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PROGRAM Florrisant Fossil Beds Interpretive Research Center


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P roj e c t S t at e m e n t

The presence of architecture-regardless of its self-contained character inevitably creates a new landscape. This implies the necessity of discovering the architecture which the site itself is seeking.�1 -Tadao Ando from Towards a New Architecture.

Figure 1.1 Sketch by Tadao Ando of Naoshima Art Museum

The purpose of architecture is to make known and uncover meanings inherent in the site, to act as a man’s threshold to nature, and in its essence, the door to the unknown existence of meaning. To make a site become a place, is to make known what was not known before and to uncover what is valuable to the betterment of existence. To make known what is worth knowing. 2


Table of Contents

Introduction

01| Project Statement | pg 06 02| Abstract| pg 10

Theory

03| Theory | pg16 04| Theoretical Issues | pg 22 05| Theory Precedents| pg 24

Facility

06| Epistemology of Facility | pg 28 07| Facility Synthesis | pg 34 08| Facility Issues | pg 38 09| Facility Systems Analysis | pg 44 10| Facility Precedents | pg 52 11| Activity Space Analysis | pg 58

Context

12| Contextual Description | pg 78 13| Context Issues | pg 88 14| Context Site Analysis | pg 94 15| Context Requirements | pg 108 16| Context Precedents | pg 110

Design

17| Preliminaries | pg 116 18| Final Design Response | pg 122

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A b s t r ac t

“The existential purpose of building architecture is therefore to make a site become a place, that is, to uncover the meanings potentially present tin the given environment.� 2 -From Phenomenon of Place By Christian Norberg Schultz

Thesis Statement:

Architecture that integrates natural and man made environments based on historical traces and current contextual traces will bring into presence inherent meanings in the experienced environment resulting in a better understanding of the meaning of place.

Figure 1.2 View over petrified stump into the Florissant Valley.

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Scope of Project The scope of the project includes a new Educational Interpretive Research Center for Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument and Park thirty-five miles west of Florissant, Colorado. The Interpretive Center will provide multiple interpretive avenues for visitors to experience the various geological, natural, and historical heritages that make up the Monument. As well as provide a facility were fossils and paleontological artifacts found on site can be recovered, studied and documented. Open air shelters will be constructed to cover important artifacts providing these artifacts with protection while still being visible to visitors to the park. A trail system that integrates the new interpretive center with the park and also connects to the existing park trails will be designed. Interpretive information, exhibits, administrative tasks and tours of the park will all be facilitated from the new Interpretive Center. “one of the richest and

most

diverse

fossil deposits in the world. Up to 1700 different species have been described.�3

Figure 1.3: Visitors hiking the interpretive trail at Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument.

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Context Statement: “Beneath a grassy mountain valley in central Colorado lies one of the richest and most diverse fossil deposits in the world. Petrified redwood stumps up to 14 feet wide and thousands of detailed fossils of insects and plants reveal the story of a very different, prehistoric Colorado.� 4 -National Parks Service Official Web site

Thirty five miles west of Florissant, Colorado neat the city of Colorado Springs is Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument. The monument is on one to the richest deposits of fossils in the world. In addition to the ancient history, the park also tells a story of hunting and gathering grounds of Palo-Indians, the Ute and Jicarilla Apache, the travels and settlement of pioneers, and the journey of early scientists through the untamed west.

Figure 1.4: View of the Florissant Valley in the spring time. The lush meadow provides food for

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many mammals in the National Monument.


The National Monument is 6,000 acres of meadows, forests, wildflowers, and wildlife. Located with in the montage life zone ponderosa pine, aspen, fir, spruce, elk, mule deer, foxes, bear, mountain lions, and birds of prey are all phenomena visitors can see while in the park. Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument is an excellent site for an interpretive center and is currently in the process of acquiring the funds to build a new interpretive center. A proper interpretive center is “one of the most pressing needs, and one of the most useful facilities for helping the visitor to see the park and enjoy their visit.” 5

Figure 1.5: “The Big Stump” petrified redwood at Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument.

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T h e or y : I n t e r p re t ati o n o f Pla c e a Ph e n o m e n o lo gic a l S ite Interpretation: The Phenomenology of Site: “The task of interpretation is to think and help reveal reality which means understanding both its metaphysical and non-metaphysical disclosed dimensions.� 6

The essential concept of Interpretation is to make things that are not known, known. This project will focus primarily on interpretation of site and making inherent meanings in the site known through certain aspect of phenomenology. Phenomenology is only one avenue of interpretation and all though it will be used, the project is still open to other avenues of interpretation if they prove more valuable to the context of the project.

I. What is Phenomenology? Phenomenology is the study of how phenomena appear to the human consciousness. In simple terms, phenomenology is the interpretive study of the human experience. The aim is to examine and clarify human situations, meanings, and experiences as they occur in the daily lives of individuals. It is the study of how phenomena appear and how this is meaningful to humanity.

II. Phenomenology and Architecture: Poetics: Phenomenology is poetic in its nature. It relies on the sensory experience to bring out meanings present in a place.

Visually po-

etic forms can evoke meanings. “The poetic image is therefore truly integral, and radically different from the analytical categories of

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logic and science.” 8 Poetics assist in the interpretation of meaning of place.

“The existential purpose of building ar-

Formal Qualities:

chitecture is there-

Forms themselves are meaningless and only find meaning through associa-

fore to make a site

tion to images and reference. “Things thereby “explain” the environment and

become a place, that

make its character manifest. Thereby the things themselves become mean-

is, to uncover the

ingful. That is the basic function of detail in our surroundings.” 9 p. 420.

meanings potential-

In this way concrete things that make up our experiences are interrelated to

ly present in the giv-

complex meanings inherent in their environment. Forms therefore take cues

en environment.”

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from concrete qualities available in the site.

Relationship to Site: “The existential purpose of building architecture is therefore to make a site become a place, that is, to uncover the meanings potentially present in the given environment.” 10 p. 423. In this way building forms are interrelated to site and play off the sites topography, views, paths, historical traces, and other physical traces available in the site. By bringing these physical traces in the site into manifest architectural form the inhabited space becomes part to the place bringing man closer to the site and nature. Architecture therefore becomes a threshold to nature rather than a protective barrier from the site itself. “The introduction of nature. The confrontation and the concrete actuality of materials are intended to provoke reflection.” 11 p. 456.

In the end “if settlements are organically related to their environment, it implies that they serve as foci where the environmental character is condensed

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and explained.”

. When this character has been condensed and ex-

12 p. 417

plained through the architecture, interpretation has been accomplished.

Place Creation The introduction of architecture to the site most often brings people for some specific purpose. “The purpose of Architecture is basically construction of the place.” 13 p. 456. Architecture thus embodies the meaning of place capturing its spirit and representing it to those who inhabit its space.

III. Phenomenology and Technology? “How then to let technology and the essentially human come into healthy relation? The question is one of placement in the landscape and its embracing natural and cultural contexts.” 14 If phenomenology is a return to concrete things form, materials, site is there place for technology. Technology then must be dealt with as anything else placed in the landscape to reveal inherent meanings about the place it exists in.

IV. Phenomenology and the Human Experience Sensory Perception: Although the focus in this section has been on the physical experience namely the sensory ability of sight. Phenomenology is not limited to the visual domain. Interpretation through phenomenology demands receptivity to the full ontological potential of human expression. Thus, architecture must account for all senses that are available in the human experience. Space, therefore, is not an abstract academic exercise, it is a lived experience dimension that

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abstract academic exercise, it is a lived experience dimension that creates new meanings and helps the user understand the place they inhabit.

V. Conclusion: The purpose of architecture is to make known and uncover meanings inherent in the sire, to act as man’s threshold to nature, and in its essence, the door to the unknown existence of meaning. To make a site become a place, is to make known what was not known before and to uncover what is valuable to the betterment of existence. To make known what is worth knowing.

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T h e ore t i c al I s s u e s

Issue: Interpretation of Place

Goal: Represent and articulate meanings inherent in place through perceptual phenomena and historical traces. Performance Requirement: Building forms should be a complimentary on geological phenomenon. Potential Design Response: respond formally to formations found on the site Potential Design Response: architectural form responds to vernacular

Performance Requirement: Express the character of the site through concrete things such as materiality. Potential Design Response: use local materials Potential Design Response: reference site traces

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Figure 1.6: Building form as it relates to geology of the site.

Figure 1.7: Architecture form draws from the vernacular.

Figure 1.8: Using local materials appropriate to site.

Figure 1.9: Layering of historical and geological traces.

