GT Porsche December 2020 / January 2021

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The world’s premier Porsche magazine

Issue 229 December-January 2021 £5.50

45 YEARS of 911 TURBO 930 LE







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How to read data generated by your Porsche following time it spends on a rolling road


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1988 930

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No car blends mild and wild like a 911 Turbo — and it all started with the 930. On the occasion of the model’s forty-fifth anniversary, we explore this late 1988 example.


Icon Engineering’s faithful take on the original 917 short-tail boasts a key difference from the legendary racing machine: you can drive Icon’s 917 to the shops.



We take a look back at how Porsche’s boosted road cars can trace their roots to the track.


Ever wondered what the numbers and squiggles on a rolling road printout mean? Wonder no more, Porsche fans!





Always a sharp-driving SUV, the Porsche Cayenne reaches its absolute zenith with the third-generation GTS Coupe.

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Fast, rare and highly respected, this RUF BTR 3.8 conversion is a 964 Turbo 3.6 on steroids.


The GT Porsche guide to circuit-specific cornering techniques.

78 FLAT-FOUR DEVELOPMENT (PART 2) Moving away from its VW origins, the fab flat-four was given a new lease of life.



This amazingly accurate replica of the Charles Ivey Group B 930 is getting ready to turn heads at next year’s Le Mans Classic.


One of the rarest production 911s, the LE was a send-off for the 911 Turbo, limited to fifty units.

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Dan finally gets behind the wheel of his restored transaxle. Ten miles down the road, disaster lies in wait.

106 997 CARRERA 4S

Hey, you! What’s that sound? No longer a buzzing door speaker.


The latest from planet Porsche.



In the context of coronavirus, Tim Harvey talks Le Mans, while Martin Ragginger talks N24.


CARS THIS ISSUE 80 112 44 111 28 22 112 111 10 84 104 45 44 90 50 47 46 66 111 112 96 56


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WELCOME Kelsey Publishing Ltd, The Granary, Downs Court, Yalding Hill, Yalding, Kent, ME18 6AL, United Kingdom. EDITORIAL Editor: Dan Furr Email: Twitter: @DanFurr Art Editor: Lee Caple Contributors: Shane O’Donoghue, Dan Sherwood, Matt Woods, Sharon Horsley, Neil Furber, Richard Gooding, Martin Ragginger, Matt Robinson, Tim Harvey, Emma Woodcock, Chris Lansbury ADVERTISING Talk Media Sales Managing Director: David Lerpiniere, 01732 445325 Account Manager: Russell Bedford, 01732 920500 Advertising Production Executive: Elsa Deakin, 01732 447534 MANAGEMENT Chief Operating Officer: Phil Weeden Chief Executive: Steve Wright Retail Director: Steve Brown Audience Development Manager: Andy Cotton Events Manager: Kat Chappell Print Production Manager: Georgina Harris Print Production Controller: Kelly Orriss Subscription Marketing Director: Gill Lambert Subscription Marketing Manager: Rochelle Gyer-Smith SUBSCRIPTIONS A total of six issues of GT Porsche are published per annum UK annual subscription price: £33 Europe annual subscription price: £39 USA & Canada annual subscription price: £39 Rest of World annual subscription price: £42 Find current subscription offers at: Buy back issues at: Already a subscriber? Manage your subscription online at CONTACT US Customer service queries: Help with subscriptions and back issue orders: Customer service and subscriptions postal address: GT Porsche Customer Service Team, Kelsey Publishing Ltd, The Granary, Downs Court, Yalding Hill, Yalding, Kent, ME18 6AL, United Kingdom DISTRIBUTION Distribution in Great Britain: Marketforce (UK) Ltd, 3rd Floor, 161 Marsh Wall, London, E14 9AP Tel: 0330 390 6555 Distribution in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland: Newspread Tel: +353 23 886 3850 PRINTING William Gibbons & Sons Ltd Kelsey Media 2020 © All rights reserved. Kelsey Media is a trading name of Kelsey Publishing Ltd. Reproduction in whole or in part is forbidden except with permission in writing from the publishers. Note to contributors: articles submitted for consideration by the editor must be the original work of the author and not previously published. Where photographs are included, which are not the property of the contributor, permission to reproduce them must have been obtained from the owner of the copyright. The editor cannot guarantee a personal response to all letters and emails received. The views expressed in the magazine are not necessarily those of the editor or the publisher. Kelsey Publishing Ltd accepts no liability for products and services offered by third parties. Kelsey Media takes your personal data seriously. For more information about our privacy policy, please visit If at any point you have any queries regarding Kelsey’s data policy, you can email our Data Protection Officer at

KELSEYmedia GT Porsche is part of the Fast Car Entertainment family and is entirely independent of Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG. Contents may not be reproduced in any form or stored on any electronic system without written permission. No responsibility accepted for any unsolicited material. GT Porsche recognises and abides by copyright laws and attempts to correctly credit all material used. If we have used or credited some of your work incorrectly, please contact us and we will do our best to fix the error.


OVER AND OUT... Time flies almost as quickly as Icon Engineering’s superb 917 K replica. Indeed, it seems hardly possible I’m writing the introduction to my sixteenth issue of GT Porsche as editor. In particular, the past few months have whizzed by, the world in a united state of unrest. These are seriously fast-paced times to be living in. Writing this welcome piece is bittersweet. On the one hand, when so many magazines on the newsstand are closing, I’m delighted to be able to present you with pages packed full of Porsche porn, with special focus on the forty-fifth anniversary of the original 911 Turbo (930). On the other, it’s with a sense of sadness I announce my departure from GT Porsche. I’m off to hop into the editor’s chair of both 911 & Porsche World and Classic Porsche magazines, and though I’m excited about taking on these hugely respected titles

and the fresh challenges they’ll bring, I’ll always look back fondly at my time working on GT Porsche. To that end, I have to thank my talented team of contributors for their work in helping newsstand sales and subscriptions to increase dramatically early on during my time writing these welcome messages. Thanks also to designer, Lee Caple, and, of course, to you, our loyal readers. You’re spread far and wide, consuming this magazine both in traditional print form and through increasingly popular digital distribution platforms. It’s your support and enthusiasm that keeps GT Porsche vibrant and packed full of exciting editorial. I’m sure you’ll join me in welcoming your new editor, Adam Tait, to the fold, and I look forward to seeing GT Porsche progress under his watch. If you want to keep up to date with goings on in the Furr camp, hit me up on Twitter or Instagram. Keep well and stay safe. Catch you around.

Dan Furr Editor @DanFurr

GET IN TOUCH Email Twitter @GTPorsche

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911 TURBO (930)

STANDARD SETTER No car blends mild and wild like a 911 Turbo – and it all started with the 930. On the occasion of the model’s forty-fifth anniversary, we explore this late 1988 example… Words Emma Woodcock Photography Dan Sherwood

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930 SHARK ATTACK By summer 1985, showroom sales of the 928 had risen following widespread approval of the S2 variant of the V8-powered grand tourer, but Porsche was still unsure whether its ‘land shark’ would replace the 911 as the company’s flagship model. The reintroduction of the 930 to Japanese and North American markets (following a five-year absence), along with Targa and Cabriolet body styles, proved a shrewd move, helping to put paid to doubts concerning the 911’s enduring popularity.

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911 TURBO (930)


ut your foot to the floor and there’s a slug of forced induction power so potent it could out-accelerate a Ferrari. Knock it into top and you can cruise at 1,000rpm, enjoying four seats, the familiar 911 shape and class-leading luxury. The current 911 Turbo is the best of all worlds, continuing the legacy set by its predecessors — 992, 997 and even 964 alike all share a versatile skill set and take inspiration from the original icon: the 930. Turbocharging is a developing art when the firstgeneration 911 Turbo arrives in 1975. Porsche has explored the technology in its Can-Am and Carrera RSR Turbo 2.1 racers and develops the 930 road car to homologate a boosted 911 for Group 4 and Group 5 racing. The new arrival follows on from the 1973 BMW 2002 Turbo as one of the earliest turbocharged production models and is the first road car to ever combine a turbocharger with continuous fuel injection, thanks to a standard Bosch K-Jetronic

system. Peak power is 260bhp and the rest of the car is built to match. Uprated torsion and anti-roll bars firm the suspension, a four-speed transmission is fitted to handle the 253lb-ft torque output and the bodywork turns heads from a hundred paces. Black Fuchs alloys measure seven inches wide upfront and eight at the rear, sat under flared wheel arches increasing total width by almost six inches. A high-rise, rubber tipped spoiler completes the transformation. Eschewing the stripped-back philosophy of the Carrera RS 2.7, the 911 Turbo combines its power with unmatched usability. Porsche offers a 20,000-mile warranty, servicing just once every year (or at 12,000 mile intervals) and fuel consumption over 20mpg. Sat in bolstered leather seats retaining the comfortable driving position of other 911 models, the 930 owner also enjoys electric windows, a quad-speaker stereo system, a cassette deck and tinted glass to the sides and rear. Headlight washers help in poor weather,


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Above The utterly timeless look of the classic 911 Turbo contributes to the model continuing to be the dream drive of many petrolheads

Facing page This particular 930 has covered many miles, used as Porsche intended

while heated screens front and back banish the winter blues. Porsche continues production until the arrival of the 964-generation 911, regularly adding new features to refine the Turbo experience. Running gear improvements define the first upgrade package: an enlarged 3.3-litre engine, raised compression ratio and standard intercooler increasing peak output to 300bhp from 1978 onwards, with new four-piston front calipers providing the braking performance to match. Nine-inch-wide rear wheels and firmer anti-roll bars improve handling in the 1980s, while standard heated seats and central locking keep amenities up to date. Cabriolet and Targa variants, an optional 330bhp engine and an uprated five-speed transmission all follow, with total sales exceeding 20,000 Turbos around the world. Ahead of its time and thoroughly engineered, the 930 fits seamlessly into modern life and won’t fall apart as mileage rises. Take Jayesh Patel’s C16-code example, which was first sold by London dealer, Charles Follett, in 1988 and has since covered 130,000 miles. Jayesh found the car through online auction site, Collecting Cars, and immediately knew it was the Porsche for him. “I’d rather own a car that’s been enjoyed and maintained than one that’s pristine but unused,” he says. “Part of owning a classic Porsche

is giving it the time and the use it needs. I’ll take this Turbo for a decent drive at least every couple of weeks. It’s always ready to go.”


The mechanical diligence of the previous owner has helped preserve the car in its current condition, with much of the work carried out by celebrated independent Porsche specialist, Autofarm. Above and beyond routine service tasks, the Boxengassebased firm has replaced the CV joint boots, gear linkage bushes, rear brakes, skimmed the front discs and steam cleaned the underside, as well as applying a comprehensive coating of anti-corrosion material. Combined with an earlier engine rebuild, the renovations ensure this Turbo legend remains undimmed behind the wheel. With three-hundred ponies punching through the rear rubber and a relatively svelte 1,300kg to push around, this modern classic requires no qualifiers when the turbocharger starts spooling. A 930 isn’t just fast for its time of production — it’s fast full stop! “Put your foot down and the car will certainly shift,” Jayesh smiles. “The 911 Turbo might be slightly heavier than a Carrera 3.2, but it’s got more than enough performance to compensate and I’ve never experienced heavy turbo lag in any noticeable form.”

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911 TURBO (930)

KEEPING YOUR COOL The 930’s rear-engine layout, its short wheelbase and immense-forthe-time power earned it a reputation for being a handful, with period testers complaining of massive oversteer and pronounced turbo lag. Subsequently, the 930 earned itself the nickname ‘Widowmaker’. An air-to-air intercooler arrived for the model in 1978.

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Peak torque is produced consistently between 4,000 and 5,000 revs, pioneering the any-revs flexibility that defines the modern 911 Turbo range. “Driving isn’t just about sheer numbers,” Jayesh continues. “It’s how much performance you can use and how it’s delivered. The 930 delivers a great balance and all the power is accessible to you all the time.” A Fabspeed aftermarket exhaust overlays the experience with a stirring flat-six yowl. There might only be four gears to choose from, but they run far and fast. Second can whisk the Turbo past 80mph and top has an intergalactic 0.65:1 ratio. “That’s the great thing. You can do quite high speeds without over-revving the engine, which means you don’t shift often and spend a lot of the drive in second gear. The car loves it, it sounds right and it feels right. Where a G50 transmission never makes you think about the shift, you have to ease my 911 Turbo into each gear, which is a lovely experience if you don’t rush it.” Some drivers prefer the five-speed gearbox fitted to 1989 machines, but the earlier transmission reveals its merits with sensitive use. The road starts to twist and, if you listen to legend, the original 911 Turbo becomes harder to handle,

the weighty rear-mounted engine, swelling power delivery and wide rear track combining to create a car that can bite the unwary. “You always drive around thinking you can’t go too crazy. The 930 is known as ‘widowmaker’, after all!” Jayesh howls. Conscious of the model’s reputation, he quickly fitted a Continental ContiSportContact tyre at each corner to dampen the sting in that widebody tail.

Facing page Not even the 930 could escape being fitted with one of the world’s ugliest OEM steering wheels


New tyres provided the perfect foundation for the next step: full geometry and alignment adjustment at Center Gravity. Renowned for their deft touch with classic Porsches, the Warwickshire team have refined the 930 into a car Jayesh can enjoy to the full. “The changes dialled in by the Center Gravity team make a world of difference — the car now always feel like it’s on my side. The road-holding, the steering and the balance have all improved. There’s more consistency and I have far more confidence in car. In short, I can enjoy it far more now than ever before.” This 930 offers visual excitement to match the driving experience — careful restoration keeps the car looking its best. Autofarm recently

Below Lashings of figure-hugging leather make a 930 one of the most comfortable classic Porsche driving experiences

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911 TURBO (930)

completed a partial repaint in original Grand Prix White, respraying every panel below the window line and even refinishing the door shuts, before completing the job with a full detailing session. The company’s exacting approach extends to the body itself, the team aligning and gapping each panel to factory standards. Jayesh continues the same perfectionist approach by servicing his car with Webster and Lancaster, a long-established company that specialises in premium marque sports cars, both classic and modern. Through Horizon Classics, a company he established as a means of loaning and, very occasionally, selling the cars in his sizeable collection, this white wonder might soon find a new home. “It’s absolutely lived up to my expectations and more. I can see how the 930 galvanised Porsche’s already formidable reputation as the world’s greatest sports car manufacturer,” he says. “The 930 is a sports car and grand tourer combined: it’s comfortable on the motorway, but behaves completely differently on a twisting road.” Adaptable performance is the 930 legacy. It’s been elemental to the 911 Turbo ever since.

Left Jayesh is the proud owner of a fantastic collection of special Porsches, including the RUF RTurbo featured on the cover of our last issue

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New motorsport calendar highlight for 2021...

or many of us, one of the biggest drawbacks of lockdown has been the obliteration of motorsport. Races have been postponed, rescheduled, even cancelled. Worse still, track attendance is the only way most series can be witnessed. Granted, our very own Tim Harvey does a grand job of commentating on the BTCC for ITV Motorsport each race weekend and, of course, we get to see Carrera Cup GB support races from the comfort of our own homes, simply by pointing a remote control at the tellybox, but if club-level racing is your thing, then getting a fix of fast fun on four wheels at many of the UK's favourite circuits has been something of a struggle. We can, of course, hope for a brighter future — one where talk of quarantine, coronavirus and incompetent governance (okay, perhaps that last one is a bit farfetched!) is a thing of the past. With this in mind, we're thrilled to learn of Porsche Club GB's all-new 911 Challenge. Open to owners and drivers of all pre1989 air-cooled 911s, this proposed grid, billed under the Porsche Club Motorsport banner, is planned to kick off next season. All 911s from 1965 to 1989 (Carrera 3.2 is the cut-off) are eligible, though it has become

apparent a high number of 964 owners are interested in racing, which is why the club is looking to introduce an 'open' class to satisfy these demands. Each race will last one hour with two drivers, a move designed to help participants keep a lid on spend by sharing costs. A single driver is welcome to take part, though a time handicap will be awarded if this is the case. Intended to run alongside the long-established Porsche Club GB Championship, this exciting new series will be held across seven separate rounds, all taking place on a Saturday. Sponsor support comes from Porsche Classic, Petro Canada Lubricants and Pirelli, with the latter's Trofeo R tyres being a control part.


Due to the fact their cars can easily be converted to race specification, owners of rally-prepared air-cooled 911s are encouraged to enter the 911 Challenge. Draft regulations for the series are due to be published not long after this issue of GT Porsche goes to press. To register your interest, contact the club's Motorsport & Events Creative, Chris Pruden, by emailing today.

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Motorsport world mourns maverick speed demon ead of UK sports nutrition outfit, Maximuscle, Zef Eisenberg, has died whilst trying to break the British land speed record in his heavily modified 991 Turbo S. Through his MadMax racing team, Eisenberg was already the holder of many land speed records, all verified by the Guinness Book of World Records. As reported in the August 2019 edition of GT Porsche, he piloted his 1,200bhp 911 to 210.332mph at Pendine Sands last summer, the fastest a wheeled vehicle has ever been recorded travelling on sand. Additionally, Eisenberg achieved the fastest flying mile (one way) at 196.970mph, the fastest quarter-mile (one way) at 206.492mph and the fastest flying mile (two-way) at 187.962 mph.

The Guernsey resident's latest attempt at making a dent in the history books took place at Elvington Airfield, the same location Top Gear presenter, Richard Hammond, crashed a jet-powered car in 2006. It's a site Eisenberg knew well, not least as a consequence of a near-fatal crash he suffered at the Yorkshire venue when travelling at a claimed 230mph on a RollsRoyce jet turbine-propelled motorcycle in 2016, an effort highlighting his unwavering dedication to breaking speed records. Released hours after Eisenberg's death, a statement from Motorsport UK read: "We are deeply saddened to confirm Zef as the driver who lost his life in the fatal accident at Elvington Airfield yesterday afternoon. Zef, aged 47, was a Guernsey-based businessman, television presenter, and a

much-loved member of the motorsport community. An ultra-speed motorcycle racer, he achieved numerous land speed records for motorbike and car. Over the past decade, he amassed more than seventy British, World, UKTA, ACU and Guinness speed records with bikes, cars, and quads. In May 2019, the Royal Automobile Club presented him with the Simms Medal in honour of his outstanding contribution to motoring innovation." "Yesterday at Elvington Airfield, Zef was attempting to break the British Land Speed Record in a Porsche 911 Turbo S, at an event organised by Straightliners Ltd/UKTA. At 16:30, the car went out of control at high speed at the end of a run. Local police and ambulance crews attended, however the driver tragically died at the scene." Zef leaves behind his partner, Mirella D’Antonio, and two children. Our thoughts are with them at this difficult time.

