Georgina Gongora Daniela Perinova Harriette Read Rahel Yael Quirant Sebastian Sara Traverso Anneke van der Veer
• Key Roles .............................................................................4 Creative Roles ...........................................................................6 Production Roles ...................................................................... 8 • Carine Roitfeld (Influential editor of French Vogue) ........10 • Analysis of CR Fashion Book (chosen magazine) ..........15 CR Fashion Book Vs. Vogue .....................................................17 • Readership Profile ..............................................................26 • Future Analysis in Fashion Media and Publishing ...........30 • References ..........................................................................36 3
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Every magazine can be divided into the creative part and the production part; within these parts there is a hierarchy in each compartment. We have decided to explain the key roles in hierarchical order, starting with the creative part of a magazine. Since VOGUE UK has been our magazine choice for this project, we will give the local example of the person supporting each role.
Her main responsibilities are bringing the idea into life and adjust it to the magazinesâ€˜ and brandsâ€™ standards. She is the face and ambassador of the magazine. Without her permission, the magazine will not go into print
creative director JAIME PERLMAN
A creative director is responsible for the visual style of the magazine. The creative director will interpret the objective vision of the magazine. Once there is a brief and overall strategy, creatives will work with their own internal teams which may include a graphic designer, content editor, photographer and marketing manager. The creative director will need to be capable of working in art direction, concept planning, timeline management, execution of deliverables reporting and analysis.
features director JO ELLISON
A magazine features editor ensures that their publication is full of entertaining, informative and newsworthy articles. The responsibilities of the role are: generating ideas for features; commissioning work by freelance writers; editing texts; managing writing staff; and have contact with artists and photographers.
fashion director LUCINDA CHAMBERS
Right hand of the EIC, helps making the decision or is fully charged in making the decision of which stylist is going to shoot which image/story, which clothes are going to be used. Most fashion directors do have a stylist background. Fashion Directors collect and collaborate with the best photographers and hair and makeup artists in the business, to create the best for the magazine, as they know what to expect from each other and to lift each other to a higher level The F.D. has to showcase the seasons most important runway looks, so needs to be aware of all trends.
executive fashion editor FRANCESCA BURNS
Can be seen as a link between the advertisement department and the fashion department. They have to make sure that all brands are in the magazine, and they are the ones that know which brands need to be taken care off throughout the year
MANAGING EDITOR FRANCES BENTLEY
Looks after the HR department, who is hired, interns. Looks after all the production and budgets for Vogue.
An editor-at-large is a person authority but with less responsibility. He/she would contribute regularly for the magazine and would have the freedom to choose a topic of his/her interest. They usually pitch their ideas directly to the editor en chief and usually provide ideas and topics for writers contributing to the magazine.
CHIEF SUB-EDITOR CLARE FORBES
The sub-editor reshapes the text of the article adapting it to the length requested and checking spelling, grammar and most importantly the style. The tone of the article has to follow the â€œhouse rulesâ€? of style of the magazine.
BEAUTY AND HEALTH EDITOR JESSICA HOGAN
In charge of informing the readers about new beauty, make up and health trends. Has to be up to date with newest treatments and test them.
CONTRIBUTING editor E.G: ALEXA CHUNG
Writers which contribute to zine on a fore-monthly basis, by the editors. Gives the sight of the world outside zine. More open minded and
the magaor if asked readers inthe maganot biased.
ART EDITOR RASHA KAHIL
Art editors are responsible for the way a magazine looks. They present the words and images in a way that is easy for the reader to digest, with high visual impact. The job covers all aspects of layout, design and photography, for e.g. laying out pages for the magazine, sketching out and designing the cover.
ONLINE EDITOR DOLLY JONES
Responsible for the content on the web pages and social media accounts.
PUBLISHING DIRECTOR STEPHEN QUINN
A managerial role with main responsibility for the style and content of the publication. Needs to make sure that publications are printed on time and that the processes run smoothly. Works closely with advertisement and production departments.