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T h e ore t i c al I s s u e s

Issue: Interpretation of Landscape

Goal: Link the natural environment to man made environments through a dialog of meanings so that Architecture is a threshold to nature for man rather than a barrier to protect man from nature. Performance Requirement: Buildings forms should be a commentary on geological phenomenon. Potential Design Response: mutual permeation of man and nature Potential Design Response: interlocking indoor and outdoor spaces

Performance Requirement: Bring built forms and landscape together in a way that represents the overall character of the site. Potential Design Response: Respond to topography Potential Design Response: Forms respond to landscape as an organism

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Figure 1.10: Mutual permeation of boundary

Figure 1.11: Interlocking space

Figure 1.12: Reaction to topography on site

Figure 1.13: Building as an organism

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T h e ore t i c al I s s u e s

Issue: Orientation

Goal: Man must be able to orient himself in the place so the building must have clear and informative circulation. Performance Requirement: Spaces should have views that direct visitors through the facility. Potential Design Response: Openings direct visitors to phenomena Potential Design Response: Experiential sequencing Potential Design Response: Dialog between spaces

Performance Requirement: Spaces should be oriented along a path that r3elates to the site. Potential Design Response: Direct path through phenomena Potential Design Response: Indirect path to phenomena Potential Design Response: Layering of path

Figure 1.14: Directive openings

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Figure 1.15: Experiential sequencing

Figure 1.16: Dialog between spaces

Figure 1.17: Direct path to phenomena

Figure 1.18: Indirect path to phenomena

Figure 1.19: Layering of path

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T h e ore t i c al I s s u e s

Issue: Ecological Self Sufficiency

Goal: Demonstrate ecological responsibility by practicing techniques that preserve and respect the surrounding environment. Performance Requirement: Reduce wasted energy and resources by practicing ecological techniques appropriate for the site. Potential Design Response: Water collection and reclamation Potential Design Response: Building system as the contextual ecosystem

Performance Requirement: Be conscious of the ecological footprint left by the building. Potential Design Response: Ground to roof Potential Design Response: Redistribution of plant life

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Figure 1.20: Reclamation of natural resources

Figure 1.21: Building as an ecosystem

Figure 1.22: Ground to roof

Figure 1.23: Redistribution of plant life

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T h e or y P re c e d e n t s 1. Theoretical Precedent Study: Project: Naoshima Museum Complex Location: Naoshima, Japan Architect: Tadao Ando

Relevance to Project: Naoshima Museum by Tadao Ando is a superb example of Architecture as a threshold to understanding nature rather than architecture as a barrier to protect you from nature.

Figure 1.25 View of facility from above, much of the building is actually

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underground.


Figure 1.28: Elliptical pool reciprocates opening above.

Figure 1.26: Plan of facility

Figure 1.24: Sketch section of the facility. Notice how the site responds to the topography.

Figure 1.27: Sectional models through facility

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T h e or y P re c e d e n t s 1. Theoretical Precedent Study: Project: Cultural Center Jean Marie Tjibaou Location: NoumĂŠa Architect: Renzo Piano Building Workshop

Relevance to Project: The Cultural Center Jean Marie Tjibaou in NoumĂŠa by Renzo Piano is a good example of architecture that uses historical and vernacular cultural phenomena to decipher a form and structure type that is appropriate for the region. Figure 1.30: Forms imitate regional vernacular

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Figure 1.31: Site plan


Figure 1.32: Birds eye view of the Cultural Center

Figure 1.29: Plan of cultural center

Figure 1.33: Longitudinal section through facility

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T h e or y P re c e d e n t s 1. Theoretical Precedent Study: Project: Chapel of Saint Mary of the Angels Location: Aple Foppa, Monte Tamero, Switzerland Architect: Mario Botta Relevance to Project: The Chapel of Saint Mary of the Angels by Mario Botta is a beautiful example of creating a building that uses concrete physical phenomena and experience to bring the use into the spirit of the place. Along stone path leads to a cross framed by mountains. Proceeding below a stair takes the user inside the building.

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Figure 1.34: Photograph from the side. Shows how building stretches out into the landscape.


Figure 1.36: Interior uses light to express meaning of place

Interior: Light is used as a phenomenological element to bring visitors in and focus the attention to the alter. Botta uses the light sparingly inside to create a sense of awe and wonderment and to express the spirit of the place.

Figure 1.33: Longitudinal section through facility

Figure 1.35: A long stone path leads to a cross framed by mountains.

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S e c t i on O n e : T h e o ry E n d No te s

1. Ando, Tadao. 1996. Towards a New Horizons in Architecture. In Theorizing A New Agenda for Architecture: An Anthology of Architectural Theory 1965-1995, ed. Kate Nesbit, 456. (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1996), p.461. 2. Norberg-Schulz. 1996. The Phenomenon of Place. In Theorizing A New Agenda for Architecture: An Anthology of Architectural Theory 1965-1995, ed. Kate Nesbit, 412. (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1996), p.423. 3. “Nature and Science.” November 7, 2007. http://nps.gov/flfo/naturescience/index. htm (accessed March 9, 2008). 4. “Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument.” November 7, 2007. http://nps.gov/ flfo /index.htm (accessed March 9, 2008). 5. Sarah Allaback. Mission 66 Visitors Centers: The History of a Building Type. (Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Interior, 2000), p.17. 6. Robert Mugerauer. Interpretations on Behalf of Place: Environmental Displacements and Alternative Responses. (New York: State University of New York Press, 1994), p.76. 7. Norberg-Schulz. 1996. The Phenomenon of Place. In Theorizing A New Agenda for Architecture: An Anthology of Architectural Theory 1965-1995, ed. Kate Nesbit, 412. (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1996), p.423. 8. Norberg-Schulz. 1996. Heidegger’s Thinking on Architecture. In Theorizing A New Agenda for Architecture: An Anthology of Architectural Theory 1965-1995, ed. Kate Nesbit, 429. (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1996), p.434. 9. Norberg-Schulz. 1996 The Phenomenon of Place. In Theorizing A New Agenda for Architecture: An Anthology of Architectural Theory 1965-1995, ed. Kate Nesbit, 412. (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1996), p.420.

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10. Norberg-Schulz. 1996 The Phenomenon of Place. In Theorizing A New Agenda fpr Architecture: An Anthology of Architectural Theory 1965-1995, ed. Kate Nesbit, 412. (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1996), p.423. 11. Ando, Tadao. 1996. Towards a New Horizons in Architecture. In Theorizing A New Agenda for Architecture: An Anthology of Architectural Theory 1965-1995, ed. Kate Nesbit, 456. (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1996), p.456. 12. Norberg-Schulz. 1996 The Phenomenon of Place. In Theorizing A New Agenda fpr Architecture: An Anthology of Architectural Theory 1965-1995, ed. Kate Nesbit, 412. (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1996), p.417. 13. Ando, Tadao. 1996. Towards a New Horizons in Architecture. In Theorizing A New Agenda for Architecture: An Anthology of Architectural Theory 1965-1995, ed. Kate Nesbit, 456. (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1996), p.456. 14. Robert Mugerauer. Interpretations on Behalf of Place: Environmental Displacements and Alternative Responses. (New York: State University of New York Press, 1994), p.133.

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06

Ep i s t e m ol og y of Fa c i li ty Ty pe : . A visitor center is a facility usually sited at a location of historical significance or natural beauty such as a national park, national forest, national monument, landmark, or state park. The emphasis of these facilities is to provide useful information to the public such as maps, information about lodging or camping, and educational exhibits and artifact displays. The visitor’s center is as it’s name implies, a center for information about visiting these treasures of our country. The United States has a long history of visiting its National and State Parks. Park architects in the 1920’s and the 1930’s developed a style for the visitor’s centers and park facilities called “rustic”. This style was meant to blend in with he park by using regional materials Figure 2.2: Merced Grove Ranger Station and forms relating to the surrounding landscape. When aftermath of World War Two had settled, the United State Park Service realized the parks were being neglected and that facilities were needed to account for the amount.

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Figure 2.1: Desert View Checking Station


“Between 1931 and 1948, total visits to the National Park System jumped from about 3,500,000 to almost 30,000,000, but park facilities remained essentially as they were before the war. Without immediate improvements, the parks risked losing the “nature” that attracted people to them.” 1

The National Parks Service solution to the expanding need for ne4w facilities and a growing public interest in the National Parks was a program called Mission 66. The program was a “ten- year park development program founded in 1956. Bolstered by a decade of congressional funding, the Mission 66 Program would result in the construction of countless roads and trail systems and thousands of residential, maintenance and administrative facilities, as well as the beginning of new methods for managing and conserving resources.” 2

Figure 2.3: This is a cover of a brochure published by the Mission 66 organization to raise awareness about Nation Parks

Towards a New Modern Park Service: After years of designating park facilities in the “rustic” style the park abandoned the style in facor of designing new park facilities int eh modern

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“International Style.” Architects like Richard Nuetra and Frank Lloyd Wright would be involved in developing the new architectural modern style of the park. These new Mission 66 visitor centers would no longer use rustic techniques to blend with their environment. The new buildings would blend into the landscape through their formal simplicity. The rustic style previously used by the Nation Parks Service was seen as distracting and drawing attention away from the actual landscape.

A Shift to an Interpretive Building Type: The new vis6itor’s centers had a more demanding program than ever. The new building type proposed to manage visitor circulation for the expanding population of visitors, orienting and directing those visitors, and providing them with interpretive information. This new facility would “combine museum Figure 2.4: Abstract rendering of visitors center

“Mission

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services and administrative facility but to develop a new building type that would supplement old fashioned museum exhibits with modern methods of

build-

interpretation.” 5

ings were intended to blend into the landscape, but through their plainness rather than identification with natural

features.”

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Failure of Modernism in the National Parks: After the Mission 66 many opinions began to surface that the modern style of the park did not accomplish its mission of blending in with the park by being plain. Modern architects thought the plainness of the buildings would keep the visitor from being distracted by the visitors center itself. But as many postmodernist have expressed in the years since the movement.

Modernism failed the public in its disregard for the site and the regional vernacular. 30


The new visitor’s center must be more than a modernist reprogramming of an orthogonal grid. It must be the architecture that the site is seeking to illuminate. “The

Park

Service

Modern

Buildings were no longer truly part of the park landscape, in this sense, since they were not sited or designed to be part of the picturesque landscape Figure 2.5: Quarry Visitor Center

compositions.” 6

The Interpretive Center of Today: An interpretive center is more than just a visitor’s center in a traditional sense.

The new interpretive center of today is a museum of ecological and historical heritages, a distribution center of orientational information, and a gathering place of the public interested 2.6: Interpretive inin understanding their environment. Figure teractive displays at ArboIt is indeed much more than just a place to acquire information about where retum Center to stay or hike. An interpretive center is society’s threshold to the meaning of places we have set aside as exemplar examples of beauty, and historical richness. An interpretive center uses both traditional and non-traditional methods to communicate the meaning of place.