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CEO OLIVER BLUME MARKS HALF-DECADE AT PORSCHE WITH EBS SYMPOSIUM Q&A This autumn marks an important anniversary for Porsche, and for one man in particular: on 1st October, Oliver Blume celebrated five years as CEO, a halfdecade that's been the most successful in Porsche history. Operating results have increased by sixty percent, the first all-electric Porsche – the Taycan – has stunned the automotive world, and, in the face of the biggest challenge for a generation, Blume has steered the company through the coronavirus crisis relatively unscathed, overcoming supply chain issues, driving charitable donations and community aid, and implementing measures to safeguard Porsche employees around the world. In a quickfire Q&A at the EBS Symposium – one of Europe's largest and most prestigious student-run business conferences – the 52-year-old sports fan revealed a few surprising facts about himself. Watch the recording on YouTube by visiting

NEW PANAMERA ACHIEVES NORDSCHLEIFE RECORD Porsche has proven the performance potential of the new Panamera even before the car’s world premiere! In a camouflaged series production car, test driver, Lars Kern, completed a full lap of the legendary Nürburgring Nordschleife over a distance of 20.832 kilometres in 7:29.81 minutes. In the official ranking of Nürburgring GmbH, this time now stands as a new record in the 'executive cars' category. The recordbreaking Panamera was equipped with a racing seat and roll cage. Its certified lap time is around thirteen seconds faster than the outgoing Panamera.



Minor tweaks to race regulations ensure more suspense he successful Porsche Esports championship (run on the iRacing simulation platform) has been confirmed for its third year, kicking off on the 9th January. Treating fans and drivers to gripping sim racing action with the virtual 911 GT3 Cup during the winter months, ten rounds contested until late April make up the racing programme: in addition to storied circuits, such as the Nürburgring and Le Mans, the virtual Interlagos Grand Prix venue in Brazil, the Formula 1 street circuit of Montréal and the Hockenheimring are among the venues for the first time. Participants will again compete for valuable championship points and a total of $200,000 in prize money. “When it comes to suspense, the

current season of the Porsche TAG Heuer Esports Supercup is hard to beat," explains Marco Ujhasi, Manager Esports Porsche Motorsport. "The high level of driving skill and the huge popularity among fans have exceeded our expectations, but we can’t afford to rest on our laurels. Consequently, we’re shifting up a gear to propel this fantastic sport forward." The most important change concerns the sporting format — instead of a set duration (currently fifteen minutes for the sprint race and thirty minutes for the main event), the rounds are now contested over a distance of forty and eighty kilometres. Moreover, the qualifying becomes even more critical: next year, the fastest driver will take up the sprint race from pole position. Previously, the first eight qualifiers have started in reverse order.

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Prototype will forever shape Le Mans as a testimony to technological challenges n exhibit straight from Zuffenhausen arrived in France on Saturday 19th September, when Fritz Enzinger, Vice President Motorsport at Porsche, handed over a 919 Hybrid mock-up to the President of the Automobile Club de l’Ouest (ACO), Pierre Fillon, head of the organisation responsible for organising the 24 Hours of Le Mans. The presentation took place on the start and finishing straight before the official start of the 88th edition of the endurance classic.

“Le Mans has been essential for Porsche 2016 LMP1 race car developed and built since 1951,” emphasises Enzinger. “The 919 by the Motorsport department for testing Hybrid mock-up symbolises the last three purposes that racing season. The model overall victories that Porsche achieved consists of original technical parts, such as in succession at the 24 Hours of Le Mans. the chassis, brakes and drive unit that were Following on from the sixteen overall used at Le Mans that year. Porsche's historic victories between 1970 and 1998, Porsche motorsport team supplemented the chassis was able to continue its exemplary success with fresh body parts and applied Porsche's story with this technological masterpiece. striking 2016 Le Mans livery. It is, therefore, a great honour for us to be The Automobile Club de l’Ouest is the given the opportunity to represent our largest automobile club in France. It was success at the original location.” established in 1906 by manufacturers and LAKEWELL NEW SIZE_8th 13/02/2017 12:41 Page 1 The 919 Hybrid mock-up is based on a driving fans in partnership. Visit

NEW TAIWAN PORSCHE STUDIO TO PROMOTE FIRM'S DESIGN LANGUAGE In Hsinchu, known as the Silicon Valley of Taiwan, Porsche has opened its twelfth Porsche Studio. The city is well-known for its science-based industrial park, which plays a key role in Taiwan’s development in cutting-edge semi-conduct industry. Porsche Studio Hsinchu is welcoming fans and enthusiasts to "explore the Porsche essence by infusing sportscar spirit into urban life". Here, they can share their leisure time with extraordinary experiences and view the latest Porsche product line. The site's façade combines dynamic technology with state-of-the-art materials and architectural elements. Its dark body intentionally directs visitor focus to the studio's large glazed shop window frontage.

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TUNED. 991 GT3 /GT3 RS

The newest tuning tools for your Porsche. |

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PORSCHE PRODUCTS Each month, we present exciting parts and services designed to benefit you and your four-wheeled friend. From audio to engine upgrades, we’ve got you covered.

CTEK LIMITED EDITION GULF-BRANDED AUTOMOTIVE BATTERY CHARGER Swedish battery maintenance specialist, CTEK (visit, has become the market leader in the care and maintenance of automotive batteries. Thanks to unparalleled knowledge and continuous investment in innovation, the company is the first name in highquality, reliable chargers and accessories that are effective, user-friendly and, most importantly, supremely safe (for user, car, battery and, of course, the charger itself!). In fact, so impressive is the firm’s range of products, it has become an OEM supplier to Porsche. Recognising the popularity of its catalogue of battery charging equipment on the Porsche enthusiast scene, CTEK has just launched its Gulf Limited Edition charger, featuring three key charging and maintenance stages

to maximise the power and lifetime of your car’s battery. Not only will this trick bit of kit ensure your Porsche’s battery is always in good condition, you can also use the portable blue-and-orange part to repair a flat, discharged battery. Fully automatic, CTEK’s 5A Gulfbranded charger can be left connected to your pride and joy’s battery for long periods of time (ideal for Porsches kept in the dry during winter) and won’t overcharge or undercharge when left to work its magic. No specialist knowledge is needed for operation and the product is supplied with crocodile clips and eyelet connectors for maximum convenience. A unique countdown timer tells you when your car’s charging battery will be ready for use. CTEK sells over a million battery

chargers each year across the globe and regularly tops independent battery charger comparison tests. This limited edition Gulf-liveried charger is tough, durable and expertly built, just as we’ve come to expect from the company’s output. It also comes supplied with a five-year warranty and is designed to cope with a range of different environmental factors, including temperature fluctuation. Retailing for a smidge under £100 at the More Than Polish online store, it’s also competitively priced. Additional accessories, such as a wall mount, bumper pack and a handy extension cable are available to purchase separately. Price £99 Visit or call 01780 749449

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When it comes to maintaining your prized Porsche, you pays your money... and sometimes a bargain can bite you on the bum! Fortunately, the good folk at Heritage Parts Centre appreciate how both cost and quality are equally important for fans of the Stuttgart crest, hence the firm’s decision to stock Meyle HD parts, including this water pump for the 996-generation 911 and same-age Boxster. The silicon carbide/silicon carbide seal faces are more resistant to abrasive dirt, and the secondary seal is made from peroxide-cured HNBR, which has a higher temperature and wear threshold. To add further confidence, Meyle offers a fouryear warranty on all HD products, extending to 100k miles. You’ll be pleased to know delivery, a new gasket and a bolt set are included in the price, too. Price £134.95 or call 01273 444000


If you’re missing the spectacle of live motorsport and seeing angry Porsches strut their stuff at the track, these beautifully manufactured wall-mounted circuit sculptures are a great way to soften the blow. Available in either 45cm or 90cm measurements and with a choice of the world’s most famous tracks, including Le Mans, Bugatti Circuit, Paul Ricard, Circuit de Monaco, Magny-Cours, Barcelona, Nürburgring and even the option to request your own favourite layout, these superb interior decorations are manufactured from precisioncut laminated plywood or MDF can be optioned with a satin black finish. There’s also the opportunity to buy drinks coasters for your race day beers! And, thanks to manufacturer, RaceTrack Decor, GT Porsche readers can take advantage of a 15% discount on Le Mans and Nordschleife wall hangings by quoting the offer code GTP20 at checkout until the end of January 2021. Price Small (45cm) £89, large (90cm) £179 Visit


Have you ever wanted to take an early 911 and add wide flares, resulting in the appearance of a classic 911 Turbo? Up until now, it hasn’t been possible without a significant amount of costly and time-consuming work. Thankfully, independent Porsche parts specialist, Stuttgart Classica, is on hand to save the day with this classic 911 Turbo arch flare kit, suitable for any pre-993 air-cooled 911. Hammer-formed on the British company’s new CNC jig fixtures and CADdesigned to exactly replicate the same dimensions as the original Porsche parts, these fantastic flares are yours at a pleasing price point. Price From £474 or call 01386 701953


The royal-warranted car cleaning experts at Autoglym have released Air-Con Sanitiser, a deadly new weapon against micro-organisms lurking in the inaccessible areas of your Porsche’s air conditioning system. Many people wrongly view the air-con in their vehicle as a summer-only feature, not realising it should be used throughout the year as a safety feature to keep windows clear and to maintain fault-free operation of the system’s key components. That said, a side effect of this dehumidifying quality is that moisture can collect within the depths of the system, providing a welcoming environment for microorganisms to breed. Since it isn’t possible to physically clean such hard-to-reach areas, Autoglym Air-Con Sanitiser is an aerosol product designed to fill every nook of the system with a highly effective sanitising spray confirming to strict EN 1276 bactericidal standards and EN 14476 virucidal standards, meaning it will kill 99.999% of harmful microorganisms, leaving nothing but a clean and fresh citrus scent in the process. Price £16 or call 01462 677766

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Upgrading the anchors on your classic Porsche is a sensible idea, especially if you’re boosting power beyond factory specification. Suitable for non-servo air-cooled 911s (19681977, including 930), 912 and the mighty 914/6, this upgraded master cylinder from Heritage Parts Centre features a 23mm bore, giving the driver a stiffer and more responsive braking experience, as well as a decrease in pedal travel. Manufactured from high-quality cast iron to OEM exterior dimensions and with EPDM piston seals, you’ll be able to fit the part (and the included brake light switch) as a simple swap over, save for re-bleeding the fluid system. Offered at less than a hundred quid, each sale includes free delivery. Price £99.95 or call 01273 444000


If you’re a fan of forced induction, then Veloce’s decision to reprint John Starkey’s exhaustive study of the classic 911 Turbo (930) and its racing derivatives — chiefly the RSR 2.1, 934 and 935 — will be most welcome. Presented in hardback with 304 pages, 252 images and a foreword from Porsche racing hero, John Fitzpatrick, Starkey goes into great detail, outlining the full development history of each model, individual chassis histories and background to the golden age of international sports car racing. Special attention is given to some of Porsche’s most famous motorsport machines, including the ‘Baby’ 935, Kremer K3 and Andial-built bruisers, with Starkey — himself the racer of a 935 — providing previously unseen images from his personal archive. A fantastic celebration of these legendary road and racing machines. Price £50 or call 01305 260068


For more than fifteen years, Manthey Racing and suspension manufacturer, KW, have worked hard to achieve a longstanding success story in motorsport. The two companies also work together to develop advanced suspension solutions for street vehicles, including the 911 GT2 RS Clubsport, 935 (2019) and the latest 911 GT3 R, leading to the introduction of threeway and four-way adjustable coilovers, which are compatible with the standard lift function. Tailor-made for road and regular track-day use, the 911 GT2 RS MR equipped with this kit convinced automotive journalists in numerous tests, not least through setting new track records. Supplied with full TUV approval, this cool coilover kit is exclusively available through official KW automotive partners outside of Germany. Price TBC Visit the KW Automotive dealer finder at


These replacement press-in wheel hub studs are suitable for all air-cooled 911s, as well as all models in Porsche’s transaxle family of cars (924/944/928/968). Made from grade 5 titanium with rolled threads and finished in a black PVD coating, they can be optioned with a bullet nose or flush. Standard steel studs with the same length weigh 82g each, whereas these parts weigh just 45.8g — a saving of 724g across a full set of twenty studs. Price £598.80 or call 01386 701953


Filming in 4K, the awardwinning Nextbase 622GW is more accurate, faster, more powerful and has a better image quality than any other dashcam currently available. Superb image stabilisation, super-slow motion, a 140° wide-angle lens, GPS data logging, an inbuilt polarising filter, enhanced night vision, extreme weather modes and a three-inch HD touchscreen make for an essential driver safety accessory. Price £249.99 or call 0203 1950 877


Have each and every issue of GT Porsche delivered direct to your door (at no extra cost) by subscribing to the magazine. You’ll get a big discount off cover price and you’ll receive the mag before it hits newsstands. Plus, you’ll be kept informed of our latest special offers and discounts. Well, what are you waiting for?! Price Special offer: Six issues for £21.99


Offered at low cost, this new DAB and Bluetooth receiver from Kenwood has come just as the UK government has announced all new cars must be equipped with DAB by 2021, a move designed to assist with the phasing out of analogue radio. To help owners of older cars continue to listen to their favourite tunes on the move, the KTC500 can be controlled by smartphone and is fully plug and play, doubling up as an FM modulator. It can also be plugged into an old-school head unit’s auxiliary port. Price £60

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ICON 917 K

GREAT PRETENDER Icon Engineering’s faithful take on the 917 short-tail boasts a key difference from Porsche’s legendary racing machine: you can drive Icon’s creation to the shops! Words Dan Furr Photography Dan Sherwood

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oxengasse, summer 2019. It’s the inaugural Oilcooled event, hosted by the Porsche-themed venue’s 911-obsessive-in-chief, Frank Cassidy. A sea of air-cooled gems pave the way to the business park’s main courtyard, where the handpicked star attractions of the day are waiting to wow. The highest number of Carrera RS 2.7s you’re likely to see in one place immediately draw the eye, as does the amazing carbon-bodied Schuppan 962 CR, a road-legal version of the legendary Group C Porsche prototype. Taking centre stage, however, is an altogether different take on one of Porsche’s monstrous motorsport machines. 2020 marks exactly fifty years since the manufacturer’s most important competition victory: Porsche’s first overall win at the 24 Hours of Le Mans, as documented in the last issue of GT Porsche (order a copy by pointing your browser at Hot on the heels of Ford’s Ferrari-baiting success at Sarthe, the short-tailed 917 would also win 1971’s outing at Le Mans, though the model made its debut before Attwood and Herrmann’s triumphant 343-lap romp to the finish line a year earlier. Indeed, the 917 was designed by factory engineering wizard, Hans Mezger (under the watchful eye of Ferdinand Piëch

and Helmuth Bott) in 1968 and, just nine months later, Porsche’s new track attacker was being put through its paces in preparation for the 1969 Le Mans test week. Early outings didn’t go well — the 917 was wildly unstable, as reported by factory driver, Brian Redman, who considered the flat-twelve layout too heavy for the super-lightweight gas-filled frame. After much head scratching and a series of urgent modifications, it was noted the original, long-tailed 917 — a car designed to produce low drag for highspeed straights, including the Mulsanne — was in desperate need of downforce, an area of race car design still in its infancy. Concerned about the 917’s behaviour on twisty sections of tarmac, Redman and his teammate, Jo Siffert, chose to campaign the 908 at the 1969 1,000km of Spa, winning comfortably. Three weeks later, at the 1,000km of Nürburgring, all works drivers registered their concern at the 917’s unpredictable behaviour and opted to drive the 908, leading to the hiring of David Piper and Frank Gardner for 917 racing duties. The pair finished in a respectable eighth place, though the 908 brigade took all top five positions. Clearly, there was more work to be done if the 917 was to prove itself as a

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competition-winning Porsche. The 917 long-tail’s instability was eventually addressed in a joint project managed by Mezger’s team and Porsche’s new racing partner, John Wyer Engineering. Revision after revision resulted in the introduction of a shorter rear end with an upswept tail, not inhibiting the host 917’s aerodynamic prowess, but encouraging that essential missing downforce when travelling at high speed. The changes had a profound impact on the 917’s handling and instilled confidence in its drivers, despite privateer, John Woolfe, dying in a crash at Maison Blanche during the first lap of the 1969 24 Hours of Le Mans. With two wheels on the grass and inexperience behind the wheel causing him to lose control of a 917 he’d bought just days beforehand, the British gentleman driver lost control and was thrown out of the car as it rolled, hit sidings and exploded. Earlier, he’d reported to friends how the 917’s immense power “scared the pants off me”.

SWISS SENSATION Left Wheels are custom recreations made from a 3D model of an original 917 five-spoke

With Siffert back behind the wheel, the 917’s first win came at the 1969 1,000km of Zeltweg in Austria. At the same track, experiments with the model’s rear end resulted in the aforementioned improved performance in advance of the 1970 season in

partnership with Wyer’s team, which had won Le Mans two years on the bounce with the much celebrated Ford GT40. Now, you don’t need to be a massive fan of the Blue Oval to know just how many GT40 replicas are in existence, many created from moulds based on the same equipment used to fashion the original cars, but what about the 917, a motorsport hero which has had even more impact on the design and development of race cars (more so than the far more successful 956/962, which dominated prototype racing throughout the 1980s and, with a bit of rule-bending, continued to enjoy winning well into the 1990s)? Enter aptly named Icon Engineering and the bright white 917 K (Kurzheck, German for short-tail) evocation exhibited at Boxengasse. Icon founder, Dave Eaton, is a hugely experienced automotive contract design engineer, with time served for major manufacturers, including Ford, Jaguar, Mazda, Hyundai and even a spell developing modified Bentleys for the Sultan of Brunei. His business partner is supercar specialist, John Hartland, who spent many years at Le Mans as a mechanical engineer for various teams, before founding John Hartland Motorsport, specialising in the restoration of classic Lamborghinis. The pair’s obsession with the 917 was forged at the 1,000km

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of Brands Hatch in 1970, a race won by Mexican Grand Prix hero, Pedro Rodriguez, in a Wyer-run 917 K. “I wanted one there and then,” laughs Dave. “Pedro’s performance was a pivotal moment in the eyes of many of us old enough to remember the 917 racing in period, but the chances of owning one of the original cars is virtually zero, not least because so few were built and the cost of buying and maintaining an original 917 is prohibitively expensive. Even back then, it was clear the only way to own a 917 was to build your own. Trust me when I say this is a task easier said than done!” Fast-forward forty years, beyond houses, marriage, kids and careers, and the opportunity to buy a 917 shell unexpectedly presented itself to Dave. “It was formed from moulds taken from David Piper’s own five-litre 917, which he bought from Porsche in 1969, the same year he was drafted in to take on the 1,000km of Nürburgring by the works team,” he confirms. When visiting Australia, two years before seeing the Piper body, Dave viewed a 917 facsimile built by an engineer from his own designs, but visually it looked ‘heavy’ and featured a small number of inaccuracies when compared to the real deal. In contrast, the body moulded from the Piper original (the tenth 917 built by Porsche) was everything he could have hoped for, save for minor

variations caused by suspected accident damage. Offered by Graham Turner, who worked for Piper many moons ago, the panels soon found their way to Dave’s workshop, whereupon he began the arduous task of studying every engineering diagram, blueprint, book, video, photograph and film relating to each of the 917s assembled. “With moulds from a genuine 917, I was keen to construct an accurate recreation of the original car,” he continues. “I didn’t want a 917 silhouette over a decidedly non-917 chassis. There could be no compromise. I was adamant the finished car should be able to accommodate a flat-twelve and be accurate to within 10mm of Porsche’s original design. I’m delighted to say that goal has been achieved.”


