Unit 3 Revision Questions 1. Cardiovascular System 2. Name the 5 types of blood vessel. 3. Name and describe the 3 layers of blood vessels. 4. For each blood vessel, describe the function and structure. 5. What is the myocardium? 6. What are the chordae tendinae? 7. Can you label all the heart structures? 8. What is pulmonary and systemic circulation? 9. Why is our circulatory system described as being closed? 10. Can you name the arteries and veins associated with all the major body organs? 11. What do the terms systole and diastole mean? 12. Describe the stages of the cardiac cycle. 13. What is used to measure blood pressure? 14. What do the two blood pressure numbers mean? 15. What is a normal blood pressure reading? 16. What do the terms cardiac output, heart rate and stroke volume mean? 2. Coronary Heart Disease 17. What is atherosclerosis 18. What is an atheroma? 19. Describe the effects of atherosclerosis. 20. What can cause atherosclerosis? 21. What is a thrombus? 22. What is the blockage of a blood vessel called? 23. What happens during a heart attack? 24. What do the terms coronary thrombosis and myocardial infarction mean? 25. What is an embolism? 26. What is an embolism in the brain called? 27. Describe how atherosclerosis can lead to angina pectoris. 28. What is hypertension? 29. What readings indicate hypertension? 30. What can cause hypertension? 31. What factors can lead to hypertension? 32. What do the terms modifiable and non-modifiable mean when discussing CHD risk factors? 33. State the modifiable risk factors, and how they can lead to CHD. 34. State the non-modifiable risk factors, and how they can lead to CHD.
3. Exercise 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Explain the changes that occur during exercise, and why they occur. What happens to blood pressure during exercise? What happens to the distribution of blood during exercise, and how is it controlled? What is cardiac hypertrophy? Describe maximal and sub-maximal exercise testing. What is the role of exercise in cardiac patient rehabilitation?
4. Energy Expenditure 7. Why does the body need energy? 8. Which food group offers the most energy? 9. You should be aware of the different units used to measure energy. 10. What is energy balance? 11. What would happen if the body was in negative or positive energy balance? 12. Describe 3 ways the body expends energy. 13. Describe factors which can affect energy expended by the body. 14. State 3 methods of measuring energy expenditure, and describe how they are carried out. 5. Body Composition, Exercise and Obesity 15. Why is body composition a better indicator of health than weight? 16. Describe the 6 methods of measuring body composition. 17. What does obesity mean? 18. What are the health risks to a person who is obese? 19. What is the effect of exercise on muscle:fat ratio? 20. Why does increased muscle cause increased BMR? 21. To lose weight, describe a personâ€™s exercise regime. 6. Osteoporosis 22. Why do bones require calcium and vitamin D? 23. What is required for bone density to increase? 24. What is the function of osteoblast cells? 25. What is the function of osteoclast cells? 26. Which hormone maintains osteoclast activity? 27. At what age does bone density reach a peak? 28. What is responsible for loss of bone density? 29. What is osteoporosis? 30. Why is osteoporosis more common in women? 31. Why is osteoporosis more common in post-menopausal women? 32. What factors increase the risk of developing osteoporosis? 33. Describe how exercise can help prevent osteoporosis.
7. Diabetes Mellitus 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Precisely where are blood sugar levels detected? What are the roles of insulin and glucagon in maintaining blood sugar levels? What is type 1 Diabetes Mellitus? How does someone develop type 2 Diabetes Mellitus? Who is at risk of developing type 2 Diabetes Mellitus? Describe the effect of exercise on type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.