Issuu on Google+

IN TO t≠e

abyss

An exploration on the typeface REQUIEM, by Hoef ler & Frere-Jones; featuring content and imagery that interprets Joseph Campbell’s THE HERO’S JOURNEY.

Released through Fontshop (FontShop.com).


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4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$


IN TO t≠e

abyss


First published and distributed by FontShop Industries FontShop 149 9th Street Suite 402, San Francisco, California 94103 USA Url: www.fontshop.com Email: we@fontshop.com www.facebook.com/fontshop

Edited and produced by Hoefler & Frere-Jones Concepts and art direction by Kelsey Rubbelke Book design by Kelsey Rubbelke

Š 2012 Hoefler & Frere-Jones Copyright on text and design work is held by respective designers and contributors.

All ‰ ights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in retrieval systems or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or any information storage, without written permissions from respective copyright owner or owner(s). Requiem is a registered trademark of Hoefler & Frere-Jones.

ISBN 978-030-19238-0-4 Printed by Kelsey Rubbelke Bound by BPS Reprographics


This book is dedicated to those whom possess the courage, the resilience, and the strength in order to Venture past their own comfort zones and Into their adventure worlds. This journey will take them into the Unknown, into the Abyss


TABLE OF CONTENTS


A True Renaissance Letter viii Foundry Background xi

ACT

1

DEPARTURE

ACT

Ordinary World

1.2

The Call

1.4

Refusal of the Call

1.6

The Mentor

1.8

Belly of the Whale

1.10

2

Descent

ACT

First Crossing

2.2

Tests, Allies, Enemies

2.4

The Goddess

2.6

Road of Trials

2.8

Inmost Cave

2.10

Atonement with the Father

2.12

Apotheosis

2.14

3

RETURN The Road Back

3.2

Resurrection

3.4

Refusal/Magic Flight

3.6

Crossing of Second Threshold

3.8

Mastery of Two Worlds

3.10


< The typefaces of the first generation after Gutenberg all were based

A TRUE RENAISSANCE LETTER

upon the contemporary handwritten forms. The Renaissance brought with it a renewed interest in the inscriptional lettering from the classical period, especially those of the capital letters that were derived directly from Roman monuments. Dissecting these letters scientifically became a common pastime amongst the most prominent Renaissance minds such as: FRA LUCA DE PACIOLI, showcases the subject of letter construction in De Divina Proportione (1497); publisher GEOFFROY TROY offered a more mystical

Requiem was inspired by an illustration from a sixteenthce≠tury writing manual. ‰ equiem was created to commemo® ate the fertile world of RENAISSANCE humanism. old master ALBRECHT DÜREER.

analysis in Champ Fleury (1529). “On the Just Shaping of Letters” (1535), is one of the greatest works on the constructed alphabet and was composed by no less than the

< Approaching lettering from the per-

spective of practitioners were the writing masters, whose writing manuals taught the methods by which every form of lettering could be rendered. LUDOVICO VICENTINO DEGLI ARRIGHI’S (1480-1527), a calligrapher at the Apostolic Chancery in Rome, writing manual Il Modo de Temperare le Penne (1523) includes one of the most elegant renderings of the classical alphabet, letters which were freed from the shackles of geometry and simply shown f loating in a solid field of black. These letters served as the basis for Requiem’s Display Roman and Small Caps.

< Missing from most of

the renaissance writing manuals —including Arrighi’s —is a viable roman lowercase. The upright lowercase was more the province of typefounding than calligraphy, so the few writing masters who attempted a lowercase did so hesitatingly, often with gloomy results. (The lowercase in Giovanni Francesco Cresci’s 1570 Il Perfetto Scrittore is among the best, though even his is overly gothic.) Therefore, Requiem’s lowercase is an invention, as are its figures and punctuation, but for its italic versions it returns wholeheartedly to the full-blooded “chancery cursive” for which Arrighi is most famous. Finally, Requiem includes two sets of decorative alphabets which are contained within decorative “cartouches,” whose end pieces are inspired by the work of Arrighi’s contemporaries GIOVANNI BATTISTA PALATINO and VESPASIANO AMPHIAREO.

≤ viii

— INTO THE ABYSS —


— INTRO —

ix


≤x

— INTO THE ABYSS —


<

& FJ

Since 1989, JONATHAN HOEFLER and TOBIAS

H

FRERE-JONES have helped some of the world’s foremost publications, corporations, and institutions develop their unique voice through typography. Their body of work includes some of the world's most famous designs, typefaces marked by both high performance and high style. < In 2012, The Hoef ler Type Foundry entered its twenty-fourth year as Hoef ler & FrereJones. H&FJ continues to work with brand leaders in every sector, developing original typefaces and licensing fonts from its library of more than a thousand de-

Jonathan Hoefle®

is a typeface designer and an

armchair type historian who specializes in the design of original typefaces. Named one of the forty most influential designers in America by I.D. Magazine, Hoefler’s publishing work includes award-winning original typeface designs for Rolling Stone, Harper’s Bazaar, The New York Times Magazine, Sports Illustrated, and Esquire; his institutional clients range from the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum to the rock band They Might Be Giants. Per-

signs, and it publishes fonts exclusively through its New

haps his best known work is the Hoefler Text family of typefaces, designed

York sales office and its web site at typography.com.

for Apple Computer and now appearing everywhere as part of the Macintosh operating system.

< Hoefler’s work has been exhibited internationally, and

is included in the permanent collection of the Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum (Smithsonian Institution) in New York. In 2002, The Association Typographique Internationale (ATypI) presented Hoefler with its most prestigious award, the PRIX CHARLES PEIGNOT for outstanding contributions to type design. Hoefler and Frere-Jones’ collaboration has earned them profiles in The New York Times, Time, and Esquire.

Frere-Jo≠es

joined Font Bureau, Inc. in Boston, after receiving his BFA in 1992 from Rhode Island School of Design. During his seven years as Senior Designer, he created a number of the typefaces that are Font Bureau's best known, including Interstate and Poynter Old style & Gothic. He joined the faculty of the Yale School of Art in 1996, where he continues to teach typeface design on the graduate level. In 1999, he left Font Bureau to return to New York, where he began work with Jonathan Hoefler. Since working together, the two have collaborated on projects for The Wall Street Journal, Martha Stewart Living, Nike, Pentagram, GQ, Esquire, The New Times, Business 2.0, and The New York Times Magazine.

< He has designed over five hundred typefaces for

retail publication, custom clients, and experimental research. His clients have included The Boston Globe, The New York Times, The Cooper-Hewitt Museum, The Whitney Museum, The American Institute of Graphic Arts Journal, and Neville Brody. He has lectured at Rhode Island School of Design, Yale School of Art, Pratt Institute, Royal College of Art, and Universidad de las Americas. His work has been featured in How, ID, Page, and Print, and is included in the permanent collection of the Victoria & Albert Museum, London. In 2006, Frere-Jones became the first American to receive the GERRIT NOORDZIJ PRIZE presented by the Royal Academy of The Hague in honor of his unique contributions to type design, typography, and type education.