Using state-of-the-art computer aided design, bespoke chassis tubework was imagined using reduced-scale factory drawings, as well as the accepted front and rear axle positions. A wooden frame was constructed to arrange the body correctly in order for it to be scanned, a process which required the application of more than 2,000 reflective dots. The resulting scan was then converted into a surface model on CAD, ensuring the proposed steel metalwork — far more rigid than the aluminium used to form the guts of the original 917 — would sit pretty. “It worked first time,” smiles Dave, proud of a job well done. Subsequently, more than 220 tubes were laser-cut from CAD models, dropping into a jig with such precision that the resulting chassis almost built itself. “It took twelve weeks to weld the lot together,” he reveals. “More than three-hundred mounting brackets were involved in the procedure, supporting the body and myriad other equipment, from the interior mirror to the oil cooler, plus all suspension components, which necessitated the use of no less than six more jigs.” Again, laser-cutting from CAD drawings was the order of the day. John’s input was essential when it came to chassis preparation. “He has huge experience working with different materials. It was him who proposed T45 tube as an extremely strong metal perfect for the job, as demonstrated in the same steel’s use in the construction of World War II aircraft, including the Spitfire engine frame.” This extraordinarily robust material, coupled with Dave’s precise CAD models, meant that the 2,300mm wheelbase on each side of the car was accurate within 4mm on both sides the very first time the front and rear suspension was dropped into place. The wheel bearings are modern Boxster/Cayman parts in bespoke hubs (917 early retirement in racing

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Above Icon is now taking orders for its 917 K replica as a turnkey product, and can even supply body shells for you to assemble your own Porsche racer

Left Cockpit is cosy, but comfortable

was often caused by unmanageable pre-load on rear wheel bearings), with brakes based on Radical stoppers and custom-manufactured by HiSpec Motorsport. 320mm discs sit at the front, with calipers mounted on bespoke brackets designed by Dave. At the rear, an extension and spot caliper reside, necessary to facilitate a handbrake, thereby satisfying Individual Vehicle Approval (IVA) as a means to ensure the Icon 917 K’s status as a roadlegal race car. Wrapped around these awesome anchors are authentic 917 wheels produced for Dave and John by Creasey Castings from a 3D model which came about as a consequence of the most unlikely of encounters. “I’d been offered a set of replica wheels for six grand, which struck me as being too expensive, though at the time, I didn’t really have a more cost effective solution at my disposal,” he says. “Then, while delivering a presentation on the project to an interested BMW owners club while I was on an assignment in Detroit, I was invited to go to a Porsche meet a few miles away. While at the event, an attendee asked me about Icon Engineering work and I explained I’d hit a stumbling block with the wheels. To my amazement, he told me he had an original 917 rim in his house and was using it as a coffee table stand!” Dave couldn’t believe his luck and wasted no time in spending an afternoon measuring the wheel before returning home and creating a 3D model (“I ran it through Jaguar Land Rover advanced computeraided engineering software”) for the Creasey team to work its magic. With options of 8.5 or 10.5 inches for the front and fourteen or fifteen inches at the rear (depending on road or race use), the Icon 917 K’s authentic centrelock black five-spokes are wrapped in period-correct Michelin TB15 black circles, but what about this white wonder’s beating heart? “You can buy an air-cooled flat-twelve from Uwe Niermann at Scuderia M66 in Aachen, but it’ll set you back $1.3million and a further $250k for a compatible transmission,” laughs Dave. While the Icon 917 K has been designed to accommodate

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ICON 917 K

such a powerplant, the version of the car you see on these pages is propelled by the rather more attainable flat-six, this one liberated from a 964, a move designed to maintain the theme of aircooled Porsche power, where other 917 replicas have been loaded with modern Audi V8 or V10 engines. John rebuilt and blueprinted the engine to standard specification (a requirement of IVA to meet emissions rules), before adding an RS-spec TTV Racing flywheel, a BTB exhaust system, a Varley battery, Jenvey injectors and throttle bodies, a DTA ECU and a custom map, culminating in output of 295bhp at 7,000rpm on Track & Road Rainham’s rolling road, increasing to 300bhp if the IVA-friendly catalytic converters are replaced with straightthrough pipes. All in, the Icon 917 K weighs less than 900kg with a full tank of fuel, meaning power provided by the 964 lump is more than adequate, though Dave is considering a further development of the car loaded with punchy twin turbochargers reaching for 450bhp.


To satisfy packaging requirements, the accompanying G50 five-speed gearbox is inverted. Due to the bellhousing’s four mounting points being 89.5° to one another, this was more involved than simply turning the transmission on its head, which would have also resulted in five reverse gears and one forward ratio! Similarly, the car’s oil and fuel systems required careful consideration. They were modelled by John and fabricated by the aluminium artisans at Pro Alloy. The interior of the Icon 917 K was more straightforward, kitted-out with bespoke Tillett seats, Sabelt harnesses and a MOMO drilled three-spoke Prototipo steering wheel, though the unusually shaped heated windscreen threw up a challenge for Pilkington,

who custom-made the complex part from Dave’s CAD surface designs. “Piper has windscreen moulds for his car. Each glass part costs more than two grand and I needed a pair!” he laughs. His own computer-generated design was bang on the money when it was laid flat over one of Piper’s pieces. Phew! Having completed its first 917 K replica, Icon Engineering is now in possession of its own finehoned 917 body moulds and has completed all development work on an immensely complex (and rigid) triangulated chassis. In other words, you can now buy a road-legal 917 to call your own. It’ll set you back £190k for a turnkey car, but that’s peanuts compared to the cost of an original 917, which you can only punish at a track. Far more usable, the Icon car is a two-seater, each Tillett bucket designed with a 40° back angle to ensure comfortable occupancy of the cockpit for long periods, with the added benefit of twin fans to pump fresh air into the cabin. The seat bases touch the floor to help occupants six feet tall from clonking their bonces into the roof and, importantly, to help with achieving optimum heel and toe positioning. With integrated modern safety features and its road-legal status secure, Dave and John’s fourwheeled labour of love returned to Boxengasse for this year’s Oilcooled event. Once again, the car took centre stage and, once again, it was surrounded by admirers throughout the day. “It’s very much like an original 917, but with a handy extra — this one wears a number plate!” chuckles Dave. Reassuringly, the prototype pictured here has now completed over a thousand trouble-free road and track miles without any major issue, except having the bad luck of nailing a rear tyre. All that’s left for you to do is decide which famous 917 livery you want to see making its way down your local high street.

Above 964-sourced flat-six powers the prototype, which has been designed to accommodate a flat-twelve

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Icon. GT Porsche ad.FP FM.V2..qxp_Layout 1 15/10/2020 12:06 Page 1

The ICON 917K is a faithful reproduction of the original 1970 short-tail, but with one big difference: it’s roadlegal, with full UK IVA certification. Reverse-engineered in CAD with an authentic and dimensionally accurate round-tube spaceframe, body panels taken from moulds of an original Porsche 917, correct magnesium wheels,

suspension, braking and all ancillaries. The interior is true to a 917, with refinements including the luxury of a heated windscreen. There was no compromise in the eight years of development so we could be sure it is the greatest race car for the road or track day that you’ll ever own and drive... and there’s even room for the shopping.

Unless you’re looking for a proper shopping car, get in touch to talk about your bespoke ICON 917K. We’ll build yours as a fully-equipped rolling chassis, plus your choice of hand-built Porsche engines and transaxle, all the way to a flat-12, and when completed in the livery of your choice, we’ll UK-road register it for you. Or if you prefer to spend many happy hours in your garage, we can help you achieve your ultimate DIY project. Call us for a quotation. Export enquiries also welcome. EATONCORP LTD Rayleigh, Essex, United Kingdom + 44 (0) 7745 480640 / +44 (0) 7711 807928


RGA_hh 20/02/2017 12:29 Page 1

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Motorsport might be back in action, but witnessing it is an altogether different proposition to what we’re used to...


he 24 Hours of Le Mans evokes so many memories for motorsport fans, myself included. Moreover, I’m extremely fortunate to have competed in the Great Race four times in total, between 1998 and 2001. The most emotional and memorable of these visits was the first. I hadn’t been to the track in advance of the event, even as a spectator. The whole experience was almost overwhelming. Obviously, it helped that Jaguar won the race and that it was the last year of the Mulsanne straight without chicanes. Watching this year’s race brought it all back to me — the triumph, the despair and the total reliance on complete team involvement to achieve a positive result. I was, of course, saddened by the Balance of Performance, rendering the 911 RSR uncompetitive. Then again, it’s a tricky thing to get right at such a unique track, especially without the usual test data, scrapped due to COVID. Speaking of which, its been great to see racing taking place again, albeit under new protocols for all. BTCC meetings have been declared Elite Sports events, meaning no crowds and, as a commentator, I have to remain within the ITV broadcasting compound at all times. This means no visits to the paddock or pit lane, no catching up with everyone face to face and, sadly, no secret Cake Club meetings! On the plus side, grid sizes remain healthy in both the BTCC and Porsche Carrera Cup GB support races, totalling around twenty cars each. Standout 911 driver has been new Porsche Junior star, Harry King. He’s been the class of the field, which includes former champion, Josh Webber, and a number of other fast young hot shots. At the time of writing, Harry has achieved pole at every race this season and has gone on to win every race he has finished, save for the first

of the year, when he crossed the line in second place. His Porsche scholarship lasts two years — I expect his domination of the pack to last well into 2021. I’ve enjoyed working on a number of bespoke CSR customer builds for independent Porsche specialist, RPM Technik, during the past couple of years, but the firm’s most recent projects have been the most exciting yet: RPM Technik is now the only UK company with Manthey-Racing equipment and the training to build the current generation of full Manthey-Racing 911s. RPM customers commissioned a full GT2 RS MR and GT3.2 RS MR build, including KW coilovers, braided brake lines, uprated pads, magnesium wheels and a host of aero modifications, including a huge rear wing. Manthey’s unique configuration equipment is used, with specific geometry to suit each customer’s needs. It’s the same kit put to use on factory race cars in the WEC. The research and development invested in each of these products is incredible. It’s just as well Manthey-Racing is based a stone’s throw from the Nürburgring! The end result is a stupendous Porsche of immense capability. Throw on a set of Michelin’s stickiest road-legal tyres and this is as close to a Carrera Cup race car as it’s possible to get and still be able to drive home from your favourite circuit. I’m eagerly reading news of the forthcoming 992 GT3 and GT3 RS models and am delighted to learn they will remain (for the time being) normally aspirated. As good as the 992 Turbo is, the character of a GT3 will be lost if force-fed. Whilst horsepower gains have been smaller with each new model, it seems inevitable either a turbocharger or electric motor will, one day, supplement the wonderful existing powertrain. What a collector’s car the final normally aspirated GT3 will be!

Tim Harvey is best-known for being 1992 British Touring Car Champion and for being crowned Carrera Cup GB victor in 2008 and 2010. He’s contested the 24 Hours of Le Mans four times, competed in British GT and currently serves as a presenter for ITV4’s extensive BTCC coverage. He’s also a driving consultant and brand ambassador for respected independent Porsche specialist, RPM Technik. Twitter Instagram

@timharvey7 @timbo_harvey


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MARTIN RAGGINGER Every 24 Hours of Nürburgring presents fresh challenges, but this year’s event confronted teams with an unusually high number of complications...


ompeting in the 24 Hours of Nürburgring is quite unlike participating in any other race. I’ve been taking part every year since 2008, always in 911s, and it’s always hard to win. GT3s are much more competitive at fighting for victory these days, but with a high number of BMWs, Audis and Benzes on the track, not to mention a host of outfits running 911s, every team has to push relentlessly from start to finish. Essentially, N24 is a day-long sprint on the world’s most challenging track. Anything can happen. Fog, rain, hail and even snow can present itself in the denser woodland characterising the Green Hell. It doesn’t matter how good you are behind the wheel or how many times you’ve driven the circuit, you have to respect the Nordschliefe at all times. It’s a tough place to be, and requires every driver, engineer mechanic and team strategist to be at the very top of their game. This year’s event is a prime example of what I’m talking about. For sure, I was happy the race was able to go ahead, but I was unhappy about the lack of spectators. N24 is such a massive event and it’s the fans in attendance that create the buzzing atmosphere drivers and teams love to be a part of. Naturally, with crowds absent, the race felt very different to previous years, though there were also many other challenges my colleagues and I were having to contend with. For 2020, Falken campaigned a duo of 911 GT3 Rs, namely the no.33 car and no.44, the latter driven by myself, Klaus Bachler, Peter Dumbreck and Sven Müller. Testing went well in advance of the race, but we didn’t experience the wet conditions we were thrown into on the day of the event itself. Temperatures and the weather were very different, meaning most teams were

unable to make use of much data collated in readiness for the big weekend. Qualifying brought its own challenges, as demonstrated when Peter experienced an accident in the no.44 911 at Fuchsröhre. Our mechanics worked tirelessly to get the Porsche back to pristine condition, but a penalty in Q2 resulted in a starting position at the very back of the grid — opening in forty-seventh place is not what you want at the beginning of a lengthy endurance race! The event started at 3:30pm in the most difficult weather conditions. Constant rain, which was to become heavier as the race progressed, as well as recurring fog, meant the Green Hell lived up to its name. Visibility was hugely compromised, though the Falken 911s ran flawlessly in the initial stages. Indeed, our no.44 car leapt to seventeenth position after a fantastic first stint. We were, quite literally, out of the woods, but we still had some way to go to achieve a podium finish. Proceedings were brought to a sudden and dramatic halt when, at approximately 10:30pm, the race was red-flagged. I was in the no.44 car making good progress, but heavy rain was hammering down, causing continued problems with visibility and, as evidenced by the number of accidents occurring, keeping cars on the track. With no sign of a let-up, the race director made the correct call and everyone returned to the pits. A review of the situation occurred four hours later, but with no improvement to racing conditions, the event was paused until 8:00am on Sunday morning. Back in the saddle, Falken drivers pressed ahead. I’m delighted to report the no.44 car finished tenth overall. The no.33 car followed close behind, finishing in eleventh place. ‘Eifel weather’ did its best to derail proceedings, but we were thrilled to get to the end of this tough N24. Now we prepare for 2021’s (hopefully dryer) race!

Martin Ragginger was born in Salzburg, Austria, in 1988 and has led an illustrious racing career, finishing first in the 2010 FIA GT2 Championship, first in the 2013 24 Hours of Dubai and top three in LM GT2, Carrera Cup Asia and the 24 Hours of Nürburgring, which he has campaigned every year since 2008. He currently drives a 991 GT3 R for Falken Motorsport, but has spent time behind the wheel of various 911 race cars, including the 997 GT3 R, GT3 Cup and GT3 R Hybrid. Twitter Instagram

@mragginger @martinraggi


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FULLY CHARGED Turbo-badged Porsches are automotive icons. We take a look back at how the manufacturer’s boosted road cars can trace their roots directly to the race track… Words Richard Gooding Photography Various

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930 THE MAGIC NUMBER Porsche CEO, Ernst Fuhrmann, and the firm’s engineering team altered the forced induction technology originally developed for the 917/30 Can-Am race car and applied it to the three-litre flat-six used by the Carrera RS 3.0, thereby creating a powerful 911 with the now iconic designation, 930, and marketed as the 911 Turbo.


hen it comes to performance road cars, Porsche and turbochargers have been a perfect pairing for forty-five years. We’ve seen a huge number of boosted belters exit the company’s Stuttgart stable during this time, yet it’s worth remembering that like much of the technology our favourite brand has harnessed and developed, its turbocharging exploits started at the race circuit. The story starts with the 917, a sports prototype based on the 908 and developed by Porsche to achieve top honours at Le Mans. Introduced in March 1969, the twelve-cylinder track terroriser would go on to be revered as one of the most impressive race cars of all time. Countless victories, including Porsche’s first overall win at Sarthe (outlined in last month’s issue of GT Porsche) were achieved by short and long-tailed variants of the distinctively styled racer, though the model’s unrivalled attack of the asphalt encouraged bodies at the independent competition arm of the FIA to twitch in their seats. Consequently, regulations were introduced for the International Championship of Makes favouring cars loaded with three litres of displacement (the smallest 917 engine was 4.5-litres), a move designed to entice a higher number of manufacturers building and/or making use of the period’s Formula One engines.


In response to the altered rulebook, Porsche focused its attention Stateside, entering the Canadian-American (Can-Am) Challenge Cup in 1972. With fewer restrictions than were being dished out in Europe, not to mention a lack of enforced limit on displacement, the 917’s 912/00 engine (named after the lowest-powered Porsche in production in order to disguise the true nature of the beast!) grew to 5.4-litres with a power output of 660bhp, but that was just the start – Porsche engineering wizards, Hans Mezger and Valentin Schäffer, developed a sixteen-cylinder version of the engine producing 760bhp. Unfortunately, the host 917’s chassis had to be extended to accommodate such a massive lump, changes which negatively affected the car’s handling abilities. Consequently, a turbocharged twelvecylinder engine was developed under the watchful eye of factory motorsport chief, Ferdinand Piëch, and head engineer, Helmuth Bott, the man responsible for some of Porsche’s biggest technological breakthroughs. The new engine’s turbos were supplied by Eberspärcher (the company subsequently

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acquired by KKK in 1972), but it’s worth noting this wasn’t the first time Porsche had looked to turbocharging for extra ‘get up and go’ – Ferdinand Porsche had bolted turbochargers onto sixteen-cylinder diesel-fed tank engines many years beforehand, though the twelve-pot 917 represented the first time the company had used the technology to achieve truly prodigious performance. Initial results, however, were poor. Massive, uncontrollable boost and the very real danger of mechanical failure causing a fire (largely due to high levels of ignitable exhaust gas) gave cause for concern. Eventually, these teething problems were solved by diverting unwanted gases through a wastegate, enabling the Penske Racing 917/10K to take Can-Am spoils with 850bhp at its disposal, breaking McLaren’s five-year dominance of the competition as it did so. Powered by a 1,580bhp twelve-cylinder engine, the 917/30 of 1973 was a force to be reckoned with. Driven by American racer, Mark Donohue, it decimated the competition. Sadly, the global oil crisis that followed, not to mention regrettable deaths of racing drivers burning in fires caused by excess levels of combustible gas (leading to exploding fuel cells), forced Can-Am’s regulatory

body to introduce a limit on the amount of fuel that could be expended by participating cars. This more or less outlawed the 917/30 for the 1974 season, though some privateers backdated their 917s with naturally aspirated engines in a desperate bid to qualify for inclusion in a series McLaren had quit in favour of a renewed focus on Formula One and the Indy 500.