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Presentation strategies range from scenographic displays and multimedia interactive exhibits to the traditional guided interpretive tour. These presentations are intended to provoke and stimulate the user to experience the layers of interpretive information.

Beyond displays and exhibits the architecture itself must be responsible for communicating the significance of the meaning of place. The architecture often relates to specific parts of the site and aids the user in understanding the area they are experiencing

Figure 2.7: An interactive streaming video river runs through the Teton National Park Interpretive Center. There are also exhibits that emulate the surround geography.

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F ac i l i t y S y n t h e s i s Mission Statement: To provide an interactive, integrated, and holistic interpretive experience for those visiting Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument by

educating the public on the ecological. paleontological, geological and historical heritages that are inherent in the sire while effectively disseminating orientational information to the visitors of the Park. While assisting in the continual study of the site and researching, recovering and documenting its paleontological artifacts.

A proper interpretive center is “one of the most pressing needs, and one of the most useful facilities for helping the visitors to see the park Figure 2.8: Granite Formation on Saw Mill Trail in Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument

and enjoy there visit.� 7

Goals: Circulation: Provide clear and experiential circulation that stimulates the user while being efficient in navigating the building, park, and existential environment. Adaptation: Architecture that adapts and reacts not only to the environment but to the changing programmatic conditions. Energy Efficiency: To create a logical building system that sustains and respects the environment around it by working in a similar way to the environment.

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Facility Organization and Layout: Three Layouts for Interpretive Centers: There are three traditional layouts for this facility type all include a central lobby with variations of connected spaces such as administrative space, exhibit space, and multimedia rooms:

1. First, a “courtyard building” which consists of a series of independent buildings grouped around a courtyard, open space or terrace. Figure 2.9: Organization around a courtyard

2. Second, a “winged building” with a central entry Lobby with distinct wings that serve different functions. Figure 2.10: Winged organization

3. Third, a “centralized single building” with a lobby in the center and adjacent rooms around it. 8 Figure 2.11: Centralized organization

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Three Site Locations for Interpretive Centers: There are three traditional site locations for an interpretive center.

1. First, and “Entrance” sited center establishes the mood of the park at the entrance to the park and introduced the users to the interpretive values of the park.

2. Second, an “En Route” center which poses the problem of introducing the visitor to the park and providing information about the site to be visited.

3. Finally, the most popular site location is a “Terminal” interpretive center which is located at a popular destination within the park and provides information about the sites to be visited within the park. This type of visitor’s venter gave visitors the best views of the park while providing interpretive information. 9

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Figure 2.12: Entrance sited center

Figure 2.13: En Route sited center

Figure 2.14: Terminal sited center

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F ac i l i t y I s s u e s

Issue: Circulation

Goal: Provide clear and experiential circulation that stimulates the user while being efficient in navigating the building, park, and existential environment. Performance Requirement: Provide access and connectivity to different spatial sequences. Potential Design Response: Spatial procession Potential Design Response: Spatial mobility

Performance Requirement: Create a symbiotic building to park relationship. Potential Design Response: Paths creating a dialog between in and out Potential Design Response: Reciprocating views between building and the site

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Figure 2.15: Spatial procession

Figure 2.16: Spatial mobility

Figure 2.17: Connective paths

Figure 2.18: Reciprocal views

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F ac i l i t y I s s u e s

Issue: Adaptation

Goal: Architecture that adapts and reacts not only to the environment but to the changing programmatic conditions. Performance Requirement: Architecture must adapt and react to changing environmental conditions.. Potential Design Response: Adaptation through movement Potential Design Response: Adaptation through systems

Performance Requirement: Architecture must adapt and react to changing programmatic conditions. Potential Design Response: Multiple use in single space/configuration Potential Design Response: Adaptation movement

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Figure 2.19 Adaptation through movement

Figure 2.20 Adaptation through systems

Figure 2.21 Adaptation through movement

Figure 2.22 Adaptable configuration

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F ac i l i t y I s s u e s

Issue: Energy Efficiency

Goal: To create a logical building system that sustains and respects the environment around it by working in a similar way to the environment. Performance Requirement: Building must use systems that are efficient and appropriate to the environment. Potential Design Response: Water reclamation Potential Design Response: Solar reclamation

Performance Requirement: Create a symbiotic building to park relationship. Potential Design Response: Site the building appropriately Potential Design Response: Site for appropriate ventilation

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Figure 2.23: Water reclamation and redistribution

Figure 2.24: Solar collection

Figure 2.25: Site building appropriately

Figure 2.26: Ventilation

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F ac i l i t y S y s t e m s A n a ly si s Design Requirements and Diagrams

Ecological Systems: Special considerations will be taken to ensure that the building practices ecologically sustainable principles. Sustainable strategies such as water reclamation, solar reclamation, green roofs, passive solar cooling, and earth tubes will be explored in the facility.

Structural Systems: Structural systems appropriate to the site and local vernacular will be explored. The structural systems that are explored in this section are masonry walls, steel skeletal systems, rammed earth, tensile structures and recycled timber.

Materials: Local materials as well as recycled materials will be explored as options for use in the facility.

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E cologi c a l Syst e m s Water Reclamation: Water Reclamation will allow this facility to collect excess rain water, snow melt and precipitation in general, in order to redistribute it on the site. Another viable option would be to use a gray water black pete moss filtration system. The use and reuse of water on site will reduce the amount of water wasted by the facility and uphold ecological standards that the facility would like to achieve.

Figure 2.28: Waste water treatment

Figure 2.27: Water reclamation cistern system

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Solar Collection: Solar Collection will allow this facility to collect solar energy through the use of photovoltaic panels. Since, the Facility and main interpretive areas are located in the Florissant Valley, exposure to sun will be abundant and the use of this technology will be a wise investment. Some important considerations dealing with photovoltaic panels are:

Fixed Orientation: The panels should be oriented due south (not magnetic south) and tilted at a latitude of plus 15 degrees for winter optimization. Adjustable Orientation: The panels should be oriented due south (not magnetic south) and tilted at a latitude of plus 15 degrees for winter optimization. Adjust the tilt angle to latitude minus 15 for summer optimization. Tracker Orientation: Two axis and One axis trackers are available. These trackers till track the sun east to west and adjust the vertical tilt for the most efficiency. Shading: Avoid any shade on panels, shaded panels can become loads and reduce benefit of even having the panels. 10 Figure 2.29: Relations between cell,

photovoltaic

module,

panel,

and array

Figure 2.29: Relations between photovoltaic cell, module, panel, and array

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Green Roofs: A green roof refers in general to any roof using green technology, but is most often thought of as a roof with a protective water proof layer and medium vegetation growing on it. The type of planting use on the roof depends on the depth of the soil bed on the roof, but can range from grasses to small trees. Some of the benefits of this system are:

-reduction of city “heat island� effect -reduction of carbon dioxide impact -reduction of summer cooling cost -reduction of winter heating cost -lengthen roof life by two to three times -removal of nitrogen pollution in rain -neutralize acid rain effect -reduction of noise -reduction of storm water runoff -provides songbird habitat 11

Figure 2.29: Difference in run off water quality green roof vs. non-green roof. Run-off water is cleaner when it is filtered through vegetation.

Figure 2.31: Green roof construction details

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Multiple Systems: The diagram below shows how the systems described on previous pages, water collection, green roofs, and solar collection can be used in conjunction to function as an energy efficient system.

Figure 2.32 Diagram of facility with multiple ecological technologies

Passive Systems: the permeability of the skin of the building to light, heat and air and its visual transparency must be controllable and capable of modification, so that the building can react to changing climatic conditions. –pg.202 Ecodesign a manual for ecological design

Thus a wall should act as an environmentally responsive third skin. The idea behind passive systems is that the building itself in its design can react appropriately to the surrounding environment to reduce the use of Figure 2.33: Passive solar sun

energy by air-conditioning, heating, and lighting systems. To be able to react to the surrounding environment the building must have adjustable openings, controlled cross ventilation, give solar protection, provide insulation during cold periods, and promote a direct

Figure 2.34: Passive solar design

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relationship with the external environment.


Str uct ura l Syst e ms Masonry: “Masonry provides an effective barrier to sound and reduces internal temperature variations and peak loads on heating and cooling systems.” 12 Figure 2.35: Colorado Red

Masonry can include everything from natural stone to concrete masonry units. Masonry is versatile and has many excellent qualities. Near by quarries

Figure 2.36: Colorado Red

in Colorado make natural masonry, an excellent option for part of the struc- 8” Drywall Stone ture. Masonry is extremely durable and requires little maintenance. Stone can be laid in many patterns, possibly relating to phenomenon on site. Concrete can be cast in a variety of shapes and sizes. This material is appropriate for

Figure 2.37: Colorado Red 4” Strip

the site. Structural Systems: Skeletal Steel and Truss Systems Structural Steel also has many desirable qualities that could greatly enhance the design of this facility. Structural Steal can be used for spanning long distances using either steel shaped beams or truss systems. A truss is essentially a group of steel members put together to form a structural whole. This structural system can resemble a skeleton like appearance and could make reference to the fossil phenomena present on the site.

Figure 2.38: Three dimensional steel truss

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S t r u c t u r al S y s t e ms Rammed Earth: Rammed earth is a building method involving the compression of damp earth mixed with portions of sand, gravel, clay, and sometimes stabilizers such as lime. The structure can take up to 2 years to completely cure. Form work is built in the desired shape of the wall on the site. The earth mixture is then added in layer and compressed until the form is full. The earth mixture is so solid after this compression that the form work can be removed almost immediately. Then the curing is done a rammed earth wall is essentially a Figure 2.39: A rammed earth wall that makes man-made solid rock wall.

up part of the entrance to the Eden Project in Cornwall, England.