— INTRO —

xi


22

RAGLAN’S COMPONENTS TO A HERO’S LIFE • ∞e ≠ero’s mot≠er is a roya∆ virgin; • His fat≠er is a King, an∂ • Often a near re∆ative of ≠is mot≠er, ∫ut • ∞e circumstances of ≠is conceπtion are unusua∆, an∂ • He is a∆so reπute∂ to ∫e t≠e son of a go∂. • At ∫irt≠ an attemπt is ma∂e, usua∆ ∆y ∫y ≠is fat≠er or ≠is maternal gran∂fat≠er, to ∏i∆ ∆ ≠im, • He is sπirite∂ away, an∂ • Reare∂ ∫y foster πarents in a far country. • We are to∆∂ not≠ing of ≠is c≠i∆∂ ≠oo∂, ≠ut • On reac≠ing man≠oo∂ ≠e returns or goes to ≠is future ∏ing∂om. • After a victory over t≠e ∏ing an∂/or a giant, ∂ragon, or wi∆∂ ∫east, • He marries a πrincess, often t≠e ∂aug≠ter of ≠is πre∂ecessor, an∂ • Becomes ∏ing. • For a time ≠e reigns uneventfu∆ ∆y, an∂ • Prescri∫es ∆aws, ∫ut • Later ≠e ∆oses favor wit≠ t≠e go∂s an∂/or ≠is su∫jects, an∂ • He is ∂riven from t≠e t≠rone an∂ city, after w≠ic≠ • He meets wit≠ a mysterious ∂eat≠, • Often at t≠e toπ of a ≠i∆ ∆ • His c≠i∆∂ren, if any, ∂o not succee∂ ≠im. • His ∫o∂y is not ∫urie∂, ∫ut never t≠e ∆ess • He ≠as one or more ≠o∆y seπu∆c≠ers

≤ xii

— INTO THE ABYSS —


WHAT IS THE HERO’S JOURNEY < In spite of its infinite variety, the hero’s

< The idea of the everyday hero is the theme of this

of living.

book. We will be looking at the recipe of the Hero and

story is always a journey. In brief, a hero leaves her

his/her Journey through stories of the great heroes of

comfortable, ordinary surroundings to venture into

antiquity, the historical past, and the present. But, it is

a challenging, unfamiliar world. This journey may be

you who will have to translate the symbolic moments

outward to an actual place: a labyrinth, forest or cave,

of this archetypal experience into your own existence

a strange city or country, or a new locale. This place

to try, in a sense, to get in touch with the hero within

becomes the arena for her conf lict with antagonistic,

your own PSYCHE. The Hero, is called a UNIVERSAL

challenging forces. But there are as many stories that

ARCHETYPE that lies dormant within the psyche of

take the hero on an inward path, an exploration of the

every individual. To reach maturity, or in the Jungian

mind, the heart, and the spirit. In any good story the hero

formula, to reach individuation, that archetype must

grows and changes, making a journey of transformation

be activated. < The stories of heroes throughout time

from one way of being to the next. For instance, from

and from every culture follow certain patterns and

despair to hope, weakness to strength, folly to wisdom,

there are various approaches to the lives of the great

love to hate. Of course, since we understand now the

heroes of antiquity and the establishing of a basic plot

cyclical nature of life, there is always the return. These

to the stories of all the great heroes whether fictional

emotional journeys capture the minds and hearts of

or historical has been a project taken up by many

an audience and make a story worth watching. The

different researchers over years. In 1936, FITZROY

various stages of the Hero’s Journey can be traced in

RICHARD SOMERSET also called LORD RAGLAN,

all kinds of stories, not just those that feature “heroic”

identified twenty-two components in any hero’s life.

physical action and adventure. The PROTAGONIST

When R aglan compared twenty-one different heroes against the twenty-two benchmarks, not a single hero would earn a perfect score. However, the closest were OPEDIUS and MOSES, who each received 21 points, THESEUS earned 20 points, KING ARTHUR won 19 points, ROMULUS and PERSEUS were awarded 18, and HERCULES earned 17. When the R aglan formula is applied to the life of JESUS, Jesus would earn the exact same amount as Hercules, 17.

of every story is the hero of a journey, even if the path leads only into his own mind or into the realm of relationships. The important points of the Hero’s Journey emerge quite naturally even when the writer is unaware of them. This is because the form of the Hero and her journey is truly archetypal, that is deeply imbedded in human psyches. But

<

JOSEPH CAMPBELL, was the anthropologist

some knowledge of this ancient guide/form to telling

and also mythologist, that would focus a tremendous

a story is useful in locating issues and just in telling

amount of energy and research on the theme of the

better stories. Consider the following stages as a map

Hero Archetype, which eventually led to the book, The

of the Hero’s Journey. This book will be exploring one

Hero With a Thousand Faces. In this text Campbell

of many ways to get from here to there, but it is one of

uncovers the basic patterns that lie in the hero stories

the most f lexible, durable and dependable ways.

of all time. This book will explore Campbell’s pattern of the Hero’s Journey and attempt to discover what it’s messages have to tell the ordinary human being about how to live life and what to expect out of the adventure

— INTRO —

xv


ACT1 DEPARTURE


THE ORDINARY WORLD

< You are already familiar with the “fish out of water” idea, and have seen it used in countless films and TV shows, such as, The Fugitive, The Beverly Hillbillies, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court, The Wizard of Oz, Witness, 48 Hours, Trading Places, and Beverly Hills Cop just to mention a few. In the movie The Matrix you find Neo, the hero, unhappy living as a cog in the corporate machine. Living in what

The Ordinary World is THE WORLD WE GROW UP IN. Most stories will take the hero out of that ordinary world and journey her into a special world that is new, strange, and alien.

seems on the surface to be a rather ordinary existence. Just as you first see Luke Skywalker, hero of Star Wars, being bored to death as a farm boy before he sets out to bring balance to the universe. Likewise

in The Wizard of Oz, considerable time is spent establishing Dorothy’s drab, dull normal life in Kansas before she is blown to the wonderland of Oz. In the Wizard of Oz, shooting the Kansas scenes in black and white, while the Oz scenes are shot in vibrant Technicolor heightens the contrast between the two worlds.

< In the movie Legend, the world of the two main characters, Lilly

and Jack, is thrown out of balance by the act of Lilly touching a Unicorn. This is comparable to the Eve moment in the GARDEN OF EDEN or the PSYCHE and PANDORA moments of opening boxes —in other words, the moment of transgression that forces the relationship to move beyond the safety of the Garden (innocence, youth, home, ignorance, ordinary world) and opens the relationship up to the possibilities of growth, transcendence, and individuation. The unicorns in this clip, represent purity, innocence, and goodness —the exact opposite of the shadow figures, and demons of the Dark Lord and his realm. Notice the sound of whale songs, this is a hint that we are nearing with matters of the unconscious. The SEA is the great symbol of the unfathomable depths of the unconscious with deep currents and the strange and wonderful creatures of the deep becoming symbolic of the forces or energies that emanate from the unconscious.

