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Kentucky Education Association Guide to Effective Teaching


INTRODUCTION Becoming a teacher is a journey that expands way beyond the four walls of a college classroom. Teacher preparation programs are limited in how much knowledge they can communicate to preservice candidates in a typical four-year program. This guide is meant to be a supplement to what you are learning in your teacher preparation programs. The field of education is continually evolving. New teacher candidates are expected to know about “hot topics� such as curriculum alignment, differentiation, and professional

ethics. Because the job market for teachers is so crowded, knowing only what is covered in your education classes could place you at a disadvantage. Use this guide to introduce yourself or your peers to topics and trends that are essential to becoming an effective teacher. As you read through the guide, please feel free to visit the accompanying links, do your own research, or ask your friends at KEA for more information. Becoming an effective teacher is a responsibility not just to ourselves but to the students we teach.

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Why do we need educational standards End of Course Exams Learning Targets Differentiated Instruction Special Education Response to Intervention

My Classroom Classroom Technology Accountability Using Data To Design Instruction Continuous Instructional Improvement System (CIITS) Classroom Assessments Graduate School and Beyond National Board Certification

5 6 7 8 9 10

13 14 15 16 17 18 19

My School Confidentiality FRYSC Program Reviews School Climate/School Culture Budgets TELL Kentucky

21 22 23 24 25 26

My Profession The Professional Code of Ethics Professional Growth Plans Professional Development Standards Family-School-Community Partnerships Membership/Leadership in Professional Organizations ‘Dos’ and ‘Do Nots’ for Social Networking Alphabet Soup

Kentucky Education Association Guide to Effective Teaching

28 29 30 31 32 33 35


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WHY DO WE NEED EDUCATIONAL STANDARDS? “We need standards to providing our young people ensure that all students, with a high-quality education no matter where they live, that will prepare them for are prepared for success in success in college and work. Of postsecondary education course, standards are not the and the workforce. Common only thing that is needed for standards will help ensure that our children’s success, but they students are receiving a high provide an accessible road map quality education consistently, for our teachers, parents, and from school to school and state students.” to state. Common standards will provide a greater opportunity to share experiences and best practices within and across states that will improve our ability to best serve the “Teachers who needs of students. Standards do not tell truly understand what teachers how to teach, they want their students but they do help teachers to accomplish will figure out the knowledge almost surely be more and skills their students should have so that teachers instructionally successful can build the best lessons than teachers whose and environments for their understanding of hoped-for classrooms. Standards also help students and student accomplishments parents by setting clear and are murky.” realistic goals for success. -W. James Popham Standards are a first step – a key building block – in


• • documents+and+resources/common+core+standards+resources Kentucky Education Association Guide to Effective Teaching


END OF COURSE EXAMS “The state of Kentucky is focused on making college and career readiness a reality for every Kentucky student. With this focus, Senate Bill 1 (SB 1) was enacted in 2009. This legislation allowed, with approval by the Kentucky Board of Education, an end-of-course (EOC) assessment program at the high school level. The EOC assessments are part of Kentucky’s Unbridled Learning: College/Career Readiness for All work related to SB 1.” kentucky

Kentucky high schools currently give End of Course exams in the following courses: • English 10 • Algebra II • Biology • U.S. History


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LEARNING TARGETS “Walk into many classrooms around the country and more often than not children can tell you about a completed task, rather than about the actual learning. Research indicates that significant gains in learning are realized for students who are first given their learning goals (Black, & William, 1998). In working with teachers to effectively implement formative assessment, we have often found the metaphor of a road map helpful. A traveler would not start out on a trip and say, “I might go to California or I might go to Florida.” Rather, they begin with a destination in mind. Similarly, in your classroom, you must know your students’ learning destination or “learning target” before you begin teaching. To continue the metaphor of traveling to learning, if your destination is California, that is your deep understanding or targeted learning goal. You determine the route, account for detours and stops along the way to scaffold for student understanding. Ineffective teachers use activities that loosely align with the standards, but lack a coherent plan. In a sense, they are traveling around America without any clear understanding of a destination. The effective teacher shelves the loose activities and determines the road map of learning, using resources to support the intended learning destination. The first step in creating a road map to guide learning is to examine relevant Standards in your unit of study for connections between skills. These connections serve as the building blocks for scaffolded learning targets. Once a logical progression is determined, carefully construct student friendly learning targets. (Stiggins, Arter, Chappius, & Chappius, 2004)”


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DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION “The idea of differentiating instruction to accommodate the different ways that students learn involves a hefty dose of common sense, as well as sturdy support in the theory and research of education. It is an approach to teaching that advocates active planning for student differences in classrooms.” (Tomlinson & Allan, 2000)

“Students learn at different rates and in different ways. Technology supports instructional strategies by creating new routes to learning and addressing multiple learning needs. Differentiate instruction by using the wealth of digital resources that will challenge and engage all multiple intelligences and learning styles.”(Summit)


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SPECIAL EDUCATION “Special Needs” is an umbrella underneath which a staggering array of diagnoses can be wedged. Children with special needs may have mild learning disabilities or profound cognitive impairment; food allergies or terminal illness; developmental delays that catch up quickly or remain entrenched; occasional panic attacks or serious psychiatric problems.” (Mauro, 2012) Public school teachers deal with students everyday with a range of “abilities”. Often, the most frustrating challenge for new teachers is how to address all those needs on top of regular teaching responsibilities.

These resources offer modifications to incorporate in your curriculum for students with special needs. Adjustments in classroom environment, curriculum planning, and assessment, will help you accommodate and challenge each member of your class.