Rammed Earth: Tensile Structures: Tensile structures such as tent like forms could easily be related to the vernacular structures of the Native American people who used to inhabit the Florissant valley. Modern tent tensile structures are made of PTFE coated fiberglass and PVC coated polyester in conjunction with steel cables. These materials are woven to give them strength in

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multiple directions.

Figure 2.40 Tent like tensile structures


Str uct ura l Syst e ms Materials

Masonry: Masonry is versatile and has many excellent qualities. Near by quarries in Colorado make natural masonry, an excellent option for part of the structure. Masonry is extremely durable and requires little maintenance. Stone can be laid in many patterns, possibly relating to phenomenon on site.

Recycled/ Sustainable Timber: The reuse of water timber and sustainable timber sources. Timbers qualities and character relate to the heavily forested areas around the site. Wood also has a warm inviting quality.

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10

F ac i l i t y P re c e d e n ts 1. Facility Precedent Study: Project: Arboretum Visitors Center Location: Clermont, Ky. Architect: William McDonough and Partners

Relevance to Project: Highly sustainable facility. The organization of the facility is open and allows multiple avenues for interpretive experience. Different exhibits are setup in the open space each one interpreting a different part of the park.

Figure 2.42: Interior view of visitors center openings and recycled timber construction along

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with naturally finished materials create a feeling of being a part of the surrounding forest.


Figure 2.43: Approaching entrance of visitors center

Figure 2.44: Water collect of roofs is filtered through a peat moss black water filtration system

“The project helps illuminate the spiritual, biological, and economic advantages of living in agreement with nature.� 13 -Claude Stephens Edu. Director

Figure 2.43: Approaching entrance of visitors center

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F ac i l i t y P re c e d e n ts 1. Facility Precedent Study: Project: Arboretum Visitors Center Location: Clermont, Ky. Architect: William McDonough and Partners

Relevance to Project: The Visitors Center’s format qualities relate to surrounding geology. Circulation from parking to visitors center is a holistic experience and is clearly delineated. The Visitors Center is designed with an emphasis on a series of important views of the park. Displays and decoration were minimum inside the visitors center. Instead of designing the space around exhibits, Wright chose to design the space around a series of important views of the park.

Figure 2.45: Approaching entrance of visitors center

Figure 2.46

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Figure 2.47

Figure 2.48

Figure 2.49


Figure 2.50: Approach to the Beaver Creek Visitor Center in Rocky Mountain National Park,

Figure 2.51: Visitors Center Lobby after its completion in the late 1960s.

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F ac i l i t y P re c e d e n ts 1. Facility Precedent Study: Project: Visitors Center and Cyclorama Location: Gettysburg National Military Oark, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania Architect: Richard Nuetra

Relevance to Project: The visitors center is built among the battle field ruins providing the visitors with up-close interpretive opportunity. The building is amongst the monument to give visitors a direct interpretive experience.

Figure 2.52: Rendering of Visitors Center

Figure 2.53: Plan

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Figure 2.55: Approaching entrance of visitors center

Figure 2.54: Elevations

Figure 2.56: Inside entrance area of visitors center

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11

A c t i v i t y S p ac e A n aly sis: The Florissant Fossil Beds Interpretive Research Facility is a cross program educational interpretive center and research center. The National Monument is world renowned for its rich soil deposits. The site offers excellent opportunity both for the education of the public and the continual research of paleontological artifacts.

Education and Interpretation: The educational interpretive section of the facility will serve the visitors to the National Monument and surrounding primary, secondary, and college level educational institutions. This section of the facility will focus on beginning an educational interpretive experience for large groups (30-100) of students. The facility will be organized in such a way to create an educational precession connecting the actual landscape of the site with the paleontological aspects of the facility.

Figure 2.57: This facility focuses on both education of the public and continue research of the Nation al Monument both of which must be filtered through interpretation. Interpretation will educate the public on the research that takes place at this facility.

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An educational procession will be established in which the students will begin inside the facility multi-media theater to view a film. Students will then venture out onto the interpretive trail where they will gather replicated fossils and learn about the National Monument. Next, they return to the facility classrooms where they will learn the paleontological process of studying, categorizing, and documenting fossils they discovered. The tour will proceed through an interpretive space adjacent to the paleontological labs where students can watch professional paleontologists at work and listen to the interpretive guide.

Research: The research section of the facility will serve as an active paleontological research facility where fossils will be collected, stored, cleaned, preserved, classified, and documented. The facility will house visiting paleontologists who work through the government to research the National Monument. An on-sight research facility will be extremely valuable to the productivity and connectedness of the research to the fossil beds.

Figure 2.58: Modern paleontologists dig trenches so they can expose each layer of rock and sediment and examine it carefully. Each layer is measured. This information is important because it shows how the fossil composite changed over time. Tarps and moveable covers are placed over the dig to protect it from showers.

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A c t i v i t y S p ac e A n aly sis: Lobby Description: First space that visitors will experience upon visiting the facility. Space will be accessible from vehicular and pedestrian circulation. Park Host will be accommodated in the space to greet visitors, collect fees, and dispense orientational information. Activity: Entry, Greeting, Distribution, Gathering

Performance Requirement: 1. Orientational information should be easily accessible 2. Ceiling height will be above the datum for the center| 3. Rest room will be directly accessible Figure 2.59: Diagram of Lobby’s relationship to other spaces in the public

from lobby.

entry cluster

4. Lobby should establish the spirit and mission of the facility

Users: Visitors, Park Staff, Park Hosts

Equipment: Reception Desk, Orientational Displays Space Requirements:

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1,00 sq. ft.

Figure 2.60: Lobby should create a transition from the busy street to interpretive educational experience.


Book Shop Description: The book store will be a strong interactive component of the facility. This space will provide the park with a chance to earn revenue beyond park entrance fees. The space will be inviting and extremely accessible.

Activity: Reading, Browsing, Purchasing

Performance Requirement: 1. Provide space to display and shelve books and other souvenirs 2. Create a comfortable environment 3. Space will be directly connected to the lobby

Figure 2.61: Diagram of Book Shop’s relationship to other spaces in the public entry cluster

4. Space will be monitored by security cameras

Users: Visitors, Facility Staff

Equipment: Small tables, Reading chairs, Checkout desk Space Requirements: 1,000 sq. ft.

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A c t i v i t y S p ac e A n aly sis: Lobby Description: First space that visitors will experience upon visiting the facility. Space will be accessible from vehicular and pedestrian circulation. Park Host will be accommodated in the space to greet visitors, collect fees, and dispense orientational information. Activity: Learning, Interaction, Communication

Performance Requirement: 1.Two exits meet code standards 2. Diffused day lighting provides majority of light during sun light 3. Artificial lighting will be indirect and diffused

Figure 2.62: Diagram of Exhibits’s re-

4. Circulation procession through exhibits

entry cluster

lationship to other spaces in the public

Users: Visitors, Park Staff, Large School Groups

Equipment: Exhibits Space Requirements: 4,000 sq. ft.

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Figure 2.63: Bring daylight into exhibit


Storage for Interpretive Section Description: The book store will be a strong interactive component of the facility. This space will provide the park with a chance to earn revenue beyond park entrance fees. The space will be inviting and extremely accessible.

Activity: Reading, Browsing, Purchasing

Performance Requirement: 1. Secure location 2. Minimum door opening of six feet 3. Easily accessible from interpretive exhibition area

Users: Visitors, Facility Staff

Equipment: Shelving Space Requirements: 400 sq. ft.

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A c t i v i t y S p ac e A n a ly sis: Lobby Description: This space will be used to show films relating to the National Monument. Space should be part of the educational interpretive experience. Room must also accommodate meetings of groups that support the park.

Activity: Interpretation, Viewing, Meeting

Performance Requirement: 1. Screen must be visible from every seat 2. Special acoustic measures must be taken 3. Room must be adaptable to alternate Figure 2.64: Multi-media theater to Eduses

ucational cluster

4. Room should be located along educational procession Users: Visitors, National Monument Patrons, Interpretive Guides Equipment: Fixed seating, Projector, Screen, Sound equipment, Writing space Space Requirements: 1,500 sq. ft.

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Figure 2.65: Adaptable for alternate uses


Classrooms (2) Description: These two spaces will serve to aid interpreters to teach mainly student groups about the history of the fossil beds and the paleontological significance of the place.

Activity: Learning, Interpretation, Interaction

Performance Requirement: 1. Diffused day lighting provides majority of light during sun light 2. Artificial lighting will be indirect and diffused 3. Room layout should be conductive to communicating 4. Rooms should be part of the educational interpretive procession Users: Visitors, Student Groups, Interpreters Equipment: Tables, Chairs, Projection Capabilities Space Requirements: 500 sq. ft. Each 1,000 sq. ft. Total

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A c t i v i t y S p ac e A n aly sis: Administration Space (2) Description: Office space for facility employees to oversee and organize facility. This is the inner workings of the facility not accessible to the public.

Activity: Office use

Performance Requirement: 1. Diffused day lighting provides majority of light during sun light 2. Artificial lighting should be indirect and diffused 3. Offices should be private from public area Figure 2.66: Administration space to

Users: Administrative Staff of the National Monument Equipment: Desks, Chairs Space Requirements: 500 sq. ft

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Administration cluster


Board Room Description: Meeting and gathering area for facility staff and organizations that support the National Monument. Space will be conducive to communication and interaction.

