Page 1

2552  (Atom)

Chollada Kulwat RMUTL Chiangmai

30/07/52


Chemistry for Engineers [ (ATOM)]

 (Atom)

Chollada

30/07/52

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Chemistry for Engineers [ (ATOM)]

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Chemistry for Engineers [ (ATOM)]

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Chemistry for Engineers [ (ATOM)]

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Chemistry for Engineers [ (ATOM)]

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Chemistry for Engineers [ (ATOM)]

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Chemistry for Engineers [ (ATOM)]

1.6.2 0<"< (A) (Atomic mass) !;185=.8% @>=. !>U*+,-ภ&'$(<:-8). 1(/ !.0. 3'(5ภ:-8!5 3<@> =.  :-'$( 0<"< = ;D2 + ;D!

!I-3<;18 I8!5!.0 1()/ ;D! = 0<"< t ;D2 = 0<"< t 0<" ภ?/0<"8<0<"< !I:"8!.0=.!.0. ;18 B37%(%;>)/

8(+B5A70(

6*# 1.2 .!))!.0!%ภ5 3 !.0.!%ภ5 7 .!) 1  3)3<@>  =.!.2ภ!%:1 ) * + !.0 = 3 1(/ ) 3 @> =. 3 !.2ภ !.0. = 7 1(/ 7 = 3<@> + 3< !5%) 3 @> $,# 7 = 3 + 3< I8!>U;>)/ 3<8(!%ภ5 4 -# 3< = !.0. | !.0 = 7-3 = 4 1#C <!06 1   3 2 3 !0<Zภ 8< 4 ! Ans 1.6.3 ,@<ภ>%-!0+<6-

 16


Chemistry for Engineers [ (ATOM)] !.0=.!.0. I=1(18%(!,) !)ภ% F ภ(=A  A @1 )A>=55@1$;>1()/ AZ X 3ภ08A.0( .!) :%( I=1(;181()/

0<" ,# !.0. 0<"<*# ,# !.0

7 3

Li

0<"< 27 13

0<"

Al

0(4*@1>ภ3)+B!>Uภ.((;ffg !#$(3ภ)3<@>!%ภ5 3<!.2ภ - I8 ,-ภ -# ./0ภ ;>ภ23ภ.+B!>U 1 *ภ- =%I8 ภ 3ภ.+B!>U 1  6*#0/*

Na0

Na+ + e-

Na )!.0 11 3'() 3<@> = 11 =.3<!.2ภ = 11 !#$!)!.2ภ;> 1 !.2ภ ภ2(,() 3<@> = 11 =%3<!.2ภ!-.#!B)( 10 !.2ภ 1(/3'(ภ.!>U Na+ &'$()>3*;ffg!>U 1+ :((08 I8;185!.2ภ 3ภ.+B!>U;.5 =.)3< >3*.5 !%ภ53<!.2ภ)$5 6*#0/* Cl0 + e|

Cl|

Cl )!.0 17 3'() 3<@> = 17 =.3<!.2ภ = 17 !#$5!.2ภ 1 !.2ภ ภ2(,() 3<@> = 17 =%3<!.2ภ!B$!>U 18 !.2ภ 1(/3'(ภ.!>U Cl| &'$()>3*;ffg!>U 1|

 17


Chemistry for Engineers [ (ATOM)] 8qrภ1 1.2 1. ;ภ,@<ภ>%-!0+<6-"#9*9C ;#;D2 !0<Zภ 8< ! ภ. 2.

32 2 â&#x2C6;&#x2019; 16

0.

S

23 11

Na +

;#0"6,@<ภ>%-!0+<6-;ภ"$<*9C ภ. 4*ภ ( Ar ) &'$() 18 !.2ภ =. 22  0. ,.;1; ( Cl- ) &'$() 18 !.2ภ =. 18  ,. =,.!&); ( Ca2+ ) &'$()!.0. = 40 =.3<!.2ภ = 18

1.6.4 92A2 (Isotope) 4**ภ"1))$)3<@>!%ภ53<!.2ภ =.4*"1!1)ภ 3)3<;%!%ภ !"% ,5)@> 6  3'()!.2ภ 6 18 @1>ภ ,5) 6  =%,55("1)8ภ%-#ภภ% 6  # 1.2 92A2

8,1#92A2*#m"#M3+-

,@<ภ>%11

C

12

C

13

C

14

C

;D2 6 6 6 6

8<;D37+N:Cx"#8*<

;D:0<Zภ 6 6 6 6

;D! 5 6 7 8

,5)$B5:4"ภภ% 99% !>U 12 C

0(4*)$)3<@> =. !.2ภ!%ภ =%)3<%(ภ <:-8).%(ภ 31!>U !>B> (Isotope) ภ 1#C C-11, C-12, C-13 8< C-14 0492A2ภ

 18


Chemistry for Engineers [ (ATOM)]

,@<ภ>%-

12 6

C :0"66*##*604

12

C (+-,!,#)

8,1#*+-C28<!6*#< 6  ,3 92A2 ,# 0(4*"1!1)ภ)$)3<@>!%ภ =%3< %(ภ

1.6.4.1 92A2"#M39y210;

1 1

2 1

H

p+ = 1, e- = 1, no = 0

p+ = 1, e- = 1, no = 1

$ 1.16 92A2"#9y210;

1.6.4.2 92A- 8< 92A2 92A- (Isobar) : 0(4*%("1ภ )!.0.!%ภ =%)!.0 =.3<;%!%ภ !"%  19

H


Chemistry for Engineers [ (ATOM)] 14 7

92A2 (Isotone)

:

N

=.

