte and Surigao del Norte. It is also distinguished as the deepest and cleanest lake in the Philippines. F. RIVER is a natural watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing toward an ocean, a lake, a sea, or another river.  Abra River is a Philippine river found in the province of Abra in the Cordillera Autonomous Region (CAR). It passes through the Mountain Province and Ilocos Sur as well as its namesake province, Abra.  Agno River is a river in the Philippine island of Luzon, in the province of Pangasinan. It originates in the Cordillera Mountains and empties into the South China Sea via the Lingayen Gulf.  Agus River is a river that flows from Lanao Lake to Iligan Bay, Philippines. It serves as the provincial boundary between Lanao del Sur and Lanao del Norte.  Agusan River is the third largest river basin of the Philippines located in the eastern part of Mindanao island in the Philippines, draining majority of the Caraga Region and some parts of Compostela Valley province.  Akean is a river on Panay in the Visayas.  Apayao River is a Philippine river located within the Cordillera mountain range of Northern Luzon. It passes through 2 regions: the Cordillera Autonomous Region (CAR) and the Cagayan Valley Region.  Banica River is a river of the Philippines on Panay Island. A river of the Philippines on Negros Island flowing through Dumaguete City  Bicol River is a medium-size river in Southern Luzon . Situated in the Bicol Peninsula, it embraces the central portion of Camarines Sur, the northern portion of Albay, and a portion of Camarines Norte.  Bulacan is a river of the Philippines. It flows to Manila Bay.  Cagayan River is the longest and largest river in Luzon. It is located in the Cagayan Valley region in northeastern part of Luzon island and traverses the provinces of Nueva Vizcaya, Quirino, Isabela and Cagayan.  Davao River catchment is the third largest river catchment on the Southern Philippines Island of Mindanao.  Iloilo River is the longest river located in the Province of Iloilo, Philippines. It passes through the city of Iloilo.  Marikina River is a main river system in Eastern Metro Manila. A river stretching from Rodriguez, Rizal to Pasig City that connects to Pasig River as major tributary near Napindan Area in Pasig City.  Mindanao River, also known as the Rio Grande de Mindanao, is the largest river system in the country. on the southern Philippine island of Mindanao.  Pampanga River is the second largest river in the island of Luzon in the Philippines, next to the Cagayan River. It is located in the Central Luzon region and traverses the provinces of Pampanga, Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Tarlac and Quezon.  Panay River is a river of the Philippines, draining a large portion of the island of Panay in Western Visayas region.  Pansipit River flows through Batangas Province of the Philippines.  Pasig River is a river in Luzon, Philippines. It originates from Laguna de Bay (Laguna Lake) and drains its waters into the Manila Bay, after passing through five cities and four municipalities.


 Umiray River is the river that separates Aurora and Quezon provinces. It is bounded by the towns of Dingalan in Aurora and General Nakar in Quezon. G. WATERFALL is a place where flowing water rapidly drops in elevation as it flows over a steep region or a cliff.  Daranak falls came from the phrase “Dadanak ang dugo” its directly translated “the spilling of blood” It is located at Bgy. Tandang Kutyo in the town of Tanay.  Dodiongan Falls is a 20 metre (65 ft) high waterfall located in Barangay Bonbonon, 14.5 km away from Iligan City in Lanao del Norte province of the Philippines.  Limunsudan Falls is a two-tiered waterfalls located in Barangay Rogongon, in the Province of Lanao del Norte, 55 kilometers from Iligan City proper. It is said to be the Philippines' highest waterfall  Maria Cristina Falls is the second highest falls in the Philippines. It is found on the island of Mindanao and is the landmark of Iligan City. Known as the "Mother of Industry" and "Fountainhead of Progress", this waterfall is the primary source of electric power for the city's industries and the whole Mindanao region,  Abaga Falls is a waterfall and ecosystem located approximately 15km southwest of Iligan City on the island of Mindanao, Philippines.  Mantayupan Falls is a waterfall in the Philippines. It is located close to the east end of CarcarBarili Road where it connects to the national highway.  