Porsche had ably demonstrated its ability to harness and refine turbocharging technology. Indeed, the 917/30 was the most powerful sports racing car ever produced. It delivered 1,369.68bhp per tonne! Before long, the manufacturer’s turbocharged output would rule on the roads, too… In 1973, a prototype 911 Turbo revealed at the Frankfurt Motor Show signalled the shape of things to come. Essentially a force-fed version of the Carrera RS, the white ‘Turbo’ script on the silver demonstrator’s wide rear quarters – coupled with a large, rubber-lipped rear wing – signalled something special was in the making just as a new set of regulations for Group 5 production racing cars was being readied. Following the success of the all-conquering 917, the changes encouraged

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Above Special Wishes 930 ‘RS’ built for Herbert von Karajan, friend of former Porsche CEO, Ernst Fuhrmann, and based on a fresh Carrera RS shell

Far left Carrera RSR Turbo, the second of only four works examples built Left Al fresco 917 action at the earlier 1972 Can-Am Championship, plus the 936/77 crossing the finish line in first place at Le Mans in 1977, highlighted Porsche’s firm commitment to forced induction

Porsche to toy with the idea of a turbocharged version of its highly competitive 911 RSR. A handicap was proposed for Group 5 cars packing forced induction, but this was a small price to pay for the marked increase in performance Porsche was expecting to take advantage of. A 2,142cc flat-six was developed and boosted by a KKK turbocharger benefiting from NACA intake ducts and an intercooler sitting under a hugely enlarged rear wing. Boost pressure of 1.5bar gave the new RSR (listed as 911 Carrera Turbo RSR 2.1) 500bhp and a dash from rest to 62mph in just 6.2 seconds. Nought to 124mph clocked in at just 8.8 seconds. Proof, if proof be needed, that a turbocharged 911 would be a riot on the road. Second place finishes at Le Mans and Watkins Glen sealed the deal. And so, the 930 (factory designation for the classic 911 Turbo) was readied for series production, though it was only conceived as a limited-run model as a means of complying with homologation regulations. As it turned out, the 930 was a runaway success with driving enthusiasts and went on to become Porsche’s flagship 911 for its entire production lifespan, which ended in readiness for introduction of the 964-generation Turbo, launched early 1990. Hot on the heels of the 930 landing in main

dealer showrooms, Porsche was inspired to go racing with another exaggeration of the 911’s silhouette in 1976. Presented as the 935, the radically designed racer is regarded as an evolution of the turbocharged RSR. With 590bhp on tap, the newer car made light work of gobbling up silverware. A year later, the 935/77 ‘Baby’ went on to win the German Sportscar Championship. The car’s single-turbo 1,425cc flat-six may have only packed a 380bhp punch, but its design was deemed crucial to ensuring the world could see Porsche’s ability to be first across the finish line with small engines after achieving such huge success with far bigger powerplants. Today, ‘Baby’ lives alongside the 935/78 in Stuttgart’s Porsche Museum. The latter car – nicknamed ‘Moby Dick’ because of its long body and giant ‘whale tail’ – features a twin-turbocharged 3.2-litre engine with water-cooled heads and four valves per cylinder, attributes contributing to output of 845bhp and a top speed of 225mph. Further iterations, such as those built by Cologne-based Kremer Racing and driven by the infamous Whittington Brothers (among others), kept the 935’s winning game strong. Other turbocharged 911-based racers – not least the Group 4 934 and Group 6 936 Spyder – proved

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dominant in the face of stiff competition by securing numerous victories at Le Mans, but a fresh approach was required as a new decade drew near. Before today’s trend of strapping a punchy turbo to a small engine, the boffins in Stuttgart were trailblazing the concept of force-feeding fourcylinder powerplants as far back as 1980. Three front-engined 924 Carrera GTPs producing 320bhp a piece were sent to Le Mans, the highest placed car of the transaxle trio finishing sixth overall. The 410bhp 944 GTP came home seventh in the hands of Walter Röhrl and Jurgen Barth a year later, a feat the car managed to achieve by spending less time in the pits than any other vehicle on the track. This fact is significant, because it proved Porsche’s claim that turbocharged engines can be supremely reliable, even when pumping out big bhp. The manufacturer’s appetite for racing victory arguably reached its zenith in 1982, when

the Type 956 was revealed. A Group C racer destined for participation in long-distance racing championships, the 620bhp monster featured electronic fuel injection, as well as ground-effect chassis and bodywork design. Success was immediate: the triplet of 956s entered into the year’s 24-hour race at Le Mans crossed the finish line in first, second and third place. Privateer variants brought home even more wins as the decade progressed. In 1983, for example, the 956 occupied the top eight finishing positions at Sarthe. This astonishing achievement was repeated by the 800bhp 962 in 1985. With fifty-one championship titles and seven Le Mans victories, the 956/962 has gone down in history as one of the world’s most successful race cars. By the mid-1980s, a range of Porsche production machines boasting forced induction was bombing about on the public highway, but at the track,


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Above 930 KKK turbocharger, the mighty 961 (based on the 959) Group B sports car, the 959’s twin-turbo flat-six and Niki Lauda in a TAGpowered McLaren MP4/2 in 1984

Left Distinctive 962 C (driven by Bernd Schneider and Tomas Lopez) in the pits during the 1990 480km race of Mexico City

there was still one field of motorsport our favourite manufacturer had yet to conquer. We’re talking Formula One. Despite usurping McLaren as a dominant player in the Can-Am series back in the 1970s, Porsche engineers produced the Type 2623 engine (labelled TAG-Turbo made by Porsche) for McLaren’s F1 concern. Debuting in the MP4 in the summer of 1983, the Mezger-designed, 1.5litre V6 featured twin turbochargers and power that could be ramped up to 900bhp. Other technical innovations included an electronic engine management system and exhaust valve seat cooling, features helping McLaren to win the constructors championship in 1984 and 1985, as well as three drivers championships (1984, 1985 and 1986). In all, Porsche’s brilliant engine propelled the Woking concern to twenty-five race victories between 1984 and 1987. Nineteen of those were for two-time champion, Alain Prost, while six were coined by three-time title winner, Niki Lauda, during the 1984 season.


A string of seminal road machines from Porsche have benefited from forced induction refined at the track. Interestingly, the ground-breaking 930 was not only the first of its kind, but it was also

the first production car to have its turbocharger located on the exhaust side of the engine (an idea pioneered during the design of Can-Am 917s). The 260bhp, three-litre sports machine combined phenomenal-for-the-time performance, a luxurious interior, suspension derived from the RSR, wheel hub assemblies borrowed from the 917 and a boost pressure control system that’d proved its worth in motorsport applications. With a top speed of 155mph and a claimed dash to 62mph from a standing start in just 5.5 seconds, the 930 was a massive sales success. A procession of turbocharged, air-cooled 911s would follow in the 930’s tyre tracks, a run that ended with 1997’s 993 Turbo S. Meanwhile, the 924 Turbo was the first turbocharged model in Porsche’s transaxle family of cars, providing DNA that would go on to assist with the development of the 944 Turbo and the super-rare 968 Turbo S. Notably, the legendary 959 supercar of 1985 (and its race and rally counterpart, the 961) was the first road-going Porsche to make the 917/30’s twin-turbo setup a production reality. And it’s this legacy of forced induction technology successfully translated from race to road which has ensured the Porsche brand and boosted sports cars remain the perfect double act to the present day.

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Ever wondered what the numbers and squiggles on a rolling road printout mean? Wonder no more! Words Dan Furr Photography Dan Sherwood

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PMiART TWO ssed part one?


n the first part our guide to understanding rolling roads, we highlighted how they work, how you can best prepare your Porsche for a power run, and what you should expect on the day. We finished by taking a look at the horsepower and torque figures Barrie Powell’s 944 Turbo delivered at Dyno Developments (, a Stevenage-based company respected for designing and producing the fastest and most stable chassis dynamometer control systems in the industry. Put simply, if you want to find out how well your Porsche is performing, then book a session on a Dyno Developments rolling road!

We returned to North Hertfordshire in order to natter with company boss, Mike Gurney, about the printout Barrie was presented with after his modified transaxle was put through its paces on the rollers. Of course, many gagging to get stuck into pub talk only care about quoting their car’s generated high numbers, but there’s a great deal more information available on a rolling road printout than you might realise at first glance. In this article, we look at what each element of a dyno graph tells us, and why chassis dynamometers are far superior to public roads when it comes to mapping a modified motor.

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7 1








1 Date and time

This string of numbers shows when the test took place. In this instance, it was the 18th August 2017.

Listed as a percentage, a reading of 100% would mean the air is completely full of water vapour, creating the possibility of rain. On this graph, 43% is listed.

2 Test type

5 Barometric pressure


6 Correction factor

‘Lock 4F’ is the type of test carried out. In the case of Barrie’s car, it’s a program designed for four-cylinder, forced induction applications.

Ambient temperature

Measured in Celsius, this is the temperature registered inside the dyno cell during the test.

4 Humidity

Humidity is a measurement of the amount of water vapour detected in air, a factor influenced by ambient temperature.

This is a reading of how heavy or dense air is registered at the point of the test. Weather is the major contributing factor.

Cars tend to produce more power on a cold day than they do in the warm, primarily because the cool air suck in is denser than warm air. This is a big problem for dyno operators, where inconsistent power figures can be achieved on a rolling road if weather conditions change throughout the testing or tuning session. Based on the temperature, humidity

and barometric pressure values presented to us by the dynamometer’s computer, a correction factor (based on an accepted formula) is applied to account for these kind of discrepancies. In short, a properly configured dynamometer will add or remove a small amount of power from its registered results in order to present a true reading of a car’s performance. In the case of Barrie’s 944 Turbo, a correction factor of 1.014% was applied. In other words, the warm day of the test meant the car was likely to be slightly down on power, hence the correction factor applied to the results. Ensure the figure used for the calculation is clearly visible on your rolling road printout, else you have no way of knowing if the dyno operator is providing you with misleading power figures.

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10 Lambda

This is the precise measurement of the air/fuel ratio present in exhaust gases, logged in pounds per square inch (psi). Different engines have different fuelling requirements, and the mixture can be user defined (common practice when tuning a vehicle). As indicated by Mike’s annotation, Barrie’s car could run leaner, but some older electronic fuel injection systems can be difficult to manipulate, leading many tuners to increase fuelling in order to keep a modified engine safe. Thankfully, Barrie’s car’s engine is performing without fault.


11 Summary

The green text beneath the second graph shows uncorrected measurements of horsepower and torque registered at the wheel and flywheel (corrected flywheel figures are displayed on the graph), plus the rpm each is recorded at. The final figure is a repeat of the previously quoted correction factor. It’s worth noting that some unscrupulous dyno operators may try to distort transmission losses, thereby providing you with artificially high final power figures. Dyno Developments chassis dynamometers are designed in such a way that the operator cannot interfere with these losses. Reassuringly, they’re fixed inside the system.


7 RPM 8 Horsepower and torque

The horizontal lines at the bottom of each graph are measurements of RPM.

Here we can see the power delivered by Barrie’s 944. Horsepower is represented by the green line, torque (measured in lb-ft) is represented by the yellow line. Both reach their peak at approximately the same point after a smooth climb, with horsepower continuing to deliver the goods at the point torque drops off. This is where a change of gear would work best, allowing torque to keep climbing (take note, drag racers!).

9 Boost

Old-school turbo technology is known to produce a sudden surge of power after

initial ‘lag’. Modern turbochargers produce boost at a much lower point in the rev range, so don’t be too alarmed if your classic Porsche doesn’t deliver a green line as satisfying as that produced by your mate’s 992 Turbo S. After all, part of what gives turbocharged classics their character is a punch in the back caused by the waking up of a snail-shaped bhp booster! On this graph, boost is represented by the green line and is measured in bar (a metric unit of pressure). Mike has added additional information, showing where Barrie’s car hits maximum boost (rated at 1.2bar). This is higher than standard (as a consequence of the appointment of ProMAX ECU chips and a manually configured boost controller), but still very safe, and could be raised further if Barrie feels so inclined.

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CHASSIS DYNAMOMETER vs LIVE MAPPING We asked Mike why a chassis dynamometer is superior to on-road live mapping when it comes to tuning and testing a vehicle. “It’s difficult to keep an engine running on the road at full load and at a constant rpm without accelerating,” he explained. “Ideally, you want to test a car at various throttle positions for prolonged periods without generating additional speed. This is almost impossible to achieve on uneven road surfaces, not to mention stretches of asphalt punctuated by junctions. Furthermore, it can be an unsafe practice, where high rpm in lower gears may encourage your car to lose traction, and lofty rpm in higher gears will likely see you travelling super-fast. A rolling road is also essential if you want to calibrate ignition timing, a key factor in ensuring your car’s engine is operating correctly,” he says. Cooked brakes, blown engines and lost

driving licenses aren’t exactly unheard of in the world of live mapping. Add to that the temperature, humidity, barometric pressure and correction factors automatically registered by a Dyno Developments machine, and it quickly becomes apparent that the most accurate way to find out how well your car is performing during testing or tuning is to run it on a properly configured rolling road.


Before designing, producing and providing tuning outfits across Europe with 2WD and 4WD rolling roads (rated at 1200bhp and 2400bhp respectively) under the Dyno Developments banner, Mike served as an aerospace engineer, a software developer and was responsible for the UK sales success of Australian rolling road specialist, Dyno Dynamics. Drawing on his immense experience in each field, he designs products respected as the most reliable and most accurate in the industry, a reputation earned through enormous grip, fine load control and update speeds of 50,000 times a second. Unsurprisingly, he’s recognised across the automotive world as a leading authority when it comes to tuning and testing performance cars.

THANKS Dyno Developments 01483 600208

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PERFECTION Always a sharp-driving SUV, the Porsche Cayenne reaches its absolute zenith with the third-gen GTS Coupe… Words Matt Robinson Photography Barry Hayden

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THREE-LETTER LEGEND GTS stands for Gran Turismo Sport and represents the less hardcore super-street machines (as opposed to stripped, lightweight GT2 and GT3-badged beasts) produced by Porsche in recent times. The GTS badge was first used on the 904, dubbed ‘Carrera GTS’ and considered one of the most beautiful race cars ever built. The GTS badge was resurrected for Porsche’s transaxle family of products and went on to be given a new lease of life with the Cayenne, before inevitably finding its way onto the 911 and the 718 Cayman/Boxster twins.

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he Porsche Cayenne is widely regarded as the SUV that properly added ‘sport’ to ‘utility vehicle’. Sure, it was beaten to the monocoque punch by the appearance of both Mercedes ML and the firstgeneration BMW X5, but it was the 2003 Cayenne that really got driving enthusiasts juices flowing (not least because of the way it handled, belying its considerable mass when on the move) even if the very self-same enthusiasts weren’t as enamoured with the Porsche’s somewhat challenging exterior looks. Save for its little brother, the Macan, bursting onto the scene to rapturous applause for its impressive dynamics in 2014, the exalted position as the SUV all of Porsche’s rival manufacturers aim to emulate has been the Cayenne’s stomping ground for the past seventeen years – so much so that engineers behind Aston Martin’s first-ever SUV, the recently launched DBX, freely admit the Cayenne is the SUV they most want their creation to drive like. Factor in knowledge that the third-generation Cayenne sits on the Volkswagen Group’s superb MLB Evo chassis and you’d think the largest Porsche SUV would be head-and-shoulders clear of every other competitor vehicle in terms of chassis poise and driver reward. That hasn’t quite turned out to be the case.

Naturally, the Cayenne still drives superbly well for a machine weighing more than two tonnes in all specifications, but there’s a feeling not only has the Macan stolen some of the bigger Porsche’s thunder, distant-in-house rivals (like the Lamborghini Urus, for example) have also managed to jostle the Cayenne off its throne. Certainly, if you drive the 671bhp Cayenne Turbo S E-Hybrid (TSEH) and you’re expecting it to blow your brains with cornering prowess, you’ll be disappointed by the somewhat leaden, blunted handling the significant extra weight of part-electric running gear delivers. What about the 542bhp Turbo? Well, it’s tremendous, but ever-so-slightly feels a tad loose at the limit. There’s a sensation of a little too much lean in the corners, a gnat’s excess of pitch and dive under hard acceleration and braking behaviour you wouldn’t experience on either the GTS or Turbo versions of the smaller, more compact Macan. So, can the fully expected GTS derivative of the third-gen Cayenne swing balance back in favour of what’s billed as the flagship SUV in Porsche’s portfolio? It certainly looks the part. You can have the GTS as a regular five-door Cayenne for a starting price of £85,930 or, alternatively, you can fling another £2,820 at your favourite Official Porsche Centre and opt for

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THE CAYENNE GTS COUPE IS ONE OF THE MOST REWARDING, FINEST-HANDLING AND DOWNRIGHT ENJOYABLE SUVS WE’VE EVER SAMPLED Above Making a splash in more ways than one, the Cayenne’s ‘go anywhere’ character has seen it become a hugely popular Porsche product

this Coupe version. Go for it, because we think this is the best-looking coupe-SUV – always a controversial niche within the automotive world – we’ve seen to date. The Cayenne GTS Coupe manages to look highly ‘Porsche’ in profile (you know what me mean!), without sacrificing too much in the way of the SUV practicality buyers of these vehicles demand.


