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“ Five years of NNCTS


operation, it takes off in its zeal to

play the role our country has initi-













all the zones, walks and opportu-



nities, making it a unique foot






ated in technology development and transfer towards sustainable solutions to developmental needs of the society and industries. The focal journey of SFO continues in



“ The thirst of reaching the vision gets deeper and deeper.”


NNCTS Keerthi D’Souza Chief Executive NNCTS

From the Editor’s Desk “It gives me immense pleasure to see time passing so fast, so fast its 5th year of our operations. Our movement has been slow but always with conviction of action getting stronger and stronger from inside. The thirst of reaching the vision gets deeper and deeper. The craving of the heart to see the wings flying high and the research reaching its horizon and the revelation of the real potential each of us have to offer to this country of diversity is getting ripened. Time is ours when we believe it and when we feel blessed about it, wishing all those who were in the journey along that we have tried a innovative path and for all those coming along hope, that we will, have a great walk ahead, we have made a great team”


Message from the Founder Dear Readers I am very happy to communicate with all of you as we are inching our way towards the FIVE years of NNCTS operation. Many more years of good work is ahead of us and I know that the success is going to come only when all of us come together and contribute our tiny wee bit.

wish to share that the “ real motive for doing this is the sustenance of future generation and not any partisan consideration.”

NNCTS is established to do our share to Environment, Health and safety. We are clear in our mind that we do what we can and also act as a facilitating agent for anyone interested to contribute. There is no need for any explanation as to the necessity to be concerned about EHS. It is also true that all of these are inter-related – where there is an Environment issue, we also have Health and Safety issues. That also means we can contribute in any area and automatically the others get their share of the benefit. Friends – I encourage each of you to do what is right and in your own way and lead the way for others to follow. Success will automatically follow. Lastly, I wish to share that the real motive for doing this is the sustenance of future generation and not any partisan consideration. Wishing you all the best and thanking you for your continued cooperation Nathan


Director’s cut Dear Colleagues and Friends It gives me immense pleasure to write today on the 5th year of NNCTS. In a few months it will complete 5 years of its operation. The dedication with which the team has supported the Partners to achieve the goal of the organization is appreciable . Way back in 2005 we saw the baby nurturing and today when we look back and see the amount of work put in, hardships faced, it is remarkable. The success of this organization is based on “Customer service requires a twenty four hour a day, seven days a week commitment” I wish the Partner and the team a successful journey in this industry and accomplish all that can be achieved.

Customer service requires a “twenty four hour a day, seven

Uma Nathan Director NNCPL

days a week commitment.”

It is a proud and happy moment for all of us to note that Nathan & Nathan Centre for Technology Services (NNCTS) is entering its fifth year operation. As Indians, we should admit that all of us are less conscious about Environment, Health and Safety issues. Individually, each one of us should understand the importance of these three important pillars and practice them in our day to day activities. Then, we can educate others and develop them towards maintaining the care for Environment, Health and Safety. NNCTS has been pursuing a lot of programs through Training sessions, Communication through various formal and informal means, Auditing, Counseling the people, etc. to promote the concept of S – F – O (Sustainable , Food Safety and Occupational Health and Safety). All these small efforts will develop into a big movement in the coming years. “Little drops of water make up an ocean”.

“ Little drops of water make up an ocean.

We wish NNCTS all the success in the coming years. Venkatsubramanian Director NNCPL




“ Mumbai Suburban trains cut emissions by 40 percent, India targets at 20 per cent, How? �

The new electric trains introduced in the Mumbai local suburban sector is replacing all old EMU rakes with state of art technology customized to Mumbai local transport conditions. Mumbai suburban trains will cut down 40 Per cent carbon emission for the railways, in this sector alone. The braking system, called Regenerative Braking System, introduced in these trains generates about 30 percent electricity , which will be used by other trains on the same service line, as the electricity generated during braking of speeds of the trains for halting at stations and signals, is being supplied to service line traction system. This leads to reduction of power drawn from electrical grid that provides electricity to western India. In this way, the railways conserve electricity and reduce green house gases. Energy savings by these new trains will get translated into a saving of Rs. 100 Crore annually, as 250 million units of energy are saved. As per estimates, the Mumbai suburban railway system hopes to reduce green house gases by 5.21 lakh tonnes of CO2e (Carbon dioxide equivalents) over a ten year period.