Pagsanjan Falls (indigenous name: Magdapio Falls) is one of the most famed waterfalls in the Philippines. Their actual location is not in Pagsanjan at all but in the adjacent town of Cavinti, Laguna  Pulacan Falls is located in the town of Labangan, 12 km from Pagadian City. It covers an area of about 400 square meters. It is the source of water for the Labangan irrigation system.  Tinago Falls is a waterfall in Iligan City, Lanao del Norte in the southern Philippine island of Mindanao. It is one of the main tourist attractions in Iligan, a city known as the City of Majestic Waterfalls.  Tinuy-an Falls is a waterfall in Bislig City, Surigao del Sur in the southern Philippine island of Mindanao.[1] It is the main tourist attraction in Bislig, a city known as the Booming city by the bay. H. GULF is a large bay that is an arm of an ocean or sea.  Albay Gulf is a large gulf in the southern part of Luzon island, Philippines  Davao Gulf is a gulf found in Mindanao in the Philippines. Davao Gulf cuts into the island of Mindanao from Celebes Sea.  Lagonoy Gulf is a large gulf in the southeastern part of Luzon island, Philippines. It is separated from the Philippine Sea by Caramoan Peninsula in the north.  Leyte Gulf is the body of water immediately east of the island of Leyte in the Philippines, adjoining the Philippine Sea of the Pacific Ocean  Lingayen Gulf is an extension of the South China Sea on Luzon in the Philippines stretching 56 kilometres (35 mi). It is framed by the provinces of Pangasinan and La Union and sits between the Zambales Mountains and the Cordillera Central. The Agno River drains into Lingayen Gulf.  Moro Gulf is a gulf in Mindanao in the Philippines. It is part of Celebes Sea and is surrounded by the Zamboanga Peninsula and the central part of Mindanao  Panay Gulf is an extension of the Sulu Sea, reaching between the islands of Panay and Negros in the Philippines  Ragay Gulf is a large gulf in the southern part of Luzon island, Philippines. It is separated from the Sibuyan Sea by Bondoc Peninsula in the west.


LANDFORMS IN THE PHILIPPINES A. CAPE/HEADLAND/PENINSULA A cape is a pointed pieces of land that extends out into a sea, ocean, lake, or river. A headland is a type of peninsula. It is a point of land, usually high, that extends out into a body of water and thus has water on three sides. A peninsula is a piece of land that is surrounded by water but connected to mainland via an isthmus.  Cape Engaño is a cape at the northeasternmost point of the island of Luzon in the Philippines.  Cape San Agustin, Davao Oriental, Philippines  Cape Bolinao, Bolinao province of Pangasinan  Bataan Peninsula is a rocky extension of the Zambales Mountains, on Luzon in the Philippines. It separates the Manila Bay from the South China Sea.  Bicol Peninsula is a peninsula of the Philippines. It is located on Luzon Island and is part of Bicol Region.  Caramoan Peninsula is a hilly peninsula, with deep gorges and a rough, rocky terrain, located in north-east Camarines Sur, Bicol.  Bondoc Peninsula is a peninsula in Calabarzon Region, southern part of Luzon island, Philippines  San Ildefonso Peninsula is a peninsula in Central Luzon, central part of Luzon island, Philippines  Tinaca Point is a peninsula in southern Davao del Sur, in the Philippines.  Zamboanga Peninsula is both a peninsula and an administrative region on that peninsula in the Philippines. B. MOUNTAIN RANGE is a chain of mountains bordered by highlands or separated from other mountains by passes or valleys.  Caraballo Mountains is a mountain range in the central part of Luzon, Philippines. It is located between Cordillera Central and Sierra Madre mountain ranges  Cordillera Central is a massive mountain range situated in the northern central part of the island of Luzon, in the Philippines.  Kalatungan Mountain Range is a mountain range located in the central portion of the province of Bukidnon. It is one of the few areas in the province covered with old growth or mossy forests.  Kitanglad Mountain Range is a mountain range that dominates the northern central portion of the province of Bukidnon.  Sierra Madre is a mountain range in the Philippines. It is the longest in the country (about 210 mi) and runs the north-eastern coast of Luzon island. It starts in the province of Cagayan in the north and ends in Quezon in the south, just east of Laguna de Bay. C. MOUNTAIN is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area usually in the form of a peak.  