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 (Chemical Bond) CHEMISTRY FOR ENFINEERS

Chollada Kulwat




Chemistry for Engineers



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Chemistry for Engineers

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Chemistry for Engineers



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ภ4"45%6(234'#6'# &#87)8:(&B('(6(53 24ภ'     E5364G5    ; /:  ภH ภภ ;ภH  ;  ;I: J 7ภK (:#G8CD(G(#?3( :(A'(&#9L24>C7(ภC234(G(#) :(:(;#(2! :/;L ภ-HI /  CD(<23"%<'"F":(;# G8:(;# "F"ภ:(23&#7)87(ภ4:(;#ภF2<ภE53&#2X>CG5<''>'7(ภ ภ$%CK$ภ$$4<2 :#ภ(23&#BCK$ภ$$4ภA?3( :(;#<2%$8G9ภ4 ภ( 24(ภ"%ภ4:(;# >%8%(2! F2 ( g ) â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2 F ( g ) â&#x2C6;&#x2019; 159kJ ..............................(1) Cl 2 ( g ) â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2Cl ( g ) â&#x2C6;&#x2019; 242kJ ...........................(2) CH 4 ( g ) â&#x2020;&#x2019; C ( g ) + 4 H ( g ) â&#x2C6;&#x2019; 1,652kJ ............(3) O2 ( g ) + 498kJ â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2O( g ).............................(4) N 2 ( g ) + 945kJ â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2 N ( g )............................(5)

 82

H 2 O( g ) + 926kJ â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2 H ( g ) + O( g )..............(6)




Chemistry for Engineers



6?

ภ (1) 2ภ4:(;##6' F ภA F &B('( 1  (7)8:(>C 159 kJ 24ภ' :(:(;##6' F tF = 159 kJ/mole ภ (2), (4), (5) ภF)(ภ(2ภ4:(;#ภ# 1  "7(ภ (3) 2ภ4:(;# #6' C ภA H G5 4  &ภ9<8

%(!( G8<$%:(#6' C ภA H ภF&#2<

1, 652 = 413 kJ/mole 4

7(B(%24'ภ( ภ (6) 2ภ4:(;##6' O ภA H 2  :(:(;##6' O ภA H 2< 463 kJ/mole G8:$&S ภ4:(;#7( CH4 2#!( %(2!

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!(23 1

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 83


Chemistry for Engineers



!(23 2

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%(!( ภภB6(%<:(:(;# C t H &5>%8&ภภn234:(:(;# C t H 64:(;# 7(64   24ภ' :(:(;#n234 (average bond energy) :(:(;##6'# <9?3(  ภF)(%24'ภ( ; # '  3.2

&<*'/'' \/ ( /''   kJ/mole C-C 348 C t Cl 339 615 CtN NtN 163 HtH 436 431 H t Cl HtI 298 StH 367

 84

 CtH CtO NtH NtO HtF H t Br HtO StF

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Chemistry for Engineers StS Cl t Cl ItI

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&<*'*+3(= '%_7ก7#7( ก (+กก #<# '&/</ (23'< #3>L ก #</ ( ก #<# ' Cl 2 ( g) → 2Cl(g) - 242kJ 2Cl( g) → Cl 2 (g) + 242kJ Br2 ( g) → 2Br(g) - 193kJ 2Br ( g) → Br2 (g) + 193kJ I 2 ( g) → 2I(g) - 151kJ 2I( g) → I 2 (g) + 151kJ H 2 O( g) → 2H(g) + O(g) - 926kJ 2H ( g) + O(g) → H 2 O(g) + 926kJ *$*/''   (/'' 

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 85


Chemistry for Engineers 7(CK$ภ$$4<2%43'>C ?3!8(BCK$ภ$$4ภ(ภ4CD(X$@Sw= :(;#!647( !8(&#8G9ภ4ภ&(6% E538%9%:(&B('(6(53 $ = a kJ "8'&52ภ 8:(;#CD(X$@Sw= E53&#2ภ<4:(2ภ&B('(6(53 $ = b kJ E53 a ภ&# >ภA b (?3&ภ!8("#X$@Sw=CD(<(#)($% :(;#234>C"#:(;# 2385!(76 &5>7):(;#)($%%24'ภ( c a > b %_7ภ7#7( D%A%_7ภ7#7( *$*/''  c a < b %_7ภ7#7( D%A%_7ภ7#7(  (/''  ;+3(= '  3.1 CK$ภ$$4 2 H 2 O(g) â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2H 2 ( g) + O 2 ( g) CD(CK$ภ$$4%9%6?<4 :( "#&6C$S <'8(23C234(>C ภB6(%:(:(;# O - H = 463kJ/mole