14 6

C

0(4*%("1ภ )3<!%ภ =%!.0 =.!.0.;%!%ภ !"% 16 =. 146C 8O

# 1.3 8,1#+6"#92A2 Isotope 16 8

O

A 16

18 8

O

18

Z 8

n 8

8

10

Z 7

n 7

6

8

Z 8

n 8

6

8

# 1.4 8,1#+6"#92AIsobar 14 7

N

A 14

14 6

C

14

# 1.5 8,1#+6"#92A2 Isotone 16 8

O

A 16

14 6

C

14

",#0ภ 3ภ?.ภ67!,.)&'$() A, Z =.3< (n) 4*)$3!>U;@&@> ; @&5 -# ;@&@ภ 3)%(:1%(-'$(!%ภ %)$!-.#)ภ2 %(3;%!%ภ /()/ (!ภ;183ภภ1:+6(ภ[6()$0)1!8:8) 1()/ # 1.6 0606,!#0*ภ8<,!#9*0*ภ"#92A2 92A- 8<92A2

 20


Chemistry for Engineers [ (ATOM)] 07 ISOTOPE ISOBAR ISOTONE

,!#0*ก p : Z A n

,!#9*0*ก A, n Z, n A, Z

8qrก1 1.3 1. ;#;D2 ! 8<!0<Zก "#*9C ,@<ก>%;D2 ;D!0<Zก 16 8

;D!

O

31 15

P

40 18

Ar

40 20

Ca

84 36

Kr

127 53

I

133 55

Cs

207 82

Pb

223 87

Fr

2. ;#;D2 ! 8<!0<Zก ?92A2C#,#"#+< (Cl) 35 17

Cl 8<

37 17

Cl  21


Chemistry for Engineers [ (ATOM)]

3. 9y210; (0<" 1)  3 92A21#C 11H , 12 H 8< 13 H ภ. ;@&@> ,#; ". 3(-3<@>  =. !.2ภ0(;@&@>/()/ +. $()$!B$,=ภ%(0(;@&@>/( ,#; 4. 0<Zภ 2 92A2+: Fe-56 8< Fe-59 ;#0!#?,$%92A2 0<"< ;D2 Fe-56 Fe-59

1.7

;D!

ภ<0h<6"#92A2

@1$;> 4*%(J3);@&@>A%:4" &'$(=%."13).=. >7:4";%!%ภ ภ

" %" E % ,+% D  , ภ!>B> &'$() ,B41()/ M=

â&#x2C6;&#x2018; %A = (%A ) + (%A 1

100

2

) + .............

100

M = .!].)$0(;@&@> % = >78.)$)A%:4" A = .0(=%.;@&@> 603 :ภ7))$@3;%ภ<-1.0(=%.;@&@>:-833:"8!.0.0(=% .;@&@>=;18 6*# 1.3 3ภภ:"8=!>ภ@! ;189.3ภภ1.(% =ภÂ&#x2026;ภ>ภ518 3 ;@&@> ,#

36 38 40 18 Ar, 18 Ar, 18 Ar  22


Chemistry for Engineers [ (ATOM)]

>7;@&@>) 0.1, 0.3 =. 99.6% .<15 3(,<7.!].)$0( ภ (%A)1 + (%A) 2 + (%A)3 M= ) * + 3ภA 100

!#$(3ภ;%ภ<-1. 3'(:"8!.0.=

M=

(0.1 Ă&#x2014; 36) + (0.3 Ă&#x2014; 38) + (99.6 Ă&#x2014; 40) = 39.99 100

.!].)$0( Ar = 39.99

Ans

8qrภ1 1.4 1. (=1();@&@>,# Cu-63 =. Cu-65 %/((;@&@>). !%ภ5 63 =. 65 .<15 3) Cu-63 =. Cu-65 :4"%(.ภ)$!>!&2 I8. !].)$0((=1(!>U 63.546 2. ,5);@&@> 2 "1,# C-12 =. C-13 ,%.!].)$0(,5!>U!%; @1ภ<-1:-8 C-12 ):4" 98.89% . 12.000 C-13 ):4" 1.11% . 13.003

1.8

ภ;11N<##"#

3ภ=553<.()$% >ภ518!,.)A%(ภ.( @1)!.2ภ @,3A%5 J <:-8!ภ1>^?-%  ภ% ."ภ  "!  ! !B!.2ภ)>3*.5!-#ภ,39.ภภ ภ3ภ)/(;%I45ภ !ภ1)0(!>.;f!#$)ภ!9 3'(;18)ภ'ภ615B.((: =.ภภ30(

 23


Chemistry for Engineers [ (ATOM)] !.2ภ:15B.((%(J @1:"808A.!ภ)$ภ5 ภ!ภ1!>ภ (spectrum) =. B.((;;!&" (Ionization energy) !!08:3@,(8(!.2ภ+:3ภภ!,-=()$IAภ1A1ภ.#-#)$ IAภ>.1>.%ภ 3'(3<!>U8('ภ6!#$(0(=(ภ% 1.8.1 ,0ภ =-.%(ภ<!1=(5("13:-8=()$),,.#$!B)(,%!1) !"% =(3ภ!.!& =(-#()>!+)/!)ภ% $">" %ภ(monochromatic light)