• exceptional+children/ • Education_Programs_for_Learning_Disabilities_in_Public_Schools.htm • • • {Apps for Special Needs Students} Kentucky Education Association Guide to Effective Teaching


RESPONSE TO INTERVENTION (RTI) Response to intervention (RTI) is a new element in our nation’s special education law. It is a process that schools use to help children who are struggling academically and/ or behaviorally. RTI suggests the possibility that a child’s struggles may be due to inadequacies in instruction or in the curriculum either in used at the moment or in the child’s past. RTI is both a strategy for intervening early within the

general education class and one part a process by which students may be identified to receive special education and related services within all public schools in the United States, “RTI is a model of providing early interventions: One that efficiently and flexibly delivers educational assistance to atrisk learners to close skill or performance gaps with peers. It is an integrated approach that includes general, remedial and special education. Based on a leveled model, it monitors student’s individual and group progress with different levels of intervention intensity. It speaks to providing scientifically-based interventions and using this information to determine if more and different interventions are needed.” (rtisolutions, 2012)

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Kentucky Education Association Guide to Effective Teaching


CLASSROOM TECHNOLOGY Because technology is becoming increasingly integrated into our daily lives, our classrooms must include technology at every appropriate opportunity. Technology not only provides new ways to present content, but also provides new (and easier) way to engage, assess, and differentiate instruction for all of our students. Effective technology integration is used to deepen and enhance the learning process. When implementing technology in the classroom, one should consider if the technology promotes active engagement, fostering interpersonal relationships, frequent interaction and feedback,

and connection to real-world experiences. Effective technology integration is achieved when the use of technology is routine and transparent and when technology supports curricular goals. Technology is also important to teachers in order to ease the high volume of record keeping associated with the job. Keeping professional records, student data, and creating professional resources are all made more manageable by many innovative technological products. Explore, examine, and evaluate products that best suits the need; then most importantly share with others!

USING DATA TO DESIGN INSTRUCTION A core tenet of quality instruction is to design instruction with a deep knowledge of your students’ needs. To do this effectively, educators should gather and analyze both qualitative and quantitative data to design quality lessons and assignments. In the classroom, data is the key to measuring comprehension and establishing learning targets. Data comes in all shapes and sizes, including: • Student achievement data such as standardized test scores, formative and summative assessment results, observational notes, and student work; • Student behavioral data,

including attendance rates, discipline reports, physical and emotional supports; and • Contextual factors such as family demographics, local economic data, cultural background, and other socioeconomic factors that may impact student learning. Teachers should analyze data before, during, and after implementing instruction. For example, many districts use an online assessment tool to assess, organize, and disaggregate data. Teachers use this data throughout the year to focus their resources and time to areas with the largest need of improvement.


• Information on Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) testing • ACT/Quality Core Information • Kentucky Department of Education 12 Kentucky Education Association Guide to Effective Teaching

ACCOUNTABILITY School Accountability refers to the model used to determine the relative success of a school. When evaluating the performance of schools, a variety of factors such as standardized test scores, learning growth, and college/ career readiness are analyzed to determine if the school as exemplary, adequate, or in need of assistance. If a school is deemed unsatisfactory, then

you, your colleagues, and your administration may be held liable. Many accountability models across the nation have been criticized for not considering the complexities of school success. Kentucky has made great progress in accountability by adopting a new model to measure school progress.

Kentucky’s Model for Accountability ³³ Achievement (content areas are reading, mathematics, science, social studies and writing) ³³ Gap (percentage of proficient and distinguished for the Non-Duplicated Gap Group for all five content areas) ³³ Growth in reading and mathematics (percentage of students at typical or higher levels of growth) ³³ College Readiness as measured by the percentage of students meeting benchmarks in three content areas on EXPLORE at middle school ³³ College/Career-Readiness Rate as measured by ACT benchmarks, college placement tests and career measures Graduation Rate

Kentucky’s Accountability System Testing+and+Reporting+/Kentucky+School+Testing+System/ Accountability+System/ Kentucky Education Association Guide to Effective Teaching


CONTINUOUS INSTRUCTIONAL IMPROVEMENT SYSTEM (CIITS) The Continuous Instructional Improvement Technology System (CIITS) provides Kentucky public school educators with the resources aligned to standards which support highly effective teaching and learning in every classroom in Kentucky. CIITS provides access to standards, student assessment data. The system also allows teachers to track student progress, create assessments, and find instructional resources to assist in lesson planning. The “CIITS Overview” on the Kentucky Department of Education website, says, in part: “In CIITS, teachers are able to access Kentucky academic standards and directly linked, aligned, high-quality, multi-media instructional resources. These classroom materials are designed to engage students in learning and reinforce the standards being taught. CIITS contains a lesson planning tool and scheduler to help teachers manage standardsbased instruction in their

classrooms. Teachers may also share instructional resources they design through CIITS. Teachers can create formative assessments based on particular standards with the help of a test item bank containing more than 11,000 items. When these tests are administered online or with a student response system, teachers can see at a glance how individual students are progressing toward mastery on a particular standard or concept. They see where learning gaps exist so that they can more easily design instructional experiences to meet individual student needs and adjust their instruction in support of learning – the hallmarks of formative assessment. Aggregate and student-level demographic, program and performance information in CIITS allows educators to easily see how students are progressing toward Kentucky’s goal of every student being proficient and prepared for success and graduating college/ career-ready.”

For more information on CIITS, please visit: curriculum+documents+and+resources/continuous+instructional +improvement+technology+system+(ciits)+public.htm 14 Kentucky Education Association Guide to Effective Teaching

CLASSROOM ASSESSMENTS Formative assessments are used to help the student practice their learning, and for the teacher to track their progress. They check for understanding along the way and provide data for the teacher to mold instruction. Students also can benefit from formative assessments, as they can see how to improve their performance. Formative assessments help us differentiate instruction and thus

improve student achievement. In the classroom, formative assessments should be given several times daily. Formative assessment strategies can take several minutes, such as writing a summary of a story, or just a few seconds such as posing a comprehension question linked to your objectives. Summative assessments should be given periodically to determine at specific points in instruction what students know and do not know. Summative assessments are not only with standardized tests such as state assessments, but they are also a part of regular classroom instruction. Summative assessments are a chance for the teacher to measure standardsbased learning in a qualitative, valid format.