Activity: Meeting, Gathering

Performance Requirement: 1. Diffuse day lighting provides majority of light during sun light 2. Artificial lighting should be indirect and diffused 3. Lighting should be able to be controlled during visual projected presentations 4. Large writing space on wall behind projector screen 5. Accommodate for 10-15 users

Users: Facility Staff, Non-Profit Friends of Florissant, Park Rangers

Equipment: Projector, Conference table and Chairs

Space Requirements: 300 sq. ft. 1,000 sq. ft. Total

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A c t i v i t y S p ac e A n a ly sis: Break Room Description: Space for employees and volunteers at the National Monument to take their lunch break and relax.

Activity: Eating, Gathering, Resting

Performance Requirement: 1. Diffuse day lighting provides majority of light during sun light 2. Artificial lighting should be indirect and diffused 3. Connected to outdoor space 4. Separate from public occupied areas

Users: Facility Staff and Volunteers Equipment: Kitchenette, Table, Chairs Space Requirements: 200 sq. ft.

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Storage General Description: Storage for Administrative Offices and general office use.

Activity: Storage of office items and documents

Performance Requirement: 1. Secure location 2. Directly connected to Administrative Space 3. Minimum door opening of six feet

Users: Administrators, Facility Staff

Equipment: Shelving

Space Requirements: 100 sq. ft.

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A c t i v i t y S p ac e A n a ly sis: Paleontological Offices (2) Description: Offices for paleontologist and paleontological employees to oversee and organize facility. This is the inner workings of the facility not accessible to the public.

Activity: Office use

Performance Requirement: 1. Diffuse day lighting provides majority of light during sun light 2. Artificial lighting should be indirect and diffused 3. Offices should be private from public area

Users: Paleontologists

Equipment: Workstation, Chairs

Space Requirements: 400 sq. ft.

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Figure 2.67: Diagram of paleontological offices connection with paleontology cluster


Paleontological Lab Description: After fossils are originally received in the receiving area, they will be transported to the lab. There they will be cleaned, studied, preserved, and documented.

Activity: Cleaning, restoring, preserving, and documenting fossils Performance Requirement: 1. Artificial lighting should be indirect and Figure 2.68: Circulating Viewing Lab diffused 2. Appropriate and adjustable sport lighting will be needed 3. Connected directly to receiving and storage area 4. Can be viewed directly from educational procession Users: Paleontologist, Lab workers Equipment: Layout tables, sink, task lighting, chairs, storage for tools Space Requirements: 500 sq. ft.

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A c t i v i t y S p ac e A n a ly sis: Paleontological Receiving/ Storage Description: Area were fossils recovered from the site can be transported and temporarily stored until they can be examined in the lab.

Activity: Receiving of fossils, Storage of fossils

Performance Requirement: 1. Vehicular drop off access 2. Direct connection to Lab Area 3. Secure doors and openings

Users: Paleontologist, Lab Workers

Equipment: Storage shelving, Wheeled storage carts

Space Requirements: 400 sq. ft.

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Paleontological Archival Room Description: This space will store records of fossils found at the National Monument

Activity: Storage archives Performance Requirement: 1. Direct connection to Office Area 2. Direct connection to Lab Area 3. Secure doors and openings procession Users: Paleontologist, Lab workers Equipment: Storage shelving, Files, Computer equipment Space Requirements: 300 sq. ft.

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A c t i v i t y S p ac e A n a ly sis: Interpretive Path:

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An educational procession is established along the interpretive circulation path. Important interpretive areas are located along this path making them part of the before mentioned educational procession. Administration space is not included in this diagram as it is not public accessible space. The paleontology cluster is semi-public allowing visibility into the lab area so that the public can learn about the process of recovering, documenting, and categorizing fossilized remains.


Figure 2.69: Space Diagram

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A c t i v i t y S p ac e A n a ly sis: Space Summary: Spatial Analysis Summary

Entry Cluster

Service Space

Lobby 1,200sqft

Janitor’s Closet x2 200sqft

Book Shop 1,200sqft

Mechanical Room 500sqft

Exhibit 4,000sqft

Board Room 200sqft

Interpretive Storage 400sqft

General Storage 100sqft Water Collection 500sqft

Educational Cluster

Men’s Restroom 400 sqft

Multi-Media Theater 1,500sqft

Women’s Restroom 500sqft

Class Rooms x2 1,000sqft

Paleontology Cluster

Net sqft 14,100sqft

Paleontological Lab 600sqft Receiving and Storage 500 sqft

Net to Gross Multiple * 1.25

Offices 400 sqft Archival Room 300sqft

Gross 17, 625

Administration Cluster Admin. Space 500sqft

Outdoor Space 3,000sqft

Board Room 300sqft

Parking Spaces (1/per 175 gross sqft)

Break Room 200sqft

100 parking spaces

General Storage 100sqft

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Secti o n 2 : Fa c i l i t y En d N ot e s

1.Sarah Allaback. Mission 66 Visitors Centers: The History of a Building Type. (Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Interior, 2000), p.1 2. Allaback. p.2 3. Allaback. p.12 4. Allaback. p.23 5. Allaback. p.17 6. Allaback. p.23 7. Allaback. p.17 8. The following page was summarized from: Allaback. p.24 9. The following page was summarized from: Allaback. p.28 10. Kenneth Yeang, EcoDesign: A Manual for Ecological Design. (Great Britain: Wiley-Academy, 2006), p. 224 11. Information summarized from 2.31 “Green Roof Research.” http://hortweb.cas. psu.edu/research/greenroofcenter/history.html (accessed March 9, 2008). 12. W.C. Panarese Concrete Masonry Handbook: For Architects, Engineers, Builder. 5 ed. (Portland: Portland Cement Association, 1991), p.1 13. Mortice, Zach. “Arboretum Visitor Center Stands Tall.” 2008. http://www.aia.org/ aiarchitect/thisweek08/0215/0215d_bernheim.ctm (accessed March 9, 2008).

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12

C on t e xt u al D e s c r i pti o n “Beneath a grassy mountain valley in central Colorado lies one of the richest and most diverse fossil deposits in the world. Petrified redwood stumps up to 14 feet wide and thousands of detailed fossils of insects and plants that reveal the story of a very different, prehistoric Colorado.” 1 - National Parks Service Official Website

Thirty five miles west of Florissant, Colorado near the city of Colorado Springs is Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument. The Monument is one of the richest deposits of fossils in the world. In addition to the ancient history, the park also tells a story of hunting and gathering grounds of Paleo-Indians, the Ute and Jicarilla Apache, the travels and settlement of “Paleo Indians and

pioneers, and the journey of early sci-

Archaic peoples once

entists through the untamed west. The

inhabited or at least

National Monument is 6,000 acres of

hunted and gathered

meadows, forests, wildflowers, and

in the Florissant valley.

wildlife. Located with in the montane

More is known about

life zone ponderosa pine, aspen, fir,

the Ute people that once considered the

spruce, elk, mule deer, foxes, bears,

Florissant Fossil Beds

mountain lions, and birds of prey are

area part of their tra-

all phenomena visitors can see while

ditional use lands.”

2

Figure 3.1: View from interpretive trail

in the park.

I. History and Culture People of the Past and Present The Florissant Fossil Bed National Monument area has been inhabited and sustained by people of many eras over the course of human history. From

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Native Americans to pioneer settlers to scientists, Florissant Fossil Bed


National Monument has a rich history of human inhabitation.

Native Americans: There is research that suggests that Native Americans called the Florissant area their home during certain times of the year. These PaleoIndians might have lived in the area or simply used it as a seasonal hunting and gathering grounds for sustenance. The most well known of the Native Americans in the area, the Ute people, still claim the ground as part of their traditional use lands. “The Ute were a nomadic, hunting and gathering society. Although they originally live in shelters made of wood and brush, they eventually adapted the tepees as Figure 3.2: Nomadic Native American dwelling. Ute their primary form of shelter.�

Tepee. Los Pios Agency, Colorado, between 1878 3

and 1881

These tepees were a simple pole structure with animals skins draped over the poles to form a tent like structure. Of the seven tribes of the Ute people, the Uncompahgre, also known as the Tabeguache, were the most prevailing tribe in the Florissant Valley during the time of the Native American occupation of the area. Pioneers, Homesteaders and Settlers In the 1860’s adventurous Americans began to migrate West in search of

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free land. The Homesteaders Act of 1862 had motivated many to make the perilous journey west in search of their very own free land.

The Homesteaders Act stated: “…any citizen, or person with intention of becoming a citizen, who was the head of a family and over twenty-one years of age, could become possessed of 160 acres of the surveyed public domain after five years of continuous residence on his tract and the payment of a small registration fee…” 4

In order to retain possession of the land, settlers and pioneers would have to live and work on the land for five years, making improvements and building a house. These improvements would need to be made on the land and if after five years this had happened, the U.S. Government would give the families the land providing it was properly surveyed. One of the first settlers in the Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument area was Judge James Castello. He was one of the many gold rushers who came to Colorado in search of riches. Originally from Florissant, Missouri, he intended to settle in Fairplay, CO where he would search for gold. As gold dwindled from the area, Judge Castello decided to settle somewhere else in the Florissant valley. He built his new home and a Figure 3.4: View of the Hornbek homestead.