$ 1.17 8,#2+!ภ9 1;ภ0<0A- 8,# 0<0A-/!1C?/?ภ5*1

=%=-.%(ภ<!1=($;> !"% -.1;ffg-#1(1 :-8())$),,.#$;18-. ,% !#$()3ภ=-.%(ภ<!1!-.%)/IAภ=ภภ!>U=%.,,.#$ 3;18=I50(=()$!)ภ% !>ภ (spectrum)

$ 1.18 ,0ภ8*0:#"#8,# #0Z 0ภ!1;ภ5*8,#,"96# !AB 8,#,"918ภ* 8,#!6- : 8,#;ภ<19eM1?/9,

$ 1.19 ,0ภ8*0:# (continuous spectrum)  24


Chemistry for Engineers [ (ATOM)]

!#$=()09%>&'ภ 3=ภภ!>U=I50(=()%(J /(=% %( , /< !( !0) !-.#( =1 =. =1( @1;%)"%(%(-%(=(=%.) =I5))$(!-2*ภ,,.#$)/ !)ภ%!>U  ภ)2 3 (continuous spectrum)

$   1.20 +6+<:  "#+<:  8*0<Zภ9eef <ภ>%,0ภ 0hN/*#+<: 0,iภ,*#m91;ภ+*+6+<:

=(0!>U,.#$=%!-.2ภ;ffg)$),I)$,.#$-%( 4.29Ă&#x2014;1014 - 7.89Ă&#x2014;1014 Hz I (!-218!>.% !#$=(09%>&'3IAภ=ภภ!>U=I5)%(J%!#$(ภ 7 ))$ ภ.%=.8 !)(.<153ภ,I)$A(;>$< !"% =()%( ),I)$ 7.14Ă&#x2014;1014 | 7.89Ă&#x2014;1014 Hz ),,.#$ 380-420 nm =()!-.#( ),I)$ 5.08Ă&#x2014;1014 | 5.17Ă&#x2014;1014 Hz ),,.#$ 580-590 nm =()=1( ),I)$ 4.29Ă&#x2014;1014 | 4.62Ă&#x2014;1014 Hz ),,.#$ 650-700 nm 1.8.2 ,0ภ"#M3 =-.%(ภ<!1=(;%3<!>U8(:-8!>ภ=55%!#$(! ภ<=ภÂ&#x2026;"1%(J 53*:-.1*??ภ =.89%ภ;ffg=(A(!08;> 3<:-8=ภÂ&#x2026;!>.%(=()$))%(Jภ !"% =(3ภ=ภÂ&#x2026;):-8)8-=1( :"8:-.1;f@Â&#x201A;67 -.1;f:-8,%(58(I :"8;0(@&!1) &'$(<:-8!ภ1=()!-.#( !#$:-8=(9%>&' 3;18!>ภ0(=()$!>U !8J )$),%,,.#$!B)(5(,% !#$<>ภ5"1%(J!9;f %:-?%3;18!>.;f)$))%(ภ >ภ50(@.-"1!1)ภ 3;18!>.;f)$))!-#ภ >ภ50(@.-%("1ภ 3;18!>.;f)$))%(ภ !"% Na2CO3, NaCl, NaNO3 :-8!>.;f)!-.#(!-#ภ

 25


Chemistry for Engineers [ (ATOM)] !"% Na2CO3, CaCO3, SrCO3 :-8!>.;f)$))%(ภ ,# )!-.#( =1(T =.=1( !.#1ภ.<15 /()/!B!>U@.-%("1ภ !#$1A)0(!>.;f18!>ภ@@,> 3!-2!>ภ=55!8)$)-.!8 =.)) %(Jภ @1!8!>ภ)$),!08ภ)$*13))!1)ภ5)0(!>.;f)$(!-2;1818 !>.% !"% Na2CO3 !#$!9;f3!-2)!-.#( !#$1A9%ภ.8(!>ภ@@,>3!-2!8!>ภ -.!8 !"%!8)!-.#( )8 )%( =%)$!1%"1)$*1 ,#!8)!-.#( &'$(!-#ภ5)0(!>. ;f 0,"#,*#m i$ภ+168i,1D AB#04!0%9*8,#?1ภb ,0ภ+* +6+<:0hN#+*C 06ภ*  ภ)0 (line spectrum) ภ;<ภ=ภ,3-*ภ ภ >./0*2 ?-. ,ภ++

  @ A ,3122 3 ภ

$ 1.21 ,0ภ"#8,#"8<0,,0ภ"#M3#M3

 26


Chemistry for Engineers [ (ATOM)] 1.8.3 ภF"#8N<#+ภfhภ"!"#$ $"ภBA $ A (Max Planck) B5%=( -# ,.#$=%!-.2ภ;ffg !>UB.((A>-'$( =.)%B4ภ5,I)$0(,.#$ @1/(!>Uภ\!)ภ% ภ) $ A !06T% B.(()$>.1>.%ภ;> -#1A1ภ.#!08;>=%.,/( 38( )>7!]B)$),%8)$*1,%-'$( &'$(!0:-8"#$>7)/% %" (Quantum " #+ " =) <-5>7B.((0(,.#$=%!-.2ภ;ffg)$>.1>.%ภ-#IAภ1A1ภ.# !08;> (E) 3!%ภ5,%,()$,%-'$( (h) ,A7ภ5,I)$ (ν) N<##"#+<:8*0<Zภ9eef 04,1,*216#ภ+i"#+<:

E = hν

E â&#x2C6;?ν 0:

E = B.((0(,.#$=%!-.2ภ;ffg (-%!>U3A.) ν = ,I)$0(,.#$=%!-.2ภ;ffg (-%!>U!c -# 5/)) h = ,%,()$0(=B.(, = 6.626 Ă&#x2014; 10-34 3A..)