“If assessment is, at least in part, the process of gathering information about student achievement to inform instructional decisions, then the key starting questions for any assessment are, what decisions, who’s making them, and what information will be helpful to them? “In the case of assessment FOR learning, the key question is, what comes next in the learning? The decision makers are teachers and their students. And, the information required centers on where the student is now in the progression of learning leading up to mastery of each academic achievement standard.” --Rick Stiggins, 2005 ETS/Assessment Training Institute Kentucky Education Association Guide to Effective Teaching


GRADUATE SCHOOL AND BEYOND Teacher education does not end after you finish your teacher preparation program. Educators are expected to continue their education throughout the duration of their career. In Kentucky, teachers must show evidence of this upon renewal of their teaching certificate. After a teacher has accumulated a particular amount of professional development, this can lead to a change in “rank” or pay scale. Most educators choose one or more of the following options to strengthen their knowledge of teaching and learning. • Graduate School – Many teachers complete one or more Master’s Degree programs to strengthen their knowledge of the profession, obtain an additional certification area,

advance to a higher-level position in the school system. • National Board Certification – Teachers pursue this option so that they can demonstrate their abilities to plan, evaluate, and modify their instruction to help all students. • Continuing Education Option – An alternative to graduate programs, this option allows the teacher to formulate a professional growth plan. This plan includes methods to engaging professional growth, such as mentorships, graduate courses, professional development, and collaborative relationships. An approved plan can lead to a rank change for salary purposes.

NATIONAL BOARD CERTIFICATION Becoming an effective teacher is a career-spanning journey. Teachers work throughout their careers to better understand their students, their teaching, and their profession. Much like doctors and counselors, educators pursue National Board Certification to prove that they are committed to planning and providing quality

instruction for all students. Teachers who pursue National Board Certification undergo an assessment process to demonstrate that they are an “accomplished teacher — one who is qualified to equip students with the skills to succeed in the 21st century global community.” As part of the certification process, candidates complete


• Renewal Information for Teacher Certification certification/renewal.asp • NEA Academy teacher-development.htm • National Board Certification 16 Kentucky Education Association Guide to Effective Teaching

NATIONAL BOARD CERTIFICATION (continued) assessments that are reviewed by trained teachers in their certificate areas. The assessments include four portfolio entries that feature teaching practice and six constructed response exercises that assess content knowledge. National Board Certification is obtained by achieving qualifying scores on a professional portfolio and open-ended responses. In Kentucky, National Board Certified Teachers obtain the Rank I salary scale, an additional yearly

stipend to their salaries, and have developed a set of reflective and analytical skills that are imperative to fostering student learning. KEA provides, regionally, scholarships and Jumpstart trainings to provide a layered support system for those wishing to pursue National Board certification. For more information about these opportunities please visit the KEA web site, at


• • certification-financing.htm • certification.aspx Kentucky Education Association Guide to Effective Teaching


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With graduation comes the thrill and excitement of landing that first job. Shortly after the call comes offering you that first position, you begin telling friends and family about “My School”. What do you really know about your school? Maybe the better question would be, “What should I know about my school?” Building relationships is one of the first steps in “fitting in” with your new environment. Get to know your students. Drive through the neighborhoods or back roads to see just where your students live. Arrange to meet with your mentor, resource teacher or a team member to ask all those burning questions. Put your list of questions in print so you can check them off as you find the answers. Be prepared for that first day of school. Don’t wait till the last minute to ready your classroom. Keep things which you think you might be able to use in your classroom. Don’t be afraid to ask the folks who have been working in your school for a while

for supplies, like extra bulletin board border or construction paper. Get things that you cannot function without first; the rest may have to wait. Find out what resources are available to all staff, where they are located and the procedure for checking them out. Secure copies of everything you need (curriculum maps, state standards, program reviews, school improvement plan, etc.) to provide quality instruction. Student engagement is critical for minimizing classroom misbehavior. Develop and teach your students rules and procedures for your classroom and for transitioning throughout the building. Consistency is the key to maintaining a positive school culture. Take care of yourself. Review the school and district handbook. This should give you some answers to questions such as, “What do I do if I am sick and can’t come to school?” or “What is the proper dress here?” Relax, be flexible, be patient and have a sense of humor!

Kentucky Education Association Guide to Effective Teaching


CONFIDENTIALITY When we think of “confidentiality� our thoughts run to educational records of information, especially those with special needs. 707 KAR 1:360. Confidentiality of information, establishes requirements ensuring confidentiality of information maintained by school districts regarding children with disabilities. Although this framework was adopted for special education programs, it is good common sense practice for all your students. Section 1.Access Rights. 1. A local education agency (LEA) shall permit a parent to inspect and review any education records relating to his child that are collected, maintained, or used by the LEA. 2. The right to inspect and review education records under this administrative regulation shall include: a) The right to a response from the LEA to reasonable requests for explanations and interpretations of the records; b) The right to request that the agency provide copies of the records containing the information if failure to provide those copies would effectively prevent the parent from exercising the right to inspect and review the records; and c) The right to have a representative of the parent inspect and review the records. An LEA may presume that a parent has authority to inspect and review records relating to his child unless the LEA has been advised under a court order that the parent does not have the authority. Section 2.Record of Access. An LEA shall keep a record of parties obtaining access to education records collected, maintained, or used, including: 1. The name of the party; 2. The date access was given; and The purpose for which the party is authorized to use the records. Section 3. Records on More than One Child. If any education record includes information on more than one child, the parents of those children shall have the right to inspect and review only the information relating to their child or to be informed of only that specific information. Section 4.Types and Location of Information. An LEA shall provide parents, on request, a list of the types and location of education records regarding their child with disabilities that is collected, maintained, or used by the LEA. School districts as well as individual schools may have specific information teachers are required to keep when making contact with parents. Be sure you have reviewed these and have the proper documentation on your students.