H - H = 436kJ/mole O = O = 498kJ/mole  # 1. :(;#234<?:(;#7(!8( 2(H t O t H) >%8"ภ :(;# O t H &B('( 4  %(!( %9%:( = 4 Ă&#x2014; 463 = 1,852 kJ 2. :(;#23876<?:(;#7(X$@Sw= 2(H t H) "# O = O %(!( <4:( = (2 Ă&#x2014; 436) + 498 = 1,370 kJ 3. :(23%9%8>C 2<ภภ':(23<4ภ %(!( CK$ภ$$4(2!%9%:( Ans 4. :(23%9%8>C = 1,852 t 1,370 = 482 kJ/2 mol (!B 6? 482 kJ/2 mol  H2 6? 482 kJ/1 mol  O2 Ans ;+3(= '  3.2 ?3(B"ภH Cl2  5.6 dm3 23 STP BCK$ภ$$4ภA H2 10 g ภ H 2 ( g) + Cl 2 ( g) â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2HCl(g) &<B('S6 1. &B('( ' "#C$23 STP  HCl 23ภ$%&ภCK$ภ$$4 2. C$S<'8(23C234(>C ?3$!(%CK$ภ$$4 3. CD(CK$ภ$$4%9%6?<4<'8(

 86




Chemistry for Engineers



ภB6(%:(:(;# H t H = 436 kJ/mol , Cl t Cl = 242 kJ/mol, H t Cl = 431 kJ/mol '# H = 1, Cl = 35.5  # V 1. &ภ9 n = ?3 n = &B('( , v = C$ภHE(6('4CD($23 STP) 22.4 5.6 1 mol = mol %(!( Cl 2 5.6 dm 3 at STP = "('<$%&ภ9%(2! 22.4 4 10 W CV V H 2 10 g = mol = 5 mol n= = = 2 M 1000 22.4 &ภภ Cl2 1  BCK$ภ$$4:%2ภA H2 1  ภ$% HCl 2  1 1 1 %(!( Cl2 BCK$ภ$$4:%2ภA H2  ภ$% HCl  4 4 2 ภ$%

1 1 HCl mol = Ă&#x2014; 22.4 dm 3 at STP 2 2 = 11.2 dm 3 at STP 1 W = n Ă&#x2014; M = Ă&#x2014; 36.5 g = 18.25 g 2

Ans

2. &ภภ H 2 ( g) + Cl 2 ( g) â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2HCl(g) :(;#234<?:(;#7(!8( H t H , Cl t Cl ; :(23%9%8>C = 436 + 242 = 678 kJ :(;#23ภ$%76<?:(;#7(X$@Sw= 2(H t Cl) ; :(23<4ภ = 2Ă&#x2014;431 = 862 kJ %(!( :(<'8(23C234(>C = 862 t 678 = 184 kJ/mol  H2 1 " H2 23BCK$ภ$$4!"$3"ภ&(CK$ภ$$4$!(% = mol 4 1 C$S<'8(23C234(>C?3$!(%CK$ภ$$4 = Ă&#x2014; 184 = 46 kJ Ans 4 3. CK$ภ$$4(2!CD(CK$ภ$$4<4<'8( :#:(23<4 = 862 kJ > :(23%9% = 672 kJ Ans ;+3(= '  3.3 ภB6(%89768%(2! 1. 2NH 3 ( g) â&#x2020;&#x2019; N 2 ( g) + 3H 2 ( g) â&#x2C6;&#x2020;H = + 93kJ 2. N 2 ( g) â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2N(g) â&#x2C6;&#x2020;H = + 945kJ â&#x2C6;&#x2020;H = - 436 kJ 3. 2H(g) â&#x2020;&#x2019; H 2 ( g)

