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STUDENT 8

No

AREA:

SOCIAL STUDIES

KELLY JOHANNA VARGAS GARCIA.

MEDIATOR PERIOD

GROUP

II

LAST

SUBJECT

SOCIAL STUDIES

PROPÓSITO DEL ÁREA

COMPREHENSIVE YEAR GOAL

COMPREHENSIVE PERIOD GOAL

GENERATIVE TOPIC

CONTENTS

Asumir una actitud crítica y propositiva frente a los acelerados cambios que se presentan en los contextos local, nacional e internacional To understand how to analyze the major bourgeois revolutions of the eighteenth and nineteenth century and its impact on the formation of modern European states. To know how to explain the influence of the Industrial and French Revolution in the configuration of European states. How the Industrial Revolution impacted in the configuration and expansion of the European states during the XIX century? 1. The European consequences

Restoration:

Causes

and

2. Bourgeois revolutions: 1820- 1830 and 1848: Causes and consequences 3. ¿Cómo se formaron las nuevas naciones europeas? 4. European economy during the second half of the XIX century: capitalism. 5. European expansionism during the XIX century: the partition of Africa and Asia.

COMPREHENSION ACHIEVEMENTS

1. To know how to explain the causes and consequences of the European Restoration. 2. To know how to explain the causes and the consequences of the Bourgeois revolutions. 3. Describir cómo se formaron las nuevas naciones europeas. 4. To know how to explain the main characteristics of European economy during the second half of the XIX century. 5. To know how to describe European expansionism during the XIX century.


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PLAN DE CLASES SOCIALES 8º CRONOGRAMA DE ACTIVIDADES COMPETENCIA DESEMPEÑOS DE COMPRENSIÓN ESTÁNDAR

Las Organizaciones políticas y sociales como estructuras que canalizan diversos poderes para afrontar necesidades y cambios.

La necesidad de buscar un desarrollo económico sostenible que permita preservar la dignidad humana

De acuerdo a la explicación del docente el estudiante resolverá la actividad # 1 del módulo y explica las principales características de la restauración europea. De acuerdo a la explicación del docente el estudiante resolverá la actividad # 2 del módulo y establece las causas y consecuencias de las revoluciones burguesas del siglo XIX en Europa.

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FECHA

VALORACIÓN CONTINUA

Semana 1-2

Revisión por parte del docente para evaluar los conceptos aprendidos y el grado de responsabilidad del estudiante.

Semana 3-4

Revisión por parte del docente para evaluar los conceptos aprendidos y el grado de responsabilidad del estudiante. Prueba escrita para valorar el grado de comprensión de la temática por parte de los estudiantes.

Semana 5

Valoración de acuerdo a los argumentos expuestos por los estudiantes. Se evaluará también la ortografía, uso adecuado de tildes y signos de puntuación, cohesión de las ideas.

Trabajo escrito individual: De acuerdo a la explicación del docente el estudiante resolverá la actividad # 4 establece las características de la economía europea durante la segunda mitad del siglo XIX.

Semana 6

Trabajo escrito individual: De acuerdo a la explicación del docente el estudiante resolverá la actividad # 5 del módulo describe el proceso imperialista de las potencias europeas a finales del siglo XIX.

Exposiciones individuales que den cuenta del manejo conceptual por parte de los estudiantes. La calificación se realizará de manera individual y se evaluarán aspectos tales como: manejo del tema, expresión oral, responsabilidad, presentación del tema, uso de material didáctico adicional.

Semana 7

Revisión por parte del docente para evaluar los conceptos aprendidos y el grado de responsabilidad del estudiante.

Semana 8

Revisión por parte del docente para evaluar los conceptos aprendidos y el grado de responsabilidad del estudiante. Prueba escrita para valorar el grado de comprensión y responsabilidad de los educandos.

Semana 9- 10

Revisión por parte del docente para evaluar los conceptos aprendidos y el grado de responsabilidad del estudiante. Valoración individual acorde a la presentación del trabajo, manejo del tema, creatividad y responsabilidad al momento de la presentación.

De acuerdo a la explicación del docente el estudiante resolverá la actividad # 3 donde explicara como surgen las nuevas naciones europeas.