Qν =

c

Îť

â&#x2C6;´ E = hν =

;

hc

Îť

C = ,!20(=(:*??ภ (-%!>U !/)) Îť = ,0(,.#$=%!-.2ภ;ffg (-%!>U !) 6*# 1.4 =()8)B.(( 3.31Ă&#x2014;10-19 J 3),I)$ =. ,,.#$!>U!%:1 hc ) * + 3ภE = hν =

Îť

E = B.((0(=( = 3.31Ă&#x2014;10-19 J h = ,%,()$0(=B.(, = 6.626 Ă&#x2014; 10-34 J.s c = ,!20(=( = 3 Ă&#x2014; 108 m/s â&#x2C6;´3.31 Ă&#x2014; 10 -19 J = 6.626 Ă&#x2014; 10 -34 J.s Ă&#x2014;ν = 6.626 Ă&#x2014; 10 -34 Ă&#x2014;

 27

3.0 Ă&#x2014; 10 8 m/s

Îť


Chemistry for Engineers [ (ATOM)]

ν=

3.31× 10 −19 J = 5.0 ×1014 Hz 6.626 × 10 −34 J.s

Ans

−34 × 10 8 )m/s = 6.0 × 10 −7 m λ = (6.626 × 10 )J.s ×−(3.0 3.31 × 10 19 J

Ans

8qrก1 1.5 1. ,.#$=%!-.2ก;ffg)$),I)$ 7.50×1014 Hz 3)B.(( =. ,,.#$!>U!%:1 2. ,.#$=%!-.2ก;ffg)/<!(),,.#$ 473 nm 3)B.(( =. ,I)$0(,.#$!>U !%:1 3. I8=ก… CO 1A1ก.#=()$,I)$ 1.20×1011 Hz 3(,<7,,.#$0(=()$IAก=ก…CO 1A1ก.#)/ (!>U!) ,!20(=( = 3.0×108 m/s 4. ,.#$=%!-.2ก;ffg)$),,.#$ 300 nm 3)B.((!>Uก)$3A. (J) ก<-1 h = 6.626×10-34 J.s =. c = 3.0×108 m/s 1.8.4 ก,#8;D<#0N:M!6ก0ก!1,0ก =553<.()$ก.%=.8/(-1 ;%I45 - >ก`ก7!ก)$ก5)0(!>.;f!#$!9>ก5 - !-*:1>ก50(@.-%("1ก3'(:-8)0(!>.;f)$=ก%(ก - @1!]B%($( 45ก!ก1!>ก;%;18 3'(8(8(=553<.(:-%0'/ 3กก\0(=B.(,   "ก  ก "# $%  ก)$3:"845 ก!ก1!>ก;18 $,- %" ,ก  ก   =.!#$(3กก%" ก + " ก(=C!"%9 1(/   . &%" C   !"%9!"%!1)ก @1T1(ก.% 3'(ก<-1@,(8(0(0'/:-%1()/ • >ก518@>=.ก!>U!,.) • 5J!,.)3=5%(ก!>U"/J)$;%%!#$(ก =%."/3)B.(( >3<,%-'$(

 28


Chemistry for Engineers [ (ATOM)] â&#x20AC;˘ 15B.((0("/)$A%:ภ.8!,.))$*13),%B.(($<*1 !)ภ%    9 P  =.B.((3!B$0'/!#$J.<15:"/)$A%-%( ภ;> â&#x20AC;˘ !.2ภ)$!,.#$)$A%5J!,.)3ภ3A%:15B.((%(J @1 08ภ<-1%!.2ภ3A%:15B.((:1 38()B.((:!%ภ5 ,%0(B.((>3<15/

$ 1.22

+:!0+<6, E1 +:N<##,7N:Cx E2, E3,...+:1N<##, $#"BC E1 < E2 < E3 < Â&#x2030;

!.2ภ)$3A%:15B.(( E1, E2, E3,........38()B.((:!%ภ5 E1, E2, E3,.........<15 !.2ภ:15 E1 3;>A%: E2 ;%;18 :<(ภ.5ภ !.2ภ:15 E2 ภ2 3A%:15 E1 ;%;18!"%!1)ภ I8!.2ภ15$<;185B.((!B$0'/ 3!,.#$)$0#/;>A%15B.(()$A(0'/ &'$( <:-8;%!I) =.3Bภ.5A%15B.((!1 @1,B.((%-'$(ภ;> !"%I8 !.2ภ: E1 ;185B.((!B$0'/ ภ23IAภภ*8:-80'/;>A%15 E2, E3, E4, ...... &'$(<:-8;% !I) 38(,B.((ภ!B#$:-8ภ.5A%15 E1