This will be the template for other electric trains and the railways plan to extend this project to other regions in the country. Compiled by C. Ganapathy, Senior Consultant EHS Nathan & Nathan Consultants Pvt. Ltd. Mumbai





Many of us argue that new forms of energy from renewable source “costs much more” than other energy sources, resulting in cost-driven decisions that avoid or postpone use of energy from renewable sources. Although it is widely known that initial investment costs for renewable energy technologies are higher on a cost-per-kilowatt basis (i.e., Rs/ kW), however a true comparison must be made on the basis of total lifecycle costs (ie., initial capital costs, future fuel costs, operation and maintenance costs. Also prominent factors that cannot be ignored when making comparisons: (a) How do we account for future fossil fuel supply uncertainties and costs emanating from geopolitical tensions? (b) How do we calculate cost of frequent extreme weather conditions and health hazards emanating from coal / gas fired power plant emissions, namely NOx, SOx, and CO2.

“Know the real cost of climate change? Switch to Naturally Replenished energy for a better tomorrow. ’’

Environmental impacts on fossil fuels often result in real cost to society, in terms of human health (i.e., loss of productivity, health care costs), declines in forests, and perhaps ultimately, food shortage caused by climate change. Simply put, we can’t really afford rupee costs of climate change. An “Eco-friendly Action” a Day keeps climate change away: “Simple Everyday Eco-friendly Actions” will go a long way in overcoming climate change related problems. A simple “Everyday Action” we need to perform is “Tap renewable energy”. New forms of renewable energy can be derived directly from the sun, wind, ocean, biomass, geothermal resources, bio-fuels and hydrogen.


Of all the renewable energy options, sun’s energy is by far the only renewable form of energy that is available in abundance and it’s the Sun who drives processes in the atmosphere that cause photosynthesis, the wind and waves. The Sun is 333,000 times as massive as Earth is and every year the Earth receives about 300,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 kJ of energy. According to estimates the sun radiates more energy in one second than the world has used since time began and every hour the sun bathes the Earth in as much energy as the world consumes in an entire year. With the oceans covering over 70% of the earth’s surface, they are the world’s largest collector and retainer of the sun’s vast energy – and the largest powerhouse in the world. The remaining 30% of earth’s surface receives energy in abundance.

Intend to tap Solar Energy? Solar electric systems are of two types: (a) Photovoltaic Systems that generate electricity and (b) Solar Thermal system that generate hot water / air conditioner / hot air.

Photovoltaic System: Photovoltaic (PV) systems convert sunlight directly to electricity. They work any time the sun is shining, but more electricity is produced when the sunlight is more intense. The photovoltaic effect was first discovered in 1839 by a French scientist and the theory has been researched and refined by several scientists since then. Many of us known Albert Einstein as a genius who invented the equation E = mc2. Others knew him as a physics pioneer who formulated the Theory of Relativity. However, what was least expected was that Albert Einstein, the German born American scientist, actually won the Nobel Prize, in 1921, for Physics – “photoelectric effect” — a phenomenon central to the generation of electricity through solar cells. Einstein successfully demonstrated the photoelectric effect showing that light comes in a tiny discreet unit called photon. Without the creative work of Albert Einstein, the physical characteristics of sunlight might not be known. It is Albert Einstein's discovery, called the photoelectric effect that makes solar electric energy possible. Solar electric systems, popularly known as photovoltaic or PV systems are reliable and pollution-free. Photovoltaic (PV) systems convert sunlight directly to electricity. They work any time the sun is shining, but more electricity is produced when the sunlight is more intense. Unlike solar thermal systems for heating water, PV does not use the sun's heat to make electricity. Instead, electrons freed by the interaction of sunlight with semiconductor materials in PV cells are captured in an electric current. To make the best use of your PV system, the PV modules must have a clear “view” of the sun for most or all of the day—unobstructed by trees, roof, chimneys, buildings, and other features of your home and the surrounding landscape. Some potential sites for your PV system may be bright and sunny during certain times of the day, but shaded during other times. Such shading may substantially reduce the amount of electricity.