≤ 1.2

— INTO THE ABYSS —


— ACT 1 —

1.3


≤ 1.4

— INTO THE ABYSS —


THE CALL TO ADVENTURE <

The “call to adventure” represents the dawning, awareness that there

is another world, a road to take, a mission or begin, or a journey that calls. Often, the hero is presented with a problem, challenge, or adventure to undertake. Once presented with a Call to Adventure, she can no longer remain indefinitely in the comfort of the Ordinary World. Perhaps the land is dying, as in the KING ARTHUR stories of the search for the Grail, the only treasure that can heal the wounded land.

< In Star Wars, the Call to Adventure is

Princess Leia’s desperate holographic message to wise old Obi Wan Kenobi who asks Luke to join in the quest. Leia has been snatched by evil Darth Vader, like the Greek springtime goddess Persephone who was kidnapped to the underworld by Pluto, lord of the dead. Her rescue is vital to restoring the normal balance of the universe. In the Wizard of Oz, Dorothy has one of the most beautiful calls to adventure, Somewhere Over the Rainbow. She and her little companion Toto will soon be exploring the land beyond the rainbow.

So the first stage of the adventure of the hero is called the “DEPARTURE” and includes the call to adventure which is the point in a person’s life when they are first given notice that everything is going to change, whether they know it or not.

<

You see, the Call to

Adventure will establish THE STAKES OF THE GAME and make clear the goal, such as to win the treasure or the lover, to get revenge or right a

wrong, to achieve a dream, confront a challenge, or change a life. What’s at stake can often be expressed as A QUESTION posed by the call. Will E. T. the Extra Terrestrial, or Dorothy in The Wizard of Oz get home again? Will Luke rescue Princess Leia and defeat Darth Vader? In the Matrix will Neo be able to self-overcome and become “the one?” On a more casual, but no less important note, boy meets girl, but does boy get girl?

— ACT 1 —

1.5


THE REFUSAL <

This is all about FEAR. Often the hero refuses the

Call or expresses reluctance. After all, he/she is facing the greatest of all fears, terror of the unknown. The hero has not yet fully committed to the journey and may still be thinking turning back. Sometimes some other inf luence (such as change in the circumstances, or a further offense towards the natural order of things (life), or the encouragement of a Mentor) is needed to get her past this turning point of fear. < At this point in Star Wars, Luke refuses Obi Wan’s Call to Adventure and returns to his aunt and uncle’s farmhouse, only to find they have been barbecued by the Emperor’s storm troopers. Suddenly Luke is no longer reluctant and is eager to undertake the quest. The evil of the Empire has become personal to him. He is motivated. The MOTIVATION of ‘avenging a wrongdoing’ is a common theme. In the film Legend we can see the resolute

“Refusa∆ of t≠e summons converts t≠e a∂venture into negative. Wa∆∆e∂ in ∫ore∂om, ≠ar∂ wor∏, or ‘cu∆ture,’ t≠e su∫ject ∆oses t≠e πower of significant affirmative action an∂ ∫ecomes a victim to ∫e save∂. His f∆owering wor∆∂ ∫ecomes a waste∆an∂ of ∂ry stones an∂ ≠is ∆ife fee∆s meaning∆ess even t≠oug≠, ∆i∏e King Minos, ≠e may t≠roug≠ titanic effort succee∂ in bui∆∂ing an emπire or renown. W≠atever ≠ouse ≠e ∫ui∆∂s, it wi∆∆ ∫e a ≠ouse of ∂eat≠: a ∆a∫yrint≠ of cyc∆oπean wa∆∆s to ≠i∂e from ≠im‚ ≠is minotaur. A∆∆ ≠e can ∂o is create new πro∫∆ems for ≠imse∆f an∂ await t≠e gra∂ua∆ aππroac≠ of ≠is ∂isintegration.” —Joseπ≠ Camπ∫e∆∆

≤ 1.6

— INTO THE ABYSS —

hero Lily determined to make things right and reluctant hero Jack being chosen by the fairies to be the hero. In this film both characters go through their own journeys to discover their true selves and to regain the balance and life force of their world. Sometimes there is a “Refusal of the Call.” Often when the call is given, the future hero refuses to heed it. This may be from a sense of duty or obligation, fear, insecurity, a sense of inadequacy, or any of a range of reasons that work to hold the person in his or her current circumstances.


MENTOR < At this moment in the journey many stories will have introduced, as in the legend of King Arthur, a Merlin-like character, who is the hero’s mentor. The relationship between hero and Mentor is one of the most common themes in mythology, and one of the richest in its symbolic value. It stands for THE BOND between parent and child, teacher and student, doctor and patient, and/or God and man.

< The function of Mentors is to prepare the hero to

FACE THE UNKNOWN. They may give advice, guidance or magical equipment. It is good to remember that the Mentor can only go so far with the hero. Eventually the hero must face the unknown alone. And sometimes the Mentor is required to give the hero a swift kick in the pants to get the adventure going. < The mentor is a character who aids or trains the hero. The essence of the mentor is the wise old man or woman. The mentor represents the wiser and more godlike qualities within us. The mentor’s role may be to teach the hero. An effective teacher may be an otherwise inept or foolish character who possesses just the skill or wisdom the hero needs for his challenge. The other major role of the

“For t≠ose w≠o ≠ave not refuse∂ t≠e ca∆∆, t≠e first encounter of t≠e ≠ero journey is wit≠ a πrotective figure (often a ∆itt∆e o∆∂ crone or o∆∆ man/woman) w≠o πrovi∂es t≠e a∂venturer wit≠ amulet against t≠e ∂ragon forces ≠e is a∫out to πass.” —Joseπ≠ Camπ∫ell

mentor is to equip the hero by giving him a gift or gifts which are important in his quest. These gifts may be weapons, medicine or food, magic, or some important clue or piece of information. Frequently the mentor requires the

hero to have passed some sort of test before receiving the gift. The gift may be a seemingly insignificant object, the importance of which doesn’t emerge until later. The mentor may occasionally be the HERO’S CONSCIENCE returning him to the right path after he strays or strengthening him when he weakens. The hero doesn’t always appreciate this assistance, of course.

— ACT 1 —

1.9


<

The “BELLY OF THE WHALE” represents the final separation from the

hero’s known world and self. It is sometimes described as the person’s lowest point, but in fact it is actually the point when the person is between or TRANSITIONING between worlds and selves. The separation has been made, or is being made, or being fully recognized between the old world and old self and the potential for a new world/self. The experiences that will shape the new world and self will begin shortly, or may be beginning with this experience which is often symbolized by something dark, unknown and frightening. By entering this stage, the person shows their willingness to undergo a METAMORPHOSIS to die to him or herself.