PROMOTION CREATIVE DIRECTOR TORIA SEFTON
Art director, idea maker for the advertising clients, special promotions to both help the client and the magazine, coming up with ideas for these promotions. Team of creatives that are controlled by the Director.
DEPUTY MANAGING DIRECTOR ALBERT READ
The Deputy Managing Director reports directly to the Managing Director and is empowered by the Managing Director to manage the day-to-day overall operational activities. The Deputy Managing Director ensures cost control activities; monitors revenues and expenditures in assigned area to assure sound financial control; assures effective and efficient use of budgeted funds, materials, facilities and time.
ACTING ADVERTISMENT MANAGER VIRGINIA CHADWYCK-HEALEY
The Advertisement Manager directs the magazineâ€˜s promotion and the belonging personnel. He manages the media service department and creative department.
FASHION ADVERTISMENT DIRECTOR SUSANNAH COE
The director offers the fashion houses a place in the magazine to advertise. This brings money to the magazine and promotion for the fashion houses - causes a win/win situation.
TABLET CONTENT DIRECTOR LIAM KEATING
Responsible for the apps for mobile devices and tablets. Hires the content managers and writers for the online version, graphic designers for moving images or short clips presented in the purchased edition.
FINANCE DIRECTOR PAMELA RAYNOR
Responsible for financially related business decisions. Managing the budget and controlling the income and outcome for the magazine. Working together with every department in order to help them manage their budget.
digital director JAMIE JOUNING
Responsible for all digital content. Manages routine aspects of digital initiatives, relying on internal and external resources, and leads and directs the creative, content, IT and other teams to deliver effective and user friendly platforms. The digital director also has to ensure to optimize business processes trough customer focused digital solutions.
marketing director JEAN FAULKNER
Responsible for the magazineâ€™s marketing plan, which includes following business objectives and strategies, developing brand portfolio and making plans to facilitate business growth. Develops a marketing strategy, sets budgets, negotiates with media agents, develops promotional materials
PRODUCTION roles 9
Carine Roitfeld will stay remembered for a long time, due to her massive effort to re-vamp and renew the French VOGUE or how she called it VOGUE Paris. During her 10 years as an editor, did she not only enhance the audience demograph but also expanded the advertisor networks.
Name: Carine Roitfeld Position: Former Editor of VOGUE Paris Time: 2001 - 2011
“But this younger age group is still not so much the reader of Paris Vogue, I believe. My reader is more 25 to 40. But I want there to be lots of things in the front of my magazine for younger women – the front pages are dedicated to these girls. Okay, sometimes there are more expensive things in there but I know they can find the copies now in Zara.” Interview with Ashley Heath (2005/2006).
This demonstrates her interest in the audience she tries to address. Roitfeld has succeeded to provoke not only her readers but also outstanding people, with her controversial cover shoots and „out-ofthe-box“ thinking. As an editor she made the effort to renew VOGUE also from the inside, the behind the scenes, in order for it work smoothly and present better sales than the years before. Olivier Lalanne, for example, worked as editor-in-chief during Roitfeld‘s regency; assigned to this position at the young age of 33 after climbing up the latter from intern to assistant and then on to editor-in-chief. From the CNN Revealed episode on Carine Roitfeld one could learn that she would not only care about the magazine‘s sales but also about the designers‘ revenues. She thought of her position as being a medium, between customer and designer. Through her deep confrontation with each shoot, even a t-shirt and denims can look chic. (Roitfeld, 2005/2006) Her close relationship to photographers Demarchelier and Testino is no secret and she always kept them on her high list for abstract fashion photography. Furthermore the photographers were used in such a way and kept in such a
familiar environment, in order the enhance the creativity, rather than deprive it through bringing new faces in constantly. Carine Roitfeld furthermore inspired our pick of project, through the fresh style she put into VOGUE Paris and into collections of many designers as their muse, such as Tom Ford and Givenchy‘s Riccardo Tisci. She inspired their collections and also worked closely and actively on Tom Ford‘s collection, helping him with her ideas. Our issue of VOGUE is muse and punk inspired and on the cover the obvious inspiration of Roitfeld‘s controversial VOGUE Paris cover issue 08/2003 cannot be missed. We chose her as our key role, because she changed VOGUE Paris from head to toe. Some examples, which you can see in the image gallery are her use of a CHANEL bag as an ashtray. She caused attention with these images as firstly smoking models were used for this shot and secondly the key bag from a fashion house portrayed in a unique way which only Roitfeld could come up with. Most criticism Roitfeld gained through the spread in the December/January 2011 issue, in which she should children not older than 10 years old, to present Tom Ford‘s collection called “Cadeaux“.