World leaders in Photovoltaic System: You might have already guessed, Germany and Japan were early adopters of photovoltaic on a mass scale. In terms of installed capacity Germany, had 5.3 Giga Watts installed at the end of 2008, including a previous record 1.6 GW added in 2008. That was about a third of the world's total of 15 GW, even though it has only quarter as many sunny days as countries such as India. Selecting a PV Provider: It’s important that you must not compromise on quality. There are lots of cheap variants available in the market. However make sure that you do not compromise on quality and buy PV modules that generate more electricity per square foot than others. Price Bids should clearly state the maximum generating capacity of the system (measured in watts or kilowatts). Solar Thermal application for free hot water: How would you like this idea to have free hot water for the next 30 years? That should sound pretty good — about 25 percent to 35 percent of a typical household’s energy spending goes to make sure the “H” tap means what it says. Based on today’s energy prices, the average family would save thousands of rupees over the coming decades by installing a solar water-heating system. You’ll also pay reduced utility bills — saving more money every time tariffs rise. Experts agree, a solar water heater is far and away the easiest initial investment in renewable energy. Perhaps best of all, you’ll enjoy hot baths or showers with the satisfaction of knowing the energy come directly from the sun. Solar water heaters vary in their details, but they all do the same basic things: gather heat in a solar collector; transfer the heat, directly or indirectly, to the water supply; and store the heated water until it’s used. Solar water heaters can last 30 years or more if the design is appropriate to the water quality and the system incorporates high-quality materials and workmanship such as the ones made by German manufacturers. Let’s be Proactive - Capture your “Green Energy” from the Sun: In India, the sun is worshipped as a god. Why do we turn down sun’s abundant blessings? India has about 300 clear, sunny days in a year, and that natural resource could, theoretically, produce 7,000 trillion kilowatt hours of power per year. But India's sun resource is grossly underutilized, mainly due to a total lack of policy initiatives, cheap imports from China which don’t fulfill our social and corporate responsibility means, among other things, that we have to take environmental protection seriously, foster human health and help conserve natural resources.

Vinayak Energy Consultant Suntechnics


“A gallon of bottled water can cost you up to $10, which is more than twice the cost of gasoline.’’



Are Plastic Water Bottles Bad for Your Health, Really?

An Urgent Warning! Why do we drink so much bottled water? Because of an illusion that it is somehow safer, more pure or more convenient than the water we can get at home. In reality, as many consumer and environmental groups are now pointing out, bottled water is not a good choice for your health or the environment. Bottled water is drinking water packaged in plastic or glass containers. The dominant form is water packaged in new Polyethylene Terephthalate(PET) bottles and sold retail. Another method of packaging is in larger high-density polyethylene plastic bottles, or polycarbonate plastic bottles, often used with coolers.


“ In the first study of its kind, researchers determined just how much BPA you absorb when you drink bottled water.’’

India is the tenth largest bottled water consumer in the world. In 2002, the industry had an estimated turnover of Rs.10 billion (Rs.1,000 crores). Today it is one of India's fastest growing industrial sectors. Between 1999 and 2004, the Indian bottled water market grew at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 25 per cent - the highest in the world. The total annual bottled water consumption in India had tripled to 5 billion liters in 2004 from 1.5 billion liters in 1999. Global consumption of bottled water was nearing 200 billion liters in 2006.

By purchasing bottled water, you’re indirectly raising the price of gasoline and contributing to Global Warming and climate change. In 2007, the manufacturers of plastic water bottles generated more than 2.5 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions and required the equivalent of more than 17 million barrels of oil, according to the Pacific Institute. Americans drank more than 30 billion single-serving bottles of water last year. Yet the vast majority of us have an unlimited source of clean, EPA-regulated tap water flowing from our faucets.



Plastic water bottles have come under scrutiny in recent years for both their environmental and health effects, including those surrounding the chemical bisphenolA (BPA).

Making the plastic for the bottles, requires 47 million gallons of oil annually. And that doesn’t include the jet fuel and gasoline required to transport the bottles— sometimes halfway around the world!



Wasted material The major criticism of bottled water concerns the bottles themselves. Individual use bottled water is generally packaged in Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET). Tap water is a local product that needs no packaging. Globally, bottled water accounts for as many as 1.5 million tons of plastic waste annually, according to the Sierra Club. In addition, billions of bottles end up in the ground every year. Sadly, only 20% ever get recycled, according to the Container Recycling Institute. The other 80% besides landfills, many bottles end up in oceans, posing a risk to marine life.

The majority of the bottling plants are dependent on groundwater. They create huge water stress in the areas where they operate because groundwater is also the main source - in most places the only source - of drinking water in India. This has created huge conflict between the community and the bottling plants. Private companies in India siphon out, exhaust and export groundwater free because the groundwater law in the country is not in tune with the realities of modern capitalist societies.


“ Make sure any plastic bottle you give to your baby is BPA-free.’’

The existing law says that "the person who owns the land owns the groundwater beneath". This means that, theoretically, a person can buy one square metre of land and take all the groundwater of the surrounding areas and the law of land cannot object to it. This law is the core of the con. flict between the community and the companies and the major reason for making the business of bottled water in the country highly lucrative.

While tap water is not allowed to contain any E. coli or fecal coliform, for instance, bottled water is allowed some contamination. The Sierra Club in US reports that the National Resources Defense Council (NRDC) tested 103 brands of bottled water and found contamination exceeding allowable limits in about one-third of the brands, including toxins such as arsenic, synthetic organics and bacteria.