ACT2 DESCENT


THE FIRST CROSSING

<

In the literature and films of heroes it can be anything from a full

blown Tornado, as in Dorothy’s journey, or just the curiosity that makes Alice follow the white rabbit down its hole. The Threshold itself is referencing, at least on some level, the THRESHOLD OF CONSCIOUSNESS —especially if the journey is inward. At any rate, now the hero finally commits to the adven-

Heroes are constantly crossing THRESHOLDS. The Hero must transgress the lines and limits drawn by culture and society. Often the hero’s Journey has everything to do with IDENTITY Who are you? Are you that construction that your culture says you are? Or are you something else all together, something unique, special; destined for something other than the typical life patterns you see around you? What is it that takes you across the First Threshold? “∞e ∞res≠o∆∂ of consciousness is often ∂eπicte∂ as a HIGHLY REFLECTIVE surface. It wor∏s t≠is way; t≠e conscious min∂ is constructe∂ aroun∂ t≠e i∂entity, t≠at is, i∂entity constructe∂ t≠roug≠ information gat≠ere∂ ∫y t≠e five senses. W≠at ∂o you see w≠en you loo∏ in t≠e mirror? ∞e π≠ysica∆ se∆f, an∂ of course t≠at view is frame∂ ∫y a∆∆ t≠e information t≠at ≠as ∫een gat≠ere∂ ∫y t≠e sense∂ uπ unti∆ t≠at moment, is t≠at ∆oo∏ing ∫ac∏ at me smart, ≠an∂some, goo∂ nature∂, or ug∆y, miss≠aππen, ∫a∂? Going t≠roug≠ t≠e mirror or un∂er t≠e water is a sym∫o∆ of BENEATH THE SURFACE of t≠ings an∂ oπening uπ to t≠e πossi∫i∆ity of t≠e new, raster t≠an continua∆∆y maintaining t≠e same ol∂ πersπective.”

≤ 2.2

— INTO THE ABYSS —

ture and fully enters the Adventure World of the story for the first time by crossing the First Threshold. She agrees to face the consequences of dealing with the problem or challenge posed in the Call to Adventure. This is the moment when the story takes off and the adventure really gets going. The balloon goes up, the ship sails, the romance begins, the plane or the spaceship soars off, the wagon train gets rolling.

< Movies

that are built in THREE ACTS can often be divided into the follow-

ing: first, the hero’s decision to act, second, the action itself, and third, the consequences of the action. The First Threshold marks the turning point between the first and second. The hero, having overcome fear, has decided to confront the problem and take action. She is now committed to the journey and there’s no turning back. < This is the point where the person actually crosses into the field of adventure, leaving the known limits of his or her world and venturing into an unknown and dangerous realm where the rules and limits are not known. To the left is another Campbellian quote to help you understand this important moment along the journey:


TESTS ALLIES ENEMIES < The last few pages have described the hero’s awak-

places our diverse heroes meet their friends and allies,

ening with the Call to Adventure and then the initial

the TRICKSTER SPIRITS of the CROSSROADS and

journey leading to the First Threshold it’s crossing.

their enemies. In some stories, such as The Wizard of

After the hero makes it across the First Threshold, she

Oz, these are simply encounters on the road. It is in-

naturally encounters new challenges and tests. She

deed, on the “Yellow Brick Road,” that Dorothy ac-

makes allies and enemies, and begins to learn THE

quires her companions the Scarecrow, Tin Woodman

RULES & REGULATIONS of the

After the hero makes it across the First Threshold, he naturally will encounter new challenges and tests. He makes allies & enemies, and begins to learn the rules and regulations of the world of adventure he has entered.

world of adventure she has entered. It is amazing how often saloons and seedy bars seem to be good places for these transactions. As one might expect, many Western

films take the hero to a saloon where his manhood and

and Cowardly Lion. She also makes enemies such as

determination are tested. It is often here that friends

a orchard full of grumpy talking trees and of course

and villains are introduced. Bars are also useful to the

the Wicked Witch of the West. She passes a number

hero for obtaining information, for learning the new

of Tests such as getting Scarecrow off the nail, oiling

<

A couple of ex-

the Tin Woodman, and helping the Cowardly Lion deal

amples of this can be found the films Cassablanca and,

with his fear. In Star Wars films, the tests that Luke

rules that apply to this new world.

of course, Star Wars. In the film Cassablanca, set in

Skywalker face continue after the cantina scene. Obi

the exotic locale of Morocco, R ick ’s Cafe is the den

Wan teaches Luke about the Force by making him fight

of intrigue in which alliances and enmities are forged,

blindfolded. The early laser battles with the Imperial

and in which the hero’s moral character is constantly

fighters are more tests which Luke successfully passes.

tested. Likewise, in Star Wars, the cantina, with its

< From a psychological point of view, and remember-

jazzy alien f lavor and seedy atmosphere, is the setting

ing that the hero’s journey is the individual PSYCHE’S

for the creation of a major alliance with Han Solo, and

JOURNEY to reach full potentiality and maturity, the

the making of an important enemy with Jabba the Hutt.

road of trials should be seen as a series of tests, tasks,

In the extended story of the Star War’s hero, this enemy

or ordeals that the person must undergo to begin this

pays off two movies later in Return of the Jedi. Here at

transformation. It is not unusual for the person to FAIL

the start of Luke’s journey, in the giddy, surreal, vio-

one or more of these tests throughout their journey.

lent atmosphere of the cantina swarming with bizarre aliens, he also gets a taste of the exciting and dangerous World of Adventure he has just entered. Another important value of scenes like these is that they allow for CHARACTER DEVELOPMENT because we are given the opportunity to watch the hero and his companions react under stress. A perfect example is in the Star Wars cantina, Luke gets to see Han Solo’s way of handling a tight situation, and learns that Obi Wan is a warrior wizard of great power.

<

There are many different

— ACT 2 —

2.5


GODDESS <

The meeting with the goddess represents the point in the adventure

when the person experiences a LOVE that has the power and significance of the all-powerful, all encompassing, UNCONDITIONAL LOVE that a fortunate infant may experience with his or her mother. This is beautifully

demonstrated

with

Dorothy

and Glenda. Glenda is the personification of the God Mother who both cares and protects, but never smothers or suffocates. There is not just one kind of meeting with the goddess, because there are so many different kinds of goddesses/gods. Another form of the meeting with the goddess is called the HIEROS GAMOS or sacred marriage, the union .of opposites, and may take

“∞e u∆timate a∂venture, is w≠en a∆∆ t≠e ∫arriers an∂ ogres ≠ave ∫een overcome, t≠is common∆y reπresente∂ as a mystica∆ marriage of t≠e triumπ≠ant ≠ero-sou∆ wit≠ t≠e ≤ueen Go∂∂ess of t≠e A∂venture Wor∆∂. ∞is is t≠e crisis at t≠e na∂ir, t≠e ≥enit≠, or at t≠e uttermost e∂ge of t≠e eart≠, at t≠e centra∆ πoint of t≠e cosmos, in t≠e ta∫ernac∆e of t≠e temπ∆e, or wit≠in t≠e ∂ar∏ness of t≠e ∂eeπest c≠am∫er of t≠e ≠eart.” —Joseπ≠ Camπ∫e∆∆

place entirely within the person. In other words, the person begins to see him or herself in a NON-DUALISTIC way. This is a very important step in the process and is often represented by the person finding the other person that he/she loves most completely. Although Campbell symbolizes this step as a meeting with a goddess, unconditional love and/or self unification does not have to be represented by a woman.

≤ 2.6

— INTO THE ABYSS —


THE ROAD OF TRIALS <

The hero meets a goddess figure that is an ORACLE.

