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'=>+!?@!!3/06%87)0(%/A!3/#067)0(%/*-!4$#(1/!B%8$-A!*/8!C$$8#!=##$##;$/0! 3/06%87)0(%/! The use of technology as a tool to enhance learning is paramount to all learners in the 21st century. This is a four- part instructional design project for Ed Tech 503, designed to concentrate on the preliminary design aspects of instructional design. The task that was given is to design a fictitious product, for the school district of Washington County, as the client. The product will be used to assist teachers in the district to exercise the newly adopted plan of using and applying the use of technology in teaching.

3/#067)0(%/*-!4$#(1/!B%8$-!! The model that I have selected to complete this instructional design task is Smith and Raganâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Instructional Design Model created by P. Smith and T. Ragan, 1999.

(Gustafon & Branch, 2002, p.78.)

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The reason that I have selected this model is that it fits very well with the way the project was assigned, it is a focus in our Instructional Design class, it is a system oriented ISD model, and it has become increasingly popular with instructional designers because of it’s important cognitive psychology base (Gustafon & Branch, 2002). The model’s strength is in the area of developing specific instructional strategies where many other ID models are weak in this area. Another reason that I selected the model, is that there seems to be only one weakness, it is rather linear. (for a beginning designer, this may be a strength) This model also is good in that it focuses on strategy. It covers the process in three areas, Analysis, Strategy and Evaluation.

!C$$8#!=##$##;$/0! Dr. Evangelina Torres, superintendant of the Washington County, SC school district, has been instrumental in spearheading this project. After receiving input from various educational technology experts in her district, and after observing presentations at the NECC (the ISTE conference), she has had a Needs Assessment completed. Using the Innovation Model described in Smith & Ragan, 2005, the following steps were taken to conduct the needs assessment: “Determine the nature of the innovation or change.” , “Determine the learning goals that accompany this innovation.”, “If there is a choice, determine whether these goals are appropriate and high priority in the learning system.”, and “Begin learning environment analysis design activities.” (Smith & Ragan, 2005, p. 45- 46.) As a result of this needs assessment, one of Dr. Torres decisions is to provide in service instruction. The topic is to use the software Picasa for adding creativity to lessons. This four-part report includes an: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Analysis of the learning context, Analysis of the learners, Analysis of the learning task, and Assessment of the learning.


'=>+!E@!!F6%/0!G/8!=/*-H#(#!20$:!?@!=/*-H#(#!%&!0I$!J$*6/(/1!.%/0$K0!! =##7;:0(%/#L!! The facility for providing the training has been identified as a school district owned building complete with computers, and the necessary hardware and software to provide the required training. There will be no costs for renting the facility or itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s equipment. Any aids that will be required by teachers (to take the workshop) are available at the facility. (ex.- screen readers, headphones, modified keyboards, etc.)

4$#)6(:0(%/!%&!G/9(6%/;$/0!(/!LI()I!3/#067)0(%/!M(--!0*N$!:-*)$@!! Community My first step in doing a front-end analysis would involve collecting information about the community. I would use several sources to collect my information including the local Chamber of Commerce and statistics provided on the Internet. I would first determine the size of the community and the population of the towns and cities within it. This would give me a starting point. In this project I will be working with a small semi-urban community with a population base of about 165,000 people. My next step would be to find out the break down of the people within the community, so that I have an idea of the general background and diversity of the population. I have found out that approximately 10% of the people in the area are immigrants, and the rest are Canadians. The immigrant population by place of birth consists of 60% from Europe, 20% from Asia and the Middle East, 6% from the Caribbean and South and Central America, 6% from Africa, 5% from the U.S.A., and 3% from Oceania and other. I would also check to see what post secondary educational facilities are available and how far away they are. This would give me an indication of how easy or hard it is for students to carry on with their post secondary education after high school. I have found out that there is a local college in the community. It provides many options for undergraduate university degrees as well as many trades programs. I also would ask questions about where the community works, to establish the socioeconomics of the area. This particular community has a large number of young progressive professionals. These professionals have post secondary education and encourage their children to work towards post secondary educational goals. There are a number of large corporations in the community that provide work for parents and students. (a sawmill, a mine, a smelter, and a factory) Another good set of data that I would collect involves the employment rate. I would need this to determine the wealth of the area, the opportunities, and the morale. I found out that the community has an unemployment rate of 10.2 % (last year it was 4.3%) compared to the average in B.C. of 8.6%. Parents and students generally have access to secure, satisfying jobs with a healthy income. Finally I would ask questions about the overall attitude of members of the community towards schools and public education. This would help me in determining how much respect and support schools get in the community. Overall, education is reported to be a priority of parents and members in the community. They are also very supportive of the public school system.