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FAMILY RESOURCE AND YOUTH SERVICE CENTERS (FRYSC) The authors of the historic Kentucky Education Reform Act of 1990 created Kentucky’s network of Family Resource and Youth Services Centers as a means of addressing the nonacademic barriers to student learning caused by the social and economic problems so many Kentucky families face. Most of the programs and services in our schools are monitored by the Kentucky Department of Education. But the Cabinet for Health and Family Services (CFHS) provides guidelines for Family Resource Centers, which serve elementary schools in Kentucky; Youth Services Centers, which serve middle and high schools; and Family Resource/Youth Services Centers, which serve elementary, middle and high schools together.

The FRYSC division of CFHS provides administrative support, technical assistance and training to these centers, all of which are local and school-based. Each center offers a unique blend of programs and services determined by the needs of the population being served; the resources available within the community; location; and other local characteristics. A school is eligible for a FRC, YSC or FRYSC if at least 20 percent of the students enrolled there are eligible for free or reduced-price school meals. In all, the centers serve 1160 schools—or approximately 98 percent of those eligible: ³³ Number of centers: 819 ³³ Number of FRCs: 420 ³³ Number of YSCs: 268 ³³ Number of FRYSCs: 131


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PROGRAM REVIEWS A Program Review is a systematic method of analyzing components of an instructional program, including instructional practices, aligned and enacted curriculum, student work samples, formative and summative assessments, professional development and support service and administrative support and monitoring KRS 158.6453(1)(i). Program reviews have been written for three areas: ³³ Arts & Humanities; ³³ Writing; and ³³ Practical Living and Career Studies.

They will serve a number of purposes, which include: improving the quality of teaching and learning for all students in all programs; allowing equal access to all students for the skills that will

assist them in being productive citizens; allowing student demonstration of understanding beyond a paper-and-pencil test; ensuring a school-wide natural integration of the program skills across all contents beyond the program areas. The review of a program should be an on-going, yearround, reflective process. Through careful review, schools will be able to identify strengths, which can be shared with other programs within the building. A careful review will also allow for the identification of weaknesses and areas for growth. The ASSIST program houses the program review information for each school. With all staff having access, they can identify their roles in supporting school programs; they can contribute to the process of evidence identification and program improvement. Program reviews will be added to the accountability formula in the 20132014 cycle. Be sure you know your schools’ policies for these areas and what documentation you may have to help the team.

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SCHOOL CLIMATE AND SCHOOL CULTURE School climate refers to the quality and character of school life. School climate is based on patterns of students’, parents’, and school personnel’s experience of school life and reflects norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching and learning practices, and organizational structures. All of these perceptions combine to help form the school culture. Attitudes and beliefs of the staff, students, parents and community are among the main elements of a positive culture. In study after study, not to mention our own personal experiences, we learn that positive relationships form the foundation for a classroom where ALL students can learn. Students and adults are able to be at their best in a setting where they are cared for, respected and appreciated. Positive relationships create an optimal learning environment, which gives your school the best possible chance for success in improving

student achievement. In Affirming Diversity, Sonia Nieto talks about “What Matters Most to Students?” The most important characteristic students look for in educators is CARING, as evidenced by: 1) The time they take in teaching their students; 2) Their patience; 3) How well they prepare their classes; 4) How they go about making classes interesting; 5) The time they take to listen to students and answer their questions 6) The time they take for extra-curricular activities; 7) Their attention to, calling on and valuing students’ language and cultural knowledge and 8) The demonstration of knowledge, willingness to learn about and comfort with other cultures. Kentucky has instituted several means to measure the school climate and culture. From a students’ Individual Learning Plan (ILP) to the TELL Kentucky survey to the upcoming student survey which will add their voice, multiple measures are being used to strengthen school culture.


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SCHOOL BUDGETS The responsibility of school budgets rests with the school council. The three main responsibilities of the council are: 1) To adopt an annual budget, monitor the budget on a monthly basis and make adjustments as needed; 2) To use all the school’s resources to help reach the goals for students. Those resources include money and also staff and staff time; 3) to write a formal request to the school board for additional money (if there is any). The money is usually referred to as Section 7 Money, because the rules for allocating it come from section 7 of the budget allocation regulation, 702 KAR 3:246. With this being said, KEA highly recommends school councils have a budget policy. KEA representatives are available to help school councils with policy development. The council needs to understand the priorities for student achievement and be committed to

using school resources to effectively address those priorities. Good communication among the council, central office finance department, principals and teachers is a key to success in effectively using school resources. The main budget areas for the council are: Staff Allocations for Certified Staff (Section 4) and Classified Staff (Section 5); Other Minimum Allocation (Section 6), this is the Main Instructional money available to the school; Remaining Funds Allocation (Section 7); Professional Development (PD) (Section 8) this is money to develop knowledge and skills to move all kids to proficiency; Extended School Services funds (for students who need additional instructional time to reach state standards); Activity Funds and Textbook Funds which have not been available in recent years due to the state budget shortfall.

For more information on district and school budgets, visit this web address: Finance+and+Funding/School+Finance

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TELL KENTUCKY SURVEY TELL Kentucky is a statewide

survey of school based educators given every other year to assess teaching conditions at the school, district and state level. Educators provide input on teaching conditions such as: time during the day for collaborative instructional planning, school and teacher leadership, facilities and resources, professional development and other supports needed for educators to do their jobs well. The main intent is to provide additional data for school and district improvements. Results are also expected to inform state level policy. A growing body of research shows the importance of positive teaching conditions to student learning as well as to teacher retention. The TELL survey is administered by the New Teacher Center and is sponsored by a coalition of partners that includes KEA and these public education stakeholder groups:

³³Kentucky Department of Education; ³³Kentucky Association of School Superintendents; ³³Kentucky School Boards Association; ³³Kentucky Association of School Administrators ³³Education Professional Standards Board; ³³Kentucky Chamber; ³³Kentucky Association of School Councils; ³³Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education; ³³Kentucky PTA. KEA has served a vital role in helping disseminate the surveys at each work site through its association representatives. Kentucky had the highest rate of completion of any state when certified staff took the initial survey in the spring of 2011, and the highest rate for the second administration in 2013.