For instance the case of Coca-Cola's bottling plant in drought-prone Kala Dera near Jaipur. Coca-Cola gets its water free except for a tiny cess (for discharging the wastewater) it pays to the State Pollution Control Board - a little over Rs.5,000 a year during 2000-02 and Rs.24,246 in 2003. It extracts half a million litres of water every day - at a cost of 14 paise per 1,000 litres. So, Rs.10 per litre Kinley water has a raw material cost of just 0.02-0.03 paise. (It takes about two to three litres of groundwater to make one litre of bottled water.) India's Ministry of Water Resources has ranked 80% of ground water resources in Rajasthan as "over- exploited" and nearly 34% resources as "dark/ critical", the gravest ranking across the country.

Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a chemical widely used to manufacture plastic water bottles. The chemical is capable of leaching from the plastic into the water you drink, and it's known that both heat and age increase the leaching of chemicals from the plastic. Why is this concerning? BPA can leach out of plastic during everyday use, causing health problems, is hardly news. It’s now widely known that BPA mimics the female hormone estrogen and may affect fertility and promote cancer. And just last year it came out that BPA may also lead to heart disease, diabetes and liver problems. Which leads one to wonder, just how much BPA are we exposed to when drinking from a plastic bottle? And how great are the health risks, really?

H EALTH E FFECTS What are you really Drinking When You Drink Bottled Water? Ironically, while many people think bottled water is safer than tap water, drinking bottled water may pose a risk to your health. To start, bottled water is regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which has weaker regulations than the Environmental Protection Agency requires for tap water.

Well, a new study from the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) found out that drinking cold liquid from polycarbonate bottles for just one week increased urinary BPA levels by more than two-thirds. If you heat those bottles, as is the case with baby bottles, we would expect the levels to be considerably higher. This would be of concern since infants may be particularly susceptible to BPA's endo

crine-disrupting potential," said Karin B. Michels, associate professor of epidemiology at HSPH and Harvard Medical School and senior author of the study. Why You Do Not Want to Drink Out of BPA-Containing Plastic Bottles Chronic exposure to very low levels of BPA, such as might occur when drinking bottled water, is potentially very harmful. "An expert panel of scientists has concluded that exposure to extremely low doses of bisphenol-A is strongly linked to diseases such as breast cancer, prostate cancer, and diabetes, and to reproductive and neurological development," the Sierra Club reported. BPA is so widely used that it may be nearly impossible to avoid exposure entirely; however you can greatly reduce your exposure by avoiding BPA-containing products as much as possible, including one of the biggest BPA predators: plastic water bottles. Plastic containing BPA may be called:

• • •

Polycarbonate Lexan

Polysulfone Though it is generally clear, it can be tinted in various colors. Plastic that contains BPA carries the #7 recycling symbol, as well, so never use those bottles. Next time you buy a Bottled water just give a second thought to it!

Vandana Mohanty Industrial Biotechnologist NNCTS


Wealthy Health in Naturally Rich Flora


NNCTS “ Health Is Health ”

Success in life depends a whole lot on planning and goal-setting. Health is no exception. They say, “Health is Wealth”, which is in fact practically true. But the reverse is not true at all. We cannot enjoy our wealth, unless we have a sound health to do so. At the time of the creation of the World Health Organization (WHO), in 1948, health was defined as being “a state of complete physical, mental and social well – being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”. To attain the maximum health the modern civilization doesn’t allows. To change the circumstances and to attain the health food supplement plays an important vital role. Today in this modern society there is a rapid increase in health related problems such as Diabetes, Cardiovascular disease, Blood pressure, Blood cholesterol etc. To safe guard from this health related problems and to lead a sophiscated life food supplement is the best way. So keeping this in mind some of unique blend has been formulated by using the traditional herb with high technology. The following are some of the products with unique formulation to maintain the health through natural support. TOTAL ANTIOXIDANT BLEND: A unique blend with combination of antioxidant is formulated which claims high potent combination of antioxidant work as “Free radicals scavenger” and helps in the prevention of free radical formation. This combination contains proanthocyanin, lycopene, phytosterols, curcumin, lutein and biopiperine Proanthocyanin (Grape Seed): “Superb Antioxidants” which has anti-aging benefits also helps to boosts immune system, lower cholesterol and protects from arteriosclerosis, enhances connective tissue health, reduces inflammation & edema, and lowers the risk of cancer, stroke, and heart diseases. Lycopene (Tomoto): Lycopene is an extremely powerful carotenoid antioxidant which may be beneficial for Breast & Ovarian cancer, Cardiovascular disease, Gingivitis, BP, Reduce LDL(bad) and increase HDL (good) cholesterol, Ovarian cancer, that it may help to reduce the risk of skin cancer. Phytosterols (Colour Pigments): Phytosterols are naturally occurring colour pigments within plants may help to control cholesterol levels and also boost immune system. Curcumin (Turmeric): Curcumin contains polyphenols and curcuminoids that have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-amyloid properties. Lutein (Carrot): Lutein, combined with other antioxidants, may help slow down the progression of macular degeneration. So lutein is added for enrichment of total antioxidant supplement. Biopiperine: Biopiperine is added to enhance the absorption of antioxidant in the body. These antioxidant were combined together to increase the antioxidant activity which is helpful to scavenge the free radicals easily.