carine roitfeld for vogue paris
ANALYSIS OF CR FASHION BOOK
ok The main reason we have chosen CR Fashion Book for our research portfolio, was the major link between our VOGUE issue and Roitfeldâ€˜s way of editing. Within our exploration of both magazines, British VOGUE and CR Fashion Book, we found major differences starting from the paper used until the style it is written in. In order to reflect the main points in which both differ, we will discuss the sections as follows: look, advertising, CR - VOGUE, fashion spreads and writing style.
The 2nd issue of CR Fashion Book is held in black and white, with a flip cover (see example). You can turn around the magazine and read it from both sides. The magazine is kept minimal on the cover and throughout the pages. The paper it is printed on can be considered as cardboard-like and not glossy. VOGUE on the other hand has its glossy paper, colorful cover and its headlines all over it. It seems overexposed.
ADVERTISING Main differences in the advertising are clear through the different brands. Whereas VOGUE covers almost every commercial brand, CR Fashion Book features edgier brands such as Tom Ford (Roitfeld‘s personal connection to the designer is stated in her profile), Brian Atwood, Barneys, Chanel, Y-3 and some more. Furthermore the advertising is kept to the beginning, middle and the end of the magazine, there are no adverts in between stories, other as Vogue, where it seems that adverts overflow the magazine. In CR Fashion Book the advertising can be seen as a story, as they are longer than in VOGUE and it features only very few beauty adverts.
CR VS. VOGUE With CR the theme of each issue is clearly stated on the cover and keeps to it throughout the whole issue. E.g. this issue was devoted to Dance; the editor‘s letter stated why and how; the content was dance related, interviewing ballerinas, contemporary dance athletes. VOGUE issues do not have a particular theme explained. The next difference is the masthead VOGUE‘s is two pages long, CR half a page. CR has only 2 issues a year/ spring&summer, autumn&winter - stories can be expanded and researched thoroughly; whereas VOGUE is a monthly magazine. The beauty of CR is the “multi-linguality” in the stories, e.g. 2 language versions with some features (russian, french and romanian - covered in artists mother tongue), furthermore poetry is provided for the reader. There are no strict rules. On the contrary with VOGUE, it is kept to one language, hardly any unknown artists are being covered or featured. CR target audience is women (men) 30-50, urban, AB social, well-educated (universities), experiment with fashion, have their own style, well read, know the current affairs, educated in fashion (fashion history, designers); more similar to the TA of LOVE. With the magazine price being 12.50 GBP it is not a random purchase, but rather addressed at a specific audience. VOGUE does also have a specific TA but can be a random purchase as well due to the lower price.
CR FASHION BOOK
CR states the name and theme of the shoot, which was mainly studio/indoors in the S/S 13 issue. Pictures are edgier, seem like real life-not arranged photos (i.e. backstage), unusual combinations (ballerina wearing Y-3 shoes with Chanel jacket), naked models, cigarettes, expressive poses, collages, wide hair, expressive make-up, blood, monkey + EXAMPLE PICTURES. A great attention to details is provided, and mixing of unknown models and featured people from the stories, which are mainly only known in their area of profession. Accessories are being fully focussed on, without any other image to „distract“. Featured garments are not priced - making the magazine noncommercial and fully about the beauty of the items, an art. Each story has its own photographer, which is mostly an uncommon name, and there is no repetition of photographers. With VOGUE there is more variety, as shoots are being held both indoors and outdoors. However, the shoots are mostly with commercial photographers, known in the industry and often used. The spreads do not look natural but rather staged - no unusual combinations are made. Featured items have a price tag on them, as the goal is to get the reader to become a customer of their advertisers.