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This section of the resource guide extends the teacher’s experiences beyond the halls, walls and playgrounds of the school. Your growth as a professional is enriched by building relationships with others who share interests, ideals and philosophies similar to yours. KEA understands that every teacher needs assistance in not only meeting the needs of your students in an ever changing global society, but also expanding beyond the classroom. The following overview of resources can help you become the consummate professional while providing for your own health and

well-being. Those components include: ³³ The Professional Code of Ethics for Kentucky School Certified Personnel; ³³ The Professional Growth Plan; ³³ Professional development standards; ³³ Membership and leadership in professional organizations; ³³ Family/community partnerships; and ³³ “Alphabet soup,” the sometimes overwhelming array of acronyms and abbreviations used in our profession.

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PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT STANDARDS Teachers in Kentucky are required to complete twenty-four hours of professional development each year. Six of the hours can be at the discretion of central office and the rest within the authority of the school council. They should be agreed upon by the teacher and his/ her administrator and should be part of a teacher’s professional growth plan. Professional development is considered high quality when it meets standards outlined by the Kentucky Department of Education and is consistent with federal guidelines through No Child Left Behind. Kentucky has 11 standards for professional development. They include: 1. Aligns with school and district priorities as reflected in school and district improvement plans;

2. Offers continuous learning through job-embedded experiences; 3. Focuses on knowledge and skills needs to support student learning; 4. Engages teachers to advance their understanding and application of research in education; 5. Prepares teachers as instructional leaders and community partners; 6. Is data driven; 7. Fosters an ongoing learning community; 8. Is culturally responsive to students’ individual needs; 9. Is planned collaboratively to maximize all available resources; 10. Fosters a long range change process; and 11. Grounded in the knowledge that adults learn differently.

PROFESSIONAL GROWTH PLANS A professional growth plan (PGP) is the plan that teachers design and implement to become more proficient in meeting the Kentucky Teacher Standards and Indicators. PGP design involves determining one’s strengths and areas for growth related to the Kentucky Teacher Standards and then developing work plans that describe activities and actions that will be implemented to address targeted areas for growth. Teachers attend conferences, workshops, assist in curriculum

development, participate in school improvement planning, develop program reviews for their school, and take coursework to stay upto-date on the latest educational reforms in addition to their classroom responsibilities. The Professional Growth Plan (PGP) is an opportunity for educators to control their own professional development and use these experiences improving their impact on teaching and learning in their schools. 704 KAR 3:345 (2)(c) requires

You can review the Kentucky Department of Education Professional Development standards online at:

Kentucky Education Association Guide to Effective Teaching


PROFESSIONAL GROWTH PLANS (continued) the evaluation system to include a professional growth plan for all certified personnel below the level of the district superintendent. This plan must be aligned with specific goals and objectives of the school or district improvement plan and must be reviewed annually. The evaluatee and the supervisor should discuss and agree upon a meaningful plan aligned with the school/district plan and suited specifically to enhance and assist the performance of the evaluatee. Exactly when the growth plan originates is

determined by the local evaluation plan. Observation visits, conferences between the employee and the immediate supervisor, and activities identified by the evaluatee as specific enrichment goals may contribute to the plan’s update and revision. During the first year of teaching with a provisional certificate, KTIP (Kentucky Teacher Internship Program) requires a specific professional growth plan to be completed. This may be in addition to your school district requirements for the PGP.

THE PROFESSIONAL CODE OF ETHICS FOR KENTUCKY SCHOOL CERTIFIED PERSONNEL The Professional Code of Ethics was developed for teachers and other certified school employees by the Education Professional Standards Board. This board is charged with establishing standards of performance both for preparation programs and practitioners; accrediting educator preparation programs at colleges, universities, local school districts, and private contractors; selecting assessments for teachers and administrators; overseeing internship programs for new teachers and new principals; operating the Continuing Education Option for Rank Change; administering Kentucky’s incentive program for National Board for

Professional Teaching Standards certification; and issuing, renewing, suspending, and revoking Kentucky certificates for professional school personnel. The code was developed to help teachers understand the seriousness of their commitment to teaching: by becoming teachers, we all agree to be held to higher standards of personal and professional conduct than others in our communities. By becoming teachers we also become leaders. The EPSB hears hundreds of misconduct cases every year that would be unnecessary if the teachers involved had only adhered to our code of ethics.


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Kentucky Education Association Guide to Effective Teaching


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FAMILY-SCHOOL-COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS NEA’s Priority Schools Campaign offers tips and techniques on how schools and the community can work together. Go online to find out more about the Campaign, a movement of educators across the country working to help struggling schools raise student achievement through partnerships with families, communities, and government. NEA’s Family-School-Community Community Partnerships 2.0: Collaborative Strategies to Advance Student Learning research has found that the following steps are ways in which teachers can enhance school, community, and family partnerships: ³³Use professional development to enhance educators’ knowledge and skills in collaborating with families and community members; ³³Bargain contract language or create Memorandums of Understanding that provide time, opportunities, and reimbursement for teachers, as a way to support stronger and deeper teacher-parent connections; ³³Work with the school district to support capacity building for educators on family engagement, using district professional development days; ³³Provide technical assistance on appropriate use of Title I funds for teacher-parent collaborations to achieve the goals of the school improvement plan, such as using the School-Parent Compact required under Section 1118; ³³Provide technical assistance for educators to show parents how to use data to monitor and support their children’s progress; and ³³Identify cultural brokers in the community who can help enhance communication between teachers and families and develop shared expectations around learning. When schools, families, and communities work together to support learning, students tend to: ³³Earn higher grades ³³Attend school more regularly ³³Stay in school longer ³³Enroll in higher level programs