BOSWELLIA AND SPIRULINA: Next enriched formulation with boswellia and spirulina for arthritis. To Enrich boswellia, spirulina has been added; when Boswellia is combined with Spirulina it gives nutrition for all health requirements. Boswellia serrata (Ayuvedic herb): Boswellin (Boswellia Serrata) is an ayurvedic herb that has been traditionally used in India in folk medicine as a remedy for several inflammatory diseases, such as arthritis and bursitis. Boswellia contains anti-inflammatory triterpenoids called boswellic acids has a beneficial effect by suppressing the growth of the inflamed tissue, as well as preventing the breakdown of the surrounding connective tissue which is effective against arthritis. Spirulina (Blue Green Algae): Spirulina is called a super food because its nutrient content is more potent than any other food. Many of the essential nutrients needed by our bodies are concentrated in spirulina. It is comprised of at least 60% all-vegetable protein, essential vitamins and phytonutrients such as the rare essential fatty acid GLA, sulfolipids, glycolipids and polysaccharides. This combination is effective for respiratory disorders, Stimulates the functions of lungs, Effective against respiratory infections, pollution related allergies, cold, bronchitis, asthma etc., Enhances the Immune System, Healthy support for people suffering from Osteoarthritic conditions. HERBAL BLEND FOR DIABETES: From ancient days onwards herbal therapy is been said to be effective towards diabetes condition, so due to the modernization chemical therapy has been adapted to treat the diabetes which damage the total system of the body. The herbal combination to maintain Blood sugar level enriched with antioxidant is Fenugreek extract, Gymnema Sylvestre extract, Banaba Extract, CoQ10, Chromium Polynicolinate which gives herbal support to the body. Fenugreek extract (Saponins): Fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum) have high content of soluble fiber, which acts to decrease the rate of gastric emptying thereby delaying the absorption of glucose from the small intestine and reduce the blood glucose level in the blood. Research further suggests that fenugreek has a lowering effect on plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Gymnema sylvestre (Glymnemic acid): Gymnema sylvestre is an herb that has a long history of use in India for controlling diabetes. It has an antisacharogenic property which suppresses the taste of sugar and control diabetes and gives nutritional support to pancreas. Lagerstroemia speciosa (Banaba Extract): Corosolic acid from the banaba extract has “insulin like principle” which has an ability to reduce blood sugar level. Co Enzyme Q10: Provides antioxidant support to pancreas Co Enzyme Q10 naturally occurs in every cell of the body,with alternate name udiquinone coming from the word ubiquitous meaning ‘found everywhere.’ Chromium Polynicotinate(Natural Chromium): Chromium give mineral support and helps in the secretion of healthy insulin from pancreas. This combination is effective to strengthen the pancreas and helps to maintain blood glucose level, Blood pressure and blood cholesterol level. COMBINATION TO MAINTAIN CHOLESTEROL: The other combination to maintain cholesterol is Mangosteen extract with policosonal. Scientific research says Policosonal reduce cholesterol and mangosteen extract is added to enrich the formulation. Policosonal (Octacosanol): Policosanol is a natural mixture of long-chain fatty alcohols derived from the waxy protective coating on sugar cane (Saccharum officinarium). Sugarcane wax is a common commercial source. The components of policosanol include 1octacosanol, 1-dotriacontanol, 1-tetracosanol, 1-tetratri-contanol, 1-hexacosanol, 1-hepatacosanol and 1-nonacosanol. This mixture of alcohols is clinically proven to be effective in maintaining normal cholesterol levels. Preclinical and clinical studies published in scientific literature reveal that Policosanol beneficially influences cholesterol metabolism (Gouni-Berthold, 2002; Menindez, 1994; Menindez, 1996). Mangosteen (Xanthones): The primary active components of the mangosteen fruit are called xanthones. Xanthones are a recently discovered class of polyphenolic compounds that are biologically active and structurally similar to bioflavanoids. Two hundred naturally occurring xanthones have so far been identified. Around forty of them have been discovered in the mangosteen fruit. It has several benefits, including anti-inflammatory properties, anti-allergic, and anti-convulsant abilities. This combination helps to Protects cardiovascular system and enhances the function of heart, Helps to reduce LDL (Low Density Lipoprotien) cholesterol (Bad cholesterol) and increase HDL (High Density Lipoprotien) Cholesterol (Good cholesterol).