District My next set of questions would help me to find information out about the district in which the workshop will be presented. I can get most of my answers from the superintendant. My questions involve asking the employment numbers in the district, the number of schools and students, the type of schools, whether there are any special programs, the graduation results, the goals of the district, the size of the district, and the distances traveled. My rationale for asking these questions are so that I have an idea of the attitude, and the numbers that I am working with, as well as the logistics. It will also give me a sense of the environment and learner factors. For this project, the school district employs approximately 650 teachers. There are a total of 21,724 students in 44 schools. On top of the regular public options the school district also has a Distance Education school. There are also 3 private schools in the district. The school district also has an International education program and in any given year there are about 175 international high school students mostly from Korea and Taiwan. The district has a high graduation rate as well as a high rate of students that further their post-secondary education. The school district prides itself on being current and up to date in the technologies available to its staff and to its learners. The district comprises of 3 smaller towns and 1 city. The maximum driving time from the farthest school in the district to the facility is approximately 60 minutes. Many students that live outside the city take the school bus and those that live in the city take public transportation.

Facility My last set of questions would be towards the manager of the facility in which the workshop will be presented. I will also visit and tour the building to make sure that I collect the organization factors needed to design the workshop. For this project, the workshop will be presented at the districtâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s new Sustainable High School. The school is located on the outskirts of the city. It is easily accessible by car and bus. There are 40 computers in the room that is to be used. The computers are fully equipped with the necessary software and hardware. Participants will not be required to bring any materials or supplies. Any computer aids that may be required will be available (visual, hearing, motor aids). The facility is fully wheel chair accessible, adequately ventilated (non-smoking) with air conditioning for hot weather, and heat for cold weather. The lighting is comfortable, there are many windows, and the rooms are airy and comfortable. There are new tables and fully

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adjustable chairs to use. The new facility has a cafeteria that follows the 100-mile diet plan. It can be open during the workshop times and will cater healthy foods and drinks including vegetarian and vegan options. The school will be available for this workshop during times when students are not in session. The times include after school hours, on professional development days, holidays, or on weekends. Teachers will be invited to explore some of the other features of the new school if they wish. The presenter of the workshop will have access to a computer, a large overhead screen, a computer projector, the use of the video software â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Camtasiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, and a microphone to broadcast the lecture into speakers located in the room.

Limitations in the setting that will affect the design of instruction The long travel time for teachers that work and live 60 minutes away may be a limitation.

Description of Environment in which skill will be used (Performance context) The learning environment provided is similar in all of the schools within the district except some facilities are smaller in size with only 24 -28 stations per room, and the equipment is older. The audience will be students rather than adults. ! !

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'=>+!<@!!F6%/0!G/8!=/*-H#(#!20$:!E@!=/*-H#(#!%&!0I$!J$*6/$6# '-*/!! Assumptions: All the learners participating in this workshop: ! Are adult teachers with high aptitudes. ! Have at least a university degree and a teacher’s certificate. ! Speak and write English. ! Are currently employed as K-12 Teachers or are K-12 Teachers on Call within the district. ! Have similar stable sensory capabilities. Any differences that the learners may have could be due to the fact that: • They will be at different stages in their development. • They will be at different states in their learning. • Their development and learning will constantly be changing depending on the individuals. This could depend on age. The younger teachers may be more open to using technology, they may be quicker to pick the concepts up, and they may be more able to adapt and apply the changes. However the older teachers may be more ready for change and have the time to invest in the new learning because they have most of their work mastered, and they are looking for new ways to make things more interesting, and their kids are all grown up. This could also depend on the place the teachers grew up and where they were educated, or their culture. Some teachers may have been exposed to the use of technology earlier in their lives (or reverse) so they are more comfortable with it. If we find out the background of the teachers, many interesting examples can be used from the cultures represented to make the learning more authentic. This could depend on number of years of teaching experience and number of years of computer experience. There will be a wide range of learning styles in the district. There will be a wide range of subject areas of expertise within the district. The teacher’s psychosocial traits will also vary a great deal. Some of the traits I will check are the teacher’s levels of anxiousness, their locus of control, and their generalized image of themselves as learners. The last difference that I am considering is motivation. It could be related to the age of the teacher and the number of years of teaching experience.