Facing page Carmine Red is a stunning colour, but will sting you for more than £1.6k

It helps, of course, that the usual GTS design tropes favour the format. Black detailing abound on the outside. Additionally, the GTS signature colour of Carmine Red (£1,683) clothes the Cayenne Coupe’s lines better than any shade we’ve yet seen. As standard, a 20mm-lower ride height on steel springs with Porsche Active Suspension Management (PASM) has its own state of tune and would give the Cayenne a lovely stance, though our test car had the twin suspension upgrades of adaptive, self-levelling air suspension (£1,511) and Porsche Dynamic Chassis Control (£2,315) to further give the vehicle purpose. Oh, and it also features the Black Lightweight Sports Package, which costs a hefty £6,692, but brings in the following: the sports exhaust system with centrally mounted exhaust finishers in black, 22-inch GT Design alloys in Satin Platinum, the lightweight carbon-fibre roof (lowering the Cayenne’s centre-of-gravity and

doing away with the standard-fit panoramic affair you’d get otherwise), an exterior Sport Design Package in black and, inside, the twin sporty appeals of a heated multifunction sports steering wheel with an Alcantara-trimmed rim (this is glorious to hold and operate) and stacks of carbon trim. These touches enliven the third-gen Cayenne’s utterly superb interior, while black leather seats with checked fabric centres are redolent of Porsches past and further notch up the ambience (you’ll pay another £1,406 for eighteen-way electrically adjustable Adaptive Sports Seats, mind). You could probably live without the compass/Sport Chrono stopwatch (£245) and the rev counter being painted in the same Carmine Red as the exterior (£245), but they go a long way to reinforcing Porsche’s message that GTS is the sportiest model of what is already a pretty damned sporty range of SUVs. Speaking of which, further options sharpen this Cayenne GTS Coupe’s chassis. For added nimbleness, Rear-Axle Steering (£1,448) is drafted in, while those with keen eyes will spot the distinctive yellow calipers of the Porsche Ceramic Composite Brake (PCCB) system (£6,321) peeking through the spokes of the black twenty-twos. These are uprated from the standard-equipment anchors of the GTS, which are aluminium monobloc fixed calipers front and rear,

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boasting six-pot on the nose and four-pistons at the back, gripping (respectively) 390mm and 358mm discs. If PCCB isn’t specified, the GTS runs red brakes. Among sundry other items – although in normal circumstances we’d hardly call expenditure of £1,035 on a Head-Up Display, £1,221 on thermally and noiseinsulating glass, £1,986 on Adaptive Cruise Control (plus Lane-Keep Assist and Traffic-Sign Recognition), £956 on a BOSE sound system and £1,305 on auxiliary heating ‘sundry’ – the grand total of £34,701 was dropped on this Stuttgart-registered Cayenne GTS Coupe, resulting in a vehicle an agonising fiver shy of being neatly priced at £123,456.


Whatever way you cut it, the fact this optioned-up 454bhp GTS Coupe costs more than the basic price of the aforementioned range-topper is somewhat startling. It isn’t, however, as startling as this one salient point: the Cayenne GTS Coupe is one of the most rewarding, finest-handling and downright enjoyable SUVs we’ve ever sampled. And, in fact, it’s better to drive than many lower, considerably lighter and purportedly much-more-focused sports cars we’ve been in, too. It’s undoubtedly the star of the current Cayenne range and probably also the best version of

the Porsche SUV we’ve seen since 2003. We’re talking serious levels of yearning want, here. The seminal GTS experience begins when you fire up the 454bhp V8. It loses nothing of the meaty, menacing timbre of the Turbo and, if anything, with that sports exhaust fitted, has a touch more sonic allure about it at low revs. Furthermore, when in the very early stages of driving the Cayenne GTS and negotiating your way out of urban areas, you’ll pick up on the richly detailed and supremely weighted steering, as well as the beautiful, limber tautness to the ride quality on the air suspension and PASM, which speaks volumes about how talented Porsche’s engineers are at trading outright body control against rolling comfort. On cratered roads in town and edging out onto faster flowing rural A-roads, you’ll be hardpressed to remember that you’re thundering along on 22-inch wheels at each corner, with tyres down to a mere 30-profile at the rear. Admittedly, the optional (and pricey) thicker glass probably does much here to enhance refinement in the passenger compartment at motorway speeds, but it’s fair to say we’ve not yet been in a standardglazed third-gen Cayenne and thought there was an excess of either chatter from rubber or wind noise from around the exterior of the cabin. So the Cayenne,

Above All the usual luxury GTS trim makes this particular Cayenne just as civilised as it is sporty

Facing page Giant infotainment screen is typical of all new Porsches

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with its magnificent visibility out in all directions (yes, even as a Coupe model, rearward vision is perfectly acceptable, despite that raked screen) and marvellously judged controls, is incredibly civilised and likeable when it’s being asked to demonstrate the ‘utility’ side of its dichotomous character. That said, a Cayenne E-Hybrid is a lovely thing to live with on a daily basis. The reason we adore the Cayenne GTS, therefore, is because of the way it transforms into a stunning performance car when you dial up either Sport or Sport Plus modes. Porsche really does have an almost otherworldly knack with its adjustable damping. Whether you stick with Comfort or step up to Sport Plus, you’ll never find the ride too harsh, nor will you experience the sensation of the body getting away from the chassis – and yet, there’s differentiation between the feel and quality of the shock absorbers through all three settings. This clarity of definition allows you to cycle through all of the Porsche’s modes according to the road surface unfurling ahead, meaning you can configure the SUV to the nth degree whatever you’re facing. What you won’t want to miss here, though, is the deeper, more insistent exhaust note of the Cayenne GTS in Sport or Sport Plus, which is fabulous and full validation for Porsche’s decision to switch the GTS back to V8 power after a brief dalliance, from

EVOLUTIONARY TALE The Cayenne was Porsche’s first front-engined, V8-powered production car since the demise of the 928. The Cayenne is also the manufacturer’s first off-road utility vehicle since the PorscheDiesel tractor series of the 1950s, although since the Cayenne’s introduction in 2002, the vast majority of examples sold have been put to use as road cars. Throughout its history, the model has been closely linked with the VW Touareg and the Audi Q7 due to a single development platform shared between marques. Body frame, doors, electronics and some of the available engines are shared, with overall Cayenne assembly taking place in Volkswagen plants in Bratislava, Leipzig and Osnabrück. The second-generation Cayenne (92A) was released in mid-2010, with its official reveal taking place at the year’s Geneva Motor Show. Introducing hybrid technology to a range previously dominated by V8s, the model paved the way for the current Cayenne, based on VW’s MLB platform. The Cayenne Coupe was introduced in 2019.

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2015 onwards, with a twin-turbo V6 for the facelifted second-gen model. We’re also not sure anyone in their right mind will miss the on-paper deficits of 88bhp and 110lb-ft the GTS has when compared to the Turbo with the same four-litre force-fed V8, because on the public highways you’ll never, ever notice the difference. The pace of the GTS is blistering, and it’ll hook up its drivetrain with minimal fuss from pretty much any amount of revs that are showing on the Carmine Red dial. Kudos also for giving the Cayenne GTS the eight-speed Tiptronic gearbox, rather than PDK – the former is the perfect, slick-shifting companion for the torque-rich V8’s delivery of power.


The real genius, though, is the way the Cayenne GTS masks its size and bulk. Placing it with millimetre precision on the road is a doddle thanks to the exquisite steering and the magnificent body control, while the balance of the chassis is utterly joyous. You have to filter through the sensations of Rear-Axle Steering to determine just how mobile the trailing axle is, but trust us when we say the Cayenne GTS feels predominantly rear-biased and anything but boringly four-square. On challenging, twisting routes across the South Downs National Park, this 454bhp Porsche was wieldy and enjoyable, rather than hefty and intimidating. And, truth be told, there was no other vehicle that we’d rather have been in for the drive – SUV or otherwise. A weird thing has happened in recent years: the GTS model of any Porsche seems to receive warmer critical appraisal than the equivalent Turbo. It’s a trait most

odd when you realise many GTS models share exactly the same engine as their contemporary Turbo editions, albeit with a slight detune. The status quo continues here. In other words, if you’re a Turbo devotee, look away now. Yep, the GTS is the better machine! It’s sharper, leaner, more involving and better to look at, both inside and out. Perhaps more heartening for Porsche fanatics like us, though, is the fact this GTS is the third-gen model once again putting the ‘most dynamic SUV’ crown firmly back on top of the Cayenne’s head. Money no object, if you want the greatest driver’s vehicle of this size available, you ought to be looking at the Cayenne GTS Coupe first and foremost. And, nearly twenty years after the Cayenne’s launch, it’s truly delightful to see the big, bold Porsche SUV continuing to set the kinematic benchmark for all others to aspire to.

Above Part SUV, part sports car, all crossover, but in the GTS, a split personality doesn’t mean Porsche has compromised


Porsche Cayenne GTS Coupe GTS from £88,750, car as tested £123,451 4.0-litre twin-turbocharged V8 petrol Eight-speed Tiptronic S, PTM all-wheel drive and Porsche Torque Vectoring Plus 25.2mpg 260g/km 168mph 4.5 seconds 454hp at 6,000-6,500rpm 458lb ft at 1,800-4,500rpm

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MAY 2020









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APRIL 2020


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+44 (0)208 348 5151 Porsche 911 (930) 3.3 Turbo Coupe LHD, 1987 Matching numbers Period upgrades - 353 BHP

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Porsche 911 (964) Carrera RS LHD, 1992 Swiss supplied 20,600 miles

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RAISING THE RUF Fast, rare and highly respected, this RUF BTR 3.8 conversion is a 964 Turbo 3.6 on steroids… Words Emma Woodcock Photography Dan Sherwood

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pright windscreen, round headlights and an accelerating, sloping rear, intermingled with a high-rise, twin-plane rear wing, wheel arches shouldering far out from the bodywork and a ride height almost skimming the floor. The shape is unmistakably a 964-generation 911, but the additions suggest something far removed from a basic Carrera. Look closer and a firmer idea forms. With deep side skirts and a pair of front bumper cooling vents, this car is wearing a factory Porsche Aero kit. Add the stripped interior and it must be one of the rarest limited editions. Something like a Carrera RS 3.8 or Turbo S 3.3? The badge on the nose disagrees. This isn’t a Porsche at all: it’s a RUF BTR 3.8. Re-engineered in Pfaffenhausen, barely a hundred miles from Porsche headquarters, the 415bhp road racer is far removed from factory specification, but it wasn’t always this way. Though Alois Ruf – one of

the world’s most respected and enduring Porsche tuners – converted several 964 Turbos to BTR 3.8 specification before they’d even turned a wheel, this example was converted much later in life. Indeed, up until 1998, the wide-hipped, gloss black machine was a doppelgänger for Will Smith’s ride in action flick, Bad Boys, and had standard 964 Turbo 3.6 specification to match. Successor to the long-lived and original 911 Turbo (930), the force-fed 964 followed a similar template upon its 1990 introduction. Power comes from a revised version of the 3.3-litre engine that first featured in its predecessor, gear-swapping managed by the familiar G50 five-speed manual sending drive directly to the rear wheels. A substantial rear wing and wide rear arches provide visual clout. Detail changes are more substantial and follow the rest of the 964 range, providing anti-lock brakes, powerassisted steering, coil suspension throughout and


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Above In the BTR 3.8, RUF took the 930’s successor and did something truly remarkable with Porsche’s package

Facing page The Bad Boys 964 is a classic poster car, yet the BTR 3.8 hugely enhances Turbo 3.6 specification

even a revised heater. With a larger turbocharger than the 930, the 964 Turbo 3.3 also has improved performance, delivering 315bhp and 332lb-ft torque. Porsche refined the 964 Turbo concept and raised power in late 1992 with the release of the 911 Turbo 3.6. Increases to the bore, stroke and compression ratio yielded 355bhp and 384lb-ft peak outputs. Taking inspiration from the earlier limited edition Turbo 3.3 S, the 3.6 also benefits from eighteen-inch Speedline three-piece alloy wheels (eight inches of width at the front, ten at the rear) and drilled brake discs throughout. Firmer springs, a front strut brace and a ride height 20mm lower than the Turbo 3.3 complete the transformation. Potential customers would have to act fast. With the 993-generation 911 set to arrive in 1994 — and the corresponding, four-wheel drive Turbo model planned for the year after — sales of the Turbo 3.6 only continued for a short while, until the 964 range was withdrawn in late 1993. Porsche sold just 1,437 Turbo 3.6 cars in that time, making the model one of the most sought-after air-cooled 911s. One final development of the Turbo 3.6 concept rounded out production: the Turbo 3.6 S. Equipped with a larger turbocharger, revised camshafts, altered cylinder heads and an additional oil cooler, the special edition model produces 385bhp and stands

as the fastest production 964. A ZF 20% locking limited slip differential and revised spoilers front and rear also feature. Only ninety cars appeared in 3.6 S specification, seventy-six of which received striking flachbau bodywork with pop-up headlights. Boutique and brutal, the Turbo 3.6 S is the ultimate factory interpretation of the 964.


Alois Ruf and his team go further still, releasing the BTR 3.8 in 1992. The first RUF model based around the updated 964 Turbo structure, it replaces the earlier 3.4-litre BTR (the first RUF production sports car with a RUF-specific VIN) and is positioned just below the iconic CTR ‘Yellowbird’. Like those models, the BTR 3.8 boasts a turbocharged and substantially redesigned flat-six, extensively customised running gear and almost unbelievable performance, with RUF claiming a 198mph top speed. Independent testing shows the figure to be pessimistic, with Road & Track managing 205mph and an 11.9-second quarter-mile. As those numbers show, RUF showcased much of its expertise in the BTR 3.8’s engine. Starting with a 3.6-litre Porsche powerplant, the tuning firm revised the camshafts, fitted new head gaskets, raised the compression ratio and increased the cylinder bore to 102mm, hiking overall displacement to 3,746cc.

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TAKING STEPS While the first RUF BTR was based on the G-series 911, the BTR 3.8 was the Pfaffenhausen concern’s most ambitious take on the 964 platform, a project starting with the CR2/CR4 (based on Carrera 2/Carrera 4 chassis). Whereas the earlier CTR ‘Yellowbird’ had stolen headlines for its impressive performance, the CR2/CR4 was designed to fine-tune the standard 964 Porsche package in readiness for a more hardcore take on the new 911. The 964 Turbo (3.3) 360bhp BR2/BR4 followed, before the BTR 3.8 landed in 1992.

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Above RUF-built interior includes custom buckets

Facing page Heavily developed flat-six is paired with a bespoke RUF six-speed transmission

MIXING WELL OVER 400BHP WITH ARCHETYPAL REARENGINED HANDLING, FIRST IMPRESSIONS OF THE BTR 3.8 SIT BETWEEN PHENOMENAL AND GENUINELY SCARY Improved airflow and Motronic sequential fuel injection also feature, ensuring the BTR 3.8 has the raw ingredients necessary to create its monstrous 406lb-ft torque. Every BTR 3.8 built at the RUF facility benefits from the narrow-body 964 Carrera 2 bodyshell which, when combined with a rigorous weight saving regimen that removes the rear seats and much of the electronics, swaps the Porsche steering wheel for a three-spoke RUF item and fits a pair of bucket seats, trims overall mass to just 1,260kg. That’s over two-hundred kilograms less than a standard 964 Turbo and only thirty kilos more than the lightweight Carrera RS. As a customised Turbo 3.6, the gorgeous black car in our photos incorporates the same cabin — including a difficult-to-spot integral RUF factory roll cage — into a wide-track bodyshell and features a genuine Carrera RS 3.8 Aero kit. Stiffened suspension and more assertive brakes also appear in the BTR 3.8 package, yet it’s the

transmission that really sets the RUF apart from contemporary Porsches. Every BTR 3.8 uses a limited-slip differential with a substantial 40% locking ratio, increasing traction even in extreme conditions, and drives through a bespoke RUF sixspeed gearbox. Developed from the five-speed used in period 911s, the transmission appeared in several RUFs, along with the innovative EKS system that matched an H-pattern shifter with an automatic and electronically controlled clutch. Our black car has a more conventional three-pedal setup.


Only a fortunate few have dropped into the RUFdesigned seat and experienced a BTR 3.8 for themselves. One previous owner of this example — who bought the car when looking for an original 964 Turbo – reports a drive like little else. Mixing over four-hundred horses with turbocharged delivery, rear-wheel drive and archetypal rear-engined

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handling, first impressions of the BTR 3.8 sit between phenomenal and genuinely scary. The enlarged engine sits at the heart of the experience, defining the car. Rocket sled acceleration is always on offer — allowing safe overtakes on all but the shortest straights — but there’s flexibility at lower revs and smaller throttle openings, too. Usable performance is available in almost every scenario, turbo lag rarely disrupting the flow, though the previous owner counsels caution and measured inputs. Put it this way, he never took his BTR 3.8 out in wet weather! As confidence grows, the RUF begins to reveal new layers of involvement. Serpentine tarmac reveals unimpeachable grip and sharp steering, the revised suspension placing the BTR 3.8 with greater accuracy than an original 964 Turbo can muster, while the RUF six-speed gearbox rewards with a tight, precise shift. Crack the window and there’s aural excitement too, the turbocharged flat-six screaming and spooling with each new input.


Immediate and scintillating, yet perfectly content to cruise for hours at a time, the BTR 3.8 is a remarkable

Left Does a production 964 get any better than the BTR 3.8?

interpretation of ‘air-cooled art’. And this, a RUFconverted 964 Turbo 3.6, has turned heads of the most discerning Porschephiles. Entrepreneur and former Lotus F1 Team president, Gérard López, once owned the car as part of multi-generational RUF collection, while historic racer and religious figure, Prince Rahim Aga Khan, is another keeper of note. Leading specialists, Jeremy Cottingham and Maxted-Page, handled previous sales, while recent maintenance was carried out by Webster and Lancaster and, of course, RUF itself. You don’t need to be in the enthusiast elite to appreciate the BTR 3.8, though. You just need long enough to take a look and drink in the details. It’s like the perfect Porsche, only more so.