Actividad final: Realización de una línea de tiempo que permita observar la influencia de la revolución francesa y la revolución industrial en el desarrollo europeo durante el siglo XIX.

NIVELES DE META Superior Describe con claridad la incidencia de la revolución francesa e industrial en la configuración de los estados europeos durante el siglo XIX

Alto Analiza la incidencia de la revolución francesa e industrial en la configuración de los estados europeos durante el siglo XIX.

Básico Identifica la incidencia de la revolución francesa e industrial en la configuración de los estados europeos durante el siglo XIX.

Bajo Se le dificulta comprender la incidencia la revolución francesa e industrial en la configuración de los Estados europeos durante el siglo XIX


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RECURSOS REQUERIDOS (AMBIENTES PREPARADOS PARA EL PERIODO) Salón organizado y aseado, sillas dispuestas según momentos de trabajo. Gráficos, mapas geográficos y conceptuales que facilitarán la comprensión de los educandos, de los temas a tratar, además de trabajar las actividades sugeridas en la guía de estudio. KEY CONCEPTS 1. Ancient regime. 2. Liberalism. 3. Nationalism. 4. Imperialism. 5. Capitalism. 6. Socialism. 7. Colonialism. 8. Neocolonialism.

INTRODUCTION From: Módulo Ciencias Sociales Grado 8. Montessori 2010. By: Kelly Johanna Vargas García.

While XIX for America represented the beginning of the movement for independence and the formation of national states, in Europe this century was the national consolidation of imperialist domination and capitalist development. The Americas colonial independence created the need for Europe to seek new territories to colonize and dominate. At this time the idea is to study the historical development of Europe during the XIX century, so one can see how Europe was gradually reaching its development and importance by the domain they had on the African and Asian continents and how this race for occupation and territorial control will draw the line wars between different nations.


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CONTENT # 1 THE EUROPEAN RESTORATION From: http://www.ask.com/wiki/European_Restoration

The Concert of Europe, also known as the Congress System after the Congress of Vienna, was the balance of power that existed in Europe between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) until the outbreak of the First World War (1914), albeit with major alterations after the revolutions of 1848. Its founding powers were Austria, Prussia, Russian Empire and the United Kingdom, the members of the Quadruple Alliance responsible for the downfall of the First French Empire. In time France was established as a fifth member of the concert. At first, the leading personalities of the system were British foreign secretary Lord Castlereagh, Austrian chancellor Klemens von Metternich and Russian tsar Alexander I. The age of the Concert is sometimes known as the Age of Metternich, due to the influence of the Austrian chancellor's conservatism and the dominance of Austria within the German Confederation, or as the European Restoration, because of the reactionary efforts of the Congress of Vienna to restore Europe to its state before the French Revolution. The rise of nationalism, the unification of Germany and the Risorgimento in Italy, and the Eastern Question were among the factors which brought an end to the Concert's effectiveness. Congress system The Concert of Europe, as developed by Metternich, drew upon their ideas and the notion of a balance of power in international relations; that the ambitions of each Great Power was curbed by the others: The Concert of Europe, as it began to be called at the time, had... a reality in international law, which derived from the final Act of the Vienna Congress, which stipulated that the boundaries established in 1815 could not be altered without the consent of its eight signatories. From the outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars in 1792 to the exile of Napoleon I to Saint Helena in 1815, Europe had been almost constantly at war. During this time, the military conquests of France had resulted in the spread of liberalism throughout much of the continent, resulting in many states adopting the Napoleonic code. Largely as a reaction to the radicalism of the French Revolution, the victorious powers of the Napoleonic Wars resolved to suppress liberalism and nationalism, and revert largely to the status quo of Europe prior to 1789. The Kingdom of Prussia, Austrian Empire and Russian Empire formed the Holy Alliance with the expressed intent of preserving Christian social values and traditional monarchism. Every member of the coalition promptly joined the Alliance, save for the United Kingdom. The congress of Vienna The Congress of Vienna was an international conference that was called in order to remake Europe after the downfall of Napoleon I. Many territorial decisions had to be made in the conference that was held in Vienna, Austria, from September 1814 to June 1815. The main goal of the conference was to create a balance of power that would preserve the peace. The goal of the congress was to reestablish a balance of power amongst the countries of Europe and have peace between the nations. The Congress was highly successful in achieving its goal, for the peace in Europe was left undisturbed for almost 40 years.