Mount Agad-Agad is a mountain Located in Iligan City, Philippines  Batorampon Point is the highest mountain in Zamboanga City. It is also the highest mountain in the westernmost point of the island of Mindanao in the Philippines  Mount Samat is a mountain in the Town of Pilar, Province of Bataan, Republic of the Philippines that is the site of the Dambana ng Kagitingan or "Shrine of Valor".  Mount Guiting-Guiting is a mountain located in the heart of Sibuyan Island, one of the seven islands of Romblon Province in the Philippines.  Mount Mantalingajan or Mantalingahan is a mountain in southern Palawan, Philippines, that forms the highest part of the Mount Beaufort Ultramafics geological region, a series of


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ultramafic outcrops of Eocene origin, of which Mount Victoria forms the largest contiguous land area. The peak of the mountain is the highest point on Palawan. Mount Hamiguitan is a mountain located in the province of Davao Oriental Mount Kabuyao is a mountain near Baguio City in Benguet Province, Luzon, Philippines. Mount Lantoy is a 593-meter (1,945 feet) mountain located 10 kilometers inland from the municipality of Argao, Cebu in the Philippines Mount Mirador is situated right in the center of the Quezon National Forest Park, in the town of Atimonan, Quezon province. It is one of the highest peaks in the park, as it is a part of the Sierra Madre mountain range. Mount Dulang-dulang one of the high elevation peaks in the Kitanglad Mountain Range, located in the north central portion of the province of Bukidnon in the island of Mindanao. It is the second highest mountain of the Philippines Mount Victoria, or Victoria Peak, is a mountain in central Palawan, Philippines, that lies within the administrative Municipality of Narra. Mount Nailog is one of the two prominent peaks of Sibuyan Island, Philippines Mount Pangasugan is a mountain in the province of Leyte in the Philippines located to the north of the town of Baybay. Mount Pulag (or sometimes Mount Pulog) is the third highest mountain in the Philippines.The borders between the provinces of Benguet, Ifugao, and Nueva Vizcaya meet at the mountain's peak. Mount Sembrano sits at the helm of Jalajala peninsula near Laguna Lake in a way that the lake surrounds the mountain on three sides Sleeping Beauty is a mountain in Kalinga province, the Philippines. It is usually viewed from the west near Tinglayan in the Chico River valley, but can also be viewed from the east near Tanudan. Mount Sumagaya is a mountain on the northern part of the island of Mindanao in the Philippines. It is under the jurisdictional territory of the municipality of Claveria. Thumb Peak is a small mountain in central Palawan, Philippines, and is the highest point in the Thumb Range Mount Halcon, Oriental Mindoro is regarded to as the toughest and meanest mountain in the Philippines

D. VOLCANO is an opening, or rupture, in a planet's surface or crust, which allows hot magma, ash and gases to escape from below the surface.  Mount Isarog is a potentially active stratovolcano located in the province of Camarines Sur, Island of Luzon, Philippines.  Mount Apo is a volcanic mountain which is located between the provinces of Davao del Sur and North Cotabato in Mindanao in the Philippines. The tallest mountain in the Philippines,  Mount Arayat is a potentially active stratovolcano on Luzon Island, PhilippinesThe southern half of the mountain lies within the municipality of Arayat, Pampanga, while the north half and the mountain summit lies within Magalang, Pampanga.  Babuyan Claro is a volcano located in the Babuyan Islands, an archipelago in the Luzon Strait north of Luzon Island, in the Philippines. It is separated from Luzon by the Babuyan Channel, and from the Batanes Islands to the north by the Balintang Channel.  It is in the province of Cagayan in the Cagayan Valley Region.  Balatukan is a massive potentially active compound stratovolcano in the southern island of Mindanao, Philippines.Balatukan is located halfway between Cagayan de Oro City and Butuan City, on the north coast of the island of Mindanao, in the province of Misamis Oriental, in Northern Mindanao region of the Philippines  Mount Bulusan, or Bulusan Volcano, is the southernmost volcano on Luzon Island in the Philippines. It is found in the province of Sorsogon in the Bicol region  Biliran is a volcanic island in the central Philippines.