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hotel at the intersection of Oil Creek


Trail and Ute Trail in June 1870. As this area was only 35 miles away from the established town of Colorado Springs, making it an ideal location to start a new town while still being close to a location where supplies were abundant. In just two years, Judge Castello built a trading post, general store, and post office in the Florissant Valley. By this time Castello’s settlement had started to take the shape of a town. He named the new town Florissant after his home down in Missouri. In a very short time the town became profitable bringing in many different craftsmen and skilled laborers. The new town had a blacksmith, saw mill, livestock business, and a doctor. The success of the town was not without disappointment. Many of the homesteaders left for more fertile acres. The Florissant Valley was too dry and arid to easily sustain crops. Today, there are still a few settlements over 150 years old that visitors can tour in Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument. Figure 3.4: View of the Hornbek homestead. Colorado Petrified Forest In the 1920’s the Singer family ran a private concession and dude ranch called the “Colorado Petrified Forest.” The concession displayed fossils from around the valley and “Bid Stump”, one of the largest petrified redwood remains on the site. “The main lodge building was the old train depot from the town of Florissant

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Inside the lodge were exhibits of fossils and a massive fireplace made out of petrified wood.” 5

This area, called Coplen Petrified Forest later became part of the National Monument, but was operated by the singer family until 1969 when the area gained its National Monument status.

Only half a mile south of the Coplen Petrified Forest was the Pike Petrified Forest. This area was another privately owned concession that profited from tourists. The sites most important fossil was the redwood Trio. This site was owned at different times by several different families until 1969. The visitor center for the Pike Petrified Forest is still used as the visitor center for Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument.

Figure 3.5: Colorado Petrified Forest was

Figure 3.6: Pike Petrified Forest was another

a private concession that featured the “Big

privately owned concession that boasted the

Stump”

“Trio” petrified redwood formation.

Making a Monument “Soon after the first scientists arrived at Florissant, it became clear that Florissant was a kind of Rosetta Stone to paleontology. For decades there

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was talk of setting aside the land. During the 1960’s, the prospect of land


development would place the Florissant Fossil Beds in jeopardy.� 6

In the late 1960’s Scientists and a non-profit organization called the Defenders of Florissant lead by Dr. Estella Leopold and Dr. Beatrice Willard, along with local citizen and patron Vim Wright began the legislative battle to protect Florissant Fossil Beds. It all came down to one question; should the land be subdivided for houses or preserved for future generations? In the end the people favored protecting the area so that genera-

Figure 3.7: Samuel Scudder was one of the first paleontologists to recover and document fossils

tions of human beings can marvel at Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument at and wonder at how it came to be. This area needed to be protected so future generations of scientists and people could continue to learn and wonder about the fossilized remains. On August 20, 1969, the U.S. Congress and President Richard Nixon granted Florissant Fossil Beds National Figure 3.8: Samuel Scudder was one of the first paleontologists to recover and document fossils

Monument status. This new status at Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument

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ensured the continual study of fossils, ancient human inhabitation of the area, and wildlife inhabiting the area for years to come.

2. Nature and Science Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument is located at an elevation of 8,400feet within the montane life zone. Ponderosa pine, aspen, fir, spruce, elf, mule deer, foxes, bears, mountain lions, and birds of prey are phenomena visitors can see while in the park. Underneath this wildlife wonderland is one of the richest fossil deposits in the world. There are fossils of over 1700 species that have been identified within the park. “A majority of those fossils are fragile, detailed compression and impression

fossils

of

insects

and

plants. The largest fossils are mas- Figure 3.9: In 1969 after a long legal battle, Florissant Fossil Beds finally received Na-

sive,

petrified

Sequoia

trees.�

7 tional Monument status..

2. Animals of Florissant Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument is located at an elevation of 8,400 feet within the montane life zone. The montane life zone is perfect for a rich variety of plant and animal life. Ponderosa pine, aspen, fir, spruce, elk, mule deer, foxes. bears, mountain lions, and birds of prey are all phenomena visitors can see while in the park. The landscape is dominated by forests,

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mountain meadows, and some riparian habitats. This rich habitat provides a great environment for several different types of wildlife. Everything from beetles to mountain lions can be found in the park. “The

most

visible

animals

for

park visitors are birds such as the Chickadee and Steller’s Jay and also smaller mammals such as Richardson’s ground squirrels, Abert’s squirrels, and rabbits. Larger mammals such as mountain lions, bobcat, wapiti or elk, and bear are seen on such occasions.” 8

Plants of Florissant

Figure 3.10: An isolated fossil of a bladder nut

The Florissant Valley is a mixture of leaflet. Over 1700 species of plants and animals have been documented in the National Monu-

forests dominated by ponderosa ment. Specimen UCM-5176 from the University pine, spruce trees, fir trees, the oc-

of Colorado Museum.

casional grouping of aspen, and lush mountain valleys blanketed with wildflowers, shrubs and grasses. Although the Florissant Valley was originally named after a town in Missouri, Figure 3.11: A view of Pike’s Peak rising up to

the name is very fitting for the region. 14,110 feet

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Contextual Description Science at Florissant: “The rich deposits discovered at Florissant Fossil Beds give us an unusually detailed look at life in an ancient North America. Over 50,000 specimens have been found representing over 1,700 different species of animals and plants.” 9

These impressions of ancient species of plants and animals are what has fascinated scientists to study the Florissant area. These clues to the past give scientists an idea of what life might have been like in the valley during prehistoric times. For more on fossils located on the site and geologic history of the park, see the site research section.

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Figure 3.12: Petrified Redwood Tree dubbed “The Big Stump.” Its estimated weight is over 60 metric tons.


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13

C on t e xt I s s u e s

Issue: Preservation

Goal: Preserve the ecological, paleontological, geological and historical artifacts and systems present in the site. Performance Requirement: Provide adequate protection for exposed fossils located on interpretive trails Potential Design Response: man- made structures Potential Design Response: mobile structures

Performance Requirement: Create a holistic building to park symbiotic relationship. Potential Design Response: Building responds to existing paths, roads, and historical traces. Potential Design Response: Building responds to existing paths, roads, and historical traces.

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Figure 3.13: Man made structure

Figure 3.14: Mobile structure

Figure 3.15: Building responds to existing

Figure 3.16: Building reacts to concrete phenomena.

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C on t e xt I s s u e s

Issue: Visibility

Goal: Create a visual dialog between built forms and artifacts present on the site. Performance Requirement: Design building views considering site lines to artifacts. Potential Design Response: View to artifacts Potential Design Response: Reciprocal views

Performance Requirement: Bring experience of artifacts into direct visual interaction with visitors.. Potential Design Response: Locate architecture around artifacts Potential Design Response: Locate artifacts within architecture

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Figure 3.17: View to artifacts

Figure 3.18: Reciprocal Views

Figure 3.19: Locate architecture around artifacts

Figure 3.20: Locate artifacts within architecture

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T h e ore t i c al I s s u e s

Issue: Environmental Impact

Goal: To protect and preserve the surrounding environment and leave as little impact on the ecosystem present in the park, while still providing visitors with a valuable and personal experience with the park. Performance Requirement: Architecture must be designed with concern for the Carbon Foot Print of the facility. Potential Design Response: Building below ground Potential Design Response: Plant trees to reduce carbon dioxide emissions

Performance Requirement: Sustainable practice implemented to preserve specimen flora and fauna. Potential Design Response: Design around specimen trees Potential Design Response: Design around specimen fossils

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Figure 3.21: Building below ground

Figure 3.22: Plant trees to reduce carbon dioxide emissions Figure 3.23: Design around specimen trees

Figure 1.18: Indirect path to phenomena

Figure 3.24: Design around specimen fossils

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14

C on t e xt S i t e A n al y si s

Site Analysis: 1. Location 2. Surrounding Population 3. Existing Structures on Site 4. Historic Structures on Site 5. Geological History 6. Geological Make-Up 7. Topographic Conditions 8. Natural Features 9. Climate Data 10. Wildlife 11. Vegetation

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1.Location The Florissant Valley is located in central Colorado near the town of Florissant, Colorado 35 miles from the city of Colorado Springs. The National Monument is 6000 acres and positioned at an elevation of 8,400 feet above sea level. With a large metropolitan area and several schools short distances away, this location is an optimal area for an Educational Interpretive Center.

Figure 3.25 Map shows the location of Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument

1.Surrounding Population Florissant, Colorado: Population: 3,555 Land Area: 133,1776 sq. miles Colorado Springs, Colorado: Population 2005: 369,815 Median Age: 34.00 years Housing Units: 148,690 Land Area: 185.7448 sq.miles Figure3.26: Colorado Springs Water Area: 0.3899 sq. miles 10

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C on t e xt u al A n al y s is 3. Existing Structures on Site: Existing Visitors Center: The existing visitors center is a small stick framed wood siding clad building. The space is inadequate to meet the need of the visitors who come to the National Monument. The structure had been on the site since the 1920’s and was originally the visitors center for the Pike Petrified Forest. This building has been well maintained but is by no mean a quality structure and it is debatable whether it should be kept on the site.

Figure 3.27: Approaching entrance of existing visitors center

Existing Visitors Center: The existing visitors center is a small stick framed wood siding clad building. The space is inadequate to meet the need of the visitors who come to the National Monument. The structure had been on the site since the 1920’s and was originally the visitors center for the Pike Petrified Forest. This building has been well maintained but is by no mean a quality structure and it is

96

debatable whether it should be kept on the site.

Figure 3.28: Existing Amphitheater


4. Historic Structures on Site: Hornbeck Homestead: There is an existing homestead from the late 1800’s located within the park boundaries. This settlement is another prominent educational interpretive component. “The Hornbek Homestead is located within the boundaries of Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument. It was built in 1878 and owned by Adeline Hornbek a rancher and single mother of four teenaged children.” 11

Figure 3.29: Hornbek Homestead

4. Geological History: “34 million years ago, Florissant,

Colorado

featured a lake full of life in its waters and along its shores, periodically interrupted by violent volcanic eruptions devastating local Figure 3.30: What FFNM might have looked like millions of years ago.

plant and animal life.” 12

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3. Existing Structures on Site: Florissant Now and Then: Below is an illustration of the modern day Florissant Valley. A lush mountain meadow surrounded by forested areas with plenty of good habitat for mammals and birds, but it wasn’t always like this

Figure3.31: What the Florissant Valley looks like today

Figure 3.32: What the Florissant Valley might have looked like millions of years ago.