Oracles are messengers from the gods and are sent to help the hero with the journey. But these messengers are often TRICKSTER SPIRITS and their messages are coded and require interpretation. It is as though their messages lead

“∞e crux of t≠e curious ∂ifficu∆ty ∆ies in t≠e fact t≠at our conscious views of w≠at ∆ife oug≠t to ∫e se∆∂om corresπon∂ to w≠at ∆ife rea∆∆y is. Genera∆∆y we refuse to a∂mit wit≠in ourse∆ves, or wit≠in our frien∂s, t≠e fu∆∆ness of t≠at πus≠ing, se∆f-πrotective, ma∆o∂orous, carnivorous, ∆ec≠erous fever w≠ic≠ is t≠e very nature of t≠e organic ce∆∆. Rat≠er, we ten∂ to πerfume, w≠itewas≠, an∂ reinterπret; meanw≠i∆e imagining t≠at a∆∆ t≠e f∆ies in t≠e ointment, a∆∆ t≠e ≠airs in t≠e souπ, are t≠e fau∆ts of some unπ∆easant someone e∆se. But w≠en it su∂∂en∆y ∂awns on us, or is force∂ to our attention t≠at everyt≠ing we t≠in∏ or ∂o is necessari∆y tainte∂ wit≠ t≠e o∂or of t≠e f∆es≠, t≠en, not uncommon∆y, t≠ere is exπerience∂ a moment of revu∆sion: ∆ife, t≠e acts of ∆ife, t≠e organs of ∆ife, woman in πarticu∆ar as t≠e great sym∫o∆ of ∆ife, ∫ecome into∆era∫∆e to t≠e πure, t≠e πure, πure sou∆. T≠e innocent ∂e∆ig≠t of Oe∂iπus in ≠is first πossession of t≠e queen turns to an agony of sπirit w≠en ≠e ∆earns t≠at t≠e woman is ≠is mot≠er. Li∏e Ham∆et, ≠e is ∫eset ∫y t≠e mora∆ image of t≠e fat≠er an∂ li∏e Ham∆et, ≠e turns from t≠e fair features of t≠e wor∆∂ to searc≠ t≠e ∂ar∏ness for a ≠ig≠er ∏ing∂om t≠an t≠is of t≠e incest an∂ a∂u∆tery ri∂∂en, ∆uxurious an∂ incorrigi∫∆e mot≠er. ∞e see∏er of t≠e ∆ife ∫eyond life must πress ∫eyon∂ ≠er, surπass t≠e temπtations of ≠er ca∆∆, an∂ soar to t≠e immacu∆ate et≠er ∫eyon∂ ” —Joseπ≠ Camπ∫e∆∆

the person astray, but it is exactly through challenges the messages set up that the hero gets to the place she needs to be. Consider angels and their messages. Imagine you are a 15-year old girl with dreams and plans who is visited by an angel who tells you that you are pregnant with God’s son. This is good news? Of course it all depends on the perspective. Your mother and father might be a little upset by the news. This is A CRYPTIC MESSAGE that will challenge everything you believe in and counted on. But in the end the lessons learned through meeting the challenges set up by the oracle will lead the hero home.

< Of course the

reverse is always possible. That is the hero may encounter a TEMPTRESS OR TEMPTER. At one level, this step is about those temptations that may lead the hero to abandon or stray from his or her quest, which as with the Meeting with the Goddess does not necessarily have to be represented by a woman. For Campbell, however, this step is about the revulsion that

the usually male hero may feel about his own f leshy/earthy nature, and the subsequent attachment or projection of that revulsion to women. Woman, metaphorically is the physical or material temptations of life, since the heroknight was TEMPTED BY LUST from his spiritual journey.

— ACT 2 —

2.9


INMOST CAVE < The approach to the inmost cave is a CLIMATIC MOMENT in the hero’s journey. The hero comes at last to the edge of a dangerous place, which is sometimes deep underground, where the object of the quest is hidden. Often it’s the headquarters of the hero’s greatest ENEMY, the most dangerous spot in the Adventure World, the Inmost Cave. When the hero enters that fearful place she will cross the second major threshold. Heroes often pause at the gate to prepare, plan, and outwit the villain’s guards. This is the phase of APPROACH.

< In

mythology the Inmost Cave may represent the LAND OF THE DEAD,

The SHADOW archetype is a negative figure, representing things we don’t like and would like to eliminate. The shadow often takes on the form of the antagonist in a story. Not all antagonists are villains; sometimes the antagonist is a good guy whose goals simply are the opposite of the protagonist’s goals. However, if the antagonist is a VILLAIN, though, he’s a shadow. The shadow is the worthy opponent with whom the hero must struggle. In a conflict between hero and villain, the fight is to the end; one or the other must be destroyed or rendered impotent. While the shadow is considered to be a negative force in the story, it’s important to remember that no man is a villain in his own eyes. In fact, the shadow frequently sees himself as a hero, and the story’s hero as his villain.

like what we saw in the wonderfully

campy

version

of

Hercules and his nemis, witch, goddess the sorceress Circe. The hero may have to descend into hell to rescue a loved one (Orpheus), into a cave to fight a dragon and win a treasure (Sigurd in Norse myth), or into a labyrinth to confront a monster (Theseus and the Minotaur). In the Arthurian stories the Inmost Cave is the Chapel Perilous, the dangerous chamber where the seeker may find the Grail (Parcifal). This supreme danger or ordeal is when the fortunes of the hero hit bottom in a direct confrontation with her greatest fear. She faces the possibility of death and is brought to the brink in a battle with a hostile force. The SUPREME ORDEAL is a black moment for the audience, as we are held

in suspense and tension, not knowing if she will live or die.

< This

is a critical moment in any story, an Ordeal in which the hero must die or appear to die so that she can be born again. It’s a major source of the magic of the heroic myth. The experiences of the preceding stages have led us, the audience, to identify with the hero and her FATE. What happens to the hero happens to us. We are encouraged to experience the brink-of-death moment with her. Our emotions are temporarily depressed so that they can be revived by the hero’s return from death. The result of this revival is a feeling of elation and exhilaration. In romantic comedies the death faced by the hero may simply be the temporary death of the relationship, as in the second movement of the old standard plot, “boy meets girl, boy loses girl, boy gets girl.” The hero’s chances of connecting with the object of affection look their bleakest.

≤ 2.10

— INTO THE ABYSS —


— ACT 2 —

2.11


FATHER < Another aspect of this moment in the life of the hero is ATONEMENT WITH THE FATHER. In this step the person must confront and be initiated by whatever holds THE ULTIMATE POWER in his or her life. In many myths and stories this is the father, or a father figure who has life and death power. This is the center point of the journey. All the previous steps have been moving in to this place, all that follow will move out from it. Although this step is most frequently symbolized by an encounter with a male entity, it does not have to be a male, just someone or thing with incredible power. For the TRANSFORMATION to take place, the person as he or she has been must be “killed” so that the new self can come into being. Sometime this killing is literal, and the earthly journey for that character is either over or moves into a different realm.