 87


Chemistry for Engineers



 # &ภCK$ภ$$4 2 NH 3 ( g) â&#x2020;&#x2019; N 2 ( g) + 3H 2 ( g) :(;#234<?:(;#7(!8( :(23%9%8>C 2Ă&#x2014;3 ( N t H ) = 6 ( N t H ) kJ :(;#23ภ$%76<?:(;#7(X$@Sw= N2 , 3H2 :(:(;# N2 = 945 kJ/mol 8ภB6(%23 2, :(:(;# H2 = 436 kJ/mol  8ภB6(%23 3

%(!(:(23<4ภ = 945 + 3(436) = 2,253 kJ "CK$ภ$$4(2!CD(CK$ภ$$4%9%:( 93 kJ 6(N - H) - 2,253 = 93 2,346 N-H= = 391 kJ/mol 6

Ans

&fgภ*  3.1 1. &<B('S:(:(;# N t O ภ NO2 &ภCK$ภ$$4 2NO(g) + O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NO2(g) CK$ภ$$4(2!<4<'8(ภ 112 kJ ภB6(%:(:(;# N t O = 90 kJ/mol, O=O = 120 kJ/mol 2. G8:(:(;# H t H = 436 kJ/mol, C t H = 413 kJ/mol &<B('S:(ภภ$%C#ภA2(%4&ภ<=A("#>I%&( C(s) + 2H2(g) CH4(g) 3. 7(ภ A2(g) + B2(g) 2AB(g) G8:(7(ภ4:(;# A2 = 436 kJ/mol , B2 = 242 kJ/mol , A t B = 431 kJ/mol 7(CK$ภ$$4(2!&#2C$S<'8(CK$ภ$$4ภ23 kJ/mol 4. ภB6(%:(:(;#768%(2! 97*23' CtH CtC C=C

/''  (kJ/mol) 413 348 614

 88


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 89




Chemistry for Engineers

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 90




Chemistry for Engineers

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:(;#<2 "AภCD( 3 C#@ภRS#ภภ$%:(;#<? â&#x20AC;˘  / 0 CD(:(;#23ภ$%&ภภ7)8'(E=$Fภ('ภ( â&#x20AC;˘  ,-ภCD(:(;#23ภ$%&ภภ768"#A'(E=$Fภ( â&#x20AC;˘   CD(:(;#23ภ$%7(6# ภ$%&ภ6#7)8'(E=$Fภ(!6% 'ภ( 3.5.1 .+/;B &/ < #%#ภ3.+/;B #;6#ภF8ภA$Fภ( %(!(#6(2!&#8:(;#ภ( 4> :?3B768$Fภ()!((ภ%F 6# 2 #G8:(;#ภ(>%8%47)8$Fภ('ภ( G8$Fภ( )!((ภ%ภ4ภ( (&#7)8$Fภ("##'ภ( E53CD(ภ23%2 24ภ'   / 0 (Covalent bond) Co = Cooperation = ' , 'ภ( valent = valence electron = $Fภ()!((ภ% bond = :(;# ภ7)8$Fภ('ภ(B768ภ$%:(;#<'(=#6'#;6# %(!( :(;#<'(= ภF<?:(;#23ภ$%&ภภ7)8'(E=$Fภ('ภ( E53ภ$%&ภ;232 <$Fภ(ภ$'$29''ภ( ;6(2!%4ภ2'(E=$Fภ(ภ?ACD( 8 "8' >%8"ภ ;2349'? ; ?3''ภ(&#>2ภ7686?A$Fภ(#6'ภ( (>ภ$%CD(>() "&# '(E=$Fภ(7)8'ภ( 7(ภRS#23CD(ภ")= (share) ภ(

 91




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78 #Z < #%#ภ3@C.*# #B3 /:ภ <1* >3   5)' <$;#./ภ1/>3 CH4

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<=A( 1 #"#>I%&( 4 #&#7)8$Fภ('(ภ%'ภ("#ภ4ภ(7( ภRS#%(2!