Theopolyphenol: Teapolyphenol is a special antioxidant which is enriched in asparose to increase the blood circulation which acts as antioxidant that prevent free radicals from causing damage to the body. This combination provides strength and stamina to the women and helps to maintain menstrual cycle. It also acts as an antioxidant and anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory properties. FRUIT FIBER MIX The unique formulation of fruit fiber is to cleanse the body with fruits. Amla Fiber: Amla can help prevent free radicals, fight cancer and reduce inflammations caused by various conditions, but it can do so much more. Its high fiber content regulate bowel movements and easing constipation and preventing cataracts in diabetic patients by blocking aldose -reductase, which contributes to the onset of cataracts in diabetic patients. Amla also can be helpful in relieving stress. Bael Fiber: The Bael fiber is good for digestion. It is useful in preventing or curing scurvy. It also strengthens the stomach and promotes its action. Lactobacillus Sporogenes: FRUIT FIBER is added with probiotic for the proper absorption, it improves nutrient bioavailability, for B vitamins, calcium, iron, zinc, copper, magnesium and phosphorus. It regulates the bowel movements and promotes the growth of healthy bacteria in the colon and reduce the conversion of bile into carcinogens (cancer-causing substances). This combination is effective towards helps to relieve constipation, Provide intestinal health, Cleans the intestinal tract, Helps to heal the ulcerative intestine, Helps to reduce cholesterol in the body, Helps to maintain the Blood glucose level. These formulations are effective towards the most commonly occurring health related problems. Good nutrition, however may make a sufficient difference to provide the “Competitive Edge�. With food supplements the good nutrition is provided to maintain good health. taking this as a vision Oriens Biocare a leading research-based nutraceutical company in India has been formulated a unique blends of food supplements. These unique formulations have been applied for patent which have been focally formulated to give an absolute health for the mankind.

Sasikala Head Research & Development Oriens




Human factors are a major component of the causes of accidents in the workplace. Estimates of the actual extent of the involvement vary markedly, but a study in the early 1980s of the causes of all work-related fatalities occurring over three years revealed that behavioural factors were involved in fatal accidents across the world. In view of data like these, it is important to have an understanding of the role of human factors in accidents. Traditional models of accident causation placed superficial emphasis on human factors. Where human factors were included, they were depicted as linked to error occurring in the immediate sequence of events leading to the accident. A better understanding of how, why and when human factors become involved in accidents enhances our ability to make predictions about the role of human factors and helps to prevent accidents. A number of models have been put forward that attempt to describe the part that human factors play in accidents. Accident Causation Models Recent models have extended the role of human factors beyond the immediate causal events leading to the accident. Models now tend to include additional factors in the wider circumstances of the accident. Figure below shows details of such an approach: For example, human factors, such as work practices and supervision, can be included both as error in the event sequence leading immediately to the accident and as preexisting human factors contributing to the accident event sequence. The two main components (contributing factors and event sequences) of this human factors model should be envisaged as occurring on a notional time line on which the order-contributing factors followed by a sequence of errors-is fixed, but the time base on which they occur is not. Both of these components are essential parts of accident causation. MODEL OF ACCIDENT CAUSATION











Timing (Order of Events)


