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“To See Ourselves as Others See Us� Charlie Robertson And Kim Sheehan

Perceptions of Nations and how these are used in Marketing and Advertising


Nation Branding • “Measuring, building and managing the reputation of countries” (Olins, 2002) • “A country’s identity that has been proactively distilled, interpreted, internalized and projected internationally in order to gain international recognition and to construct a favorable national image” (Akotia, 2009)


Nye’s Notion of Soft Power Diplomatic ability gained throughout communication of a country’s culture, political ideas, and policies. • Opposed to ‘hard power’: coercion through military strength • Soft power affects tourism, internal investments, exports, pride


A Nation’s Brand = Its People • Based on values • Economic standards, quality of life, education • Built over years • So…..


International Number Ones


Selective Values • Data from “Information is Beautiful” blog • London-based author • London is best at “CCTV”


2014 Commonwealth Games • Known as “The Friendly Games” • Decision date: November, 2007 • Bidding cities – Glasgow, Scotland – Abuja, Nigeria – Halifax, Canada


“The Friendly Games”: October 2006 • The documentary “Feral Boys of Glasgow” aired on CBC-TV • “I’ll take you to a very dangerous place. Not Iraq or Afghanistan, but Glasgow. When the sun goes down, the feral boys come out.” • Portrayed Glasgow as a city gripped by gang violence for over 100 years


Response to “Feral Boys of Glasgow” • Broad international media coverage • Hundreds of online conversations • Example conversation comparing Glasgow to Canada: “ I think there’s at least a logical element at work with the crimes being committed in Rexdale. When there's violence, it's usually for the purposes of material gain, or to get revenge on someone who's impeded your efforts or disrespected you in some way. With these Glasgow yobs (I think I'm using that word right!) they just want cut each other up "because."


The Friendly Games: May 2007 • Nigerian sports minister broke rules which forbid competitive cities from commenting on other bids • Commented on Glasgow’s crime and compared it, unfavorably, to stats of the capital city of Nigeria


The Friendly Games: November 2007 • Abuja, Nigeria was seen as the favorite, as Africa had never hosted the Games • Halifax withdrew after government pulled funding • 2014 Games awarded to Glasgow because of their technical expertise from hosting other types of games • Vote:


Welcome to Glasgow Home of the Commonwealth Games 2014


Key Challenges • Being aware of the negative messages • Addressing message complexity • Our investigation concerns perceptions of national characteristics: – “To See Ourselves as Others See Us” Our concept is: The Russian Doll theory -multi layers with common thread


Extracts from To A Louse By Robert Burns [On seeing one on a well dressed lady's bonnet, at church.]

Ha! Ye ugly, creepin, blastit wonner, Detested, shunn'd by saunt an' sinner, How dare ye set your fit upon her, Sae fine a lady! Gae somewhere else, and seek your dinner On some poor body. O wad some Pow'r the giftie gie us To see oursels as others see us! It wad frae mony a blunder free us, An' foolish notion!


Our journey

• A range of observations, frameworks and hypotheses fused in to the – Russian Doll Theory


Glasgow-Boston-Milan-Moscow, a detour to Oslo, via Wales and back to Glasgow

Sheehan Tours

• Identifying the universal, the particular, the local versus general and downright peculiar to create a general theory


A range of aspects arise in communications using facets of Nations and their traits • • • • • •

Tribalism Caricature Stereotype Typecasting Archetype Epitomes of national characteristics


Some stopping points on the tour • • • • • • • • • • •

Commnet on Glasgow’s violent image vs. Milan Identifying a defining characteristic of a nation Key facets of culture Nicolson 2 book theory and Belli’s use of idioms Observational framework to depict nations, with examples Semiotics of national currency Thinking of nations as brands driven by values How brands can define nations Unification emphasises differences, with an example counter to this 3 ways to use national provenance in branding Sheenan’s Russian Doll Theory – Part 1 – Big vs. Wee (small) – Part 2 – Dolls with different faces – Part 3 – The multi layered self


• John Smeaton - Hero For Our Time: • One Brave Weegie Takes on al-Qaeda

“This is Scotland; we’ll just set aboot ye!”