 Balut Sarangani, a potentially active volcano constitutes a volcanic island located immediately south of the southern tip of Mindanao Island in the Philippines. It is the largest of the Sarangani Islands. Balut Sarangani is located in the province of Davao del Sur, in the region of Davao.  Mount Banahaw (alternative spelling: Banáhao) is one of the active volcanos in the Philippines. Part of a volcanic group, it is located along the boundary of Laguna and Quezon provinces, on the island of Luzon, in the Philippines.  Ambalatungan Group little is known of this bunch of volcanoes in the cordillera, located in the northern part of Luzon. It was described as consisting of three volcanoes namely, Bumabag and Podakan. Ambalatungan volcano has a steep-walled crater with hot springs and vigorous sulfur-encrusted fumarolic vents that produce noises.  Cagua Volcano is located in northern Luzon island in the Philippines. It is in the political jurisdiction of the province of Cagayan in the Cagayan Valley region.  Camiguin de Babuyanes is an active volcano on Calayan Island, one of the Babuyan Islands, in the Philippines. It is under the political jurisdiction of the province of Cagayan in the admnistrative region of Cagayan Valley.  Binubulauan, is a remote stratovolcano, part of the volcanic Cordillera Central mountain range. Binubulauan is in the province of Kalinga, in the Cordillera Administrative Region, one of the regions of the Philippines, in the central north of the island of Luzon, in the Philippines.  Bud Dajo one of the active volcanos in the Philippines, is located 8.05 aerial km southeast of the town of Jolo, on the Philippine island of Jolo.  Dequey (Undersea), is an unnamed submarine volcano near Dequey island in the Philippines.  Cuernos de Negros is a stratovolcano which is potentially an active volcano located in Negros Oriental.  Didicas Volcano is an active volcano in the Babuyan Islands in the Philippines  Mount Hibok-Hibok or Hibok-Hibok is a stratovolcano on Camiguin Island in the Philippines  Iraya, or Mount Iraya, is an active volcano on one of the Batanes Islands in the province of Batanes in the Philippines. It is the northernmost active volcano in the Philippines.  Mount Iriga, or Iriga Volcano, is an active volcano in the province of Camarines Sur in the Philippines.  Kalatungan also known as Catatungan. is the second highest in the Philippines, with a summit elevation of 2,824m or 9,265 feet. An east-west trending volcanic ridge from central Mindanao to east of the Lanao-Bukidnon volcanic highlands was formed. last eruption, not known.  Kanla-on, variously referred to as Kanlaon Volcano and Mount Kanla-on, is an active volcano in the Philippines. A stratovolcano on Negros island, it straddles the provinces of Negros Occidental and Negros Oriental in the Visayas region  Laguna Caldera is located southeast of Manila.  Leonard Kniazeff is a stratovolcano located in the Compostela Valley, within the province of Davao del Norte, Island of Mindanao, Philippines.  Mount Matutum is located in the province of South Cotabato, on the island of Mindanao, in the south of the Philippines,  Makaturing, is a stratovolcano on Mindanao island in the Philippines. It is found in the province of Lanao del Sur (particularly in the town of Butig) in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao  Musuan Peak or Mount Musuan, also known as Mount Calayo (literally "Fire Mountain") is an active volcano on the island of Mindanao in the Philippines. It is 4.5 kilometres south of the city of Valencia, province of Bukidnon, and 81 km southeast of Cagayan de Oro City.  Mayon Volcano, also known as Mount Mayon, is an active stratovolcano in the province of Albay, in the Bicol Region, on the island of Luzon, in the Philippines.  Mount Parker, locally known as Melibengoy, is a stratovolcano on Mindanao island in the Philippines. It is located in the province of south Cotabato, 30 kilometers west of General Santos City and 44 kilometers south of Koronadal City.  Mount Pinatubo is an active stratovolcano located on the island of Luzon, at the intersection of the borders of the Philippine provinces of Zambales, Tarlac, and Pampanga.