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H !#%5%9%$Fภ('ภ( &549'ภ(CD(ภ>%8 24ภ$Fภ(23G9ภ%5%9%'ภ(' $Fภ(<9':(;# (bonded pair electron) "7(ภ"ภH>I%&( >7)'&#2""%5%9%ภ((!( #6' 2 #23ภ#ภ(CD(ภ42"Xภภ(2ภ%8'4 "Xภ(!( ภ$%&ภ#>

#$%  3.12 &<*'&#'*)'*$*&/&#'K/ภ-./ภ1/23'&ภ4<@C.*#8 (H2)

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 93




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%(!( ;: /:     ภ ภF<? ;7 9 I ภ7 8ภ"#4#(2!&#C234("C%'

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&<*'+ ( +\/ ( + ( +  (pm) C-C 154 C t Cl 177 CtN 147 NtN 146 HtH 74 H t Cl 128 HtI 160 StH 134 StS 143 Cl t Cl 199 ItI 267

 94

 CtH CtO NtH NtO HtF H t Br HtO StF FtF Br t Br OtO

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Chemistry for Engineers



:(;#<'(=&24("%>%8%@: = <=A( 2( (CH4) = >I%&(

'4:(;#<'(=2ภ)($%6(53 "ภH<2(%4Cภ$>497(9C#%234'  #<2(2$Fภ()!((ภ% 7 ' &58ภ$Fภ(2ภ:24 1 ' G8&#B768#%A :(7()!((2!F <2(ภF6?(ภA"ภH)($%?3( &B('(ภ<? <2( 2 #8:(;##6' ภ(:?38ภ Cl2

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 95


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24ภภ24(9ภRS#(2!' I 7H (electron dot formula) 6?&24(8( !(#6' 2 #238:(;#ภ( %48( 1 8( "( $Fภ(<9':(;# 1 <9 9 ภRS#(2!24ภ' I 7  (graphic formula) &"%$Fภ(<9%%%234'6?>"%ภF >%8 (G8"%7687)8&% "( $Fภ(<9%%%234') )(

; # '  3.5

;+3(= 'ภ#2 (<$;#&<*'.+/;B

 96




Chemistry for Engineers

&ก9"AA8("#9"AA&%23"%>'8 O , S CD(;232'(E=$Fก( = 6 8:(;#7( OF2 "# H2S >C## 2 :(;# B768>%8$Fก(:$32ก 2 ' ก4CD('(E=$Fก( 8 ' P , N CD(;232'(E=$Fก( = 5 8:(;#7( PCl3 "# NH3 >C## 3 :(;# B768>%8$Fก(:$32ก 3 ' ก4CD('(E=$Fก( 8 ' C , Si CD(;232'(E=$Fก( = 4 8:(;#7( CH4 "# SiCl4 >C## 4 :(;# B768>%8$Fก(:$32ก 4 ' ก4CD('(E=$Fก( 8 ' F , Cl CD(;232'(E=$Fก( = 7 8## 1 :(;#7( PCl3, OF2 SiCl4, BeCl2, BCl3, BF3, PCl5, 3F6, XeF4 B768>%8$Fก(:$32ก 1 ' ก4CD('(E=$Fก( 8 ' Xe CD(;n?34 '(E=$Fก( = 8 8 4 :(;#7( XeF4 B768>%8$Fก(:$3 2ก 4 ' ก4CD( 12 ' %(!( G8; A 8 n :(;# กF&#>%8$Fก(:$3 n ' &B('('(E=$Fก(6&ก 8:(;#"8' = '(E=$Fก(%$ + n &ก4#24%%ก' G<B('S&B('(:(;#<'(=23;"#69&#8768 CD(>Cกjก>%8%(2!

 97




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;69 4 '(E=$Fภ( = 4 88 4 :(;# ;69 5 '(E=$Fภ( = 5 88 3 :(;# ;69 6 '(E=$Fภ( = 2 88 2 :(;# ;69 7 '(E=$Fภ( = 7 88 1 :(;# &<*'/ภVZภ#<# '23' ;1;= 'L (<# '-/ภVZ share)

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 98




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:(;#%234' CD(:(;#<'(=23ภ$%&ภภ7)8'(E=$Fภ('ภ( 1 <9 7)88( 1 8( 24("(:(;#%234' '4)(

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3 4#% :(;#<9 CD(:(;#<'(=23ภ$%&ภภ7)8'(E=$Fภ('ภ( 2 <9 7)88( 2 8( "(:(;#<9 :$&S9ภ22(<? C2H4 <=A( 2 #)?3ภ(%8'4  I: %(2!