Below This converted 964 Turbo 3.6’s number plate says it all

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911 GT3RS (996)

911 GT3 (996)

911 Turbo (997 GEN II)

911 Carrera 4 (993)

Carrara White • Black Nomex Bucket Seats • One of just 113 UK-Supplied Cars • Factory Roll Cage • Paragon Service History Air Conditioning • 20,919 miles 2004 (53)

Guards Red • Black Leather Bucket Seats • 18” Sport Design GT3 Wheels • One of just 106 UKSupplied Cars • Air Conditioning Paragon Service History • 29,552 miles • 1999 (V)

Jet Black • Black Leather Seats PDK Gearbox with Paddles • Bose Sound • Parking Sensors • Sport Design Steering Wheel • Bluetooth Phone • 19” Turbo II Wheels 34,027 miles • 2012 (12)

Arctic Silver • Classic Grey Leather Sports Seats • Manual Gearbox Air Conditioning • 17” Cup Wheels 285 BHP VarioRam Engine • Dark Blue Power Hood with Tonneau 61,259 miles • 1997 (P)





911 Carrera 4 (993)

911 Carrera 2 GTS (997)

911 Turbo (997)

911 Carrera 2 (991)

Polar Silver • Marble Grey Leather Sports Seats • 285 BHP VarioRam Engine • Air Conditioning • 17” Cup Alloy Wheels • Four-Wheel Drive Electric Sunroof • Cruise Control 61,913 miles • 1996 (N)

Carrara White • Black Leather Adaptive Sports Seats • PDK Gearbox • 19” GTS Centre Lock Wheels • Touchscreen Satellite Navigation • Sport Chrono • Bose Sound • 17,227 miles • 2011 (11)

Meteor Grey • Black Leather Adaptive Sports Seats • 19” Turbo Wheels • Satellite Navigation Sport Chrono • Bose Sound Previously Sold & Serviced by Paragon • 57,642 miles • 2008 (08)

Carrara White • Black Leather Seats • PDK Gearbox • Switchable Sports Exhaust • 20” Carrera Classic Wheels • Previously Sold & Serviced by Paragon • 37,285 miles • 2012 (12)





Boxster 718

Boxster Spyder (987)

Cayenne Diesel 4.2 V8

911 Carrera 2 S (997)

GT Silver • Black/Crayon Dual-Tone Leather Seats • PDK Gearbox 20” Black Carrera Sport Wheels Touchscreen Satellite Navigation Switchable Sports Exhaust • 2,119 miles • 2019 (19)

Jet Black • Black Leather Sports Seats • PDK Gearbox with Paddles 19” Black Boxster Spyder Wheels Sport Chrono • Sport Design Steering Wheel • Full Leather Interior • 14,528 miles • 2011 (11)

Basalt Black • Black Leather, Electric & Heated Sports Seats Tiptronic Gearbox • 21” Cayenne Design Wheels • Touchscreen Satellite Navigation • Panoramic Sunroof • 40,382 miles • 2016 (16)

Arctic Silver • Black Leather Sports Seats • 19” Sport Design Wheels Satellite Navigation • Parking Sensors • Cruise Control Bose Sound • 62,182 miles 2005 (05)





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29/09/2020 09:29




This guide to circuit-specific techniques will be useful if you’re taking your Porsche to a track for the first time, though the underlying skills can be applied to elements of road driving, too…


lthough not directly intuitive, it’s likely you’ve heard the phrase ‘racing line’. In case you haven’t, the term refers to the path followed for the quickest lap of a circuit, far from a simple straight line. You may well scribe a true straight line between corners, but you’ll need plenty of arcs in the bends — these are the bits that make the most difference to your lap time. From this point onward, I’ll refer to your line through a corner. By this, I mean your trajectory through a given bend. But why the precision of

a specific line? Essentially, the racer is looking for a path of least resistance – the quickest way from start to finish. Corners, both numerous and ranging in complexity provide a challenge – the need to lose and regain speed in order to change direction. Essentially, the goal of circuit driving is to minimise lost speed and maximise the average speed across the lap. Easy, it is not. Often, during an on-track driving session, when I’m coaching somebody new, they’ll ask me to show them the best line for the given circuit. Rather than give one line to copy, I prefer to

start with more generic concepts. By applying these to the track and helping the driver develop their own lines as they learn, they’ll find it much easier to apply their new knowledge to any other circuit. Teach a man to fish, and all that! This way, they’ll build their own lines much more effectively in the future. Although this may seem like slow progress, let’s not forget that understanding why a line is good, bad or better is far more useful than simply copying those of others. After all, a change in car or weather conditions may mean your lines need adjustment anyway!

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If you watch motorsport or have

full width of the track. It’s a significantly

you have heard the word apex. However,

discussed circuit driving in the past, I

larger radius (straighter) than if you hug

despite almost universal modern

expect you’ve come across terms such

either the inner edge or outer edge of the

usage, what people should really say

as ‘the inside’, ‘the outside’ and ‘apex’

track and helps to explain why circuit

is the clipping point. This is the point

or ‘clipping the apex’. Less likely, the

cornering speeds can be so much higher

at which your vehicle clips the inner

‘clipping point’. To carry maximum

than within a single lane on the public

edge of the track for your chosen arc.

speed through a simple 90-degree right-

road. In reality, rarely will a racing line be

Mathematically speaking, the apex of the

hand bend, you’re looking to position

of constant radius. As you steer into the

line through a corner relates to the shape

your car to the very outside ahead of

bend you are reducing radius progressively

of the arc itself and is independent of

the curve. This is the extreme left,

toward a minimum; from straight to the

the track boundaries. In cornering, this

immediately adjacent to the grass or

required maximum curvature. There’s a

translates usually as the point of tightest

kerb stones. At the end of the straight, as

steering transition into the curve. Then,

radius; where you’ll have a maximum

you turn into the bend, you’re aiming for

as you unwind the steering, you open

amount of steering applied. For simple

your car to move gradually to the inside

the radius back to a straight line. Again,

corners – sketched during many a

of the curve (extreme right) to clip the

a smooth transition if done well. As you

discussion – this can coincide with the

inside edge (kissing the kerb, if present)

load the steering you should feel it become

point at which you clip the inside edge of

about midway through the bend. From

heavier until you reach a maximum and

the track and so may well be the source

this point, you can ease the car back to

can clip the inner edge. From here, you can

of the misunderstanding. However, in

the outside of the bend (extreme left)

start to unwind the steering slowly, the

most cases, the best lines through any

as you join the following straight. At a

self-centring effect both helping you and

given corner will involve a clipping point

simple level, this line is the straightest

reducing in strength as the car straightens

some distance after where you’ll use

— or largest radius — curve you can

up, running wide to use all the space.

the most steering lock (both minimum

scribe through the bend using the

If all this isn’t completely new, it’s likely

radius and home of the geometric apex).

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When somebody refers to a ‘late apex’ (a

steering early, your exit a much straighter

This reduces drag and improves stability,

180-degree hairpin curve, for example),

line. Get it right and you can accelerate

which allows you to apply much more

what they mean is an early apex, with a

hard, hitting a late clipping point about two

power early on for strong acceleration

late clipping point. The classic beginner’s

thirds round the inner edge as you beeline

down the next straight. By contrast, if you

racing line for this type of corner involves

for the outside and join the next straight.

followed a simple symmetric curve using

driving deeper into the bend, staying to the

It’s not the very fastest way through the

an adaptation of the basic approach from

outside for longer than expected. You brake

corner, but is a useful demonstration of

the 90-degree bend described earlier,

later, increase the length of the previous

a technique which can be applied more

your apex and clipping point coincide at

straight and drive a slow, tight curve some

subtly once you start to learn trail braking

the inner kerb exactly mid-bend. Your

distance from the inner kerb stones. You

(a performance-enhancing alternative to

minimum speed can be higher as a result

create your own corner, a different shape

straight-line braking).

of the greater radius, but this will last much longer. Heavy acceleration can start

to the track itself. Your tight curve is a

This classic line illustrates perfectly

short distance travelled with the tyres

the oft-quoted ‘slow in, fast out’. With

only when on the next straight. Which

heavily loaded. You rotate your car through

both straights increased in length –

line is best will depend on your ability,

most of the required change in direction in

joined by the tight radius portion of

your car’s strengths and the track itself,

far less time, pointing it up the following

your line – you relieve cornering stress

but a blend of the two is usually where the

straight much earlier. You can unwind the

from the car’s tyres early in the bend.

optimum is found.

DRIVING FORCE Neil Furber is GT Porsche’s resident driving expert. With a background as a mechanical engineer in Formula One, he brings a unique technical insight to driver coaching. Splitting his time between the French Alps and the UK, Neil coaches drivers through his brand, Drive 7Tenths ( and is also a Porsche Driving Consultant at Porsche Experience Centre Silverstone. Have a question about driving? Email him at

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It’s easy to assume there’s one optimal racing line for a given circuit. In a race, apart from overtaking or wheel-towheel battles, you may notice most of the cars following a very similar trajectory. Occasionally, a driver may use a wildly different line through a sequence of bends. They may have found an advantage for themselves or in sacrificing one portion of the track, they gain elsewhere to gain

Your car’s relative strengths and


competitive advantage. There are several

weaknesses have their role to play also. For

contributing factors including weather

a lightweight car with low engine power and

conditions. During a long race, there will be

strong roadholding (maximum cornering

debris and ‘marbles’ of old rubber swept to

force), maintaining a high constant speed

vehicle dynamics and control, you’ll

the side of a well-used line. The difference

in a large radius curve can prove most

find there’s more to it than line

in grip from one area to another can be

effective when considering raw lap time. A

alone. For ultimate lap times, you’ll

quite pronounced. Optimal wet, or damp,

very powerful car with weak roadholding

need to choose the best approach to

lines can be different to a preferred dry

may benefit more from the (early apex)

each and every corner. Trail braking,

line due to standing water and local grip

late clipping point approach. Despite losing

throttle-induced car rotation and

variation from unworn or highly rubber-

some time on corner entry, a chance to use

subtle changes to your steering inputs

coated areas. Trading the minimum number

full engine power with minimal tyre drag

can help in varying degrees. Certain

of losses for the maximum gains will

can make a significant gain by the end of

approaches could achieve theoretical

achieve the best lap times.

the next straight.

maximum performance. That said,

As you learn more about racing lines,

limitations of driver skill, fatigue and inherent vehicle stability can mean partial or total loss of control.

NEXT MONTH Driving modes

Sometimes, on balance, a slightly tempered approach can pay dividends by leaving margin for error, making your Porsche easier to drive. Think walking down a narrow path instead of along a tightrope! With respect to lines, generally, the more exaggerated, deeper entries of (early apex) late clipping points are best for long, slow corners to get the car rotated ready for strong acceleration. Whereas, faster, more open bends at high speeds are best driven with momentum conservation in mind. A gradual arc of almost constant radius and at consistently high speed tends to work well. In this case your apex and clipping point may coincide. As for the complexities of multiple bends, we’ll explore this topic in forthcoming issues of GT Porsche — although Dan is moving on from the editor’s chair, this series of articles is planned to continue. With this in mind, if you have any specific driver coaching topics you’d like to read about, do get in touch.

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ed part one?


After moving further away from its Volkswagen origins, the fab flat-four was given a new lease of life across a range of exciting and important Porsche products…


Words Shane O’Donoghue Photography Dan Furr, Dan Sherwood, Porsche

major step in the continuation of Porsche’s iconic four-cylinder boxer engine was the decision to replace the unit’s Volkswagen-sourced crankcase with a new design. This took place at the end of 1954, resulting in a three-piece case with a much larger oil sump, all made from aluminium. The new design took into consideration the need to continually increase engine capacity and was a key part of 356 A’s launch in late 1955, which is where the second part of our look at

the flat-four’s development begins. Two versions of the old 1.3-litre engine were carried over, powering the 1300 A and 1300 Super. The former, loaded with the Type 506, made 42bhp, while the latter, powered by the Type 589, produced up to 59bhp. The 1.1-litre option was dropped completely, while the famed ‘Fuhrmann’ engine (with its complicated double overhead camshafts design) was offered in the series production 356 A in 1.5-litre Type 547 guise, providing the 356 Carrera GS with 99bhp and the Carrera GT with 107bhp.

Klaus von Rücker, then Porsche Technical Director, oversaw the design of the Type 547’s successor, the Type 692. While it kept the 547’s bevel-andshaft valvetrain drive system, the bigend roller bearings were replaced with more conventional plain bearings. This generated more heat in the oil system, which is why a larger oil tank (it was a dry sump engine) and a pair of oil coolers were added to the 356. The first iterations of this engine, fitted to the Carrera 1500 GT, retained the 1,498cc swept capacity of their predecessor, along with the same

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Facing page Porsche racing hero, Hans Joachim Stuck, enjoying seat time in a rare 356 Carrera GTL Abarth Above The gorgeous 1957 356 A 1500 GS Carrera Coupe Top right 1953 Calistyle 356 1500 Coupe Right F1 and Le Mans star, Mark Webber, driving a 718 RS 60

Left Type 547 ‘Fuhrmann’ flat-four Bottom left Herbert Linge, Hans Herrmann, Huschke von Hanstein and Jaroslav Juhan with the 550 Spyder at the 1954 Carrera Panamericana Bottom right Ernst Fuhrmann, designer of the legendary Type 547 and chairman of Porsche AG between 1972 and 1980

107bhp output, before being bored out to 1,587cc (to enable eligibility for higher capacity racing formulae), as first seen at the rear of the 356 Carrera 1600 GS.


The Type 692/3, fitted to the 356 B Carrera GT in 1959, was producing 114bhp from the off thanks to its high-revving nature. The host 356 was also the first Porsche to use a twelve-volt electrical system, a development recognised as necessary due to the demands of a complicated ignition set-up. The Type 692/3A flat-four is worthy of special mention here – it found its way into the ultra-rare 356 Carrera GTL Abarth, the result of a special collaboration between Porsche and the famous Italian race car maker, and one designed to take the Stuttgart brand’s fight to the period’s dominant Alfa Romeo and Lotus sports car racing concerns. In parallel, the old pushrod engine design soldiered on, albeit with the new crankcase to allow larger displacement. The Type 616, a 1.6-litre (1,582cc) engine,

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was an important development, initially offered in 59bhp and 74bhp S guises in the 356 A and topping out at 94bhp in the SC-badged 356 B. Incidentally, there was a specific derivative of this engine supplied to German police forces. The air-cooled flat-four wasn’t kept only for the 356, of course. The aforementioned Type 547, for example, powered the legendary 550 race cars, initially with 108bhp, evolving into a 133bhp unit. The 547 was put to further use in the original 718, producing up to 148bhp as a 1.5-litre engine (as adopted for use in the exposedwheel 718/2) and, later, 158bhp as the 1.6litre unit propelling 1960’s RS 60. A major overhaul for the flat-four debuted in the 356 B Carrera 2 (also referred to as the 2000 GS) in 1962, which featured a Type 587 two-litre boxer. The old 74mm stroke remained, but a wide 92mm bore enabled first iterations to pump out 128bhp and 131lbft of torque. Impressively, by the time

Porsche discontinued the 356, the Type 587 was developing 158bhp for road use and registered power up to 177bhp when mid-mounted in the utterly beautiful 904 (Carrera GTS) race car.


Back in the world of series production Porsches, the time had come to replace the highly successful 356. The 911, of course, would go on to comprehensively achieve this feat, but early sales weren’t the runaway success many of today’s motoring hacks would have you believe. For this reason, Porsche needed to bridge the gap between its new six-cylinder car and the much cheaper 356. The answer came in the form of the 912 (initially known as the 902), essentially a 911 body loaded with a flat-four engine. Two approaches to the design of the 912’s beating heart were considered, both aimed at raising performance above that of the 356, but without the complexity

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Above and far left Following model launch, the 912 handsomely outsold the far more expensive 911 Left 904 Carrera GTS was equipped with “the most complex four-cylinder” engine, before the limited run 904/6 and 904/8 cars, equipped with potent flat-six and flat-eight engines respectively

and cost of the ‘Fuhrmann’ unit. The first was to use as many parts as possible from the 911’s six-cylinder Type 901 engine, while the second revolved around the idea of a 1.8-litre version of the 356’s flat-four, complete with mechanical fuel injection. Time was tight, however, and with concerns regarding potentially high cost of developing another new engine, this restriction encouraged Porsche to settle on an evolution of the Type 616 detailed earlier. Codenamed 616/36, it featured a lower compression ratio and, at 89bhp, a slightly lower power output than ultimate 356 SC specification, yet it produced as much torque at a lower engine speed. Unusually, the 616/36 remained more or less unchanged throughout the 912’s entire production run. The Targa-topped 914 succeeded the 912 as the entry-level Porsche following the earlier model’s end of assembly in 1969. A close collaboration between Volkswagen and Porsche, the fourcylinder 914 wasn’t, in fact, powered by a Porsche engine at all! Okay, Porsche had some input, but, in short, the duo of German manufacturers planned to sell two different versions of the 914: one being a four-cylinder Volkswagen, the other a six-cylinder Porsche. Ferry Porsche and Volkswagen Director, Heinrich Nordhoff, subsequently made an agreement to badge all cars with the Porsche crest, but Nordhoff died the year

before 914 production was scheduled to begin and, following his death, the previous arrangement was subject to renegotiation. Indeed, Volkswagen’s new Managing Director, Kurt Lotz, worked with Porsche to set up a new sales company and, consequently, the 914 was marketed as a VW-Porsche in Europe, though all examples sold in the USA were supplied under the Porsche name alone. Over 115,000 examples of the fourcylinder 914 were assembled, while only 3,338 914/6s saw the light of day, meaning this particular flat-four is more important to Porsche’s continued success than some might give it credit it for. More specifically, the 914 received the Wolfsburg outfit’s then new Type 4 air-cooled flat-four, which was based on the same principles of previous engines from the marque (tracing lineage back to the Porschedesigned Beetle boxer and earlier), but was physically larger, stronger and more powerful. It was also the first fuel-injected engine of its type from Volkswagen. With a 90mm bore and a 66mm stroke, the swept capacity was 1,679cc and the compression ratio was 7.8:1. The first examples of the 1.7-litre engine fitted to the 914 produced 79bhp, though capacity was upped to 1.8 litres in 1974 by increasing the bore to 93mm. For Europe, this meant a jump to peak power of 84bhp. Sadly, buyers in the USA got a less powerful (75bhp) derivative due

Right Replacing the 912 as Porsche’s entry level product, the 914 was available with either a flat-four or flat-six engine Overleaf Flat-four, as fitted to the 718 Boxster/Cayman and available in two-litre and 2.5-litre flavours

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THE SMALLER ENGINE’S DESIGN ISN’T QUITE AS SIMPLE AS CUTTING OFF TWO OF THE B6’S CYLINDERS to tighter emissions regulations, despite the addition of more advanced Bosch L-Jetronic fuel injection. The flat-six in the 914/6 was discontinued in 1972 and replaced by a two-litre version of the Type 4 unit. This is where Porsche resumed heavy involvement with flat-four design, developing the VW lump into a twolitre engine. It used a longer-stroke crankshaft (71mm) and a 94mm bore for displacement of 1,971cc. The 914 using this engine in the USA was restricted to 94bhp, though it produced 99bhp in all other territories. The 914 was discontinued in 1976, but its two-litre flat-four still had life left in it, as demonstrated by its use in the 912 E, a US-only stop-gap model sold while the game-changing 924 was in the final stage of development.


The introduction of Porsche’s transaxle family of cars brought with it a liquidcooled, inline four-cylinder engine,

signalling the end of the line for the flatfour as the world knew it. Fast-forward, however, to the reinvention of the Boxster and Cayman as the 982-generation 718 in 2016. Suddenly, the flat-four was back with a bang! Admittedly, this time around, a turbocharger and liquid-cooling were key components of the design, but this is very much a Porsche engine through and through. The B4 (as it’s called) is very closely linked to the same-age 911’s B6 flat-six and, while the smaller engine’s design isn’t quite as simple as cutting off two of the B6’s cylinders and filling in the resulting holes, the two engines share a remarkable number of components, including (but not limited to) timing chain, fuel injectors, fuel pumps, piston rings, the VarioCam Plus variable timing system, alternator and connecting rods. A major difference is the turbocharging set-up. Here, the B4 uses a single turbocharger, while the B6 makes use of two. The main reason, other than cost and packaging, is because of the four-cylinder

engine’s firing order. The B4 was initially launched in two guises: the two-litre variant used the same bore and stroke as the three-litre flat-six and produced up to 296bhp with an accompanying 280lb-ft torque, while the 2.5-litre B4 used in the 718 Cayman S and 718 Boxster S boasted a wider bore and larger valves. Additionally, the larger capacity engine was treated to a VTG (variable turbine geometry) turbocharger, which cleverly alters the shape of the path taken by the exhaust gases so that high-end boost can be maintained at high rpm whilst allowing decent response when exhaust gases are moving slowly. Peak power and torque for this engine are quoted at 345bhp and 310lb-ft respectively, later upped to 360bhp and 320lb-ft for the 718 GTS models. Given the huge round of applause Porsche has welcomed after redeveloping a naturally aspirated flat-six for the 718 twins (hello to all you Spyder and GT4 fans!), it’s unclear what the future holds for the firm’s famous flat-four configuration. Then again, with plug-in hybrid electrification on the march, we wouldn’t count against the power of four being part of Porsche’s plan for a leaner, greener future. Watch this space!