• 10-ways-to-build-better-partnerships • Admin/Resources/Resources/WhatResearchSaysAboutFamily-School CommunityPartnerships.pdf • Kentucky Education Association Guide to Effective Teaching


MEMBERSHIP AND LEADERSHIP IN YOUR PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATION It’s simple: You want to be the best you can be. You want to make your mark. You want to make your school, your community and your profession better. You want to be the change Kentucky’s schools and children need. Then you want to belong to KEA. 1. OUR MISSION

KEA unites, organizes and empowers members to advocate for themselves and to ensure a quality public education for every Kentucky student.


KEA is the preeminent voice for quality public education. Time and again, KEA members have linked arms to fight for Kentucky’s public schools and their students.


You work hard to help your students reach their full potential. KEA helps you reach your potential through professional development, leadership training and workplace advocacy.


If your employment rights are threatened, KEA will advocate for you, as we do for all KEA members. KEA protects members’ legal rights better than any other professional organization.


Like the 42,000 Kentucky education professionals who already belong to KEA, you lead your students and your colleagues by the example of your hard work and dedication to excellence.


KEA’s strength is its members and local associations: public school teachers and classified employees, retired educators and pre-service teachers, all united in their commitment to Kentucky’s public schools, its communities and its families.


As a KEA member you will help improve and protect the education professions for all school employees.


KEA works at the local and state levels to secure and protect good salaries, benefits and job security for all public school employees.


KEA membership lets you and your family save money on financial and travel services offered by NEA Member Benefits, including NEA Click & Save, an exclusive shopping service where you can save big on brand-name merchandise from top retailers and local merchants.


You are the future of public education in Kentucky. Join KEA and start making a difference today.

32 Kentucky Education Association Guide to Effective Teaching

SOME ‘DOS’ AND ‘DO NOTS’ FOR SOCIAL NETWORKING When you accepted your teaching position in a Kentucky public school and signed the Code of Ethics for Kentucky Public School Personnel, you accepted a number of responsibilities to students, parents and the education profession. Your first responsibility to the profession is “to exemplify behaviors which maintain the dignity and integrity of the profession.” If every aspect of your life and conduct are guided by that responsibility, you should have little to fear from public scrutiny of your life. But if there are aspects of your life or conduct that you would not want your school superintendent, principal, students, parents, studentteaching supervisor or colleagues to know about, you shouldn’t post them on Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Flickr, Google+ or any other online community.


• Remember always that there really is no such thing as “private” on the Internet. There are only varying degrees of “public.” • If possible, prevent your students from knowing you’re on Facebook at all, let alone finding you and viewing your page. • Remember that your online presence is like your “brand”: When you put yourself online, you are “advertising” the kind of person you are. And once something—a picture, a tweet, a comment—is posted, it is very,

very difficult to make it go away. • For the greatest possible security, make sure only your friends can view your Facebook page. Under the new privacy settings tab, settings are organized into “Who can see my stuff?” and, “Who can look me up?” The best course is to choose the most restrictive settings: “Friends.” • For “do you want other search engines to link to your timeline?” select “Off.” Otherwise, your Facebook profile will show up in Google search results. • Review your old photos and posts. Remove (or “hide”) any that you wouldn’t want your principal, students or parents to see. (Are those pictures from the big spring break beach party five years ago still there? They are if you haven’t taken them down.) • Be vigilant about what others post about you. Review all photos of yourself online and check often for new ones. Remove “tags” in photos of yourself that you don’t want students or parents to see— or, better yet, ask the person who posted them to take them down. • Before you post something new, ask yourself, “Would I want my [principal/students/parents/ student-teaching supervisor, etc.] to see this?” • Monitor what is being published about you. If you’re concerned that old friends or contacts could include you in online postings without your knowledge, try

Kentucky Education Association Guide to Effective Teaching


setting up a Google alert with your name, just to be safe. A Google alert will send you an e-mail anytime you are published. Visit: and enter your name to be searched, how often you want to receive the reports and your email address. DO NOT • Do not accept “friend requests” from current or potential students or their family members. • Do not accept a “friend request” from anyone whom you do not know personally. • Do not join groups that may be

considered unprofessional or inappropriate, and remove yourself from any such group of which you may already be a member. • Do not post vulgar or obscene language, materials, photos or links that may be considered inappropriate or unprofessional. If you don’t want to see it on the front page of the local newspaper, don’t post it. • Do not EVER post negative information or comments about— or unflattering images of—your students, co-workers or school administrators.

34 Kentucky Education Association Guide to Effective Teaching

ALPHABET SOUP Part of being an effective teacher is being aware of “teacher speak”, the abundant list of acronyms used in the profession to communicate. These abbreviations can be very confusing to new folks not familiar with the terms. Below is a great cheat sheet for beginners of some common shortcuts used by teachers in Kentucky.