3 $ 1.23 1"#N<##"#!0<Zภ  29


Chemistry for Engineers [ (ATOM)]

1.8.5 ภM!6ภ0ภ!1,0ภ 3ภ=553<.(1(ภ.% 3!-2;18%!ภ)$08(ภ5B.(( &'$(<45ภ!ภ1 !>ภ;18 ,# !#$IAภ!9;f  ภ%,!  " +  3'(#.ภภ%&  + !.   . + $ !"#   ภ%,ภ.  " >     ภ ภ&'$(3A%:A>0(=()$),I)$(ภ5)%(J:=(0 3'(<:-8!-2!>.;f-# !>ภ!>U)%(Jภ !#$(3ภB.(()$,ภ;>1,.8(ภ5,%,I)$0(=(-.,% &'$(=%.,%(ภ5)0(!>ภ%(Jภ 3'(!-2!8!>ภ-.!8!#$1A18!>ภ@ @,> Excited state

Stable state

$ 1.24 $;D<#ภ0ภ!1,0ภ

!#$(3ภ=553<.(:-%)/45>ภ`ภ7!ภ)$ภ5!>ภ;18 IAภ8(ภ%=553<.(#$J)$9% 1.8.6 ภ6*#1N<## !#$(3ภ+:)ภ=5%(15B.((!>U"/J5J!,.) ,!#;D04# - .ภ670(ภ3115B.((5J!,.)!>U%(; - =%."/),=ภ%(0(B.((!%ภ-#;% !B37;183ภภ'ภ6!>ภ0(;c@1!3 # 1.7

8,1#5<*#"#1N<##76?"#9y210;  30

3'(I#%


Chemistry for Engineers [ (ATOM)]

0,,0ภ +6+<: (nm) 410 ,*# 434 ,CD0#! 486 ,CD0< 656 ,81#

N<## Ă&#x2014; 10-22 (kJ) 4.84 4.57 4.08 3.02

5<*#"#N<##"#0,,0ภ6$*i1ภ Ă&#x2014; 10-23 (kJ) 2.7 4.9 10.6

9.%(-%(B.((0(15B.((,A%)$A%I1ภ=%.,A%),%;%!%ภ )$15 B.(($< J 9.%(0(B.((3ภ)$15B.((A(J 9.%(0(B.((38.( ,3 - :$J;> ,=ภ%(-%(B.((0(15B.((=%.15)$A%I1 ภ3),%;%!%ภ.1 - ,=ภ%(0(B.((3),%.1.(.<15 !#$B.((A(0'/ ,# 15B.(($( A(0'/ 3$(A%"1ภภ0'/ - -%(-%(15B.(()$A%:ภ.8!,.)3),%ภ=.),%8.(-#"1ภ ภ0'/!#$A%-%(3ภ!,.)ภ;> 3ภ[6\),0(=B.(, )08(!ภ% ,%,()$0(=B.(,),%8 <:-8,% B.((, hν )>7818 1(/,%)$%(ภ!>U0/J =%%(ภ!.2ภ8 3'((!ภ;18 ภภ) $ A =1(B.(()$;185-#A?!)%),%!%ภ!;%%I*/3)01 !.2ภ!"%-#:-?%3358(;18 I*01:-?%!#$;185-#A?!)B.(( 1 -% , 3'(;%I(!ภ;18 =%I8!>UI*01!.2ภ15 B.((,5%) ,%ภ=.),<,?ภ18 %.!5 ;; (Albert Einstein) :"8[6\)0(=B.(,45 >ภ`ภ7@f @!.2ภภ(photoelectric effect) % =()$ภภ5ภ59@.- 3<:-8!.2ภ0(@.- -.*1ภ;> @.-=%."18(ภB.((!]B&'$(%(88(),%-'$(&'$(<:-8 !.2ภ-.*1ภ;>;18 !"% @.-&)!&) (Cs) 3>.1>.%!.2ภภ;188(:"8=()$) ,I)$ 4.60Ă&#x2014;1014 s-1 I8:"8,I)$$<ภ%)/ !.2ภ3;%-.*1ภ;>

 31

$ 1.25 (a) ภbภ%-2e2!0<Zภ!ภ0:?2e N<##,$#ภN ภ5 !"#2< !0<Zภ;<31ภ91


Chemistry for Engineers [ (ATOM)]

1.9

8;D<#"#2-

9.(0(=B.(,=.;; ;18<(;>A%,!08:3:!#$(ภ310( !.2ภ)$A%: ภfhภ"!1ภ"#$  A >A (Niels Bohr) ;18![6\))$45>ภ`ภ7 ภ!ภ1!80(=()$!)ภ%!>ภ !0;18<9.ภ'ภ6!>ภ0(4*8(!>U =553<.(0'/:-% !)ภ% $,- %" >A -.(3ภ)$!f1,8B54"0(!,.):/ ภ) ,,1!ภ)$ภ5%!-#ภ5  ,   (microscopic solar system) @5 45ภ!ภ1!>ภ=55!80(;c@1!3 @1I#%!.2ภ@,35!,.)!>U (ภ. [6\)fhภ=9!1 (classical physics) !#$*+,)$)>3* !"% !.2ภ!,.#$)$@1)($(!>U( 3A?!)B.((@1 >.1>.%,.#$=%!-.2ภ;ffgภ%(%!#$( &'$(:)$*1 3<:-8!.2ภ$(!08- !,.) =,10(@5)$:"845ภ!>.%(()0(I*8/,.8ภ50(=B.(, &'$(ภ\( fhภ07/();%!B)(B)$345;18 !03'(<[6\)0(=B.(,)$!ภ)$ภ5B.(( ,:"8@1!% >,":" &

+%"  D %  ภ%, .&>, ! %"  D 

+   B+ ภ   C! (allowed energy state)  ภ% .& ,!"     ภ"  ,+!" 