The Nature of Error An essential component of accident prevention, therefore, is gaining an understanding of the nature, timing and causes of error. One of the important and unique characteristics of error, distinguishing it from other factors involved in accidents, is that error is a normal part of behaviour. Error plays a fundamental role in learning new skills and behaviours and in maintaining those behaviours. Through testing the boundaries of interactions with the environment, and consequently making errors, humans learn just what the boundaries are. This is essential not only for learning a new skill but also for updating and maintaining ones they have already learned. The degree to which humans test the boundaries of their skills is related to the level of risk that they are prepared to accept. It seems that errors are a constant feature of all behaviour. Studies show also that they occur in the causes of approximately two-thirds of work-related fatal accidents. It is essential therefore to develop some ideas about the form they are likely to take, and when and why they might occur. While there are many aspects of human error that are not yet understood, our current level of understanding allows some predictions to be made about error types. Knowledge of these types of error will, it is to be hoped, guide our efforts to prevent error or at least to modify the adverse consequences of error. One of the most important features of the nature of error is that it is not a unitary phenomenon. Even though traditional accident analysis often treats error as if it were a singular entity which cannot be dissected further, there are a number of ways that errors can occur. Errors differ depending on the informationprocessing function being challenged. For example, errors can take the form of false sensations due to poor or degraded stimulation of the sensory organs, attentional failures due to the demands of prolonged or very complex stimulation from the environment, various types of memory lapses, errors of judgement and reasoning errors. All of these types of errors are distinguishable in terms of the context or task characteristics in which they occur. They signify breakdown in different information-processing functions and consequently would require different approaches to overcoming each of them. Different types of error can also be distinguished with respect to skilled and unskilled behaviour. Training is often said to be a solution to problems of human error since skilled behaviour means that the required sequence of actions can be performed without conscious, constant attention and feedback, requiring only intermittent conscious checking to ensure that the behaviour is on track. The advantages of skilled behaviour are that once triggered, it requires little effort from the operator. It allows other activities to be undertaken at the same time (for instance, one can drive an automobile and talk at the same time) and allows the operator to plan for future aspects of the task. Furthermore, skilled behaviour is usually predictable. Unfortunately, while greater skill reduces the likelihood of many types of error, it increases the likelihood of others. Errors during skilled behaviour occur as absent-minded or unintended actions or lapses and are distinct from the mistakes which occur during unskilled behaviour. Skill-based errors tend to be associated with switching in the nature of attentional control of the task. They can occur during the conscious checking mode or they may be due to conclusion of similar patterns of skilled behaviour. A second characteristic of errors is that they are not novel or random. Error forms are limited. They take similar forms in all types of functions. For example, “place losing� errors occur in speech and perceptual tasks as well as in knowledge-related or problem-solving tasks. Similarly, the timing and location of error in the accident causation sequence does not appear to be random.


An important characteristic of information processing is that it is expressed in the same way regardless of the setting. This means that the error forms that occur in everyday life in the kitchen, for example, occur in the same manner in the most high-risk industries. The consequences of these errors, however, are very different and are determined by the setting in which the error occurs, rather than by the nature of the error itself.

Models of Human Error In the categorization of error and the development of models of human error, it is important to take all aspects of error into account to the extent possible. The resulting categorization, however, needs to be usable in practice. This is possibly the biggest constraint. What can be done in developing a theory of accident causation can be very difficult to apply in practice. In attempting to analyse the causes of an accident, or to predict the role of human factors in a process, it is not possible to understand all aspects of human information processing which contributed or might contribute. It may never be possible, for example, to know the role of intention before an accident occurred. Even afterwards, the very fact that the accident had occurred can change a person’s recall of the events surrounding it. The error categorizations that have been most successful to date therefore focus on the nature of the behaviour that was performed at the time the error occurred. This allows error analysis to be relatively objective and as reproducible as possible. These categorizations of error distinguish between those occurring during skilled behaviour (slips, lapses or unintended acts) and those occurring during unskilled or problem-solving behaviour (mistakes). Slips or skill-based errors are defined as unintended errors occurring when the behaviour is a highly practiced routine or automatic in nature. Mistakes have been further categorized into two types: • Rule-based errors, which occur when the behaviour requires the application of rules • Knowledge-based errors, which occur during problem solving when the person has no skill or rule to apply. This means that knowledge-based errors occur through lack of expertise, rule-based errors through the failure to apply the expertise appropriately, and skill-based errors through a disruption of the execution of the programme of actions, usually due to changes in attentional level. Application of these categories in a population study of work-related fatal accidents showed that they could be used reliably. The results showed that skill-based errors occurred most frequently overall and that occurrences of the three error types were distributed differently across the event sequence. Skill-based errors, for example, occurred most commonly as the last event immediately before the accident (79% of fatalities). Since, at this point, there is little time for recovery, their consequences may be more severe. Mistakes, on the other hand, appear to be distributed earlier in the accident sequence.

The Role of Human Factors in Accidents and Accident Prevention In acknowledging the potential aetiological significance of the wider circumstances surrounding the accident, the model best describing accident causation has to take into account the relative timing of elements and how they relate to each other.