The lush valley we see today was once a giant lake surrounded by giant redwood trees hundreds of feet tall. From the valley, one could see smoke rise from the active volcano near by.

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How did it Happen: Millions of years ago the active volcano near what was once a lake, erupted. The volcanic mud flow killed off the giant redwood trees burying them in fifteen feet of ash and volcanic mud. Ash also settled in the lake trapping thousands of animals, plants, and insects. These trapped organisms settled and were slowly compressed into the fossils paleontologists now uncover in the National Monument.

Figure 3.33: Forest after volcanic eruption

Figure 3.34: Volcano’s relation to valley

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Figure 3.36: Geologic map of different types of stone and soil found on the site.

6. Geological Make-Up: This section contains a map and a diagram that show

where

different

types of stone are located from different periods of time.

Figure

3.36:

Geologic map of_different types of stone and soil found on

100

the

site.


Figure 3.37 Stratigraphic Column of Florissant Formation

7. Topographic Conditions: Topographic Description: This site is located at an elevation

of

8,400

feet.

The topography consists a mountain meadow springing up into rolling foothills and eventually developing into mountains. Figure 3.38: Topography, trails, roadways, and fossil formations are all shown on this map.

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8. Natural Features: Fossilized Redwood Stumps: All across the site and along side interpretive trails are huge petrified redwood stumps. These fossils can be up to 18 feet tall and 38 feet around. Figure 3.40: View over petrified stump into the Florissant Valley

Granite Formations: Large granite formations are located along several of the National Monument trails. These formations provide visual interest and excellent views. Figure 3.41: Granite formations

Foot Hills: Foot hills surround the Florissant Fossil Bed Meadow creating the opportunity for great views in all directions. Figure 3.42: Foot Hills

Fossilized Redwood Stumps: Pikes Peak reaches altitudes of 14,110 feet above sea level. The mountain is ranked the 31st highest peak out of 54 Colorado peaks. It is also the farthest east of the larger peaks Figure 3.43: Pikes Peak

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in the Rocky Mountain range.


9. Climatic Data: Temperature:

Figure 3.44: Temperature table

Cooling Degree Days:

Heating Degree Days:

Figure 3.45: Cooling and heating degree days

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Precipitation:

Figure 3.46: Precipitation

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Figure 3.47: Precipitation Charts


Amount of Daylight During Yearly Cycle:

Figure 3.48: Daylight

Yearly Totals Organized by Month:

Figure 3.49: Totals

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10. Wildlife: Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument is located at an elevation of 8,400 feet within the montane life zone. The montane life zone is perfect for a rich variety of plant and animal life. Elk, mule deer, foxes, bears, mountain lions, and birds of prey are all the phenomena visitors can see while in the park. The landscape is dominated by forests, mountain meadows, and some riparian habitats.

Figure 3.51: Wapti

The Wapti: Wapti is the Shawnee

Mammals in the National Monument:

name for elk. When Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument is located at an 8,400 feet within forest

the montane life zone. The montane life zone is perfect for a rich variety

discovered by Chris-

of plant and animal life. Ponderosa pine, aspen, fir, spruce, elk, mule deer,

topher Columbus in

foxes, bears, mountain lions, and birds of prey are all the phenomena visitors

1492, the estimated

can see while in the park. The landscape is dominated by forests, mountain

herd size was 10 mil-

meadows, and some riparian habitats.

America

was

lion. The current herd size

in

the

United

States is 90,000. There are about 300 elk that live in the Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument.

106

Figure 3.50: pg. 118-123 are Mammals of the National Monument


10. Vegetation:

Figure 3.51: Vegetation map

A field plot locates the various plant species that exist in the Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument. As you can see the majority of the National Monument is dominated by Ponderosa Pine. While vegetation along the road ways Figure 3.52: Parry oat grass

mostly consists of grasses and shrubs.

Figure 3.53: Aspen trees

The Florissant Valley is a mixture of forests dominated by ponderosa pine, spruce trees, fir trees, and the occasional grouping of aspen, and lush mountain valleys blanketed with wild flowers, shrubs, and grasses.

Figure 3.54: Valley surrounded by forests

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15

C on t e xt Re q u i re m e n ts Design Requirements

Ecological Footprint: It is important that the facility have little effect on the environment around it. In order to insure this low impact approach, steps must be taken to reduce the impact on the site

Preservation of Artifacts: A majority of the large fossilized redwood trees, one of the main features of the site, remain uncovered and exposed to the damaging sun. Steps must be take to ensure their preservation.

Circulation Through Site: Integrated interpretive trails must be integrated into the site as well as the facility. Vehicular approach to the site must be part of the interpretive experience.

Ecological Footprint: Low Impact: Replanting: All plant life that is destroyed in the building process must be replaced in some way. This can be done by planting new trees and creating a grass roof. This must be done to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

Going Under: One concept for a low impact facility is to bury some of the building underground. After construction, soil covering the building could be

108

replanted and the meadow would return to normal.


Preservation of Artifacts: Protective Structure: Temporary: A majority of the large fossilized redwood trees, one of the main features of the site, remain uncovered and exposed to the damaging sun. One option is to create temporary moveable structures. These structures would be semi-permanent in nature. The main advantage of this approach is that because of the lack of construction on site, they would cause less damage to the site and less risk of damaging the fossils.

Permanent: The main advantage of this approach is the durability permanent structures would provide. These structures could be beautiful in form and provide the park with many years of valuable use.

Context Requirements Circulation Through Site: Trails: On the site there is currently an interpretive fossil trail and a wildlife viewing trail. Both of these trails could use improvement and interpretive signage. There will be a need to add on to these trails when the new facility is created.

Road: There is an existing main road cutting through the center of the site. This road travels from Florissant, Colorado to the park. This road will be used to access the new interpretive center. There will need to be small additions and possible subtractions to the road. Care must be taken that very little road work is done.

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16

C on t e xt P re c e d e n ts 1. Facility Precedent Study: Project: Arboretum Visitors Center Location: Clermont, Ky. Architect: William McDonough and Partners

Relevance to Project: This highly sustainable facility is an excellent example of building reacting to its context in an appropriate way. It is modeled to react to the environment in a similar way to the ecosystem it interprets. This “Building as a Tree� stimulates the processes of producing oxygen, using sunlight as energy, and collecting water.

Figure 3.55: Interior view of visitors center openings and recycled timber construction along

110

with naturally finished materials create a feeling of being a part of the surrounding forest.


Water Collection: Water is collected from the roof, and then filtrated using a pete moss filtration system. The grey water is then used in rest rooms and redistributed on the site to water plantings

Solar Power: Photo voltaic panels placed on the roof help bring the facility power and defray energy costs.

Figure 3.56: Water collect of roofs is filtered through a peat moss black water filtration system

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C on t e xt P re c e d e n ts 1. Facility Precedent Study: Project: Arboretum Visitors Center Location: Clermont, Ky. Architect: William McDonough and Partners

Relevance to Project: This park is an excellent example of creating occupied space from the landscape itself. This affords users the opportunity to experience the cover space and experience the roof of the covered space which is the park itself. This idea also reduces any heat island effect that might occur from paving. “The idea was that the new landscape would emerge from its own topography.� 13 (Cuito, pg. 58)

112

Figure 3.57: The park


Folded Earth: This Folded earth rises up to create occupied space thus the landscape becomes the building and the building the landscape.

Figure 3.59: Folded landscape

Figure 3.58: Underneath the landscape

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S e c t i on 3: C on t e xt E n d No te s

Section 3: Context End Notes 1. “Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument.” March 2, 2008. http://www.nps.gov/ fifo/ (accessed March 9, 2008). 2. “Native Americans.” July 9, 2006. http://www.nps.gov/fifo/historyculture/nativeamericans.htm (accessed March 9, 2008). 3. “Native Americans.” July 9, 2006. http://www.nps.gov/fifo/historyculture/nativeamericans.htm (accessed March 9, 2008). 4. “Homesteaders and Settlers.” July 9, 2006. http://www.nps.gov/fifo/historyculture/ homesteaders-and-settlers.htm (accessed March 9, 2008). 5. “Commercial Quarries and Dude Ranches.” http://www.nps.gov/fifo/historyculture/commercial-quarries-and-dude-ranches.htm (accessed March 9, 2008). 6. “Citizens and Scientists that made a monument.” http://www.nps.gov/fifo/historyculture/citizens-and-scientists-that-made-a-monument.htm (accessed March 9, 2008). 7. “Nature and Science.” http://www.nps.gov/fifo/naturescience/index.htm (accessed MArch 9, 2008). 8. “Animals.” http://www.nps.gov/fifo/naturescience/animals.htm (accessed March 9, 2008). 9. “Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument.” March 2, 2008. http://www.nps.gov/ fifo/ (accessed March 9, 2008). 10. “Colorado Springs Community Demographics.” http://www.springsgov.com/ Page.asp?NavID=4334 (accessed March 8, 2008). 11. “Hornbek Homestead Florissant Fossil Beds.” http://www.nps.gov/fifo/parknews/ (accessed March 9, 2008). 12. “Ancient Florissant.” http://www.nps.gov/fifo/online/museum/rocks-fossils/geology/Art/index.html (accessed March 9, 2008).