 Taal Volcano is an active volcano on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. This is located in Talisay and San Nicolas in Batangas.  Mount Ragang, also called Mount Piapayungan and Blue Mountain by the local people, is a stratovolcano on Mindanao island in the Philippines. It is the seventh highest mountain in the Philippines.Mount Ragang is located on the boundary of the provinces of Lanao del Sur and Cotabato in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.  Mount Kitanglad is an inactive volcano[3] located in the Kitanglad Mountain Range in Bukidnon province on Mindanao island. It is officially declared as the fourth highest mountain in the PhilippinesIt is located between Malaybalay City and the municipalities of Lantapan, Impasugong, Sumilao, and Libona.  Mount Labo, is a potentially active stratovolcano in the province of Camarines Norte, in Region V, on Luzon Island, in the Philippines. It is located at the northwest end of the Bicol Peninsular  Mount Makiling, also rarely Mount Maquiling, is a potentially active volcano in Laguna province on the island of Luzon, Philippines. E. VALLEY is a depression with predominant extent in one direction.The terms U-shaped and Vshaped are descriptive terms of geography to characterize the form of valleys.  Alah Valley is located in the province of South Cotabato on the island of Mindanao, Philippines.  Valley Fault System and formerly as the Marikina Valley Fault System is a dextral strike-slip fault which extends from San Mateo, Rizal to Taguig City on the south; running through the cities of Makati, Marikina, Parañaque, Pasig and Taguig  Compostela Valley is a province of the Philippines located in the Davao Region in Mindanao.  Cagayan Valley is a region of the Philippines, also designated as Region II or Region 02. It is composed of five provinces, namely: Batanes, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, and Quirino.  Cotabato Valley the valley of the Río Grande de Mindanao, is one of the country's major agricultural regions. Sometimes still considered a “pioneer” frontier area F. PLATEAU is an area of highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain.       

Cabadiangan Plateau Negros Occidental , Philippines First plateau, Tagaytay, Philippines Malandag Plateau South Cotabato , Philippines Tablas Plateau, Negros Occidental, Philippines Tabuk Plateau, Tabuk, Kalinga-Apayao, Philippines Tanauar Plateau Olongapo , Philippines Benguet is a plateau that occupies the southern tip of the Cordillera Mountain Range in the northern part of the Luzon Island.  Bukidnon is a landlocked province of the Philippines located in the Northern Mindanao region. G. HILLS is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain. Hills often have a distinct summit, although in areas with scarp/dip topography a hill may refer to a particular section of flat terrain without a massive summit  Himontagon Hills are a group of hills located in Loay, Bohol, Philippines, about 20 kilometers from the Tagbilaran City.  Chocolate Hills are an unusual geological formation inTagbilaran, Bohol, Philippines H. PLAINS consist of vast, flat lands that usually have various grasses growing on them


 Central Luzon plains the largest plain in the country and produces most of the country's rice supply, earning itself the nickname "Rice Bowl of the Philippines". Its provinces are: Aurora, Bataan, Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Tarlac, and Zambales.  Manila-Calabarzon plains this region is where the capital of the Philippines is located. Large rivers from bays and mountain springs traverse the plain. In the Northern part of the region, that is, Manila and Rizal, most of the plain has been converted into cities, and are thus industrialized. The plain harbors the largest inland freshwater lake in Southeast Asia, the Laguna de Bay.  Catbalogan Plains Western Samar, Visayas G. WETLAND is an area of land which soil is saturated with moisture either permanently or seasonally.  Agusan Marsh Wildlife Sanctuary is a protected area in the Philippines declared by the former President Fidel V. Ramos. The marshland acts like a sponge, as it is nestled in the midwaters of the Agusan River drainage basin. Within its lakes, several floating communities can be found.  Olango Island Wildlife Sanctuary, a shorebird habitat; is a group of islands found in the Central Visayas region of the Philippines.  Naujan Lake National Park is located in the northeastern section of Oriental Mindoro and is bordered by the municipalities of Naujan, Pola, Victoria and Socorro.  Tubbataha Reefs National Marine Park located in the Sulu Sea, southeast of Puerto Princesa City in the Palawan Province.