< From his book on the hero and the archetypal journey Campbell refers to this idea. “Atonement (at-one-ment) consists in no more than the abandonment of that self-generated double monster —the dragon thought to be God (SUPEREGO) and the dragon thought to Sin (repressed ID). But this requires an abandonment of the attachment to EGO itself, and that is what is difficult. One must have a faith that the father is

“∞e πro∫∆em of t≠e ≠ero going to meet t≠e fat≠er is to oπen ≠is sou∆ ∫eyon∂ terror to suc≠ a ∂egree t≠at ≠e wi∆∆ ∫e riπe to un∂er◊an∂ ≠ow t≠e sic∏ening an∂ insane trage∂ies of t≠is va◊ an∂ rut≠∆ess cosmos are comπ∆ete∆y va∆i∂ate∂ in t≠e maje◊y of BEING. T≠e ≠ero transcen∂s ∆ife wit≠ its πecu∆iar ∫∆in∂ sπot an∂ for a moment rises to a g∆imπse of t≠e source. He ∫e≠o∆∂s the face of t≠e fat≠er, un∂er◊an∂s an∂ t≠e two are atone∂.” —Joseπ≠ Camπ∫e∆∆

merciful, and then a reliance upon that mercy. It is there, the center of belief is transferred outside the bedeviling god’s tight scaly ring, and the dreadful ogres dissolve. Through this ordeal the hero may derive HOPE and assurance from the helpful female figure, by whose magic (pollen charms or power of intercession) he is protected through all the frightening experiences of the father’s ego-shattering initiation. For

if it is impossible to trust the terrifying father-face, then one’s faith must be centered elsewhere (Spider Woman, Blessed Mother); and with that reliance for support, one endures the crisis —only to find, in the end, that the father and mother ref lect each other, and are in essence the same.”

— ACT 2 —

2.13


< Having survived death, beaten the dragon, or slain the Minotaur, hero and audience have cause to celebrate. The hero now takes possession of the TREASURE she has come seeking, her Reward. It might be a special weapon like a magic sword, or a token like the Grail or some elixir that can heal the wounded land. Sometimes the “sword” is knowledge and experience that leads to greater understanding and RECONCILIATION with hostile forces. In Star Wars, Luke rescues Princess Leia and captures the

APOTHEOSIS

plans of the Death Star, keys to defeating Darth Vader.

the ruby slippers, keys to getting back

Many heroes are turned into gods at this point in the story. To apotheosize is to transform into a god. When someone dies a physical death, or dies to the self to live in spirit, he or she moves beyond the pairs of opposites to a state of divine knowledge, love, compassion and bliss. This is a GOD-LIKE STATE; the person is in heaven and beyond all strife. A more mundane way of looking at this step is that it is a period of rest, peace and fulfillment before the hero begins the return. < “\e go∂s and go∂∂esses t≠en are to ∫e un∂erstoo∂ as em∫o∂iments an∂ custo∂ians of t≠e e∆ixir of Imperis≠a∫∆e Being ∫ut not t≠emse∆ves the U∆timate in its πrimary state. W≠at the ≠ero see∏s t≠roug≠ ≠is intercourse wit≠ t≠em us t≠erefore not finally t≠emse∆ves, ∫ut t≠eir grace, i.e., t≠e πower of t≠eir sustaining su∫stance. \is miracu∆ous energy su∫stance an∂ t≠is a∆one is t≠e Imπeris≠a∫∆e; t≠e names and forms of t≠e ∂eities w≠o everyw≠ere em∫o∂y, ∂isπense, an∂ reπresent it come an∂ go. \is is t≠e miracu∆ous energy of t≠e t≠un∂er∫o∆ts of Zeus, Ya≠we≠, an∂ t≠e Suπreme Bu∂∂≠a, t≠e ferti∆ity of t≠e rain of Viracoc≠a, t≠e virtue announce∂ ∫y t≠e ∫e∆∆ rung in t≠e Mass at t≠e consecration, an∂ t≠e ∆ig≠t of t≠e u∆timate i∆∆umination of t≠e saint an∂ sage. Its guar∂ians ∂are re∆ease it on∆y to t≠e ∂u∆y πroven” < “\ose who ∏now, not on∆y t≠at t≠e Ever∆asting ∆ies in t≠em, but t≠at w≠at t≠ey, an∂ a∆∆ t≠ings, rea∆∆y are is t≠e Ever∆asting, ∂we∆∆ in t≠e groves of t≠e wis≠ fu∆fi∆∆ing trees, ∂rin∏ t≠e ∫rew of immorta∆ity, an∂ ∆isten everyw≠ere to t≠e un≠eard music of eterna∆ concor∂.” —Joseπ≠ Camπ∫e∆∆

≤ 2.14

— INTO THE ABYSS —

< Dorothy es-

capes from the Wicked Witch’s castle with the Witch’s broomstick and home. At this point the hero may also SETTLE A CONFLICT with a parent. In Return of the Jedi, Luke is reconciled with Darth Vader, who turns out to be his father and not such a bad guy after all. The hero may also be reconciled with the opposite sex, as in romantic comedies. In many stories the loved one is the treasure the hero has come to win or rescue, and there is often a LOVE SCENE at this point to celebrate the victory.

< From the hero’s point

of view, members of the opposite sex may appear to be SHAPE SHIFTERS (the archetype of change). They seem to shift constantly in form or age, ref lecting the confusing and constantly changing aspects of the opposite sex. Tales of vampires, werewolves and other shape changers can be symbolic echoes of this shifting quality that men and women see in each other. The hero's Supreme Ordeal may grant a better understanding of the opposite sex, an ability to see beyond this shifting of outer appearance, which will lead to reconciliation. Bill Murray's character in Groundhog Day, Phil Connors (the weatherman) is a good example of this. His Road of Trials is, having to live the same day over and over again until he sees the R ita (his Producer) played by Angie McDowell, for the goddess that she is. But also until he can become the man that she can see and love. The hero may also become more attractive as a result of having survived the Supreme Ordeal. She has earned the title of “hero” by having taken the supreme risk on behalf of the community.

< The ULTIMATE BOON

is the achievement of the goal of the quest. It is what the person went on the journey to get. All the previous steps serve to prepare and purify the person for this step, since in many myths the boon is something transcendent like the ELIXIR OF LIFE itself, or a plant that supplies immortality, or the Holy Grail.


ACT3 RETURN


THE ROAD BACK < As the hero approaches the Third and final Stage of the journey known as “The Return” the hero begins to deal with THE CONSEQUENCES of confronting the dark forces of the Supreme ordeal. If she has not yet managed to reconcile with the parent, the gods, or the hostile forces, they may come raging after her.