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Bib l i o gra phy A rc h i t e c t u re Top i c Rese a rc h Ando, Tadao. Architecture and Spirit. Barcelona: Editorial Gustavo Gilli, 1998. Ando, Tadao. 1996. Towards a New Horizons in Architecture. In Theorizing A New Agenda for Architecture: An Anthology of Architectural Theory 1965-1995, ed. Kate Nesbit, 456. New York: Princeton Architectural Press . Allaback, Sarah. Mission 66 Visitors Centers: The History of Building Type. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Interior, 2000. Botta, Mario. Mario Botta. Barcelona: Loft Publication 2003 Boniface, Russell.” Arboretum Visitors Center Stands Tall”. 2008. http://www.aia.org/aiarchitect/thisweek08/0215/0215d_moose. cfm (accessed March 9, 2008). Blaser, Werner. Tadao Ando: Architecture of Science. Boston: Birkhauser, 2001. Cuito, Aurora. Ecological Architecture: Bioclimatic Trends and Landscape Architecture in the year 2001. Spain: Pace Asensio, 2000. Hawkes, Dean, Jane McDonald, and Koen Steemers. The Selective Environment. London: Spon Press, 2002. Holl, Steven, Juhani Pallasma, and Alberto Perez-Gomez. Questions of Perception: Phenomenology of Architecture. San Francisco: William Stout Publisher, 2006. Frampton, Kenneth. 1996. On Reading Heidegger. In Theorizing A New Agenda for Architecture: An Anthology of Architectural Theory 1965-1995, ed. Kate Nesbit, 442. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. Jodice, Francesco. What We Want. Italy: Skira Editore, 2004. Jodidio, Phillip. Tadao Ando at Naoshima: Art Architecture Nature. New York: Rizzoli, 2006. Meyer, Herbert. The Fossils of Florissant. Washington: Smithsonian Books, 2003. Mugerauer, Robert. Interpretations on Behalf of Place: Environmental Displacements and Alternative Responses. New York: State University of New York Press, 1994. Mortice, Zach. “Arboretum Visitor Center Stands Tall.” 2008. http://www.aia.org/aiarchitect/thisweek08/0215/0215d_bernheim.cfm (accessed March 9, 2008). Norberg-Schulz, Christian. The Concept fo Dwelling: On the Way to Figuratice Architecture. New York: Electa/Rizzoli, 1984. Norberg-Schultz. 1996. The Phenomenon of Place. The Theorizing A New Agenda for Architecture: An Anthology of Architectural Theory 1965-1995, ed. Kate Nesbit, 412. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. Norber-Shultz. 1996. Heidegger’s Thinking on Architecture. In Theorizing A New Agenda for Architecture: An Anthology of Architectural Theory 1965-1995, ed. Kate Nesbit, 429. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. Porteous, Colin. The New Eco-Architecture: Alternatives from the Modern Movement. London: Spon Press, 2002. Portugali, Nili. The Act of Creation and the Spirit of Place. London: Axel Menges, 2006. Pallasmaa, Juhani. 1996. The Geometry of Feeling. In Theorizing A New Agenda for Architecture: An Anthology of Architectural Theory 1965-1995, ed. Kate Nesbit, 456. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. Panarese, W.C. Concrete Masonry Handbook: For Architects, Engineers, Builder. 5 ed. Portland: Portland Cement Association, 1991. Quantril, Malcom. Riema Pietila: Architecture, Context and Modernism. New York: Rizzoli, 1985. Steele, James. Ecological Architecture a Critical History. London: Thames & Hudson, 2005. Yeang, Kenneth. EcoDesign: A Manual for Ecological Design. Great Britain: Wiley-Academy, 2006.

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17

P roc e s s Restating the Thesis Thesis Statement: Architecture that integrates natural and man made environments based on contextual traces will bring into presence inherent meanings in the experienced environment resulting in a better understanding of the meaning of place.

1. How the Issues where Identified in Concept Design Review: Theoretical: The overall concept of the building was derived from the idea of recovering fossils. When a paleontologist uncovers artifacts he/she removes the dirt to uncover the unknown meanings below. The result was a concept consisting of a two bars of folded space that form occupiable space under ground and above ground in the form of grass roofs. This folded ribbon of public space (galleries) is contrasted with a metal structure that is the Paleontological Lab Area (seen as a red box below). The end result is an experience for the user where the descend into the ground to discover the meaning of the site This tangible phenomenological approach is meant to evoke meanings related to the site.

116


Program:

Programmatic

diagram show relationship of public private and administrative space

117


Ti t l e O f S e c t i on Ecological: There are several ecological issues addressed in the program having to do with energy efficiency, low impact design and appropriate siting. These objectives and goals were responded to through water collection system, a grass roof, solar panels, and energy efficient siting of the building that takes advantage of passive solar strategies. The structural section to the right show a preliminary idea for a water cistern system cast into the concrete columns.

118


119


Ecological: There are several ecological issues addressed in the program having to do with energy efficiency, low impact design and appropriate siting. These objectives and goals were responded to through water collection

2.Design Criticism: -Structural System Appears to heavy. -Realtionship to site needs strengthening -Re-introduction of Interpretive Path Idea

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2.Changes in Program:

Entry Cluster

Storage 400sqft

Lobby 1,500sqft

Library: 750sqft

Book Shop 1,000sqft

Paleo Offices: 250sqft

Exhibit 4,000sqft Interpretive Storage 400sqft Educational Cluster

Administration Cluster

Net sqft 19,400sqft

Admin. Space 500sqft

Net to Gross Multiple * 1.25

Board Room 300sqft

Gross 24,250

Multi-Media Theater 1,500sqft

Break Room 200sqft

Class Rooms x2 1,000sqft

General Storage 100sqft

Paleontology Cluster

Women’s Restroom 500sqft

Service Space

Casting Lab 750sqft

Janitor’s Closet x2 200sqft

Fossil Prep Lab 750sqft

Mechanical Room 500sqft

Chemical Lab 700sqft

Board Room 200sqft

Receiving 750sqft

General Storage 100sqft

Offices 400 sqft

Water Collection 500sqft

Archival Room 750sqft

Men’s Restroom 400 sqft

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18

Re s p on s e The Florissant Fossil Beds Interpretive Research Center is located 35 miles west of Colorado Spring at the Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument. The site originally was programed for and interpretive center to display the fossils on site but because of active research on the site the program of the project was adapted to include an interpretive center cross programed with an active research facility. The public interpretive program is formally expressed as a ribbon of concrete with grass occupiable roofs representing the earth lifted to uncover the unknown meanings of the site. The Paleontological research program is expressed as a tectonic steel structure raised above the site and examining for its meanings. An Interpretive spine joins the programs and existing trails taking the users on a journey through the park where at times they descend into the earth at others rise above it and finish there journey looking down into the research area at the work that goes on in the Park. The Final Design concept is anchored in the relationship to its site. The orientation of the building and the mounding of the site in strategic areas accomplishes a more energy efficient building. Water from the site is collected filtered by the grass roofs and redistributed to key areas on the site. A system of trials, galleries, and occupiable roofs compels the user to explore the site with all their senses and uncover new meanings inherent in the site.

122


123


124


125


127


128


The Plan Two bars of gallery space connected by and underground gallery make up the public interpretive area of the plan . In contrast a formal tectonic box rests at the end of the composition enclosing the paleontological program. An administrative knuckle connects these tow program pieces

129


130


I n t e rp r e t ive Pat h One of the major shifts in the design from preliminaries to final was the move to create a physical path decending into the site and the heart of the building. This path is a representation of paleontological digs and allows the user to descend into the site where they will learn about the various phenomena and artifacts present on the site.

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01

Ti t l e O f S e c t i on A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent.

Camera 3:: Amphitheater

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133


Camera 4:: Gallery One

I n t e rior Interior Perspective of interpretive gallery one. Durable interior finishes where chosen for practicality and also to related to the rustic environment that the building inhabits. Here at the entry to the facility users will receive orientational information and begin there journey of interpretive knowledge in the park.

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135


Camera 5:: Gallery Two

136


Light cascades onto exhibits in interpretive gallery two expressing the poetic nature of form and Light. As the Users look upwards towards the light he /she realizes that he/she is inhabiting a space cover by earth enhancing the users experiential relationship with the site.

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01

Ti t l e O f S e c t i on A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent.

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139


Section B

Section D

Section C

Section E

S tr u ct u r al S ys t e ms The interpretive portion of the program is constructed of cast in place concrete the concrete roofs supported by a column and beam system accommodate occupiable grass roofs. The Paleontological labs are housed in a steel structure composed of a longspan 3 dimensional truss and cooper panel cladding. (right) Exploded drawing diagrams all the pieces of each structural system.

140 Section A


Exploded Diagram

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01

Ti t l e O f S e c t i on A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent. A brief summary of project and intent.

Ga l l e r y Wall S e ct ion In the gallery wall section you can see the cast in place structural concrete system. A cast in place wall holds back earth buried against the side of the building. An integrated steel tube is cast in to the concrete column and connected to and underground cistern. Earth tubes run below the foundation. Cool air is forced through these tubes by fans in the mechanical room and the distributed through out the building. A radiant heating system brings heat to the building through the floor.

142


L a b Walk Way Wal l Sec ti on In the lab wall section you can see the structural concrete system. This system supports a square steel tube which supports the 3 dimensional longspan truss. A cooper panel system is attached to this truss. A walk Way is suspended from the truss system to give users a view into the lab area. Earth tubes run below the foundation. Cool air is forced through these tubes by fans in the mechanical room and the distributed in the building. A radiant heating system brings heat to the building.

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