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2769$H! Assumptions Several of the professional development days next year have already been designated by the Superintendant as Technology Pro-D days. Although these may be factors in learning: specific age, gender, race, and religion, they are not included in the survey. This is to respect peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s individual rights. I will conduct a twoâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;part survey using an online survey tool called Survey Monkey. The first part will be given to all the teachers in the district at the end of the school year. The second part will be given to the teachers that select use of Picasa software as their option. The results of the survey will be used to make plans for the following years Pro D events. The reasons why I would like to do this, is to empower and give control to the teachers. (for their professional development.) I have included an option as to when they would like the workshop to be delivered. I also talked to members of the Pro-d Committee and asked them the dates for the Pro D days next year, and the general attitude of teachers in the district towards their professional development. 1. Survey # 1 an initial general survey. This is to be done by 100% of the teachers at the end of June. http://www.surveymonkey.com/s.aspx?sm=XnUbJDNaehRwIIMOYc5k1A_3d_3d 2. Survey #2 a specific survey. This is to be completed by teachers that choose the option of learning Use of Picasa software (with coffee cards for prizes) http://www.surveymonkey.com/s.aspx?sm=_2bnN15O5E5_2f2I_2f4n_2fH4G9rg_3d_3d


>$:%60!%&!2769$H!>$#7-0#! Here is a summary of the result of two surveys that were completed. The first survey was completed by 500 teachers, and the second survey by 165 teachers. (out of 650) 3 Graphs of Results from Survey #1 (Reported as Percentages) Graph #1

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The district has a rather experienced teaching population with 70% of teachers having more than 15 years of experience, in an evenly distributed range and subject area from K-12. The general opinion of the quality of professional development offered by the district is good, and the teachers are generally motivated to attend the workshops offered. In regards to the questions placed on professional development and technology, out of the 500 teachers surveyed 35% of the teachers said that it was a medium to high priority. The most important step in analyzing the learners is their specific prior knowledge. A wide range of computer skills ranging for novice to expert were reported, and 33% of the teachers (165) selected â&#x20AC;&#x153;How to use Picasaâ&#x20AC;? for their pro D next year. I had 6 teachers indicate their area of expertise to be technology and also offer to present at the Pro-D days next year. Graph of Results from Survey #2 (Reported as Percentages)

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The second survey was filled out by those teachers that chose “How to use Picasa” in the first survey. Out of the 165 teachers that identified themselves in the first survey, 160 participated. Of the learners 65% were generally interested in the workshop, the rest were doing it because they have to pick one. In general the majority of people choose to use a professional day to attend the workshop at about 40 minutes in length, with a medium pace. The learning style that works best for the teachers ranged from 30% being tactile/kinesthetic to 60% being visual, and 10% auditory. The locus of control was 75% internal and 25% external. As far as how the learners see themselves 80% of the teachers described themselves as doers. One of the teachers requested a headset for an auditory disability, and we had 15 vegetarians, 1 vegan, 2 diabetics, and 4 people with peanut allergies. The vote for what to do after was unanimous, have a beer or a glass of wine to unwind. After analyzing the learner, through 2 surveys, I recommend the following for the workshop. The workshop should be set up for up to 160 teachers. Since there are a wide range of subject area specialists taking the workshop, it should not be designed for any particular subject area or curriculum. It should be voluntary, and teachers should sign up for it on a first come first serve basis. It should be provided in English, and it should be a hands-on workshop to learn to use and apply Picasa. It also should be designed to provide the learner with suggestions and examples as to how to incorporate the training materials into their instruction. Since many of the teachers are not very comfortable with computers, the workshop should provide support during and after. This workshop will be presented on one of the professional development days, therefore there will be no need to hire any Teachers on Call. Each session will be ~40 minutes in length and there will be four times to choose from. They are: 9:30 a.m., 10:30 a.m., 12:30 p.m., and 1:30 p.m. This workshop will be presented to teachers by one of their colleagues. All costs are covered except the cost of designing the project, of hiring an instructor, and of getting to and from the school. According to (Collins, 1999), out of five models of professional development, the most effective model is the one that provides Training. “Training” ranks the highest in terms of “mastery of a simple, specific teaching skill”, “implementation of a complex set of teaching strategies”, and “increasing knowledge of content or subject matter” (Collins, 1999, p.70).