<

Some of the best chase scenes spring up at this point, as the hero

is pursued on The Road Back by the vengeful forces she has disturbed by seizing the sword, the elixir or the treasure. What actually is happening is, the hero

“W≠en t≠e ≠ero-quest ≠as ∫een accomπ¬is≠e∂, t≠roug≠ πenetration to t≠e source, or t≠roug≠ t≠e grace of some ma¬e or fema¬e, ≠uman or anima¬, πersonification, t≠e a∂venturer sti¬¬ must return wit≠ ≠is ¬ife-transmuting troπ≠y. ∞e full round, t≠e norm of t≠e MONOMYTH, requires t≠at t≠e ≠ero s≠a¬¬ now ∫egin t≠e ¬a∫or of ∫ringing t≠e runes of wis∂om, t≠e Go¬∂en F¬eece, or ≠is s¬eeπing πrincess, ∫ac∏ into t≠e ∏ing∂om of ≠umanity, w≠ere t≠e ∫oon may re∫oun∂ to t≠e renewing of t≠e community, t≠e nation, t≠e π∆anet or t≠e ten t≠ousan∂ wor∆∂s. But t≠e resπonsi∫i∆ity ≠as ∫een frequent∆y refuse∂. Even t≠e Bu∂∂≠a, after ≠is triumπ≠, ∂ou∫te∂ w≠et≠er t≠e message of rea∆ization cou∆∂ ∫e communicate∂, an∂ saints are reπorte∂ to ≠ave πasse∂ away w≠i∆e in t≠e suπerna∆ ecstasy. Numerous in∂ee∂ are t≠e ≠eroes fa∫∆e∂ to ≠ave ta∏en up resi∂ence forever in t≠e ∫∆esse∂ is∆e of t≠e unaging Go∂∂ess of Immorta∆ Being” — Joseπ≠ Camπ∫e∆∆

has made the decision to return to the Ordinary World she had left behind. The hero realizes that this special world of adventure and challenge must eventually be left behind, but there are still dangers, temptations, and tests ahead. Generally speaking, the world of adventure is not a place where mortals can remain indefinitely, it is, after-all, the land of the gods, NeverNever Land, Wonderland, the Woods, Heaven and Hell and these are places that are for the immor-

tals. The adventure in those regions must end for the mortal and they must return to the land of reality, the ordinary world from which they came. < This can be a difficult decision. Our hero might REFUSE TO RETURN to that ordinary world. She might ask, “So why, when all has been achieved, the ambrosia has been drunk, and I have conversed with the gods, why should I go back to normal life with all its cares and woes?” There are very important reasons for the return to the ordinary world.

— ACT 3 —

3.3


RESURRECTION < The key to understanding the meaning of the concept of resurrection we need to look back into our prehistoric past. The prehistoric hunters and warriors that were our ancestors went through PURIFICATION ceremonies before they returned to their families and communities, because they had killed, they had blood on their hands. The hero who has been to the realm of the dead must be reborn and cleansed in one last ORDEAL OF DEATH AND RESURRECTION before returning to the ordinary World of the living. This is often a second life-anddeath moment, almost a replay of the death and rebirth of THE SUPREME ORDEAL. Death and darkness get in one last, desperate shot before being finally defeated. It's a kind of final exam for the hero, who must be tested once more to see if he has really learned the lessons of the Supreme Ordeal. The hero is transformed by these moments of death-andrebirth, and is able to return to ordinary life reborn as new being with new insights. < Another important aspect of this moment in the hero's journey has to do with the experience of CATHARSIS and the practice of rituals. The audience member is supposed to identify with the hero and so when the death and resurrection moment happens to the hero, so too the audience member experiences through the cathartic moment the death and resurrection on a psychological level. It can be a very powerful, transformative moment.

< The

Star Wars films play with this element constantly. In the first three of the films released there is featured a final battle scene in which Luke is almost killed, he even appears to be dead for a moment, and then miraculously survives. Each new ordeal wins him new knowledge and command over the Force. He is transformed into a new being by his experience.

— ACT 3 —

3.5


THE REFUSAL

&

THE MAGIC FLIGHT <

THE MAGIC FLIGHT: In The Matrix the hero's journey of Mor-

pheus has a beautiful example of how sometimes the Return requires

REFUSAL OF THE RETURN: There are examples as well, of those who are not able to return to the ordinary

something spectacular. As he is being rescued (by Neo and Trinity),

world. Just as the hero may need guides and assistants

he leaps from the shattered window of a skyscraper and is met mid

to set out on the quest, often times she must have pow-

air by Neo, who has leapt from a

erful guides and rescuers to bring her back to everyday

“If t≠e ≠ero in ≠is triumπ≠ wins t≠e ∫∆essing of t≠e go∂∂ess of t≠e go��� an∂ is t≠en exπ∆icit∆y commissione∂ to return to t≠e wor∆∂ wit≠ some e∆ixir for t≠e restoration of society, t≠e fina∆ stage of ≠is a∂venture is suππorte∂ ∫y a∆∆ t≠e πowers of ≠is suπernatura∆ πatron. On t≠e ot≠er ≠an∂, if t≠e troπ≠y ≠as ∫een attaine∂ against t≠e oππosition of its guar∂ian, or if t≠e ≠ero's wis≠ to return to t≠e wor∆∂ ≠as ∫een resente∂ ∫y t≠e go∂s or ∂emons, t≠en t≠e ∆ast stage of the myt≠o∆ogica∆ roun∂ ∫ecomes a ∆ive∆y, often comica∆, πursuit. ∞is f∆ig≠t may ∫e comπ∆icate∂ ∫y marve∆s of magica∆ o∫struction an∂ evasion.” —Joseπ≠ Camπ∫e∆∆

helicopter to save him. Then they

life, especially if the person has been WOUNDED or

both “f ly” to safety hanging on to a

weakened. Or perhaps the person doesn’t realize that

rope dangling from the helicopter.

it is time to return, that they can return, or that oth-

A great example of what is called

ers need their boon. Dr. Frankenstein is in his dungeon

the Magic Flight. Another example

laboratory with diabolical “mentor,” Dr Pratorius, and

that you might be familiar with is

his beautiful monsters. This is a comparable example of

in the Wallace and Gromit film

the journey into the underworld. It is a journey that so

“A Close Shave.” In the big chase

many heroes take, and a delightful picture of the mon-

scene where Wallace is driving

sters that are encountered in that realm. Joseph Camp-

his motorcycle with Gromit in his

bell explained it this way in his book on the hero. “The

sidecar, when the sidecar is discon-

hero may have to be brought back from his supernatu-

nected from the motorcycle. It ca-

ral adventure by assistance from without. That is to say,

reens off a cliff and plunges to what

the world may have to come and get him. For the bliss of

seems to be Gromit’s inevitable

the deep abode is not lightly abandoned in favor of the

death. Of course the ever-resourceful Gromit pushes a few buttons

self-scattering of the wakened state.” “Who having cast

and the sidecar sprouts wings and a propeller becoming an airplane.

off the world, would desire to return again? He would

Gromit f lies to the rescue in this nifty f lying machine. Sometimes

be only there.” And yet, in so far as one is alive, life will

the hero must ESCAPE with the boon, if it is something that the

call. Society is jealous of those who remain away from

gods have been jealously guarding. It can be just as adventurous and dangerous returning from the journey as it was to go on it.