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3 4 :(;# CD(:(;#<'(=23ภ$%&ภภ7)8'(E=$Fภ('ภ( 3 <9 7)88( 3 8( "(:(;# )(

Nâ&#x2030;ĄN H-Câ&#x2030;ĄC-H H-Câ&#x2030;Ą N

: N ::: N : H : C ::: C : H H : C ::: N :

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; # '  3.7

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&ภ 7(ภ N2O3 E5329"AA8(%(2! O=NtOtN=O :(;#ภB"6(7(ภCD(:(;##6' N ภA O (!( "AB"6(CD(:(;#%234' AB"6(CD(:(;#<9 B768ภ$%<BG' :(:(;#"#B"6(ภ(6?> "#<' 4':(;#ภ(6?> 7(B(%24'ภ( 7(ภ C2H6, C2H4 , C2H2 E539"AA8( <?



101




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:(;##6' C ภA C CD(:(;#%234', :(;#<9 "#:(;# B%A <'4':(;#7(" # "#:(:(;#7("#&#ภ(6?> ; # '  3.8

%# ( (+ ( +&//'' 23'* (+ $= &/< 

/''  (kJ/mole) CtC 154 348 C ภA C C=C 134 614 Câ&#x2030;ĄC 120 839 CtN 147 305 C ภA N C=N 130 615 Câ&#x2030;Ą N 116 891 NtN 146 163 N ภA N N=N 125 418 Nâ&#x2030;ĄN 110 945 CtO 143 358 C ภA O C=O 122 745 OtO 148 146 O ภA O O=O 121 498 ; # '  3.9 <#1%<;7%# ( (# += '* (+ $= &/<  97*23' + &2:'&#'23' + ( + /''  + <c (# :(;#%234' (8423% ภ23% (8423% ภ23% :(;#<9 C(ภ C(ภ C(ภ C(ภ :(;# ภ23% (8423% ภ23% (8423%

 ( ;1 <'G24:(;#<?<'<':(;#(!(  :(;#2<'G24(8423% (?3&ภ2ภ7)8$Fภ('ภ(G5 3 <9 "Xภ(?3&ภC#&A$Fภ(&52ภ%(!(:(;#&54CD(:(;#<96?:(;#%234'>%84 3;3 <# '

97*23'

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<$;#./ภ1/23'< #.+/;B (?3&ภ#G8:(;#<'(=>%8%8'4&B('(>ภ( '( ภ''#CD(ภ<'(=&5>ภ( G69<'(=>%8 %8'46ภ4  %(2! 1. G8&B('(:(;#23"##G8>%82&B('(ภ( '(ภ''&# CD( 1:1 )( Cl 8ภ8 1 :(;# 9<'(= <? ClF F 8ภ8 1 :(;# 2. G8&B('(:(;#23"##G8>%82&B('(>ภ( '(ภ'' >%8&ภภ<9S"4'"%&B('(:(;#238>%8 )( C 8ภ8 4 :(;# 9<? CH4 H 8ภ8 1 :(;# Si 8ภ8 4 :(;# O 8ภ8 2 :(;#

9<? SiO2 (2:4 = 1:2)

N 8ภ8 3 :(;# O 8ภ8 2 :(;#

9<? N2O3

P 8ภ8 3 :(;# Cl 8ภ8 1 :(;#

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H 8ภ8 1 :(;# S 8ภ8 2 :(;#

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104




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2ภ'46(53<? NH4+ "# H3O+ E53ภ$%&ภNH3 "# H2O A H+ B%A

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105




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1

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3.5.1.5 ภ#2 (<$;#&<*'< #.+/;B <'(=E53%4ภภ$%&ภ;C#@6# ?3&#24(976824B%A%4ภ (B;232<'CD(6#(8423%>'886(8 6?G8&#768&B>%845!(ภF<? 24B%A69 &ภE84>C' G8497(69%24'ภ(76824&ภ5!(A( %(2!