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THE EUROPEAN RESTORATION 1. Unlimited power of the king 2. Restore nobility and clergy privileges.

3. Rebuild the political map of Europe. The European mocharchies met at Vienna and agreed finish with the French revolutionary ideas in Europe. Its objectives were:

4. Make alliances and fight against revolutions.

CONGRESS OF VIENNA

Theoretical principles of the restoration. 1. Legitimacy 2. Absolutism 3. Balances 4. Intervention 5. Congress

Reorganization of political map of Europe. 1. Austria, Prussia, Russia and Great Britain the most powerful European nations. 2. France must be controlled by these nations. 3. Switzerland is neutral.

THE HOLY ALLIANCE The Kingdom of Prussia, Austrian Empire and Russian Empire formed the Holy Alliance with the expressed intent of preserving Christian social values and traditional monarchism.


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ACTIVITY # 1. 1. Use the map below and locate the following elements: a. Current political division of European continent. b. Political division of European continent after the congress of Vienna.

2. What was the congress system and what were its main objectives? 3. What were the consequences of the congress system? 4. Do you think the congress system finished with the ideas of the French revolution? Explain your answer.


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CONTENT # 2 BOURGEOIS REVOLUTIONS. TWO BIG CAUSES: NACIONALISM AND LIBERALISM

REVOLUTION OF 1848 FRANCE.

REVOLUTION OF 1820 IBERIAN PENINSULA SPAIN AND PORTUGAL

Establishment of constitutional regimes and national independence.

1. Economic causes: agricultural

REVOLUTION OF 1830 FRANCE Causes: liberalism and nationalism

financial and industrial crisis. 2. Social causes: growth of labor, socialist and republican movements. National, democratic and labor components, massive participation of the lower classes.

The Liberal Revolution of 1820 From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberal_Revolution_of_1820

Was a political revolution that erupted in 1820 and lasted until 1826, It was unchained via a military insurrection in the city of Porto, in northern Portugal, that quickly and peacefully spread to the rest of the country. From 1807 to 1811 Napoleonic French forces invaded Portugal three times. As a result, the Portuguese royal family was transferred to the Portuguese colony of Brazil, where it remained until 1821. From Brazil, the Portuguese king Joรฃo VI ruled his trans-Atlantic empire for thirteen years. Following the defeat of the French forces in 1814, Portugal experienced a prolonged period of political turmoil, in which many sought greater self-rule for the Portuguese people. Eventually this unrest put an end to the king's long stay in Brazil, when his return to Portugal was demanded by the revolutionaries. The 1820 Liberal Revolution initiated a constitutional period in which the 1822 Constitution was ratified and implemented. The movement's liberal ideas had an important influence on Portuguese society and political organization in the nineteenth century (XIX).


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The liberal revolution of 1830 From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/July_Revolution

The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution or Trois Glorieuses in French, saw the overthrow of King Charles X of France, the French Bourbon monarch, and the ascent of his cousin LouisPhilippe, the Duc d'Orléans, who himself, after 18 precarious years on the throne, would in turn be overthrown. It marked the shift from one constitutional monarchy, the Bourbon Restoration, to another, the July Monarchy; the transition of power from the House of Bourbon to its cadet branch, the House of Orléans; and the substitution of the principle of popular sovereignty for hereditary right. Supporters of the Bourbon would be called Legitimists, and supporters of Louis Philippe Orleanists. The liberal revolutions of 1848. From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revolutions_of_1848

The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, Spring time of the Peoples or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe. Described by some historians as a revolutionary wave, the period of unrest began in France and then, further propelled by the French Revolution of 1848, soon spread to the rest of Europe. Although most of the revolutions were quickly put down, there was a significant amount of violence in many areas, with tens of thousands of people tortured and/or killed. While the immediate political effects of the revolutions were largely reversed, the long-term reverberations of the events were far-reaching.