WRITING VOGUE features contributing editors which cause change in the magazine‘s view (sometimes). However the style for articles is not very deep but attention to detail in explaining is provided. CR has come up with the innovative idea of multilingual writing. E.g. the Russian ballet dancer will be covered in English and parallel in Russian as well. Each person covered on one half of the magazine will be covered also in their native language. The amazement we found was that the writing style in the different languages, get the same point across as the english version. Words flow the same, the space is the same and the written beauty is the same as well - which is impressive amongst such different languages. The other half of the magazine is fully in english because no foreign characters are featured. The editor‘s letter is more personal in CR, you feel as if Roitfeld is addressing her letter to you personally. Whereas with VOGUE Shulman‘s letter is vague, general and shallow. Overall we found, that even though CR Fashion Book has its specific Target Audience, it is interesting to read or even just to look at, as it is so different than any other magazine. VOGUE fulfills its purpose to being more of a commercial and selling magazine, which brings together consumers and designers through nice photography and advertised features. We believe that our issue of VOGUE for this project, is a mixture from both of these magazines, not only through the visuals of the cover but also because of the content.
CR FASHION BOOK
CR FASHION BOOK vs. vogue
Fashion spread cr
Fashion spread cr
Fashion spread cr
Fashion spread vogue
Fashion spread vogue
e Demographic summary • • • • • • •
Circulation 207,059 UK actively purchased 145,973 Total readership 1,329,000 Women (87%), men (13%) Average 34 years-old ABC1 socioeconomic 85% of the Vogue readers agree that “Vogue is the Fashion Bible”
EMMA, 32, Vogue reader Emma is 32 years old and she reads Vogue UK regularly. She lives in London where she moved from Brighton. She studied MA degree in Communications and Advertising at the university in London, but studied also in France and Italy. She currently works at the international advertising agency in London as an Account Manager for some key clients. Emma has a boyfriend, no kids. She works full-time, long hours, but she still manages to find time for herself - go for cosmetics treatment, spa, massage, exercise, shopping, traveling adventures, occasional reading of gossip magazines etc. People like her, she is always in a good mood and is always up for some party.
style with high street fashion brands such as Zara or COS. She combines shopping in-store with finding good deals in online stores, such as Net-A-Porter, Matches, etc. Emma uses premium cosmetics such as Clinique, MAC or Bobbi Brown, Chanel perfume. Beauty products and accessories are part of her overall fashion look.
She belongs to A/B socioeconomic rating group, which means that she earns good money, is able to safe for some designer pieces (such as Burberry trench, Mulberry bag, etc) but also combines her
Vogue UK reflects and inspire Emmaâ€™s lifestyle of perfection in all areas of her interest - fashion, beauty, design and contemporary cultural environment.
For Emma the image is the key, it is important to look well, develop her own style and follow the fashion trends. She is obsessed with fashion - high fashion, luxury goods brands but also high street fashion brands. She is eager to try new things, explore the world of fashion, design, art, music, etc.