"Il bue che dice cornuto all'asino"


"Il bue che dice cornuto all'asino"


"Il bue che dice cornuto all'asino"


Definition of nation

A social group which shares a common ideology, common institutions, and customs, and a sense of homogeneity. ‘Nation’ is difficult to define so precisely as to differentiate the term from from such other groups as religious sects, which exhibit some of the same characteristics. In the nation, however, there is also present a strong group ‘sense’ of belonging associated with a particular territory considered to be peculiarly its own.


Definition of nation

A social group which shares a common ideology, common institutions, and customs, and a sense of homogeneity. ‘Nation’ is difficult to define so precisely as to differentiate the term from from such other groups as religious sects, which exhibit some of the same characteristics. In the nation, however, there is also present a strong group ‘sense’ of belonging associated with a particular territory considered to be peculiarly its own.


Definition of nation A social group which shares a common ideology, common institutions, and customs, and a sense of homogeneity. ‘Nation’ is difficult to define so precisely as to differentiate the term from from such other groups as religious sects, which exhibit some of the same characteristics.

In the nation, however, there is also present a strong group ‘sense’ of belonging associated with a particular territory considered to be peculiarly its own.


Add Trompenars Layers of Culture on to this to think of differentiation and belonging ... Artifacts and products; the surface differences Norms and values

Underlying assumptions


Add Trompenars Layers of Culture on to this ... Artifacts and products; the surface differences Norms and values

Underlying assumptions

...for, as long as but a hundred of us remain alive, never will we on any conditions be brought under English rule. It is in truth not for glory, nor riches, nor honours that we are fighting, but for freedom – for that alone, which no honest man gives up but with life itself.


Nicolson 2 book theory • Read 2 books about a country; – an outsider looking in – an insider looking out


Universality in idioms • Nicola Belli’s use of idioms

The Milanese explained - he is from Parma


Populations Imbued by a Myth of Common Descent Fauna

Race

Drink

Geography Heroes

Community Events

Heraldry Religion

Villains Idioms & legends Climate Moral Values

Architecture Currency

Flora Economic Trend

Past Sufferings Food Habits

Art & Literature


Spot the Nation

•

A: England


Populations Imbued by a Myth of Common Descent Drink

Fauna

Race Geography

Heroes

Community Events

Heraldry Religion

Villains Idioms & legends

Currency Flora

Climate

Moral Values

Architecture Past Sufferings Food

Economic Trend Habits Art & Literature

Owain GlyndĹľr Rebel leader and early exponent of guerrilla warfare whose popular uprising against English rule in the early 15th century lasted more than a decade


Use the Semiotics of Money


Define the Core Values of Nations as brands

• • • •

Gather image and word associations Cluster these Distil them to no more than five Define an underlying value to the cluster – Values drive behaviour


German Brand Values sports, football

number one

winning best cars

arrogant self fulfilment

achievements

Big and Rich

business

concerned

the East

regard for others

pride correct

Unification

Strive for leadership In sustainability

fear of being wrong

Founders of the (EEC) EU philosophers

unease

uncertainty heroes peer group pressure Beethoven

Shame of the past

Weimar


German Brand Values sports, football

number one

winning best cars

Strive for leadership In sustainability

Citizenship

arrogant

Success

self fulfilment

achievements

Big and Rich

business

concerned

the East

regard for others

pride correct fear of being wrong

Unification

Founders of the (EEC) EU philosophers

unease

uncertainty peer group pressure

Insecurity EU Shame of the past

Idealism (historical)

heroes

Beethoven Weimar


Fearsomeness of Scots - rooted in values

• The levels of threat story Threat levels have been raised and the English went from Miffed to Peeved Then irritated To - A Bit Cross. Terrorists have been re-categorised from "Tiresome" to a "Bloody Nuisance.” The last time the English issued a "Bloody Nuisance" warning level was when tea was in short supply in 1940. The Scots raised their threat level from "Pissed Off" to "Let's get the Bastards" They don't have any other levels. – which is why they are the front line troops of the British Army


Analyse Brands as Embodiments of Nations


Leadership

Knowledgeable

Enriching

Distinctive

Diverse

Credible

Authoritative

Supports eccentric Individuals

Creative

Risk Taking

Honest

Respect

Copes easily with ambiguity

Ethical

Integrity Open

Innovation

Fair

Truthful Equitable Objective What gets reported gets talked about and what gets talked about gets reported


Brands as Embodiments of Nations


A deep need to Escape from Germany


Brands as Embodiments of Nations


A Peculiar Universality - a singing competition to bring us all together


Ad break from Oslo

QuickTime™ and a Sorenson Video 3 decompressor are needed to see this picture.