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Race Tea

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CLASS ACT This amazingly accurate replica of the 1983 Charles Ivey Group B 930 is getting ready to turn heads at next year’s Le Mans Classic… Words Dan Furr Photography Matt Woods

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930 HIDDEN HERO The 930 wasn’t the only Group B-inspired Porsche circuit star. Based on the 959, the 961 was intended to complement the Group C 956/962. First appearing during testing for the 1986 24 Hours of Le Mans, the 961 set the tenth fastest lap in the hands of French driver, Rene Metge. In fact, the 961 was quicker than both BMW’s Group B M1 and many of the prototypes in attendance. Entered in the GTX class, the 961 finished the race in seventh place. Porsche intended to sell the model to customer racing teams, but due to Group B’s cancellation, only one unit was ever assembled. Today, it lives in the Porsche Museum.


hen asked to bring to mind an image of a Group B motorsport machine, what car do you picture? The transverse midengine Peugeot 205 T16? An MG Metro 6R4? Maybe a Ford RS200? If, as we suspect, a Porsche is at the forefront of your noggin, then you’re likely to be salivating over the thought of a Rothmans-liveried 959 or the Prodrive-prepared 911 SC RS. “That’s all anyone considers when talking about Group B,” sighs race car preparation specialist, John Clonis. “It all went a bit crazy when the rally boys got involved.” In 1982, the FIA introduced a new and simplified set of motorsport categories designed to promote a more level playing field for entrants. Replacing the earlier Group 3, 4 and 5 classes, Group A catered for modified touring cars, Group B for GTs, Group C for special prototypes and Group N hosted more or less standard production cars. As outlined in the introduction to this article, when we look back at Group B today, it’s the crazy-spec rally weapons people tend to remember. “Initially, Group B regulations dictated few modifications from standard specification, though there was the opportunity to develop more extreme cars for willing manufacturers later down the line,” continues John, head of Tollesbury-based CT Racing. “Group B’s early racing cars were certainly much tamer in terms of modification when compared to the era-defining rally cars we all know and love, but that’s not to say track attackers like the Group B 930 don’t deserve their place in motorsport history books.”


Only six Group B 930s are thought to have been built (two in 1982, four in 1983). Of the later batch, a single example was sent to England. “It was bought and raced by independent marque specialist, Charles Ivey,” confirms John, highlighting the car’s class win and overall eleventh-place finish at the hands of drivers, John Cooper, Paul Smith and David Ovey, at the 1983 24 Hours of Le Mans. Dressed in radiant red and delivering a bark as powerful as its bite, it’s the very same flame-spitting Group B 930 John has recreated with the super-faithful replica you see on the pages before you. It’s easy to think Sarthe stars must be massively modified, but relatively few changes were made from the stock 911 Turbo when creating the Group B 930. Chassis equipment, bodywork and that allimportant 3.3-litre flat-six were, in the main, identical to the road car, save for thicker anti-roll bars, heavy duty torsion bars and adjustable Bilstein dampers. Gold BBS split rims (nine-and-a-half inches wide

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at the front, eleven at the back) were thrown into the mix, though they weren’t allowed to stick out any wider than the car’s wheel arches, while the 930’s boosted boxer was required to run in stock trim, save for a bigger intercooler, tougher (935) head gaskets, longer-duration camshaft and increased boost. “The engine internals remained entirely standard,” John tells us. “Of course, there was a big fuel cell in the front luggage area and the transmission was bolstered by its own oil pump and cooler, but the changes permitted were more to do with promoting safety and reliability in harsh driving environments than massively improving performance.” Even so, running between 1bar and 1.4bar boost, the Group B 930 produced close to 370bhp and 369lb-ft, shaving almost a second off the roadgoing 911 Turbo’s sprint to 62mph from a standing start. Big changes could be seen inside the track star, of course, thanks to the dismissal of virtually every component not required for racing. Lightweight bucket seats replaced the sumptuous leather found in 930s inhabiting main dealer showrooms, but stripping so much weight from the 911 Turbo required close examination of the FIA’s rulebook. “Contrary to what the Ivey result at Le Mans might suggest, the Group B 930 was subjected to a

significant weight handicap due to the swept capacity of the 3.3-litre flat-six pushing it into the five-litre race car category, which brought with it a minimum weight requirement of 1,235kg,” John says. “Ballast had to be strategically introduced to ensure the car satisfied the new regulations!” The first Group B 930 was a factory converted road car owned by racing driver, Georg Memminger (today a specialist in the construction of Volkswagen Beetle drop-tops), and campaigned in the 1982 World Sports Car Championship. Memminger and his co-driver, Porsche racing stalwart, Fritz Müller, coined class wins in various races, including those held at the Nürburgring, Spa and Mugello. A year later, the Charles Ivey car was in action, taking part in rounds held at Silverstone, the aforementioned outing at Le Mans, Spa and the Kyalami Grand Prix circuit in Midrand, South Africa, where local driver, Giorgio Cavalieri joined the team. With the massive popularity of Group C cars overshadowing all others, not to mention a series of major accidents in rallying, however, the FIA soon decided to cancel Group B. John is no stranger to the changing fortunes of race cars, so heavily is he involved in the preparation of Porsches for historic racing. His company is also responsible for trackside support and the

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Above The wheels and tyres might be a tad bigger than standard, but other than the front bumper, there’s little visually to separate this 911 from a standard 930 road car

groundwork involved in getting more modern cars onto the track, including SEAT Leon Cupras for the current TCR Europe Touring Car Series. So where does the 406bhp yellow-lensed 930 seen here fit into the picture? “CT Racing was established in 2006,” he explains. “Prior to that time, my partners and I were out racing our own cars. We had a lot of help from Porsche racing and mechanical specialists, including Neil Bainbridge at BS Motorsport and Tony Wright at Wrightune, and decided to set up the business to take care of our own cars. Long story short, we ended up with a workshop occupied by a dozen Porsches owned by other people!”


Facing page Wrightune 3.3-litre flat-six powers John’s Charles Ivey Group B replica

Demand for CT Racing’s services was strong and enabled John to build a 1974 911 Carrera RSR 3.0 evocation using genuine parts, but one car had always stuck in his mind as an unsung hero of the Porsche motorsport scene: the Charles Ivey Group B 930. When Neil offered up a solid 930 shell, the opportunity to assemble a faithful replica of the red racer was impossible to resist. “It was intended to be a job filler for the workshop when we were quiet between customer builds,” smiles John, acknowledging there is rarely a quiet moment in today’s fast-paced world of historic motorsport.

Thankfully, he was able to call upon his old contacts for help with the project. Wrightune, for example, took care of the engine build. As you’d expect, it’s a 3.3-litre flat-six, lightly tuned, but has had to keep the stock K-Jetronic mechanical fuel injection system in order to qualify for an FIA historic passport and, therefore, entry into all the right events, including the 2021 Le Mans Classic. “We hit a stumbling block with the fog lights,” John smirks. “The governing body said they didn’t like them in the front bumper. The irony is that these very fog lamps came from the original Charles Ivey Group B 930 spares package back in the 1980s! We did, of course, work with the FIA to satisfy its demands and I’m looking forward to finally getting the car on track next year.” The bodywork, a standard 930 affair, was painted by Southend’s very own award-winning Porsche restoration firm, Sportwagen, after the shell was acid-dipped and e-coated by Envirostrip in Tamworth. True to his word, Neil had supplied a shell in excellent order, with the only alterations required being the closing of unwanted holes (due to the original car being a late 930 packing air-conditioning and a sunroof) and the integration of a roll cage, all work carried out in-house at CT Racing. 964 rubbers around the rear and side glass are a minor

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deviation from 930 details, as are the dash clocks, custom made and turned ninety degrees. Changes from the Ivey car’s period specification include aluminium wheel centres in place of the magnesium originals, a TiAL wastegate (“the standard Porsche part is prone to cracking under stress and is very expensive to replace”) and the stowing of wheel fans, which aren’t allowed to be used in historic circuit racing, though are permitted for classic rallying. The FIA has also permitted the modification of electrics, resulting in a modern loom and a wire tuck, not that John has yet to enjoy the fruits of his labour. “In March 2019, CT Racing was preparing to move from its old premises to the factory we inhabit today. I’d already applied for the car’s historic passport, but the move took six months to finalise, largely due to solicitors and the bank being slow to get on with what was being asked of them. Then, builders got busy ensuring the new workshop was fit for purpose and met our demands. By the time the business had finally moved into its new home and we’d finished unpacking boxes, lockdown kicked in!”


Shakedown days at Snetterton and Donington are planned as soon as it’s safe to return to the wild. In the meantime, John reflects on the biggest challenges he faced with this particular personal

Left A heated windscreen is joined by polycarbonate side (sliding) and rear windows

project. “I’ve usually started builds from a complete car, not a bare shell,” he muses. “It’s amazing how much cost mounts up when you’re trying to hunt down small parts, such as specific bolts to match period specification. Even then, there’s work involved in passivating silver fasteners to ensure they match original colours.” He credits Porsche Centre Bolton with coming up with the goods time after time. “There was also the not insignificant matter of trying to get parts designed for a left-hand drive 930 to fit a

right-hand drive car,” he sighs, referencing his Group B evocation’s pedal box, steering column and rack. Neil was recently involved in rebuilding the original Charles Ivey Group B 930, making him well placed to confirm John’s creation as a truly authentic replica. We can’t wait to see the car strutting its stuff in Sarthe, reminding crowds of the lesser known Group B 930, a Porsche fully deserving of its place as a historically significant racing 911.

Below Giant oil cooler sits between original Charles Ivey Group B 930 fog lamps

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ALL HANDS TO THE PUMP As it finally returns to the road, Dan’s 944 Turbo loses its cool in more ways than one…



ot many people outside owner circles know this, but the 944 Turbo features an auxiliary water pump flowing coolant to the host Porsche’s turbocharger after the engine has been switched off. It’s a method of keeping toasty turbo temperatures at bay, thereby preventing heat damage, particularly after spirited B-road blasts in hot weather. This particular pump isn’t the quietest of components and can be heard running for around thirty seconds after the Turbo’s inline-four has been afforded a rest. In other words, if you can’t hear the pump running, there’s every chance it has failed. Sadly, this item is the subject of massive ‘Porsche tax’. Indeed, the average price of a replacement part is in the region of £600, with some retailers nudging the cost closer to £800 (yes, really). You can imagine my horror at this discovery when I realised the auxiliary water pump beneath the freshly painted bonnet of my 944 Turbo restomod project had given up the ghost. After initial shock had passed, I wondered whether a second-hand part might be a suitable solution. Perhaps unsurprisingly, the price for a used pump in unknown condition was too high to take seriously. Besides, I was looking for a ‘fit

and forget’ solution, not one that might result in me facing the same problem a few months down the line. A new part was definitely what I was looking for, but how could I buy one without spending the small fortune being requested? My first step toward the solution was to wonder whether the same item existed with a different identifier within the wider Volkswagen Group parts list. Perhaps the same pump was fitted to a Golf? No such luck. The more I investigated, the more I found evidence to suggest this particular pump was unique to the 944 Turbo and no alternative was available: a case of ‘like it or lump it’. I wasn’t convinced. The pump itself is a Bosch component. The more I thought about it, the more I didn’t believe Bosch made this part specifically for the 944 Turbo.


I was right — the pump itself is commonly used across a wide range of automotive applications, including the Mercedes-Benz W123 and various General Motors products, such as the Vauxhall/Opel Omega B. For the 944 Turbo, in a move verging on offensive, the part is equipped with a permanently attached Porsche-specific plug and pigtail wiring. Considering the cost of a brand new pump without

Above Thankfully, disaster struck when the engine was off and the car was stationary Right Nash “we thought we’d seen the back of this one” Hunter and his sidekick, Jacob

Facing page Individually bought water pump items saved a packet over Porsche list price

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these attachments is only fifty quid, I found the colossal mark-up on the Porsche-listed part even more unacceptable than when I’d first looked into the issue. “If the only difference is the type of plug used,” I reasoned, “I should be able to buy the individual parts required for conversion and be in possession of a brand new, totally suitable assembly for just a few pounds more than the cost of the pump itself.” Sure enough, I bought a length of two-way cable pre-fitted with the fuel injector-style plug (and waterproof boot) that attaches to the standard pump connector, and I ordered a Sure Seal circular

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THE FLEET two-way plug and terminals to slot into the corresponding socket on the car’s wiring harness. Rounding out the package, I bought a length of cable sleeving. Including the boxfresh Bosch water pump, the total cost was £59.99 delivered direct to my door. That’s a saving of almost £680 when compared to the asking price demanded by online retailers for the Porsche-listed part. Madness. Feeling suitably pleased with myself, I sent the parts to Nash Hunter, head of 944 specialist, Retro Restorer, who was finishing up a few jobs on my Turbo in readiness for the car’s first MOT in a decade. Preparations for the big day were going great and, as expected of a Porsche subjected to a good,

honest restoration, the test was passed without a hitch. The trek to my home in Norfolk from Retro Restorer’s base in Banbury, however, was likely to be something of a journey into the unknown, insofar as any teething troubles were likely to present themselves during this drive, even though a decent number of test miles had been added to the car in the lead up to collection. What I didn’t anticipate was the little distance I’d get to cover before the resurrected coupe decided it was time to call a halt to proceedings. The day of collection was one of the warmest days of this year’s oh-so-strange summer. Leaving Retro Restorer with a fond farewell and Lady Furr tailing in our Basalt

Black 997 Carrera 4S, I was thrilled to finally be behind the wheel of the Porsche I’ve spent so long telling you about. The build was by no means finished — final fitting of freshly trimmed interior components at Awesome Classic & Custom, wiring-in of the new audio equipment at GCAP Performance, a final cosmetic makeover at Cambridge Concours and suspension geometry/alignment at Center Gravity are just some of the next jobs on the list — but this was the first step in the final stages of a project started when my postie, Barry Newman, told me about a Guards Red 944 Turbo rotting in a hedge less than five miles from my home. I was super-excited to


Below Retro Restorer’s car transporter came in very handy

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Above Thankfully, other than a split coolant hose and dented pride, no damage was done

be in the makeshift driving seat, which was fashioned out of two spares Nash had tucked away in his stock room. “Are you going to fix your GoPro into place?” asked Lady Furr. “Nah,” I replied. “I’ll do it when we get to the nearest fuel filling station.” I should have treated her enquiry as a prompt to get busy with my action camera.


Bottom A top-end rebuild followed, including a light skim of the head, new gaskets (from the Design 911 store), an engine flush and an overhaul of the valve assembly

We rolled onto the forecourt, my spotless 944 Turbo now ten miles into its ‘maiden voyage’. The car’s vital signs were good. I removed the fuel filler cap in anticipation of putting in a tank of happy juice. A small child, jaw on the floor in amazement at the sleek, red sports car in full view, stood completely mesmerised, a grin growing from ear to ear. “Yes,” I muttered to myself. “This is an awesome Porsche.” I smiled back at the boy, who suddenly leapt with fright

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Above Back at base, singing the Manilow classic Looks Like We Made It at full pelt

as a massive bang, much like the sound of a shotgun going off at close range, filled our ears. Steam was pouring from the front end of my car. Hot coolant was flooding the ground. Drat. Now, perhaps I should have requested a top-end rebuild as part of the mechanical work carried out earlier in the recommissioning process? Then again, compression was good, all main under-bonnet components were behaving as they should. If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it, right? In this instance, wrong. Nash was soon on-hand with his trusty car transporter, carrying the impotent Porsche back to his workshop for a top-end rebuild — the head gasket had blown, a consequence of deteriorated gasket material pushing combustion gases into the cooling system, causing huge over-pressurisation, resulting in the main coolant hose at the back of the cylinder head expanding and exploding in dramatic fashion. Thankfully, the car was motionless

with engine off at the time of fault and, unlike typical head gasket failure, there was no mixture of oil and water. I hate to think what damage might have been done if I’d been travelling at 70mph along the A47! To my eternal thanks, Nash and his team pounced on the job immediately, sending the head to a local machine shop for a light skim, before reinstating the part with all new gaskets, a rebuild of the valvetrain assembly and a full engine flush. Thankfully, no serious damage was done. Exactly a week after my fateful first date with the car, Lady Furr and I were back in Banbury for ‘take two’. I’m not sure how much you can relax on a drive like this. How much can you can really enjoy seat time when you’re listening out for every creak, rattle, squeak and groan in case of disaster rearing its head (again)? I certainly drove the car conservatively, arriving at my workshop later in the day, thankful for a successful cross-country

expedition without incident. Needless to say, I’m looking forward to putting the car through its paces and exploring how it behaves, how it drives and how it responds to what’s being asked of it following completion of the work outlined earlier in this article. Due to this being my last issue in charge of GT Porsche, the next phase in my 944 Turbo’s resurrection will be documented in the pages of 911 & Porsche World, which, in addition to Classic Porsche, I’m taking over as editor. You can subscribe online at Thanks for your support for the project. I look forward to having you along for the next chapter in this 944 Turbo’s colourful story.

THANKS Retro Restorer 01608 610944

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DOWN TO THE LAST DETAIL Unwelcome noise is a thing of the past as this 997 Carrera 4S reveals its original specification…



his is a journey into sound, starts the Eric B and Rakim hip-hop classic, Paid in Full. The sample originates from a 1958 long-player narrated by British actor, Geoffrey Sumner, who was absolutely not describing what it’s like listening to music in my 997 Carrera 4S. If he’d been asked to do so, he’d having said something along the lines of this is a journey made almost unbearable by horrific buzzing noises coming from the driver’s door card. I can’t remember when the offside main door speaker blew. It might have been playing up when I bought the car. I honestly don’t

know. The truth of the matter is I rarely have the radio on when driving my 911, so satisfying is the noise of the naturally aspirated 3.8-litre flat-six roaring behind my ears. Even so, with a premium-forthe-time BOSE sound system as an item on an already impressive factory options list, not to mention the annoyance of deep bass frequencies delivering a jarring buzz when the car’s head unit is fired up, I was keen to rectify the problem. A like-for-like replacement seemed the most straightforward solution, what with BOSE systems running at different Ohm than standard speakers and in a custom

Facing page Not weather you want to be caught out in when your 997’s nearside door card is taking on water

Below Renewal BOSE speaker cost just £25 from eBay

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configuration. eBay delivered the goods in the form of a complete replacement speaker assembly, including grilled speaker housing, for just £25 delivered to my door. Not wanting to destroy the door card during removal, I spent an extra tenner on a Phyles fourteenpiece interior trim removal kit from Amazon, a buy that more than earned its place in my affections after it came in super-useful for the full stripdown of my Rolls-Royce Silver Shadow II’s luggage area, which I’ve just lined with Dynamat Xtreme thermoacoustic sound deadening material. Not that anyone ever complained their Rolls-

Royce’s boot space was too noisy. Or too cold. Ahem.