AAAF alternate assessment accountability folder ACT American College Testing ADA average daily attendance ADA Americans with Disabilities Act ADD attention deficit disorder ADHD attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADM average daily membership AFGR average freshman graduation rate AIKCA Association of Independent Kentucky Colleges and Universities AMOA annual measurable achievement objectives AMP Achieve My Plan AP advanced placement AP assistant principal APR annual performance report AR accelerated reader AR KEA association representative (aka “building representative”) ARC Admissions and Release Committee ARR annual review report ASL American Sign Language ASD Autism Spectrum Disorders ASSIST Adaptive System of School Improvement Support Tools ASVAB Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery AT attainment tasks (see KAAP) ATA athlete tournament attendance ATC Area Technology Center AUP acceptable use policy AYP Adequate Yearly Progress


BAC Building Assessment Coordinator BAT Building Assistance Team BD behavioral disorder BIP behavior intervention plan BOE Board of Education


CAP corrective action plan CART computer access real-time translation CASL Classroom Assessment for Student Learning CATS Commonwealth Accountability Testing System CBM curriculum-based measurement CDC Centers for Disease Control CDIP Comprehensive District Improvement Plan CDL Commercial Driver’s License CEAI Christian Educators Association International CEC Council for Exceptional Children CERS County Employees Retirement System CFA continuous funding application CFC Cabinet for Families and Children (aka CHFS) CHETL Characteristics of Highly Effective Teaching and Learning CHFS Cabinet for Health, & Family Services (aka CFC) CI community integration CIFMS Continuous Improvement and Focused Monitoring System CIITS Continuous Instructional Improvement Technology System CIL Center for Independent Living

Kentucky Education Association Guide to Effective Teaching


CIP comprehensive improvement planning CKEC Central Kentucky Educational Cooperative COP community of practice CFR Code of Federal Regulations CPE Council on Postsecondary Education CPRC Community Parent Resource Center CSIP Comprehensive School Improvement Plan CTBS Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills CTE career /technical education CTSO Career and Technical Student Organizations


DAC District Assessment Coordinator DBTAC Disability and Business Technical Assistance Center DECA Distributive Education Clubs of America DECS Division of Exceptional Children Services DD developmental delay DEIC District Early Intervention Committee DFP District Facilities Plan DJJ Kentucky Department of Juvenile Justice DLS Division of Learning Services DOC Kentucky Department of Corrections DOK depth of knowledge DoSE Director of Special Education DPP Director of Pupil Personnel DRRP Disability and Rehabilitation Research Program DRS Department of Rehabilitative Services DRT District Review Team DSS Disability Support Services



Education Association Emotional-Behavioral Disorder Exceptional Child Education

ED emotional disturbance EILA Effective Instructional Leadership Act EKEA Eastern Kentucky Education Association EL English learner ELL English language learner ELP English language proficiency EMH Educable Mentally Handicapped EOC end-of-course assessment EPAS Educational Planning and Assessment System EPSB Education Professional Standards Board ERD Educational Recovery Director ERS educational recovery specialist ESEA Elementary and Secondary Education Act ESOL English speakers of other languages ESL English as a second language ESP education support personnel ESS Extended School Services ESY extended school year ETS Educational Testing Service


FAPE free appropriate public education FBA functional behavioral assessment FBLA Future Business Leaders of America FCCLA Family, Career and Community Leaders of America FERPA Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act FFA Future Farmers of America FMD functional mentaldisability FMLA Family and Medical Leave Act FOIA Freedom of Information Act FRC Family Resource Center FRYSC Family Resource and Youth Services Center FY fiscal year


GED General Equivalency Diploma GRREC Green River Regional Educational Cooperative

36 Kentucky Education Association Guide to Effective Teaching

GSSP gifted student services plan GT gifted and talented


HANDS Health Access Nurturing Development Services HB house bill HDI Human Development Institute HEP higher education programs HI hearing-impaired HLS home language survey HOSA Health Occupations Students of America HOUSSE High Objective Uniform State Standards of Evaluation HQT highly qualified teacher HSE highly skilled educator


IB International Baccalaureate IC Infinite Campus ICAP individual corrective action plan ID intellectual disabilities IDEA Individuals with Disabilities Education Act IECE Interdisciplinary Early Childhood Education IEP individual education program IES Institute for Education Sciences IFSP individualized family service plan IGP Individual graduation plan IGP individual growth plan IHE institution of higher education ILP individual learning plan ISLLC Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium ISS in-school suspension


JCBE Jefferson County Board of Education JCPS Jefferson County Public Schools JCTA Jefferson County Teachers Association


KAAP Kentucky Alternate Assessment Program KAC Kentucky Arts Council

KACTE Kentucky Association for Career and Technical Education KAGE Kentucky Association for Gifted Education KAMC Kentucky Accessible Materials Consortium KAMD Kentucky Accessible Materials Database KAPE Kentucky Association of Professional Educators KAR Kentucky Administrative Regulations KASA Kentucky Association of School Administrators KASC Kentucky Association of School Councils KASS Kentucky Association of School Superintendents KATE Kentucky Association of Teacher Educators KATE Kentucky Association of Teachers of English KBE Kentucky Board of Education KCAS Kentucky Core Academic Standards KCCT Kentucky Core Content Test KCM Kentucky Center for Mathematics KCMP Kentucky continuous monitoring process KCTM Kentucky Council of Teachers of Mathematics KCTCS Kentucky Community and Technical College System KDE Kentucky Department of Education KEA Kentucky Education Association KEA-R Kentucky Education AssociationRetired KEAT Kentucky Education Action Team KECCAG Kentucky’s Early Childhood Continuous Assessment Guide KECSAC Kentucky Educational Collaborative for State Agency Children KECTP Kentucky Early Childhood Transition Project KEDC Kentucky Educational Development Corporation

Kentucky Education Association Guide to Effective Teaching


KEES Kentucky Educational Excellence Scholarship KELP Kentucky Early Learning Profile KEPAC Kentucky Educators’ Political Action Committee KEPS Kentucky Educator Placement Service KERA Kentucky Education Reform Act of 1990 KERS Kentucky Employees Retirement System KET Kentucky Educational Television KETS Kentucky Educational Technology System KHEAA Kentucky Higher Education Assistance Authority KHSSA Kentucky High School Athletics Association KIDS Kentucky Instructional Discipline Support KIRIS Kentucky Instructional Results Information System KISTS Kentucky In-School Transition Survey KOSSA Kentucky Occupational Skill Standards and Assessment K-PREP Kentucky Performance Rating for Educational Progress KPR Kentucky Performance Report KRS Kentucky Retirement Systems KRS Kentucky Revised Statutes KSB Kentucky School for the Blind KSBA Kentucky School Boards Association KSD Kentucky School for the Deaf KSI Kentucky System of Interventions KSIS Kentucky Student Information System KTIP Kentucky Teacher Internship Program KTLN Kentucky TeleLinking Network KTRS Kentucky Teachers Retirement System KVATC Kentucky Virtual Area Technology Center KVEC Kentucky Valley Educational Cooperative KVHS Kentucky Virtual High School KVL Kentucky Virtual Library