Consequences of the Bourguesoie revolutions

CONSEQUENCES OF THE BORGUESOIE REVOLUTIONS

Political consequences: 1. from absolutism to liberalism. 2. Born of new states.

Social consequences: 1. from stamental society to class society. 2. Emergence of proletariat.

Economic consequences: 1. from feudalism to capitalism. 2. from communal property to private property.

Legal consequences: 1. Constitutions: from privileges to rights.


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ACTIVITY # 2. 1. What is liberalism? Give some examples. 2. What is nationalism? Give some examples. 3. Make a mind map in which you show the main causes of the liberal revolutions. 4. How affected to the congress system these revolutionary waves? 5. What were the consequences of liberal revolutions? 6. What were the differences between these revolutionary waves? Use a chart as below:

CHARACTERISTICS

ORIGINS

CAUSES

ACTORS

1820

1830

1848


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CONTENT # 3 ¿CÓMO SE FORMARON LAS NUEVAS NACIONES EUROPEAS? Tomado de: Contextos Sociales 8. Editorial Santillana. Bogotá- Colombia. 2004. P. 124- 131

La revolución de 1848 se expandió rápidamente por toda Europa. Esta nueva ola revolucionaria fue el resultado del liberalismo, el nacionalismo y de la activa participación del pueblo en los acontecimientos políticos. Esta revolución también fue una consecuencia de los profundos cambios económicos que ocasionó la revolución industrial, tales como la gran inmigración de trabajadores a las ciudades, la industrialización y la aparición de nuevas clases sociales. Así mismo esta revolución fortaleció a la burguesía, la cual logró consolidar su papel político, remplazando al viejo orden monárquico. La burguesía buscaba fundar estados sobre una base nacional, así como también la conquista de mayores libertades. Las principales consecuencias políticas se vieron en los siguientes países: Austria, Italia, Alemania, Europa oriental etc. ITALIA. Guerra nacionalista contra los austriacos. - Se configura un reino con una monarquía constitucional. - Hasta 1870, la situación fue complicada porque quedaron reductos de diversas fuerzas políticas en cada uno de los antiguos reinos, y ponerlos de acuerdo no era tan fácil. La unificación económica fue lenta y freno considerablemente la industrialización.

ALEMANIA. Alemania dividida en dos reinos: Austria y Prusia. - La unificación alemana se inició en 1861, con el ascenso al trono del káiser Guillermo I, quien nombro canciller a Otto Von Bismarck. - Luego de guerras y alianzas, se aisló a Austria y se consolidó la Confederación de Alemania del Norte. - Tuvo un carácter federalista, puesto que sus miembros conservaban su propia administración, pero el gobierno federal manejaba la políti.ca internacional y el ejército

Europa oriental:

1. Imperio Austro- Húngaro: compuesto por gran cantidad de nacionalidades (checos, eslavos, húngaros, y polacos). 2. Países balcánicos: zona bajo dominio turco y austriaco, y donde las potencias del momento tenían intereses. 3. Imperio ruso: No había iniciado su proceso de industrialización. A pesar del autoritarismo de los zares, se formaron reductos liberales especialmente en las filas del ejército. Economía de carácter agrario y muy arraigado a las costumbres feudales. Consolidó su expansión territorial, hacia la región del mar caspio.