<

THE

it, and will come knocking at the door. If the hero... is unwilling, the disturber suffers an ugly shock; but on the other and, if the summoned one is only delayed — sealed in by the beatitude of the state of perfect being (which resembles death) —an apparent rescue is effected, and the adventurer returns” —Joseph Campbell

≤ 3.6

— INTO THE ABYSS —


CROSSING THE SECOND THRESHOLD <

When the hero is ready to return he must cross the

she brings back some ELIXIR, treasure, or lesson from the Special World.

Return Threshold and rejoin the living in the ordinary

The Elixir is a magic potion with the power to heal. It may be a great trea-

world. The trick in returning is to retain the wisdom

sure like the Grail that magically heals the wounded land, or it simply might

gained on the quest, to INTEGRATE that wisdom into

be knowledge or experience that could be useful to the community some-

a human life, and then maybe figure out how to share

day.

the wisdom with the rest of the world. This is usually

and that “There’s no place like

extremely difficult.

<

“The returning hero, to com-

plete his adventure, must survive the impact of the

<

< Dorothy returns to Kansas with the knowledge that she is loved,

home.” E. T. returns home with the experience of friendship with

Some of this difficulty

humans. Luke Skywalker defeats

can be seen in the film Incognito when Harry is stand-

Darth Vader (for the time being)

world” —Joseph Campbell

ing trial for the murder of an Art Collector and the

and restores peace and order to the

stealing of the Rembrandt. Of course we know Harry

galaxy.

isn't the murderer and the painting is the very painting

is treasure won on the quest, but

<

Sometimes the Elixir

that he painted himself. So the case hinges around prov-

it may be love, freedom, wisdom,

ing that he indeed painted the painting. But you will see

or the knowledge that the Special

the problem right away. If he proves that he forged the

World exists and can be survived.

Rembrandt then his name will forever be connected to

Sometimes it’s just coming home

the forgery and he will be trapped forever within that

with a good story to tell. Unless

identity and doomed —but if he does not prove that

something is brought back from

he painted the painting then he will most likely spend

the ordeal in the Inmost Cave, the

the rest of his life in prison. He is a man facing a most difficult situation.

<

Finally, our hero returns to the

Ordinary World, but the journey is meaningless unless

hero is doomed to repeat the adventure.

<

In Legend, Jack has

“defeated” the Dark Lord (although he will have the last word!) and has returned to the land of the living. He completes the task that inaugurated the adventure —that is the dive into the forest pool to retrieve

“Many fai∆ures attest to t≠e ∂ifficu∆ties of t≠is ∆ifeaffirmative t≠res≠o∆∂. ∞e first πro∫∆em of t≠e returning ≠ero is to accept as rea∆, after an exπerience of t≠e sou∆ ” —satisfying vision of fu∆fi∆∆ment, t≠e πassing joys an∂ sorrows, ∫ana∆ities an∂ noisy o∫scenities of ∆ife. W≠y re-enter suc≠ a wor∆∂? W≠y attemπt to ma∏e π∆ausi∫∆e, or even interesting, to men an∂ women consume∂ wit≠ πassion, t≠e exπerience of transcen∂enta∆ ∫∆iss? As ∂reams t≠at were momentous ∫y nig≠t may seem simπ∆y si∆∆y in t≠e ∆ig≠t of ∂ay, 0 t≠e πoet an∂ t≠e πroπ≠et can ∂iscover t≠emse∆ves π∆aying t≠e i∂iot ∫efore a jury of so∫er eyes. ∞e easy t≠ing is to commit t≠e w≠ole community to t≠e ∂evi∆ an∂ retire again into t≠e ≠eaven∆y roc∏ ∂we∆∆ing, c∆ose the ∂oor, an∂ ma∏e it fast. But if some sπiritua∆ o∫stetrician ≠as ∂rawn t≠e s≠imenawa across t≠e retreat, t≠en t≠e wor∂ of reπrsenting eternity in time, an∂ πerceiving in time eternity, cannot ∫e avoi∂e∂ ” —Joseπ≠ Camπ∫e∆∆

Lilly’s ring. He awakens Lilly and together they leave the magical land of adventure behind as they journey into THE NEXT PHASE OF LIFE with its new challenges. But they are now fully prepared to meet those challenges.

— ACT 3 —

3.9


≤ 3.10

— INTO THE ABYSS —


MASTERY OF TWO WORLDS After the battles are done and the hero has returned she has mastered the skills to deal with the energies and archetypes of the unconscious as well as the challenges of the everyday ordinary world. Armed with the powerful weapon of self-knowledge she is Master of Both Worlds. In myth, this step is usually represented by a TRANSCENDENTAL hero like Jesus or Buddha, or in new heroes, like Neo or Jack. For a human hero, it may mean achieving a BALANCE between the material and spiritual. The person has become comfortable and competent in both the inner and outer worlds. < “Freedom to pass back and forth across the world division, from the perspective of the apparitions of time to that of the causal deep and back —not contaminating the principles of the one with those of the other, yet permitting the mind to know the one by virtue of the other —is the talent of the master. The Cosmic Dancer, declares Nietzsche, does not rest heavily in a single spot, but gaily, lightly, turns and leaps from one position to another. It is possible to speak from only one point at a time, but that does not invalidate the insights of the rest” —Joseph Campbell < The end result of the hero's journey is that the goal of MATURATION and INDIVIDUATION has been achieved. Joseph Campbell puts it this way. < “The meaning is very clear; it is the meaning of all religious practice. The individual, through prolonged psychological disciplines, gives up completely all attachment to his personal limitations, idiosyncrasies, hopes and fears, no longer resists the selfannihilation that is prerequisite to rebirth in the realization of truth and so becomes ripe, at last, for the great atonement. His personal ambitions being totally dissolved, he no longer tries to live but willingly relaxes to whatever may come to pass in him; he becomes, that is to say, an anonymity. The Law lives in him with his unreserved consent” < You see, MASTERY OVER THE SELF, leads to freedom from the fear of death, which in turn is the freedom to live. This can be seen as living in the Now, that is living in the moment, neither anticipating the future nor regretting the past. As Campbell said: “(t) he hero is the champion of things becoming, not of things become, because he is. ‘Before Abraham was, I AM.’ He does not mistake apparent changelessness in time for the permanence of Being, nor is he fearful of the next moment (or of the other thing), as destroying the permanent with its change. ‘Nothing retains its own form; but Nature, the greater renewer, ever makes up forms from forms. Be sure there's nothing perishes in the whole universe; it does but vary and renew its form. 'Thus the next moment is permitted to come to pass.”

— ACT 3 —

3.11


This book was created using Photoshop CS5 and InDesign CS5. The fonts used in the production of this book are Requiem by Hoefler & FrereJones Type Foundry and Akzidenz Grotesk originally created by Berthold Type Foundry. The designer and

The designer of this book is Kelsey Rubbelke. The photography featured was taken by Kelsey Rubbelke with exception of the image on page 2.12

photographer of this book is Kelsey Rubbelke. All text pages of this book were printed on Entrada Bright #190 using an inkjet printer. The book was then perfect bound by BPS Reprographics.


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4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4 $ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4 $ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4 $ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4 $ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4 $ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4 $ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4 $ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4 $ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4 $ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4$ 4$ 4$ 4`$ 4



INTO THE ABYSS