MINERALS IN THE PHILIPPINES GOLD: Mountain Province, Masbate, and Mindanao COPPER: Cebu, the mountain province, Albay, Negros, Samar, and Zambales. IRON: Bulacan, Camarines Norte, Marinduque, and Samar. CHROMITE, MANGANESE, LEAD, AND ZINC: Zambales (world’s biggest deposit of high quality chromite), Masbate, Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, and Antique. NICKEL: Surigao del Norte OIL IN COMMERCIAL QUANTITIES: Panay, Negros, Cebu, Bohol, Masbate, Leyte, Samar, Cagayan, and the coastal areas of Mindanao and the Sulu archipelago. COAL: Mindoro, Masbate, Cebu, Sorsogon and some parts of Mindanao. NATURAL ASPHALT: Leyte. ASBESTOS: Ilocos Norte and Zambales (although this mineral has been abandoned because it has been found to cause cancer) STONE, GRAVEL AND SAND, CLAY AND CEMENT: Laguna, Rizal, Camarines Sur, and Pampanga MARBLE: Mindoro, Romblon, and Palawan. SULPHUR: Camiguin Island, Cagayan, Leyte, Negros Occidental, Davao, and Mountain Province. FAUNA/ANIMALS FOUND IN THE PHILIPPINES  Calamian Deer this deer is usually found only in the Calamianes–a group of islands in Northern Palawan  Philippine Sailfin Lizard this is the largest member of family Agamidae of lizards native to many islands in the Philippines. Bacolod City  Philippine Monitor Lizard a particular subspecies, Varanus salvator mamoratus, is commonly found in the Philippines, particularly in and around Sibulan Watershed Reserve in Polilo Islands.  Palawan Peacock Pheasant  This particular species of pheasant (Polyplectron emphanum) that is endemic to the Palawan Island in the Philippines is regarded as the most beautiful of the peafowl species.  Luzon Bleeding Heart Dove naturally found in Luzon, this species of dove (Gallicolumba luzonica) is distinct for its “bleeding” spot in the middle of its breast (that looks like it has been shot on its breast).  Tamaraw (Bubalus mindorensis) or Mindoro Dwarf Buffalo is a small hoofed mammal belonging to the family Bovidae It is endemic to the island of Mindoro in the Philippines and is the only endemic Philippine bovine.  Visayan Spotted Deer (Rusa alfredi), also known as the Philippine Spotted Deer, is a nocturnal and endangered species of deer located primarily in the rainforests of the Visayan islands of Panay and Negros  Philippine Mouse-deer (Tragulus nigricans), also known as the Balabac Mouse Deer or Pilandok (in Filipino), is a small, nocturnal ruminant, which is endemic to Balabac and nearby smaller islands south-west of Palawan in the Philippines.  Visayan Warty Pig, Sus cebifrons, is a critically endangered species of pig. The Visayan warty pig is endemic to two of the Visayan Islands (Cebu and Negros) in the central Philippines  Philippine Flying Lemur is endemic to the Philippines. Its population is concentrated in the Mindanao region and Bohol.  Philippine Eagle is endemic to the Philippines and can be found on four major islands: eastern Luzon, Samar, Leyte and Mindanao. The Philippine Eagle is a rare and large bird. It is a powerful bird. In the Philippines it is known as “Haribon” from “Haring Ibon,” which means “Bird King.”  Dugongs are also foundin the Philippine provinces of Palawan, Romblon, Guimaras and Davao Oriental


 Philippine Tarsier It is found in the southeastern part of the archipelago, particularly in the islands of Bohol, Samar, Leyte, and Mindanao  Spotted Sambar Deer frequents the extensive coronal areas in the interior of Negros Island  Palawan Bearcat locally known as Manturon or Binturong. It is found only in Palawan.  Philippine Deer or Cervus mariannus is known to have at least four subspecies which are endemic to Luzon, Mindoro, Mindanao, and associated smaller islands in the eastern part of the Philippines  Philippine Cockatoo the species is widely distributed throughout the Philippines where it is endemic. Several birds were seen in nest-holes in tall dead trees in April and May in the interior of Negros, around Pagyabonan, Bais.  