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SITUACIÓN POLÍTICA DE EUROPA OCCIDENTAL La formación de las nuevas naciones, así como los efectos de la expansión de la segunda revolución industrial, cambió radicalmente la situación política europea a partir de la década de 1870. Mientras esto ocurría, otras naciones consolidaban sus sistemas democráticos y se ubicaban como las potencias europeas. Este fue el caso de Inglaterra y Francia. La Inglaterra victoriana Mientras la mayor parte de Europa pasaba por un sinnúmero de revoluciones, en Inglaterra la situación era estable políticamente. Entre otras razones, esto se debió a que el trono fue ocupado por una sola persona durante casi todo el siglo XIX. Se trataba de la reina Victoria. Como consecuencia de la democratización y la revolución industrial, que convirtieron a Inglaterra en una monarquía constitucional, la reina tuvo que renunciar a algunos de sus privilegios reales. Debido a ello, el poder estuvo realmente, en manos del primer ministro de turno. La fuerte democracia y los valores típicos de la Inglaterra victoriana, se basaron en muy buena medida en el liberalismo. Esta doctrina sustentó con éxito el gran desarrollo económico que se vivió en la segunda parte del siglo. La revolución industrial en su segunda etapa generó un nuevo capitalismo: el financiero. Este era el dinero que estaba a disposición de los bancos y era utilizado por los industriales para nuevas inversiones. Francia: la democracia de la tercera república. La guerra de 1870 entre Francia y Prusia, por Alsacia y Lorena, termino con la abdicación de Napoleón III, acontecimiento que implicó el final del segundo imperio francés y el comienzo de la tercera república francesa. Entonces la Asamblea Nacional, debió encargarse de reorganizar el país. Para tal efecto fue elegido presidente Adolfo Thiers. A partir de 1879, Francia fue dirigida por el primer ministro Jules Ferry, quien consolido los principios republicanos que introdujeron al país en su edad de oro. Ferry decreto la libertad de prensa, reformo la administración y la educación, fomento la industria y las comunicaciones e introdujo al país en una ambiciosa expansión comercial.


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ACTIVIDAD # 3 1. ¿Cuál es el nuevo concepto de Estado que surge en el siglo XIX? 2. ¿Cómo queda dividida políticamente Europa luego de la finalización de las revoluciones burguesas? 3. Completa el siguiente mapa conceptual: Nuevas naciones Europeas

Nuevos Estados Europa Occidental

Europa Oriental

Principales Estados:

Principales Estados:

Caracterizada por: Caracterizados por:

Caracterizada por: Caracterizados por:

4. ¿Por qué la formacion de Italia y Alemania ayudo a agravar los conflictos entre las naciones europeas? 5. ¿Cuáles fueron las consecuencias de la formación de los nuevos Estados-Naciones europeos?


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CONTENT # 4 EUROPEAN ECONOMY DURING THE SECOND HALF OF THE XIX CENTURY. What is an economic system? From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_system

An economic system is the structure of production, allocation of economic inputs, distribution of economic outputs, and consumption of goods and services in an economy. It is a set of institutions and their social relations. An economic system is composed of people and institutions, including their relationships to productive resources, such as through the convention of property. Examples of contemporary economic systems include capitalist systems, socialist systems, and mixed economies. "Economic systems" is the economics category that includes the study of respective systems. Today the world largely operates under a global economic system based on the capitalist mode of production. Our current economic system is called capitalism.

Capitalism From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capitalism

An economic system in which the means of production and distribution are privately or corporately owned and development is proportionate to the accumulation and reinvestment of profits gained in a free market.

The earliest forms of capitalism—which we call "mercantilism"—originate in Rome, the Middle East, and the early middle Ages. Mercantilism might be roughly defined as the distribution of goods in order to realize a profit. Goods are bought at one site for a certain price and moved to another site and sold at a higher price. As the Roman Empire expanded, mercantilism correspondingly expanded. But the contraction of the Roman Empire from the fifth century onwards also contracted mercantilism until, by the 700's, it was not a substantial aspect of European culture, that is, European economies tended to localize. Arabic cultures, on the other hand, had a long history of mercantilism, living as they did on the trade routes between three great empires: Egypt, Persia, and later Byzantium. As Islam from the seventh century A.D. onwards spread like wildfire across Northern Africa, Spain, the Middle East and Asia, Arabic mercantilism assumed an unprecedented global character. The medieval Europeans essentially learned mercantilism from their Islamic neighbors, evidenced in large part by the number of economic terms in European languages that are derived from Arabic, such as tariff and traffic. From the 1300's, Europeans would begin expanding their mercantile practices, resulting in a social mobility hitherto unseen in European culture as well as pushing Europeans, as it did the Muslims, to explore distant parts of the globe. The voyages of discovery were entirely driven by mercantile ambitions.

As time went on in Europe, mercantilism gradually evolved into economic practices that would eventually be called capitalism. Capitalism is based on the same principle as mercantilism: the large-scale realization of a profit by acquiring goods for lower prices than one sells them. But capitalism as a practice is characterized by the following:


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CAPITALISM

WHAT IS IT? An economic system in which the means of production and distribution are privately or corporately owned and development is proportionate to the accumulation and reinvestment of profits gained in a free market.