Thankfully, when it comes to DIY tasks on your car, Porsche or no, chances are someone has documented a ‘how to’ online, likely in the form of a handy YouTube video demonstrating the step-bystep process required to get the job done. For 997 door card removal, I was spoiled for choice. Naturally, if you’ve ever removed a door card, no matter the vehicle, you’re going to have a fair idea regarding where key bolts and screws need to be undone, but it’s the 997-specific

stuff I was unsure about. That blanking panel at the top edge of the door card, for example. Without guidance, it would have taken me a while to realise there was a screw hidden beneath it. With the new speaker fitted, the door card reassembled and a successful blast of Shakin’ Stevens to ensure the replacement part is working without error (though I still have no clue what’s behind the green door), I hopped online and visited the Suncoast Parts website. Specifically, I punched my 911’s VIN number into the company’s helpful Porsche vehicle build information decoder service (you can find

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Top right Phyles interior trim removal kit was an Amazon bargain and has already paid for itself several times over Right Factory build specification sheet came direct from the Suncoast Parts VIN decoder


it at, which provides far more information that one might expect to see printed on the now discontinued Porsche Certificate of Authenticity. Once my order was processed, via email, I received a PDF outlining my car’s full factory specification in great detail. Also included was a complete array of cost options ordered by the original buyer: nineteen-inch Carrera Classic wheels, wheel spacers, wheel caps with coloured crests, threespoke multi-function steering wheel, fire extinguisher, rear window wiper, ‘Homelink’ garage door opener, park assist system, a tracking device, Sport Chrono Package Plus, PCM telephone module, PCM navigation module, the aforementioned BOSE audio equipment, adaptive Sports seats, stainless steel exhaust pipes and various other inclusions (the full document is four pages in length!). Warranty information (including expired warranties), recalls and general information beyond specific vehicle equipment (and corresponding M-numbers) is also

provided. Not bad for $10! As mentioned in my last 911 update, the nearside door card is getting wet, either when the car is caught in rainfall or when I attack it with my pressure washer. It’s a common complaint among 997 owners, with the fault identified as a failed weatherproof seal. I’ll need to address the problem sooner, rather than later, primarily because the weather is turning and, therefore, there’s more chance the car will subjected to showers when out and about. One of those journeys will be down to Suffolkbased independent marque specialist, PIE Performance, for a full service and the dismissal of knackered lower control arm bushes not long after this issue of GT Porsche goes to press.


Originally, I was looking to replace the worn factory rubbers with Powerflex polyurethane parts, but during an online shopping spree, I noticed Powerflex was now offering complete 911 control arm assemblies with the bushes

pre-installed. This is a time-saving dream come true for workshop technicians and enthusiastic DIYers alike. After all, how many of us own a press capable of removing stubborn old rubbers, let alone inserting super-firm polyurethane parts? These new complete control arm assemblies represent a much more straightforward solution when dealing with worn rubbers and come complete with all the necessary fasteners. I’m looking forward to discovering what impact these parts will have, not only in terms of their impact on the ride, but also just how easy they are to fit. Maintaining a Porsche is anything but boring — there’s always something to be getting on with!

THANKS Suncoast Parts Powerflex

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911 TURBO (930) LE

An LE would have emptied your wallet for close to £85k in 1989. Now a Porsche collector’s wet dream, a right-hand drive LE is one of the rarest 911s built.

This force-fed rarity was much more than a special edition 911 Turbo – it represented the end of an era… Words Dan Furr Photography John Colley


orsche experimented with forced induction at the race track at the back end of the 1960s, adventures which led to the development of the 911 Turbo road car a few years later. Essentially a model designed and built to meet homologation requirements for motorsport, the potent Porsche (codenamed 930) became immensely popular with sports car enthusiasts amazed at the big-winged, force-fed model’s otherworldly performance. Initially powered by a threelitre flat-six (borrowed from the Carrera RS 3.0) and equipped with turbocharger technology derived from the 917/30 CAN-AM racing car, the original 911 Turbo delivered more than 260bhp, output bolstered by uprated suspension, superior brakes and a much stronger gearbox (when compared to kit supplied on the standard Carrera). A wider, more muscular rear end allowed for deep dish Fuchs – large wheels that provided a hugely increased tyre contact patch. Despite complaints from the contemporary automotive press concerning the 930’s crude handling and the delay experienced before boost, the model’s reputation as the fastest production car in Germany ensured its success. Various changes

were made throughout its lifespan, most significantly an increase in displacement to 3.3 litres and new intercooler equipment pushing power to more than 300bhp in 1978. The arrival of the 928 was rumoured to be the beginning of the end for the 911. Porsche reduced its development budget for aircooled cars accordingly. A few years after launching its transaxle family, however, the boys in Stuttgart became acutely aware of the fact 911 fans refused to allow the model to die. Consequently, the 930 was offered with a stack of cost-option performance upgrades that could deliver a hike in horsepower to the tune of almost 330bhp. Additionally, the model was reintroduced to Japanese and North American sales territories following a half-decade absence. Flachbau, Targa and Cabriolet variants followed, as did a sprint to 60mph in just 4.6 seconds. The G-series 911 was replaced by the 964 in 1989. The change signalled the end of the 930’s fourteen-year production run, but like all good sports cars, it went out with a bang. Ladies and gentlemen, we present to you the LE, a hand-built ‘last hurrah’ for the 930, limited to just fifty units. We caught up with Chris Lansbury, head of Suffolk-based Porsche specialist, PIE Performance, to find out what to look for in an LE.

Right If you love 930 SE specification, but don’t like the ‘Marmite’ front end, an LE is the 911 Turbo for you

Below Marking the end of 911 Turbo production, only fifty 930 LEs were assembled

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3.3-litres of flat-six fury reside beneath the tail of late 930s. The engine code is M930/60, a unit fed happy juice by Bosch J-Ketronic fuel injection. A single Kuhnle-KoppKausch (KKK) turbocharger and an air-to-air intercooler extract 330bhp out of the LE as standard. All M930/60 engines feature Nikasil-coated cylinder bores to promote reliability and a long service life. The LE flat-six also benefits from uprated camshafts, a bigger intercooler and the aforementioned quad-tailpipe exhaust system (check the condition of exhaust pipework and the car’s heat exchangers). Compression ratio remains the same as the standard 930. Top speed is more than 170mph, with

a claimed 0-60mph sprint time of less than 4.9 seconds. “Be wary of any 930s producing a lot of smoke or running poorly on idle,” Chris warns. “Classic 911 Turbos can suffer from overboosting issues when a safety feature designed to cut power to the fuel pumps is disabled. It’s common for this function to be bypassed during tuning, leaving no protection for the engine or turbocharger.” He also suggests listening for rattling timing chains. If in doubt, speak to a specialist, such as PIE Performance, for a full inspection before purchase. “Mechanically, mileage on these cars is largely irrelevant,” Chris continues. “Condition and proof of proper maintenance is primarily what you should be concerned with.”

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Make sure you paw through all documentation supporting claims of servicing and maintenance in accordance with Porsche’s recommended intervals. Demand to see receipts or invoices proving the seller’s suggestion of repair work and replacement parts. Be wary of any unexplained periods of the LE you’re looking at being off the road. If in doubt, have a full inspection carried out by a marque specialist. If you’re in an owner’s club, check to see if this is a service you can take advantage of as a benefit of membership. Enter the LE in question’s details into the DVLA’s online vehicle enquiry service (visit It’s free to use and will give you key information about the Porsche you’re looking at. Take a few minutes to view information held on the DVLA’s excellent MOT history database ( Another free service, it’ll provide you with information relating to all passes, fails, advisories and mileage at the time of each test. Check to make sure details match what’s on the car’s paperwork.


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PIE Performance recommends 930 oil changes every 6k miles or annually, whichever comes first. Minor services are priced at £245, a major service is £795. The former includes a full vehicle inspection as well as fluid and filter changes, while the latter is more involved, including spark plugs, all filters and an important resetting of valve clearances. Thankfully, this is a job you should only need to address every three or four years. If the LE (or any 930) you’re looking at is producing blue smoke, then the chances are that the turbocharger’s oil seals have blown. This needn’t be huge cause for concern. Many respected turbocharger repair and upgrade specialists (such as Turbo Dynamics, Turbo Technics and Turbo

Developments) will happily accept your worn part through the post, before returning it to you completely rebuilt. You’ll be surprised at how reasonably priced the service can be. There are stacks of tuning options available for the 930, but you need to ask yourself if this is really the route you should take with an LE. With only fourteen right-hand drive examples built, originality is key to maintaining each car’s considerable financial value. It’s worth remembering that as a special edition, the LE wasn’t just as wellequipped as the flatnosed 930 SE, it was a 911 released to mark the end of an era — the commemorative plaque inside the car displays the years the 930 was in production, as opposed to having a build number stamped into its shiny gold surface.

BRAKES, SUSPENSION & GEARBOX REAR OF THE YEARS While many can be forgiven for thinking a ‘whale tail’ was simply the de facto styling upgrade for boisterous sports cars in the 1970s and 1980s, the 930’s rear adornment serves to vent more air to the flat-six whilst creating much-needed downforce.

1989 model year 930s were equipped with the famous G50 five-speed manual gearbox, a hydraulic clutch and a limited-slip differential. The G50 was a long overdue bit of kit that improved the driving experience of last-of-theline 930s by delivering smoother, faster shifting, greater exploration of acceleration and an extra ratio over earlier Turbos. Being able to shift between five gears also helps to reduce the effect of turbo lag. A 930 is a race car for the road, right? That’ll explain the lack of ABS! Four-pot calipers grab hold of 304mm (front) and 309mm (rear) vented discs. Larger discs at the back go some way towards highlighting the 930’s 39/61 frontto-back weight distribution. The LE can be a handful at high speed, so make sure you’re totally comfortable with its braking characteristics before letting rip on the road. The LE doesn’t feature anything special over and above standard 930 suspension equipment. Torsion bars, MacPherson struts and semi-trailing arms work alongside optimised shock absorbers and thick anti-roll bars to reduce ‘wallowy’ handling when the car is thrown into corners. For those that want greater control over the handling abilities of their LE, adjustable dampers are available from the likes of KW and GAZ. “All 930 chassis equipment is robust,” confirms Chris, “but make sure the car’s gearbox performs without fault. A rebuild is very expensive, largely due to the fact synchros and bearings are Porsche-only parts. A single bearing can set you back £500! If in doubt, call PIE Performance to have an inspection carried out.” 930 braking and suspension items are more expensive than standard 911 equivalent parts — suspension leg inserts are four times the price. You have been warned!

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ELECTRICS “The biggest problem you’ll find when dealing with old 911 electrics, LE or no, is agerelated wear,” Chris tells us. “Door looms can become brittle and problematic, the remains of ancient security devices can cause issues and, of course, the 930 makes use of vintage fuseboard gear.” All of this equipment can be renewed with modern parts, promoting reliability and longevity without taking away from the LE’s character.


PIE Performance


This is where the LE really comes into its own. The model’s cabin is awash with luxury trim, including electrically adjustable multi-directional leather seats (with perforated centres), electric windows, power sunroof and door mirrors. An optional Blaupunkt CD player allows you listen to your favourite Kenny G album in all of its digital sonic brilliance, while a mass of gold trim reminds you that you’re driving a very special 911 — a commemorative plaque sits in the lower part of the centre console, a gold crest is placed in the middle of the steering wheel and another is placed atop a short-shift gearstick. Bodywork is largely the same as the 930 SE, save for the lack of Flachbau front end — rear quarter vents, a deep front bumper with integrated fog lamps and a contoured rear apron should be present and correct. “Be mindful of likely accident damage and poorly executed repairs,” says Chris. “Look for overspray on rubbers, irregular panel gaps and differences in paintwork. Check A-pillars, kidney bowls and wheel arches for corrosion or signs of damage.”

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DROP THE HAMMER From chump change to premium price tags, here’s our look at what’s hot (and what’s not) in auction rooms...





VANDOR JANIS JOPLIN MONEY BOX When it comes to icons of entertainment, they don’t come much bolder than gravel-voiced 1960s songstress, Janis Joplin. Known for her wild on-stage performances — and equally wild off-stage lifestyle — the queen of rock thrilled audiences the world over with her various touring bands. When it came to cars, her presence was just as striking as it was when she was strutting her stuff in auditoriums. “Oh Lord, won’t you buy me a Mercedes-Benz? My friends all drive Porsches, I must make amends,”

she famously sang in what was to be her last recording before an accidental heroin overdose took her life in October 1970. What the song doesn’t reveal is that she was a Porsche owner herself. Shelling out $3,500 in 1968, she bought a four-year-old Pearl White 356 SC Cabriolet, which was promptly decorated with psychedelic artwork hand-painted by roadie, Dave Richards, and themed The History of the Universe. In the years that followed, the car was stolen, recovered and eventually restored with a lick of OEM

Dolphin Grey. Fast-forward to the early 1990s, and Joplin’s surviving siblings commissioned the restoration of Richards’ distinctive art, before selling the car through RM Sotheby’s in 2015. The hammer fell at $1.7m. Complete with removable roof, this small-scale depiction of Joplin’s famous 356 is, in fact, a ceramic musical money box. It was offered as part of RM Sotheby’s eagerly anticipated Lifetime of Porsche Memorabilia, Part II auction earlier this month, where bidding ended at an impressive $1,200.

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1981 924 GTR Chassis BS720008’s season began in January of 1982 at the 24 Hours of Daytona. Raced by Paul Miller, Pat Bedard and Jürgen Barth, the widequartered transaxle placed fourth in GTO class, eleventh overall. The car continued its motorsport career at the 1982 Trans-Am Trois Rivières, driven by Paul Miller, finishing second. This open-mouthed 924 would take part in a host of races thereafter, until it made its final appearance at the 1985 Budweiser Speed Week. Currently offered at the Stratas Auctions website and wearing its 1982 Le Mans BF Goodrich livery (reinstated sometime between 1985 and 1988), this historically significant Porsche could be yours. Get bidding!




In the last issue of GT Porsche, we presented a buying guide for the firstgen Cayenne Turbo. Something of a bargain right now, this potent Porsche people carrier can be bought for not a lot of dosh, as demonstrated by this beautiful blue example, which passed through the hands of Classic Car Auctions just before we went to print. Powered by a 4.5-litre, 32-valve, V8 producing 521bhp and 531lb-ft torque (contributing to a 0-60mph dash in just 5.2 seconds), the lairy load lugger is finished in special order Marine Metallic with black leather trim and is optioned with many thousands-worth of extras from Porsche’s Individual Equipment list. That’s a lot of power and poise for well under seven grand!

1976 911 TARGA 2.7 RIJKSWACHT Ever since the dawn of the motoring age, police forces the world over have used high-performance vehicles in pursuit of criminals, often equipping their chosen chariots with larger or more powerful engines whilst retaining a standard external appearance. This special 911 Targa, offered at Bonham’s recent Zoute sale, is a one of only twenty ordered by the Belgian Gendarmerie/

Rijkswacht paramilitary police force and fitted from new with the 210bhp Carrera RS 2.7 engine. Off the road for at least thirty years and recently subjected to full restoration, the exceptionally welldocumented semi-open-top represents the first time a Rijkswacht 911 2.7 has come to auction in police trim and is among the rarest of the RS family. It didn’t have trouble finding a new home.



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1983 924 Here’s a rather more affordable 924 for you to get excited about! Offered at Anglia Car Auctions and selling for a bargain price of little more than £2.2k, this Guards Red 924 was subjected to a full engine rebuild in 2003. Since that time, the car has been maintained regardless of cost. The most recent belt change took place in 2019, when an inspection of the bodywork was carried out for the owner’s peace of mind. Solid in all key areas, the car is accompanied by all MOT certificates and various Porsche OPC and indie service records, documenting a genuine 148k miles from new. As an entry point into Porsche ownership, it doesn’t get much better.

2012 997 CARRERA 4 GTS



1988 911 CARRERA 3.2 CLUB SPORT When Porsche wanted to build an RS for the 1980s, it came up with the Carrera 3.2 Club Sport, a car which has gone on to become a stone cold classic. In common with its RS predecessor, the key to the Club Sport is lightness. Without going crazy, Porsche shaved around 40kg off the standard car’s 1,210kg. This was achieved by omitting unnecessary ‘luxuries’, including electric windows, rear seats, rear wiper, radio, rear quarter panels,



door pocket lids, central locking, engine and luggage compartment lights, passenger sun visor, underseal (although some UK cars retained protection) and even coat hooks. This example is no.22 of just fifty-three UK units and was originally supplied through JCT600 in Bradford to Porsche GB, becoming the official UK press car. Power, style and provenance. No wonder this nippy 911 shifted for a pretty penny at Silverstone Auctions.

Entering the 911 range between the standard Carrera 4 and the GT3, the 997 Carrera 4 GTS produces 407bhp from its 3.8-litre flat-six, coupled with a PDK semi-automatic paddle shift transmission, working together to launch the car to 60mph from a standing start in 4.2 seconds. First registered in June 2012, this GTS has two registered keepers in the logbook and has been in the vendor’s possession for five years, during which time it has been thoroughly maintained and care has been taken to keep mileage low (just 45k miles covered from new). Offered through popular online auction house, Collecting Cars, the blue-over-black beauty has enjoyed regular servicing carried out by Porsche Centre Bolton and Jasmine PorschaLink. A completely usable wide-reared 997 packing a big punch. We love it.



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ON THE NOSE Following the success Kremer had offering 935-look conversion kits for the 930, Porsche got in on the act and offered its Flachbau option through the factory Special Wishes programme after being commissioned to produce a ‘935 Street’ for Mansour Ojjeh, the head of TAG, in 1981. This car gave momentum to the 930 ‘slantnose’ conversions built by Porsche from 1982 to 1989. Visit for the lowdown.

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Classic on the outside, high tech on the inside. Porsche Classic Communication Management system. Timeless driving pleasure meets state-of-the-art technology thanks to our new navigation system with a classic look. For all classic Porsche models with a 1-DIN slot (911 up to 993 and transaxle vehicles), it features Apple CarPlay and DAB+ Digital Radio. Find out more at