   ภ:"8T08(8)/ @5;18=1(:-8!-2% !.2ภ@,35!,.)18()$ )),%-'$( (@,3)$!>U;18)B.((!]B &'$()A%((%,#  32


Chemistry for Engineers [ (ATOM)]

1 E n = ( â&#x2C6;&#x2019;R H ) 2  n 

RH

n = 1, 2, 3, 4,........ .......... ..

= )0(;1!5ภ(Rydberg constant)

= 2.18 Ă&#x2014; 10 â&#x2C6;&#x2019;18 J

%!.03<!2 n ),%;18/(=% 1 I'(,% (â&#x2C6;&#x17E;) !)ภ% !.0,-.ภ(principle quantum number) (@,3)$),% n %(ภ 3))(@,3%(ภ ,# I8 n ),%ภ0'/ (@,33:-?%0'/ @1 r !>U1%ภ5 n2 1(/ (@,3=ภ()$:ภ.8ภ5!,.)ภ)$*1) ),% n = 1 I1;>!>U()$(),% n = 2 =.%;>!#$J %)0((@,3)$),% n = 2 3!>U 22 -# 4 !%0((@,3)$ 1 B.((!.2ภ:;c@1!3)$,<73ภภ08(8 ),%!>U.5 $( B.(($<.(!%:1 /3),!I)ภ0'/!%/ <-5 n = 1 B.((3),%$<*1 (!>U.5) !#$ n ),%A(0'/ B.((3!>U.58.( -#),%A(0'/ 15B.((0(!.2ภ0/$<*1 !#$ n !>U 1 31!>U +B#/ (ground state) 0( / !#$1A1ภ.#B.((!.2ภ30'/;>A%:15B.((0/)$A(ภ%31!>U +!8 (excited state) &'$(;%!I)!.2ภ;%A%3Bภ.5!08A%+B#/@1, B.((ภ:A>0(B.((=(

3ภ+B=1(15B.((0(;c@1!3)$),% n %(Jภ

$ 1.26 1N<##"#9y210; 8;D<#"#2- <$ภ.8,1#8,!/ "#!0<Zภ0<61N<##;ภ1B# 96#ภ1B# AB#?C8,1# ;ภn = 1 9iB# n = 6 8<1 n = â&#x2C6;&#x17E;  N<##04.$6-

 33


Chemistry for Engineers [ (ATOM)]

3*>;18% I8!.2ภ:)B.(( 2 15 3;18!8!>ภ 1 !8 &'$( !ภ13ภภ!>.)$3ภ15B.((A(;>15B.(($<0(!.2ภ: % @c 5.! ;18<ภ'ภ6!>ภ0(;c@1!3:"%( !>ภ)$(!-2;18 (400-700 nm) B5!>ภ)$!1%"1 4 !8 !8!>ภ:*ภ 5.! ;183ภภ)$!.2ภภ@113ภ15B.(()$ 3 -#)$ 4 -#)$ 5 =.)$%J;> (15B.(()$ 2 ภ)$!.2ภ30'/;>A%:15B.((:1ภ2=.8=%>7B.(()$;185 !#$ !.2ภภ.5A%+B#/@1>.%B.((=%.3<ภ=%3ภภ.5.(;>A%15 B.((:1 3'(<:-8!ภ1!8!>ภ3<ŕ¸

$ 1.27 ภ;ภ3ภ<08< 6#3ภ9<8 AB#6$*?0" <920<"#,0ภ 8< 3ภN0A 3ภ8ภ0ภ- 8< 3ภe31-?0"!e01

7N8,1#8;D<#"#2!>U(ภ. >ภ518 @>=.!>U!,.) @1) !.2ภ@,3A%5J!,.)!>U"/J 15B.((

$ 1.28 7N8,1#8;D<#"#2 34


Chemistry for Engineers [ (ATOM)]

<-5"/0(B.((/ @5;18ภ<-1?.ภ670'/@1:-8"/)$A%:ภ.8!,.))$*1 !>U"/ K =."/I1J;>!>U L, M, N, O, P, =. Q .<15 &'$(:>^33*5!)ภ15B.(()$ A%:ภ.8!,.))$*1 ("/ K) % 15B.(( n = 1 =.15B.((I1ภ;>!>U n = 2, n = 3, ........... ภ1.(0(@5 =.=553<.(0(!0),<,?ภ!B!>Uภ< =,1!ภ)$ภ515B.((,0(!.2ภ)$A%::"8 .ภ67=55)/;18 <:"8ภ5=553<.(:>^33*5 =%%(;ภ2 =553<.(0(@545;18 !]B-#;)$)!.2ภ!1)$ !"% H, He+, =. Li+ !%/ ;%I45 =.;"1#$ ภ!8ภ45%(,%J!%/ 3'(<:-88()ภ!>.)$=>.( =553<.(%;>)ภ=%(,(=,10(B.((,=.[6\)0(=B.(,;8