 ( ;1 (2!"%n:#;238:(;#<'(=23:AA4 ภ24(9<'(=76824B%A%(2! B, Si, C, Sb, As, P, N, H, Te, Se, S, At, I, Br, Cl, O, F )( C#ภA23ภ$%&ภCK$ภ$$4#6' I ภA N 24(9 NI3 #6' H ภA Se 24(9 H2Se CD(8( 3.5.1.5 ภ#3= 9>3< #%#ภ3.+/;B ภ/ 0 C ภ/: ภ 768()?3 6# ภ( "8'%8'4)?36#2ภ'6(53%4C234(8424CD( >_%= (-ide) )( M92( M9>%= EM= E>M%= 3= %A 3= %A ภE$&( ภ>E%= E22(24 E22>(%= 3= %A 3= %A <2( <>%= 924 9>%= 3= %A 3= %A



107




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1 = mono 6 = hexa ;+3(= '9>3 2 = di 7 = hepta /;B 3 = tri 8 = octa 4 = tetra 9 = nona 5 = penta 10 = deca <$;#< # 9>3< # BCl3 Boron trichloride CO Carbon monoxide CS2 Carbon disulfide NH3 Nitrogen trihydride (ammonia) PCl5 Phosphorous pentachloride Cl2O Dichlorine monoxide OF2 Oxygen difluoride N2O Dinitrogen monoxide NO Nitrogen monoxide N2O3 Dinitrogen trioxide NO2 Nitrogen dioxide N2O4 Dinitrogen tetroxide N2O5 Dinitogen pentoxide <'(=C#@ภ CD(232&%%?% &%66'3B G(#Cภ$ภCD(6' 6? ภHE >(B>MMN

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3.5.1.7 .+/;B&.#'K/)ภ#= '; 2= ( 4 (SiO2) CD(23C#ภA%8'4 Si ภA O 45%ภ(%8'4:(;#<'(= "&ภภ<'(= "&ภภ<'(=?3( :# Si 1 #>>%8G9ภ8A%8'4 O2 #CD( 1 ภ ภ8:(;#<'(=#6' Si ภA O 7(4 &#ภ(>C?34 >2 A&Bภ% 24ภ:(;#<'(="AA(2!'  / 07 89ภ: : ; ; # '  3.12 &<*'<;7 '%#ภ#23' 9# &/ &ภ#@H;B < # /ภVZ, (3ภ81* /3 /+ 81**>3* +   &= (g/cm3) ภ#? @HHI

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109


Chemistry for Engineers ภ'5!6 CD(X5ภ2%B CD(( (>M ภ$%>M768 CO2 23S6@9$9 CD('(B >MMN "#<'8( 2ภRS#CD("X("A(  E8(ภ( #<=A(7("ภ>M= &%24'ภ(CD()!( <'4':(;##6' #<=A(@47()!(%24'ภ(2< ภ( <? 140 pm #6':(;# 120O 23 CD()((2! :#<=A("##8 :(;#ภA#7ภ8<24 3 # "7)8 #$%  3.17 &<*'ภ#<# '23' C - $Fภ(7(ภ8:(;# 4 ' :(;#23 &ภ#@H;B 8&5CD(:(;#23ภ!Bภ53#6':(;#%234' ภA:(;#<9 (768ภ<<'4':(;#%8'4 C t C <'4' 154 pm , C = C <'4' 134 pm) $Fภ( 4 '237)87(ภ8:(;#(!( 3 ' &#G9ภ%5%9%49#6'#<=A( '(2ภ1 ' &#<?3(233'>C@47()!( "ภ>M=&5(B>MMN>%8 "(B>%8%2n:#7($Q23(( ภA)!((!( &ภ6#E53(B>MMN>%8%27(ภ$Q #6')!("ภ>M= E536ภ( 540 pm >>%845%ภ(%8'4:(;#<'(= "2"45% 6(234'(  2324ภ' "'(%='= 45%>'8 )!("ภ>M=&56%ภ&ภภ(>%84

#$%  3.18 &<*' Resonance form 23'&ภ#@H;B

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#$%  3.19 3;323' ;1./  >3 .5* (  +/5B37/:ภ;#3 1 &/3;323' ;13./  >3 /3#   +/5B37/:ภ;#3 7 -#*/'' 9D 3ภ<1*