WHAT ARE ITS CHARACTERISTICS? 1. Private ownership of the means of production. 2. Market controls economy throughout law of supply and demand. 3. Maximization of resources. 4. State control over the private sector is minimal.

HOW IT DOES? Capitalism needs productive factors. And it has three main factors…

Factories, work, and capital

Socialism From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socialism Socialism is an economic and political theory advocating public or common ownership and cooperative management of the means of production and allocation of resources. A socialist society is organized on the basis of relatively equal power-relations, self-management, dispersed decision-making and a reduction or elimination of hierarchical and bureaucratic forms of administration and governance; the extent of which varies in different types of socialism. This ranges from the establishment of cooperative management structures to the abolition of all hierarchical structures in favor of free association. As an economic system, socialism is the direct allocation of capital goods (means of production) to meet economic demands so that production is oriented toward use and accounting is based on some physical magnitude, such as calculation-in-kind, or a direct measure of labor time. Goods and services for consumption are distributed through markets, and distribution of income is based on individual merit/individual contribution. As a political movement, socialism includes a diverse array of political philosophies, ranging from reformism to revolutionary socialism. Some currents of socialism, often referred to as state socialism, advocate complete nationalization of the means of production, distribution and exchange as a strategy for implementing socialism; while social democrats advocate public control of capital within the framework of a market economy. Libertarian socialists and anarchists reject using the state to build socialism, arguing that


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socialism will, and must, arise spontaneously. They advocate direct worker-ownership of the means of production alternatively through independent syndicates, workplace democracies, or worker cooperatives. Modern socialism originated from an 18th-century intellectual and working class political movement that criticized the effects of industrialization and private property on society. Utopian socialists such as Robert Owen (1771–1858), tried to found self-sustaining communes by secession from a capitalist society. Henri de [9] Saint Simon (1760–1825), who coined the term socialism, advocated technocracy and industrial planning. Saint-Simon, Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx advocated the creation of a society that allows for the widespread application of modern technology to rationalize economic activity by eliminating the anarchy of capitalist production that results in instability and cyclical crises of overproduction. Communism From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communism

Communism is a sociopolitical movement that aims for a classless and stateless society structured upon common ownership of the means of production, free access to articles of consumption, and the end of wage labor and private property in the means of production and real estate. In Marxist theory, communism is a specific stage of historical development that inevitably emerges from the development of the productive forces that leads to a superabundance of material wealth, allowing for distribution based on need and social relations based on freely-associated individuals. The exact definition of communism varies, and it is often mistakenly used interchangeably with socialism; however, Marxist theory contends that socialism is just a transitional stage on the way to communism. Leninists revised this theory by introducing the notion of a vanguard party to lead the proletarian revolution and to hold all political power after the revolution in a transitional stage between capitalism and socialism. Some communists, such as council communists and non-Marxist libertarian communists and anarchycommunists, oppose the idea of a vanguard party and transition stage and advocate for the construction of full communism to begin immediately upon the abolition of capitalism.

Socialism

Politic and economic system based on nationalization of the means of production or public or common ownership.

Characteristics. 1. There isn´t private property. 2. There aren´t social classes. 3. State controls all economic activity.

Characteristics. 1. There isn´t private property. 2. There aren´t social classes. 3. State disappears.

COMMUNISM

ACTIVITY# 4. 1. Explain with your own words what capitalism is. 2. Explain with your own words what socialism is. 3. Complete the follow comparative chart according to differences between capitalism, socialism and communism:


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CHARACTERISTICS

What is it?

What kind of property is there?

Who controls economy?

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Is there a State?

Is there a class struggle?