1.10 ภ;106#!0<Zภ!0+<6, 1.10.1 N<##990A/ (Ionization energy) :"8!>U08A.<-5-3<!.2ภ)$)A%:=%.15B.(( !>Uภ'ภ6% 3ภภ:"8!>ภ-15B.((: <:-85%:=%.15B.((I) !.2ภ;18ภ)$!.2ภ -#:*ภJ15B.((3)!.2ภ!%ภ-#;% ภ2I B37;183ภB.((;;!&" 

 11 B@ -# !)ภ%% IE -I'(B.(()$8(:"8:ภ1'(!.2ภ 1  ภ3ภ -#;)$A%:+=ภÂ&#x2026;

%(!"% A(g) â&#x2020;&#x2019; A + (g) + e â&#x2C6;&#x2019;

  &*&"ภ   9+  ภ%ภ, ภ%" 9   ! !B* 9 IE

A + (g) â&#x2020;&#x2019; A 2 + (g) + e â&#x2C6;&#x2019; A 2 + (g) â&#x2020;&#x2019; A 3+ (g) + e â&#x2C6;&#x2019;

/1  /+)$!ภ)$08(ภ5

 11 B@ 38(A%:?*)ภE !%/ =.ภ+< ภ ภ0 +< ภ  1 * 3ภ!.2ภ)$A%"/ภ*10( -#;

 35


Chemistry for Engineers [ (ATOM)] .<15)$0(B.((;;!&" 0'/A%ก53<!.2ก: ,# I8) n !.2ก 3)B.((;;!&" n .<15 B.((;;!&".<15)$ 1, 2, 3,........-I'(B.(()$1'(!.2กก*1)$ 1, 2, 3,........ก.<15 !"% IE 1 + A(g) → A + (g) + e − IE 2 + A + (g) → A 2 + (g) + e − IE 3 + A 2 + (g) → A 3+ (g) + e −

1.10.2 „;;65<*N<##990A/ =5%(!>U 2 >!+ ,# - 01 -#-%(!,.)ก5!.2ก )$)01:-?%3),%B.((;;!&"8 !#$(3ก-%( !.2กก5!,.)-%(กก =(1'(1A18 :"8B.((;%กก2I1'(!.2ก ก;>;18 :((08)$)01!.2ก3)B.((;;!&"ก !B=(1'(1A1 -%(!.2กก5!,.)ก - 3<>3*5ก:!,.) -#;)$)>3*5ก:!,.)ก 3)B.((;;!&"กก% )$)>3*5ก:!,.)8 !B!#$>3*:!,.)ก3)=(1'(1A1ก5 !.2กก B.((;;!&"3'(),%ก :ก7))$>^33/((-ก.8(ก :-8I#%01!>U>^33)$<,?ก% ก3ก)/ (338(B37>^33%(#$>ก518 !"%

2+#,#"# 8< ก;106#!0<Zก? - I8@,(8(0(-#;!-#ก…&!]#$ 3!I)=.)B.((; ;!&"ก - I8!.2ก(ก*10(=.;)=(9.กก8 3)B.((;; !&"กก%ก7))$!.2ก)=(9.กกก 1.10.3 ก;D!0<Zก?1N<##*#m216?/N<##990A/  36


Chemistry for Engineers [ (ATOM)] IE 0(4*I:"8-3<!.2ก)$A%:=%.15B.((;18 @1B37 ;183ก-%(-%(!.2กก5!,.) !.2ก)$A%:15B.((!1)ก ,3) IE :ก.8!,)(ก !BA%-%(3ก !,.):(:ก.8!,)(ก :07)$!.2ก&'$(A%%(15B.((3),% IE %(ก%(!-2;18"1 !B -%(!.2กก5!,.)%(กก ก-3<!.2ก)$A%:15B.((%(J -;183กB.((;;!&" /(-10(4*/J - -.(3ก-,% IE /(-1=.8<31ก.*%ก @1:"8 IE )$),%:ก.8!,)(กA%:ก.*% !1)ก - 3ก3< IE )$A%ก.*%!1)ก<:-853<!.2ก)$A%:15B.(( !1)ก (3<!.2ก:15B.((!1)ก ,# 3<.<15)$0( IE )$A%: ก.*%!1)ก) ก.*% IE )$),%A(*13A%:ก.8!,.))$*1 ก.*% IE )$),%.1.(ก23A%:15B.(( I1;> 3I'(ก.*%)$) IE $<*13A%:15B.((ก*1 !.2ก:ก.*%)/ !)ก% !!.& !.2ก B37%(0(4*ff (15P) P ) 15e- 3'() IE 15 .<15 &'$(31ก.*% IE ;181()/ (-%!>U MJ/mol) IE1, IE2,........................... 1.0, 1.9, 2.9, 5.0, 6.3, 21.3, 25.4, 29.9, 35.9, 41.0, 46.3, 54.1, 59.0, 271, 296