First, causal factors vary in terms of their causal importance, and also in terms of their temporal importance. Furthermore, these two dimensions can vary independently; that is, causes can be important because they occur very close in time to the accident and therefore they reveal something about the time of the accident, or they can be important because they are a prime cause underlying the accident, or both. By examining both the temporal and causal importance of factors involved in the wider circumstances as well as the immediate circumstances of the accident, analysis focuses on why the accident happened, rather than just describing how it happened. Second, accidents are generally agreed to be multicausal. Human, technical and environmental components in the work system can interact in critical ways. Traditionally, accident analysis frameworks have been limited in terms of the range of categories defined. This, in turn, limits the nature of the information obtained and so limits the range of options highlighted for preventive action. When the wider circumstances of the accident are taken into consideration, the model has to deal with an even more extensive range of factors. Human factors are likely to interact with other human factors and also with non-human factors. The patterns of occurrences, co-occurrences and inter-relationships of the wide range of possible different elements within the causal network provides the most complete and therefore most informative picture of accident genesis. Third, these two considerations, the nature of the event and the nature of its contribution to the accident, interact. Although multiple causes are always present, they are not equivalent in role. Accurate knowledge of the role of factors is the essential key to understanding why an accident happens and how to prevent it from recurring. For example, immediate environmental causes of accidents may have their impact because of earlier behavioural factors in the form of standard operating procedures. Similarly, pre-existing aspects of work systems may provide the context in which routine errors committed during skill-based behaviour can precipitate an accident with harmful consequences. Normally these routine errors would have benign consequences. Effective prevention would be best served if it were targeted towards the latent underlying causes, rather than the immediately precipitating factors. This level of understanding of the causal network and how it influences outcome is possible only if all types of factors are included for consideration, their relative timing is examined and their relative importance is determined. Despite the potential for an almost infinite variety in the ways that human action can directly contribute to accidents, relatively few patterns of causal pathways account for the majority of accident causation. In particular, the range of underlying latent conditions which set the scene for later human and other factors to have their effect are limited predominantly to a small number of aspects of work systems.

Seshadri. V.K Head – Occupational health & safety Nokia India Pvt., Ltd.,


The updates in the EHS legal requirements since 2009


I. Ministry of Environment & Forest and Central Pollution Control Board Updates. a) Notification •

The E-waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 2008.

The Air (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1981-New National Ambient Air Quality Standards.

Environmental (Protection) Amendment Rules 2009 on Emission Standards related to Refractory Industry.

New Emission & Effluent Standards for Incinerators Installed In Pharmaceuticals (Bulk Drugs) Industry.

New Effluent Standards for Manufacturing & Formulation Process in Pharmaceuticals Industry.

The Noise Pollution (Regulation & Control)(Amendment) Rules-2010.

B) Draft Notification •

The Plastics (Manufacture, Usage and Waste Management) Rule, 2009.

Hazardous Waste (Management, Handling & Transboundary Movement) Rules 2008, amendment 2009. Regarding Procedure for Grant of Registration For Recycling/Reprocessing Of Hazardous Waste From SPCB.

Draft of the National Hazardous Waste Management Strategy Released On 26th March 2009.

Draft Notification on Declaration of Nine Eco-Sensitive Zones in the State Of Haryana.

II. Petroleum and Explosives Safety Organization Updates •

The Explosives (Amendment) Rules, 2009 –On Colour Matches.

Draft Gas Cylinder (Amendment) Rule, 2009- On HYTHANE.

Nagesh Kumar C. B.E ( Env Engg),PGDMWIT,DIS EHS Chief Consultant NNCPL


Technology Development and Transfer in India


India on 22nd Oct 2009 hosted the high level conference on technology development and transfer, it was preceded by more than 30 countries including China, Japan, Germany and small emitters of carbon like Maldives, Sudan, Pakistan and others. Mr. Sha Zukang Under- Secretary – General from United Nations for Economic and Social affairs to the Delhi conference stated the need of the hour is low-emissions technologies and technologies for adaptation within the reach of poor countries, and poor communities, without further delay. International technology cooperation and knowledge sharing can ensure that mature technologies – like those for energy efficiency – are widely adopted. President of Maldives in his address during this conference on climate change reported Maldives as a front line state to fight against climate change with his country being submerged 1.5 m into sea causing a shear danger for its existence itself. He explained that Maldivians have lived in their islands for over 2,000 years; they don’t want to trade paradise for an environmental refugee camp.

NNCTS takes in its zeal to play the role our country has initiated in technology development and transfer towards sustainable solutions to developmental needs of the society and industries. The focal journey of SFO continues in all the zones, walks and opportunities we get, making it a unique foot print.

-Keerthi D’souza

This magazine is published by

Acknowledgements We would like to foremost acknowledge the contribution of all the respondents, we express thanks to the people who shared their ideas with us and gave us their time and comments. we would like to ac-

Nathan & Nathan Centre for Technology Services

knowledge and extend our heartfelt gratitude to the Team of NNCPL & NNCTS . Once again we would like to thank everyone who either directly or indirectly provided help in the creation of this magazine, or whose information and images were used with or without permission. All images & information are the direct property of the publication from which they were obtained from, and all copyright laws should be observed.

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