Tarictic Hornbill the species is peculiar to the Philippines--Luzon and Marinduque , Polillo , Mindoro , Guimaras, Masbate, Negros and Panay , Ticao , Bohol, Leyte,and Samar , Dinagat and Mindanao and Basilan  Philippine BooBook Owl is endemic to the Philippines, where found in lowland forests on the islands of Catanduanes, Samar, Bohol, Mindanao, Luzon, Leyte and possibly Sibuyan  Palawan Peacock Pheasant Endemic to Palawan  Crimson Backed Woodpecker occurs in Luzon and Marinduque, Polillo, Bohol, Leyte, Guimaras, Masbate, Negros, Panay and Ticao, Zamboanga and Basilan, Mindoro , Balabac, Calamianes and Palawan.  Mindoro Imperial Pigeon Confined with Mindoro  Black Shahma found only on Cebu where it is very scarce; endemic  Sulu Hornbill occurs in the mountains of Jolo, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi.  Estuarine crocodile is widely been distributed than the Philippine or freshwater crocordiles. Salty crocodile are found in all the larger Islands of the Philippines including Luzon , Mindanao, Palawan, Samr, Leyte and Panay.  Giant golden-crowned flying fox the largest are fruit bat that can be found only in Sarangani, Philippines. It is considered to be nocturnal because it is asleep in the morning, while awake in the evening.  Reticulated Python this is the longest snake in the world. It is not unique to the Philippines, a specimen captured in Palawan  Blue-naped Parrot occurs in Luzon and Mindoro in the Philippines  Philippines tube-nosed fruit bat lives in the remaining lowland rain forests of Negros, Cebu, and Sibuyan in the Philippines.  Isabela Oriole is endemic to Luzon, with populations spotted in the province of Bataan and in the northeast parts of the island. The destruction of lowland forests is assumed to be the main threat to the bird's existence.  Pandaka pygmaea, one of the world's smallest fishes in terms of mass, was discovered in Malabon River in Metro Manila.  Mt. Isarog Striped Rat This rodent is endemic to Mount Isarog in Northern Luzon, and is threatened by continuous habitat destruction.  Mindoro Bleeding-heart endemic to the island of Mindoro, this species of bleeding-heart has an extremely small and fragmented population.  Hawksbill Sea in the Philippines, hatchlings were sighted in the island of Boracay  Risiocnemis seidenschwarzi this damselfly species is endemic to Cebu, where an insect population was found near a stream.  Pait is one of the many ray-finned fishes identified as critically endangered in Lake Lanao.  Cebu flowerpecker is a small passerine bird endemic to Cebu.


FLORA/PLANTS IN THE PHILIPPINES  Giant Flower Rafflesia found in the mountain in the town of Maragusan, Campostela Valley Province in Mindanao.  Abroma augusta (Anabo) is found from the Batan Islands and northern Luzon to Mindanao in thickets, waste places, and open secondary forest at low and medium altitudes.  Adenostemma Lavenia or Boton is a pantropic species found in open, wet places along streams, in forest and in thickets, from sea level in the Babuyan Islands; in Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Abra, Benguet, Bontoc, Nueva Viscaya, Zambales, Bulacan, Bataan, Quezon, and Laguna provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro, Culion, Catanduanes, Panay, Camigiun de Misamis and Mindanao.  Abacá, (Musa textilis) is a species of banana native to the Philippines,  Aerides lawrenciae is a species of orchid found only in the Philippines. This species is found in the wild only in the primary and secondary lowland forests of Mindanao (Cotabato and Davao) and Leyte  Amesiella philippinensis is a species of orchid found only in the Philippines. this species is found in the wild only in the primary and secondary highland and lowland forests of Luzon (Cordilleras, Northern Luzon Mountains, and Mt. Mayon in Southern Luzon) and on Mt. Halcon in Mindoro.  Banaba is found in the Batan Islands and northern Luzon to Palawan, Mindanao, and the Sulu Archipelago, in most or all island and provinces, chiefly in secondary forest at low and medium altitudes.  Blc Cory Aquino orchid (Brassolaeliocattleya Cory Aquino) is a variety of orchid bred by former Justice Secretary, Hernando "Nani" B. Perez. It was intended to honor Corazon "Cory" Aquino, after whom it was named.  Cyathea acuminata is a species of tree fern native to the islands of Panay and Samar in the Philippines.  