ก.*%)$ 1 IE1 | IE5

ก.*%)$ 2 IE6 | IE13

ก.*%)$ 3 IE14 | IE15

;0Z91*8*# IE ก9104 3 ก<3* ก.*%=ก,# IE1-IE5  5 .<15 =1(%) 5 !.2ก !#$(3ก)B.(($<*1 3'(A% -%(3ก!,.)ก)$*1 31!>U!!.&!.2ก ก.*% 2 /(=% IE6-IE13  8 .<15 -#) 8 !.2ก)$A%:15B.(()/ !#$(3ก) B.((!B$0'/ 3'(A%:ก.8!,.)กก%ก.*%=ก

 37


Chemistry for Engineers [ (ATOM)] ภ.*% 3 &'$(!>Uภ.*%*18) IE14-IE15 !B)( 2 .<15 3'() 2 !.2ภ:ภ.*%)/ !#$(3ภ) B.((A(*1 =1(%A%:ภ.8!,.)ภ)$*1 -#A%:15B.((=ภ0( (n = 1)

$ 1.29 ภ;106#!0<Zภ?1N<##*#m!0+<6,"#M3e,e, (P)

3ภ,% IE1 | IE15 I<31!)(!.2ภ15B.((%(J 3ภ15 B.((=ภI'(15B.((*18;18 1()/ 1N<## 1 (n = 1)  2e1N<## 2 (n = 2)  8e1N<## 3 (n = 3)  5eภ31!)(!.2ภ0(4* P :15B.((%( J 3'(!>U 15P = 2, 8, 5

$ 1.30 ภ;106#!0<Zภ"#M3 P ?1N<##*# m

3ภภ'ภ6ภ31!.2ภ0(4*#$J B5% 3<!.2ภ)$);18ภ)$*1: 15B.((%(J31,.8(ภ5*ภ(,7 ,# 2n2 !"% 1N<## 1 (n = 1)  e- ภ,31 = 2 1N<## 2 (n = 2)  e- ภ,31 = 8 1N<## 3 (n = 3)  e- ภ,31 = 18  38


Chemistry for Engineers [ (ATOM)] 1N<## 4 (n = 4)  e- ภ,31 = 32 1.10.4 <ภ0ภ%Â&#x2026;- m 9,Dภ;106#!0<Zภ? ภ3ภB.((;;!&" !B#$31!)(!.2ภ:15B.((%(J=.8 (8(08A.#$J>ภ518 !"%08A.3ภภ31!.2ภ0(4*!]#$ &'$(<:-8 I*>-.ภ!ภ7Â&#x17D;$J;><-5ภ31!.2ภ ;181()/ 1. 3<!.2ภ)ภ)$*1:=%.15B.(( = 2n2 2. 3<!.2ภ:15B.((ภ*1 (!!.&!.2ภ) );18;%!ภ 8e3. 3<!.2ภ:15B.((I13ภ(ภ*1 );18;%!ภ 18e4. ภ31!.2ภ8(31!)(:15B.(()$$<ภ%:-8!2ภ% 3'(3:%: 15B.(()$A(0'/ 6*# 1.5 ;#8,1#ภ;106#!0<Zภ"#M3*9C

a) 34 Se b) 85 At a) 34Se  34e- ;106#<D1 1#C 2, 8, 18, 6 b) 85At  85e- ;106#<D1 1#C 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 7 8qrภ1 1.6 1. N<##990A/ 6 <D1"#M3+-+*1#C 1.093, 2.359, 4.627, 6.229, 37.838 8< 47.285 MJ/mol 5<*#"#N<##990A/*#1N<## 1 ภ1 N<## 2 040*9 2. M3 K 0<"04 19 0:0ภ!1049 K+ ;ภ;1!0<Zภ6*#9 3. M3,! 117X ;ภ;106#!0<Zภ6*#9 8<+;00<A-!0<Zภ0*?1 4. ;#0"6ภ;106#!0<Zภ"#M3*9C ,@<ภ>%ภ;106#!0<Zภ?1N<##*# m 16 8

O

 39


Chemistry for Engineers [ (ATOM)] 31 15

P

40 18

Ar

40 20

Ca

84 36

Kr

127 53

I

133 55

Cs

207 82

Pb

223 87

Fr

1.11 8;D<#8ก<3*ก )$ก.%=.8% =553<.(0(@5 :"845;181)!]B-#; )$)!.2ก!1)$ =;%I450(4*)$)3<!.2กกJ;18 3'(;18) ก!=553<.(:-%0'/ !)ก% $,- %"$ก " "ก &'$().ก67 1()/ - !.2ก!,.#$)$5!,.)%(1!218 ))$;%=% - ;%I5ก<=-%()$=%0(!.2ก ;18 5ก;18=,%!B)(@ก)$3B5!.2ก: 5!7%(J >ก`ก7=55)/!)ก% ก.*%-ก !.2ก 5!7:1)$)ก.*%!.2ก-=% =1(%)@ก)$3B5!.2กก 5!7:1 )$)ก.*%-ก!.2ก!55( =1(%)@ก $ 1.31 8;D<#ก<3* ก )$3B5!.2ก8 - ก!,.#$)$5!,.)0(!.2ก3!>UA>(ก.-#A>#$J =.8=%% !.2ก3A%:15B.((:1 - 9.0(ก.*%-ก0(!.2ก*ก15B.(( 3!>UA>(ก.

 40

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