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! +*#N!=/*-H#(#!! Webspiration Graphic: Learning Steps Flowchart: Note: a larger copy of this has been emailed to Dr. Perkins, and to Jennifer D. To view a published version, go to : http://www.mywebspiration.com/view/220645a1975a )

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When given a computer with Internet access, the learner will independently: 1. "Turn on" and "boot up" the computer. 2. Create and name a folder on the desktop. 3. Open a web page. 4. Set up a Google account using an email address. 5. Conduct a search on a web page and (NOTE: a-g. should be part of the ID as options, my reason for this is that many learners are at different levels and require different levels of complexity in the presentation.) a. Download photos. b. Organize photos. c. Edit photos. d. Create a collage. e. Make a slideshow. f. Make prints. g. Make wallpaper. 6. Select specific photos. 7. Identify that the photos they choose are not in violation of copyright laws. 8. Save images in a folder on the desktop and check that they have been saved. 9. Open documents in Google Apps. 10. Insert images from a folder on the desktop into the document. 11 Save document with images in it. 12. Apply this skill.


'=>+!D@!!=##$##;$/0!%&!0I$!J$*6/(/1 The purpose of this assessment will be to determine whether the learner has achieved the following goal: Using a computer with Internet access, the learner will independently open and sign into Google software â&#x20AC;&#x153;Picasaâ&#x20AC;?, search and select, organize, and edit photographs, then save the photographs in a folder on the desktop and insert them into a Google document. The assessment type suitable for this workshop is a post assessment type. There will be no entry skills assessment or pre assessment done because the instructional design has taken into account that there are beginners in the workshop. It should occur at the end of the workshop while the learners are still on the computers. The instrument that will be used is a criterion-referenced assessment. It will be a performance assessment using observation, and simulation. It will not be administered in the form of a test, but instead a checklist or a rubric. This is appropriate for the context, the task and the learner in that this is a voluntary professional development workshop for adult learners. Checklist of tasks that need to be assessed to determine whether the learner has mastered the goal: Can the learner: o "Turn on" and "boot up" the computer? o Create a folder on the desktop? o Name a folder on the desktop? o Open a web page? o Set up a Google account using an email address? o Conduct a search on a web page? (Note: these are provided as options: ) ! Download photos? ! Organize photos? ! Edit photos? ! Create a collage? ! Make a slideshow? ! Make prints? ! Make wallpaper? o Select specific photos? o Identify that the photos they choose are not in violation of copyright laws? o Save images in a folder on the desktop and check that they have been saved? o Open documents in Google Apps? o Insert images from a folder on the desktop into the document? o Save document with images in it? o Apply this skill in teaching? The results of this will indicate to the instructor if the learner achieved the goal, and how well, and if more instruction is required in this area, or if the learner is ready to move on to the next level of learning. Keeping in mind that this is not a course, and that the learners need not feel threatened in any was, the assessment will not be used to rank the learners, or to compare them. The assessment will include the necessary items that were part of the objectives.