ANALYSIS OF RECENT AND POSSIBLE FUTURE DEVELOPMENT IN FASHION MEDIA
Include an overview of the print and online fashion magazine market In the publishing industry today, magazines are struggling with decreasing sales from print publications as the market has become saturated with product, and many consumers have gone online. Why buy Australian Vogue for $9.90 in print when you can buy the American version on tablet for $4.99? Though the decrease in sales does not bode well for publishing houses such as Hearst and Conde Nast, it does not signal the end of glossies. Online platforms are changing the way consumers interact and approach content, and thus publishers and advertising companies need to become savvy and proactive in retaining their readers and create an online platform that enhances and compliments the print experience. Traditionally, publishing had a lot of boundaries; print capabilities, circulations, distribution internationally and licensing agreements. The Internet has revolutionized the industry, a global audience can be reached within seconds of going â€œto
printâ€?. This has changed the way content is created and consumed. Russian Vogue is no longer just read by wealthy Muscovites, now an 18yr old fashion student in Invercargill, New Zealand can read the same articles and content as women from completely different socio economic backgrounds, language and society on the other side of the world. Now the target audience and demographic of online magazines and content has changed completely. Traditional print magazine formats can longer be the first to break any news, this has meant that magazines have had to work harder tofu maintain an original point of view, a voice of authority and experience and a well crafted consumer experience to keep their audience. Today consumers want everything now, they want and expect service that is of a certain standard, they expect to be able to download content straight onto their iPad, iPhone or any kind of mobile device. The link between commerce and content has become paramount as a
consumer can now read the magazine online and purchase the product straight from the page. It has become totally integrated. Conde Nast in the past has been critiqued for responding slowly to digital progress and being reactive as opposed to pro-active in the publishing landscape. In a bid to extend the brand and get with the times, in March 2013, Conde Nast launched a new digital video network with original video series inspired by Glamour and GQ which are the first in a sequence of premium branded programming launches on the network, which will feature the iconic Conde Nast brands. It has been well received by the publications respective audiences and compliments the print counterparts beautifully. In Europe, a magazine model radically different from that in the U.S. has helped CondĂŠ Nast International thrive. Stateside, magazines largely depend on advertising, while pumping up circulation with heavily discounted subscriptions. Overseas, advertising plays a smaller part, an ad page
in a European glossy costing about onetenth of its U.S. counterpart. International editions, meanwhile, make most of their money from pricier newsstand copies. (American GQ charges $5 on newsstands here compared to $6.25 in the U.K.) Meanwhile, publishers overseas share less revenue with retailers and distributors. Also, though U.S. titles are majority subscription, the reverse is true abroad, where most circulation comes from newsstand sales. “Magazines are far more profitable around the world—I’ve seen magazines that are making 40 percent on the margin,” John Cabell, president of Cue Ball, a consulting firm specializing in overseas magazine licensing. By contrast, a 20 percent profit margin in the U.S. is considered hugely successful. While expanding the Conde Nast empire, Jonothan Newhouse, president of Conde Nast international, has opened Vogue and GQ-branded cafés in Asia, the Middle East and Latin America. And the company launched the Condé Nast College of Fashion & Design in London. While it is known for upscale brands and a global luxury portfolio, Newhouse has excelled in the timing of launches, giving editors the freedom to adapt to their local markets and taking a long view in positioning the company for continued growth. When speaking about the advances in digital publishing and the future of online content, Conde Nast’s digital director Jamie Journing says that “Our aim as a company is to become not the best consumer glossy publisher in the world but to
be the best multi-platform publisher in the world. That’s now our underlying ambition. It’s a big transition.” There’s no denying the luxury brands have been slow to explore the digital space, acknowledges Jouning, but he says the company’s foray into tablet editions of Wired (December 2010), Vogue (December 2010), GQ (July 2011), and Vanity Fair (September 2011), have helped with the transition. Developments in video and rich media online are beginning to wean luxury advertisers away from the presumption that only glossy print magazines or television can adequately portray their brands in the right light. Last month, Condé Nast reported 5.2% growth in turnover in 2011 despite the prevailing climate, and a 14% lift in pre-tax profits, to £17.3 million. The media company appears to be successfully offsetting losses in print sales with growth in online display, supplemented by new sales from tablet editions. “All of a sudden you can have a double page spread in a magazine being repurposed and looking just as beautiful on a tablet device as you could have done in print. And that thinking is now affecting everything we’re doing on the web.” Condé Nast has entered a phase of extreme creativity while integrating its digital and print divisions, and explores all available media channels to influence the consumer. The challenge will be to ensure both platforms; print and online marry creative integrity with commercial success in the coming years.
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