:$&SภE%24<>%= (NaCl) %8(A( #!<? Na "# Cl  8ภ$$Fภ(7(#%A:()!((ภ768F%4'$;2ภ23423%%8'4ภ(!<9 ภ' ;E%24(!(2$Fภ()!((ภ%"<'%24' E5364<'' E%248 424$Fภ( 1 '(2!ภ>C 6?>ภF8ภ$Fภ(G5 7 '7(ภ$768F '(#<2( 2$Fภ()!((ภ%G5 7 ' <$%%9' ภ23&#24 $Fภ( 7 ' ภAA 1 ' $37%(&#CD(>C>%84ภ'ภ(

#$%  3.20 3;3./ <  #c- 37/:ภ;#3&ภ=3;323'3./ @*



111




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?3E%248BCK$ภ$$4&#9L24$Fภ()!((ภ%>C 1 ' E53$Fภ('(2!&# >C$)!($Fภ()!((ภ%<2(768F %"X(@:>C(2!

#$%  3.21 3;3.5* (- 37/:ภ;#3&ภ=3;3/3# 

#ภ#2@:CD(ภ (?3&ภ&B('(C( (+) "#$Fภ( (-) 7(#2&B('(ภ( B768>2C#& "7(23(2! E%249L24$Fภ( (-) 768ภA<2( &B('($Fภ("#C(7(#!&5>497(@:% <'CD(!'&5ภ$%5!(E53 &#6>%8%(2! E%24 %$2 11 $Fภ( 24>C 1 $Fภ( 6? 10 $Fภ( "2 11 C( &52C#&A'ภภ$(49 1 ภ4CD(>( Na+ <2( %$2 17 $Fภ( A 1 $Fภ( &52 18 $Fภ( "2 17 C( C#&A&5ภ$( 1 ภ4CD(>( Cl t %(!( #!&#497(@:232C#& 24ภ' >( %(2!



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#$%  3.23 @3337ภ8)'%A ภ7*8 ภ&#'*)'*$*# += '@333  %#81 ;= '97*ภ >3 %A&#'*)'*$* '@HHI

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#$%  3.24 /3# ? %_7ก7#7( ก&ก 5 (&.5* (

"ก(2E249L24$Fก( 2 '?3ก$%CK$ก$$4 %(!( &52C#& 2+ (Mg2+) <&#6F("8'' "ก(2E24 1 # G768$Fก("ก<2(>%8G5 2 # %(!(9 "ก(2E24<>%= &524(CD( MgCl2 :$&SกS2E%24238:(;#กAกE$&( กE$&(#2$Fก(7( )!((ก%กA 6 '$;2ก23&#B768)!((ก%2$Fก(F>%8B4> %99C23 3.25

#$%  3.25 ก # 8? - 9D3ก<1* 37/:ก;#3;:? @* .*(ก #- 37/:ก;#3 #>3 ก ##37/:ก;#3

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#$%  3.26 <Y/ภVZB23'/7+37<&<*'ภ#ภ7*< #%#ภ3@3337ŕ¸

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A(s) â&#x2020;&#x2019; A(g) "8'#$#6# [A(g)] &#ภ4CD(>(A'ภ%4ภC4'(E= $Fภ(ภ>C !((2!&#87)8:(>>(E)(

A(s) â&#x2020;&#x2019; A n + (g) + ne 3./  G8G(#Cภ$6#CD("F6?6' &#84"45%6(234'#6' ภภ&(2G(#CD("ภH E538%9%:(24ภ' :(ภ#6$% (heat of sublimation) 6?:(ภ#64 (heat of vaporization) B 2 (s) â&#x2020;&#x2019; B 2 (g) heat of sublimation B 2 (l) â&#x2020;&#x2019; B 2 (g) heat of vaporization