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Assessment CATEGORY The learner is able to:

Turn “on” and “boot up” the computer? Create a folder on the desktop? Name a folder on the desktop? Open a web page? Set up a “Google Account” using an email address? Conduct a Search on a web page? Download photos? (optional) Organize photos? (optional) Edit photos? (optional) Create a collage? (optional) Make a slideshow? (optional) Make Prints? (optional) Make Wallpaper? (optional) Select specific photos Identify the photos they choose are not in violation of copyright laws? Save images in a folder on the desktop

TOTALS

4. ADVANCED The learner demonstrates this task outstandingly.

3. PROFICIENT The learner can demonstrate this task .

2. BASIC The learner is almost able to demonstrate this

1. BELOW BASIC The learner is not able to demonstrate this task at this time.


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1. Professional Development Survey #1 This survey has been designed for teachers of the school district to provide feedback for professional development next year. 1. Please indicate the number of years of teaching experience that you have. Vente (more than 20) Grande (15 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 19 ) Tall (6-10) Short (0-5) 2. Please indicate the primary grade range that you teach. Vente (9-12) (high school) Grande (6-8) (middle school) Tall (4-5) (elementary) Short (K-3) (elementary) 3. Please indicate your specialty teaching area: Espresso (Science) Cappaccino (Mathematics) Latte (Social Studies) Canadiano (Language Arts) Mocha (Fine Arts) Americano (Technology) 4. In your opinion, how effective are the professional development in-services offered by the district? Vente (Very Effective) Grande (Effective) Tall (Ineffective) Short (Very Ineffective) 5. How motivated are you to attend professional development workshops in the district related to technology? Vente (Very motivated) Grande (Medium motivated) Tall (Just a little bit motivated) Short (I'm not interested) 6. What priority do you place on using technology in your teaching and learning? Vente Grande Tall Short 7. Please indicate your level of computer savvy. Vente Grande Tall Short

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8. Knowing that the Professional Development focus for the district next year is Educational Technology. Which areas of technology excite you the most about learning and applying them? How to use Moodle or Blackboard.. How to use Ning. How to use Podcasts. How to use Google Apps. How to install new Hardware. How to use MS Office Products. How to use Blogs or Wikis. How to use Picasa. How to use a Digital Camera. How to use a Smartboard. 9. If you are able to present at the Pro-D day, please indicate your area of expertise.

10. Please fill in the bottom area with any information that may help in planning your professional development for next year.

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Professional Development Survey #2 Please fill in this second survey if you have selected "to learn to use Picasa." This will further help us design your professional development for next year. 1. Please indicate your level of interest in the workshop you chose. Vente (Very interested) Grande (Moderately interested) Tall (Kinda interested) Short (I'm just doing it because I have too!) 2. Which of these times is your preferred time to attend a workshop? After school Weekends Pro d day Holidays 3. How long do you feel that you would be able to concentrate when you are using computers to learn? Vente (~ 90 minutes) Grande (~ 60 minutes) Tall (~ 40 minutes) Short (~ 20 minutes) 4. Please indicate your level of anxiety when it comes to computers. Short (Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s my thing, bring it on.) Tall (Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m o.k, a med paced longer lesson would be fine.) Grande (I get pretty anxious. I need slow paced short lessons) Vente (I get really anxious, I need one on one attention.) 5. Please indicate the learning style that works best for you. Visual - learn through seeing. Auditory - learn through listening. Tactile/Kinesthetic - learn through moving,doing,touching. 6. What is your perception about the underlying main causes of events in your life? It is guided by my personal decisions and efforts. It is guided by fate,luck,or other external circumstances. 7. How do you see yourself? As a doer. As a watcher. As a thinker. As a feeler. 8. Please indicate if you have any disabilities that require adaptations to the computers.

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Visual Audio Psychomotor 9. Do you have any special dietary needs for the Pro-D day? I am an Omnivore. I am a Vegetarian I am a Vegan. I am a Diabetic. I have food allergies. 10. My favorite way to unwind after the end of a busy day is to Have a beer/glass of wine/cup of tea and put my feet up. Go for a long run, hike or bike ride. Play a game of golf. Treat myself to a massage. Meditate, do yoga.


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;1:1,1'(1*! ! Collins, D. (1999). Achieving you Vision of Professional Development How To Assess Your Needs and Get What You Want. Hot Topics. SERVE. Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/16/8b/bf.pdf.

Gustafon, Kent L. & Branch, Robert Maribe. (2002). Survey of Instructional Development Models, 4th Edition (Ch. 1, 2, 5, & 6). Syracuse, NY: ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology.

Smith, P. L., & Ragan, T. J. (2005). Instructional Design, 3rd edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


Instructional Design & Development Project # 1