KVLN Kentucky Virtual Learning Network KVS Kentucky Virtual Schools KYC Kentucky Virtual Campus KyCLS Kentucky Cohesive Leadership System KyPSO Kentucky Post School Outcomes


LBD learning and behavior disorder LBE local board of education LD learning disability LEA local educational agency LEAD local educator assignment data LEAD Leadership for Educational Achievement in Districts LEP limited English proficiency LFD low functioning deaf LMC library media center LMS library media specialist LPC local planning committee LRC Legislative Research Commission LRE least restrictive environment


MCEA Middle Cumberland Education Association MD mental disability MD multiple disabilities MDR manifestation determination review MEP Migrant Education Program MIS Management Information System MMD mild mental disability MOA memorandum of agreement MSIP Monitoring and State Improvement Planning MUNIS Municipal Information Systems


NAEP National Assessment of Educational Progress NBCT National Board Certified Teacher NBPTS National Board for Professional Teaching Standards NCATE National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education NCEERA National Center for Education

38 Kentucky Education Association Guide to Effective Teaching

Evaluation and Regional Assistance NCLB No Child Left Behind NCSER National Center for Special Education Research NDPC-SD National Dropout Prevention Center-Students with Disabilities NEA National Education Association NELB non-English language background NIDRR National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research NIESBA National Independent Educator Standards Boards Association NKCES Northern Kentucky Cooperative for Educational Services NKEA Northern Kentucky Education Association NLTS-2 National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 NRT norm referenced test


OAG Opinion of the Attorney General OCR Office for Civil Rights OCTE Office of Career and Technical Education OEA Office of Education Accountability OESE Office of Elementary and Secondary Education OGC Office of the General Counsel OI orthopedic impairment OHI other health impairment OII Office of Innovation and Improvement OCLA Office of Congressional and Legislative Affairs ONPE Office of Non-Public Education OPE Office of Postsecondary Education OPP Office of Policy and Planning ORR open records request ORQ open-response question OSEP Office of Special Education Programs OSERS Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services OVEC Ohio Valley Educational Cooperative

OVAE Office of Vocational and Adult Education


PAC parents’ (or parent) advisory council PAC political action committee PACER Parent Advocacy Coalition for Educational Rights PBE Program, Budget and Evaluation PD professional development PEPNet Postsecondary Education Programs Network PGES Professional Growth and Effectiveness System PGP professional growth plan PLA persistently low-achieving school PLC professional learning community PL/VS practical living/vocational studies POE point of entry PPI Policy, Planning and Innovation PRAXIS [any of a series of teacher certification exams administered by the Education Testing Service] PSP program services plan PSAT Preliminary Scholastic Achievement Test PSS program support staff PSSG Program Support Services Group PT physical therapy PtGT Persistence to Graduation Tool PTI Parent Training and Information Center


RFP request for proposal RITT Regional Interagency Transition Team RRC regional resource renter RRTC Rehabilitation Research and Training Center RSA Rehabilitation Services Administration RSD Research Sciences Division RTI Response to Intervention RTI Research Triangle Institute RTP Research to Practice Division RTTT Race to the Top

Kentucky Education Association Guide to Effective Teaching



S&E Salary and Expenses SAAR superintendent’s annual attendance report SACGTE State Advisory Council for Gifted and Talented Education SAT Scholastic Achievement Test SB Senate bill SBARC School Based Admissions and Release Committee SBDM school based decision making council SCAAC School Curriculum Assessment and Accountability Council SEA state education agency SEEK Support Education Excellence in Kentucky SRATE Southeast Regional Association of Teacher Educators SES supplemental Education services SFCC School Facilities Construction Commission SIG school improvement grant SILC Statewide Independent Living Council SIS Student Information System (Infinite Campus) SISI Standards and Indicators for School Improvement SIT student instructional team SLD specific learning disability SLP speech-language pathologist SMD severe and/or multiple disabilities SMPID State Monitoring & Program Improvement Division SOP summary of performance SPP state performance plan SRO school resource officer SSEC Southeast/South Central Educational Cooperative SST student study team STI Software Technology Incorporated STLP Student Technology Leadership Program SY school year


TA technical assistance TAR Transition Attainment Record (see KAAP) TBI traumatic brain injury TDD telecommunications device for the deaf TEDS Technical Education Database System TELL Teaching, Empowering, Leading & Learning TILES transition, independent living, employment and support TMH trainable mentally handicapped TRT technology resource teachers TSA technology student association TSPD Training and Service Programs Division TTY teletypewriter


UCEA Upper Cumberland Education Association UDL Universal Design for Learning UKREA Upper Kentucky River Education Association ULSP Unified Legal Services Program USC United States Code USDOE United States Department of Education USED United States Department of Education



voice carry-over visual impairment vocational rehabilitation


W-APT WIDA ACCESS Placement Test WIDA World-Class Instructional Design and Assessment WKEC West Kentucky Educational Cooperative WRP Workforce Recruitment Program


YOYO Youth One-Year-Out Survey

40 Kentucky Education Association Guide to Effective Teaching

KEA Guide to Effective Teaching  
KEA Guide to Effective Teaching  

Becoming a teacher is a journey that expands way beyond the four walls of a college classroom. This guide is meant to be a supplement to wha...