CAPITALISM

SOCIALISM

COMMUNISM

4. Find ten (10) words in the follow word search related to the topic and then look for their meanings.

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MEANINGS

1. INDUSTRY 2. MONOPOLY 3. ENTERPRISE 4. CAPITALISM 5. UNIONS 6. WORK 7. OVERPRODUCTION. 8. PROLETARIAT 9. BOURGUESOIE 10. CAPITAL


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CONTENT # 5 IMPERIALISM, 19TH-CENTURY EUROPEAN From: http://encyclopedia.farlex.com/imperialism,+19th-century+European

The empires of Europe, including those of the UK, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Germany, Belgium, Portugal, Spain, and Russia, reached their greatest extent in the 19th century. Although partly a continuation of the expansionist policies of previous centuries, these nations increased their efforts to extend their power and influence across the globe. At various times during the 19th century Europeans held control over the continents of South America, Africa, Asia, and Australasia. European imperialism was driven by a combination of factors, from a desire for territorial strength, economic opportunities, and political prestige, to the need for cheap supplies to fuel Europe's industrial revolutions. Also significant was the Europeans' sense of duty to Christianize and ‘civilize’ other nations through mission work and the enforcement of European culture and administrative methods. The form of dominance varied. While King Leopold II of Belgium held the Belgian Congo (now the Democratic Republic of Congo) as a vast personal property, Queen Victoria was declared empress of India by the British government in 1876.

EUROPE: 1870- 1914 Western industrial powerful nations

Second industrial revolution development.

Produces

prodepP

THE ERA OF CAPITALISM Colonial imperialism

Colonial partition of Africa, Asia and Australasia. Produces

Rivalries

Colonial Empires Models of organization and relationship with the metropolis

World War I at the beginning of the XX century (1914- 1918)

The consequences of this imperialist domination


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Motivations The imperialist policies of European nations in the 19th century were not driven simply by a desire to be powerful and hold land, but by a combination of a wide range of forces. The industrial revolutions that swept across Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries were a major factor in the acceleration of European imperialism. Industries such as the production of cotton cloth required vast quantities of imported raw materials that could not be grown or produced in Europe. Cotton was grown in India, and the need for a cheap supply contributed to the spread of British interest and control in the region. The opportunity to increase trading opportunities also motivated imperialist ambitions in the 19th century. European nations sought to open up new trade routes that gave them places to sell their goods. In the 19th century, however, the hunt for new markets speeded up as the mass-manufacture of new goods in the industrial revolution increased the amount of trade taking place.

From the 1700´s through the early 1900´s, European nations began to build empires around the world.

IMPERIALISM

European nations competed with each other to gain the most territory. This brought great gain for European nations but devastation to the regions they imperialized. What were the European nation’s motivations for imperialism?

Justification

ECONOMICS 1. Make money. 1.2.1.Control routes. 3. Control new markets. 4. Need for materials. 5. Economic crisis, overproduction.

POLITICS 1. Nationalism. 2. Gain power. 3. Competition. 4. Expand territory. 6. National pride.

TECHNOLOGICAL 1. Western technological and military superiority. 2. Transportation and communications revolution.

IDEOLOGIC. 1. White race ‘’superiority‘’. 2. Catholic evangelization.

Political considerations also played a major part in motivating European imperialism in the 19th century. The idea of imperial glory reflecting on a government was a clear motivating factor for European imperialism in the 19th century. Justification and motivation for imperialism also came from the belief that the Christian religion and European forms of government, education, and law would improve the lives of the indigenous peoples of Africa, Asia, and Australasia, and that it was, therefore, a duty to spread European civilization.


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Congress of Berlin. From: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/62090/Congress-of-Berlin