115




Chemistry for Engineers



"8'&54ภ6#(!(ภCD(# %47)8:(:(;# B 2 (g) â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2 B(g) #$#6#&#A$Fภ(ภ4CD(>(A 7(!((2!&#<4:( 24ภ:($Fภ(MMÂ&#x2039;($2 (electron affinity) B(g) + me - â&#x2020;&#x2019; B m- (g) 6&ภ23ภ$%>(A'ภ6#"#>(A6#"8' >(!ภF&#%5%9%ภ( CD(C#ภA>($ภ:8ภA<4:( 24ภ' :(<X5ภ(lattice energy)

mA n + (g) + nB m- ( g) â&#x2020;&#x2019; A m B n (s)

 ( ;1 .ภ!  557 ! <?:(23<4ภ ?3#7(@'#"ภHA$Fภ(8>C ภ4CD(>(A 3  #2ภ<?:(23<4ภ ?3>(A'ภ"#>(A''ภ(CD( C#ภA>($ภ("#?3C#ภA>($ภG9ภ4ภCD(>( ภF&#%9%:(232 <(2!8>C ; # '  3.13 2D;3ภ#ภ7* NaCl 8 ภNa (s) &/ Cl2 (g) <ภ#&<*'ภ#%/ (&%/'

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%9%:( %9%:(

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121.0

Na (g) â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na + (g) + e 1 Cl 2 (g) â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cl (g) 2 Cl (g) + e - â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cl - (g) Na + (g) + Cl - (g) â&#x2020;&#x2019; NaCl (s)

ภ'<? 1 Na (s) + Cl 2 (g) â&#x2020;&#x2019; NaCl (s) 2

<4:( $Fภ(MMÂ&#x2039;($2 348.5 <4:( :(<X5ภ769.8 ':(23%9%8>C = 108.8 + 495.4 + 121.0 = 725.2 kJ ':(23<4ภ = 348.5 + 769.8 = 1,118.3 kJ = 1,118.3 t 725.2 â&#x2C6;´CD(CK$ภ$$4<4:( = 393.1 kJ



116


Chemistry for Engineers

; # '  3.14



2D;3ภ#ภ7* KBr 8 ภK (s) &/ Br2 (l)

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K (g) â&#x2020;&#x2019; K (g) + e

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117


Chemistry for Engineers



#$%  3.28 &<*'K/)ภ@333&  2 C@/*B23' Cs @333&;=/97*8 @33397*;#' 2 / 3#3 8 @333 (Co-ordinate number = 8)

#$%  3.29 &<*'K/)ภ@333&  3 .#'<# '& Zinc sulfide @333&;=/97*8 @33397*;#' 2 / 3#3 4 @333 (Co-ordination number = 4)

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#$%  3.32 K/)ก23'< #%#ก3@3337ก

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120




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123




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124




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2. >(7(@'#"ภH&ภ8 1 ''ภAภ(!B:8ภA<4:(>I%)( (hydration energy

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A + ( g) + B - ( g) â&#x2020;&#x2019; A + (aq) + B - (aq) %4ภB6(%89:$3$ <? - :(<X5ภ= 1156 kJ/mole - :(>I%)( = 273 kJ/mole - <'G7(ภ#47((!B = 25 g / 100 cm3 23 25OC - 'ภ AB = 111 ภ. G8(B AB &B('( 28.75 g >C#4(!B&(6% &#CD(ภ#4C#@%9%6?<4 :( CD(&B('(> . ?3(B AB &B('( 0.2  >C#47((!B 200 cm3 23 25OC &#>%8X4>  #



125




Chemistry for Engineers



28.75 = 0.26 mole 111 :(<X5ภ= 1156 kJ/mole = 0.26Ă&#x2014;1156 = 300.56 kJ :(>I%)( = 273 kJ/mole = 0.26Ă&#x2014;273 = 70.98 kJ :(<X5ภ> :(>I%)( CD(:(%9%<'8( = 300.56-70.98 = 229.58 kJ Ans ภ. AB 28.75 g =

. AB 0.2 mole = 0.2 Ă&#x2014;111 = 22.2 g , (B>C#47((!B 200 cm3 23 25OC <'G7(ภ#47((!B = 25 g / 100 cm3 23 25OC %(!( AB G#47((!B>%86% "4>$3' ; # '  3.18

&<*'+ <  #c-ภ#// (23'< # '97*-D? 100 ภ#



126

Ans


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Chemistry for Engineers



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Chemical Bond