Cyathea apoensis is a species of tree fern native to Mindanao, Negros and southern Luzon in the Philippines, where it grows in dense forest at an altitude of approximately 1800 m  Cyathea atropurpurea is a species of tree fern native to the islands of Luzon, Mindanao, Leyte and Mindanao in the Philippines, where it grows in forest at above 1000 m.  Cyathea callosa is a species of tree fern endemic to Luzon in the Philippines, where it grows in midmontane forest.  Jade vine (Strongylodon macrobotrys) is a native of the tropical forests of the Philippines.  Jasminum sambac (syn. Nyctanthes sambac Linn., Jasminum blancoi Hassk.), commonly known as “Sampaguita” or “Arabian jasmine,” is a shrub cultivated throughout the Philippines. It is the country's national flower.  Nepenthes mindanaoensis (Latin: Mindanao = Philippine island, -ensis = from) is a species of pitcher plant endemic to coastal lateritic hills on Mindanao in the Philippines.  Kamagong or "Mabolo" is a fruit tree found only in the Philippines, the wood of which is extremely dense and hard, and famous for its dark color.  Lophopetalum toxicum is endemic to the Philippines. It is usually found in primary forests at low and medium altitudes, most especially in Laguna, Rizal, Quezon, Mindoro, Leyte, Masbate, the Camarines provinces, Mindanao (Lanao, Zamboanga, Davao) and Sulu Archipelago.  Cyathea caudata is a species of tree fern native to the islands of Luzon and Mindanao in the Philippines, where it grows in montane forest.  Cyathea christii is a species of tree fern Endemic to Mindanao in the Philippines,  Cyathea edanoi is a species of tree fern endemic to Luzon in the Philippines, where it grows in montane forest at an altitude of about 1300 m.  Cyathea elmeri is a species of tree fern native to the Philippines, Talaud Islands, and northern Sulawesi, where it grows in forest at an altitude of 500-1400 m.  Waling-waling is a rare epiphytic orchid endemic to the island of Mindanao, particularly in the foothills of Mount Apo in Davao, Cotabato, and Surigao.


 Pittosporum resiniferum, commonly known as "petroleum nut" or "abakel" in Tagalog, is endemic in most of the northern part of the Philippines, particularly in Bontoc, Mindoro, Catanduanes, and Sorsogon provinces, and specifically in the wilderness surrounding Mayon Volcano in Legazpi, Albay.  Kinampay or Ubi-kinampay is a specific variety of ube which is found mostly in Bohol, Philippines  Cyathea acuminata is a species of tree fern native to the islands of Panay and Samar in the Philippines.  Cyathea heterochlamydea is a little-known species of tree fern native to the islands of Luzon, Panay, Negros and Mindanao in the Philippines, where it grows in montane forest.  Cyathea fuliginosa is a species of tree fern native to the islands of Luzon, Biliran and Mindanao in the Philippines, where it grows in forest at an altitude of 640-2400 m.  Strophanthus cumingii is endemic to the Philippines. The species is usually found in thickets (dense growth of shrubs) on most occasions in forests at low and medium altitudes in Ilocos Norte, Abra, Cagayan, La Union, Batangas, Rizal, Cavite, Bataan, Laguna, and Sorsogon Provinces in Luzon and in Palawan, Leyte, Negros and Mindanao. CORAL REEFS/MARINE LIFE IN THE PHILIPPINES  Apo Reef is a series of coral reefs encompassing 34 square kilometers within the waters of Occidental Mindoro in the Philippines. It is the world's second-largest contiguous coral reef system and the largest in the country  Tubbataha Reef is an atoll coral reef located in the Sulu Sea of the Philippines.southeast of Puerto Princesa City in the Palawan Province.  Apo Island in Negros Oriental is one of the world's best known community-organized marine sanctuaries  Verde Island is along the bodies of the Verde Island Passage between the provinces of Batangas and Oriental Mindoro, Luzon, Philippines.  Tridacna gigas, one of the world’s largest shells, and Pisidum, the world’s tiniest shell, can be found under Philippine waters  A shell called Glory of the Sea (Connus gloriamaris) is also found in the Philippines and considered as one of the most expensive shells in the world.


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