Was a diplomatic meeting of the major European powers at which the Treaty of Berlin replaced the Treaty of San Stefano, which had been signed by Russia and Turkey (March 3, 1878) at the conclusion of the RussoTurkish War of 1877–78. Officially convoked by the Austrian foreign minister, Count Gyula Andrassy, the congress met in Berlin on June 13. Dominated by the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck, the congress solved an international crisis caused by the San Stefano treaty by revising the peace settlement to satisfy the interests of Great Britain (by denying Russia the means to extend its naval power and by maintaining the Ottoman Empire as a European power) and to satisfy the interests of Austria-Hungary (by allowing it to occupy Bosnia and Herzegovina and thereby increase its influence in the Balkans). In acting so, however, the congress left Russia humiliated by substantially reducing the gains that it had made under the San Stefano treaty. Furthermore, the congress failed to consider adequately the aspirations of the Balkan peoples themselves and, thereby, laid the foundation for future crises in the Balkans. The partition of Africa European imperial involvement in Africa in the modern period began in the 15th century, when the Portuguese sent expeditions along the west coast of the continent. The Portuguese founded the colony of Angola in 1491 and Mozambique in 1505. Before the 19th century, the main impact of European involvement in Africa was the creation of a new slave trade to the Americas. In the 19th century control by European powers spread rapidly over the continent. This advance occurred mainly after 1875. The UK took official control of Sierra Leone in 1808, South Africa in 1814 (see South Africa: history to 1902), Nigeria in 1885, Uganda in 1894, and Kenya in 1895. France's empire in Africa by 1900 included Algeria, Tunisia (from 1883), Madagascar (from 1885), Mali (1895), Chad (1900), and the Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast; made part of French West Africa in 1901). Italy controlled Somalia (from 1889) and Libya (conquered 1911), Portugal held Angola and Mozambique, and Germany controlled Namibia (from 1884), Cameroon (from 1884), and Tanzania (from 1885). Belgium held the Belgian Congo, a vast area in Central Africa that became the personal property of King Leopold II in 1885. By 1900 most of Africa was controlled by the empires of Europe; only Ethiopia and Liberia remained free, although Ethiopia had to fend off an Italian invasion in 1896. The partition of Asia European imperialism was also effective in gaining control of the nations of Southeast Asia in the 19th century. The British had taken complete possession of Burma (now Myanmar) by 1886 and the Malay Peninsula. France took control of Cambodia in 1863, Annam and Vietnam in 1884, and Laos in 1893, the four territories forming French Indochina. All these areas were governed by Europeans and exposed to Christian missionaries. European traders exploited the region's raw materials and also traded with the local populations, offering them manufactured goods previously unavailable. Roads and railways were also introduced by the Europeans to their colonies.


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Cartoon alluding the colonial partition of Africa. From: http://www.mrfaught.org/9igcse.html

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Cartoon alluding the colonial partition during congress of Berlin. From: http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archivo:China_imperialism_cartoon.jpg

ACTIVITY # 5 1. Explain with your own words what is imperialism? 2. What was the congress of Berlin? 3. What connection can you find between imperialism and capitalism? 4. For these questions you will need some materials: cardboard, colors, pencil, and follow the instructions: a. Draw a map of the current political division of the African continent. (Use the model on page 16) b. Draw a map of the current political division of the Asian continent. (Use the model on page 17) c. Draw a map of the current political division of the African and Asian continents and location: (Use the model on page 18 and 19) for it visit the following links http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CQRGuiS7tns Orange color (British colonies) Brown color (German colonies) Green color (Portuguese colonies) Pink color (French colonies) Purple color (Belgian colonies) Yellow color (Italian colonies) Blue color (Spanish colonies) Black color (independent territories)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yukTAq4Enso& feature=fvwrel Green Color (British colonies) Orange color (Russian colonies) Pink color (Japanese colonies) Dark Green color (French colonies) Yellow color (Independent territories) Red color (Dutch colonies) Blue color ((Spanish colonies) Brown color (Ottoman Turkish Empire)

5. According to the previous activity answer: What country had the largest amount of territory in Africa and Asia?


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ACTIVIDAD FINAL 1. Reúnete en grupos de un número no mayor a cinco integrantes. Deberán realizar una línea del tiempo en la que se evidencie el desarrollo histórico del continente europeo durante el siglo XIX, pero debes tener presente que en tu trabajo se debe reflejar la influencia de la revolución francesa e industrial en la configuración de los estados europeos. Recuerda que la valoración incluye aspectos tales como la creatividad, calidad y cantidad de la información presentada, la preparación del tema y la responsabilidad de los estudiantes.

WEB PAGES AND OTHER SOURCES Módulo Ciencias Sociales Grado 8. Montessori 2010. http://www.ask.com/wiki/European_Restoration http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberal_Revolution_of_1820 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/July_Revolution http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revolutions_of_1848 Contextos Sociales 8. Editorial Santillana. Bogotá- Colombia. 2004. P. 124- 131 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_system http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capitalism http://encyclopedia.farlex.com/imperialism,+19th-century+European http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/62090/Congress-of-Berlin


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