Sources of Image Leverage

1

Country Image

better brand strategy

RED SPIDER ®

2

Company Image

Industry Image

6 4

3

5

Brand Image

Source: Dowling’s Corporate Reputation


3 sources of marketing leverage using national identity

better brand strategy

RED SPIDER 速

1. Countries have reputations for excellence Made in country x carries weight for different industries e.g. Swiss watches


Made In...

GOVAN

VILNIUS


The first ‘made in’ was a defensive move - a mark to differentiate English knives from cheap German imports


3 sources of marketing leverage using national identity 1. Countries have reputations for excellence Made in country x carries weight for different industries e.g. Swiss Banking

better brand strategy

RED SPIDER ÂŽ

2. Brands can utilise aspects of country image and confer values on country image e.g. Coca Cola, Levis, Disney epitomise USA internationally e.g. Mercedes, BMW, VW, Audi embody Germany’s superior engineering & the Swiss make great chocolate


Swiss ad break using negative associations

QuickTime™ and a Sorenson Video 3 decompressor are needed to see this picture.


3 sources of marketing leverage using national identity 1. Countries have reputations for excellence Made in country x carries weight for different industries e.g. Swiss Banking

2. Brands can utilise aspects of country image and confer values on country image e.g. Coca Cola, Levis, Disney epitomise USA internationally e.g. Mercedes, BMW, VW, Audi

better brand strategy

RED SPIDER 速

3.Companies can position themselves as flagships e.g. Qantas - the spirit of Australia. Note how British companies divorce from nationhood e.g. BA, BP


3 sources of marketing leverage using national identity 1. Countries have reputations for excellence Made in country x carries weight for different industries e.g. Swiss Banking

2. Brands can utilise aspects of country image and confer values on country image e.g. Coca Cola, Levis, Disney epitomise USA internationally e.g. Mercedes, BMW, VW, Audi

3.Companies can position themselves as flagships for countries e.g. Qantas - the spirit of Australia.

better brand strategy

RED SPIDER 速

Note how British companies divorce from nationhood e.g. BA, BP


The sense of belonging notion • Russian Doll Theory part 1 of 3


How we relate to the world

Global

Up close and personal

Societal Scale

Local


Global

Societal Scale

Up close and personal

Local

UK’s longest running and most watched soap opera – all on one street in Northern England


Global First ever comprehensive series on the natural history of the world's oceans by the BBC included creatures and behaviour that had previously never been filmed Societal Scale

Up close and personal

UK’s longest running and most watched soap opera – all on one street

Local http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O6Cjced9RX0


http://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=youtube%20Blue%20Planet&docid=1596029206935&mid=191A73D503702C074739191A73D503702C074739&FORM=LKVR3#

Global

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=68t6PhbYiSo

In the middle of WW2 – save one young man and bring him home to Mom

First ever comprehensive series on the natural history of the world's oceans included creatures and behaviour that had previously never been filmed

Societal Scale

Up close and personal

UK’s longest running and most watched soap opera – all on one street

Local http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O6Cjced9RX0


http://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=youtube%20Blue%20Planet&docid=1596029206935&mid=191A73D503702C074739191A73D503702C074739&FORM=LKVR3#

Global

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=68t6PhbYiSo In the middle of WW2 – save one young man and bring him home to Mom

First ever comprehensive series on the natural history of the world's oceans included creatures and behaviour that had previously never been filmed

Societal Scale

Up close and personal

A call to the world to help recovery from a local disaster UK’s longest running and most watched soap opera – all on one street

Local http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8IySBl2aq-A

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O6Cjced9RX0


http://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=youtube%20Blue%20Planet&docid=1596029206935&mid=191A73D503702C074739191A73D503702C074739&FORM=LKVR3#

Global

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=68t6PhbYiSo In the middle of WW2 – save one young man and bring him home to Mom

First ever comprehensive series on the natural history of the world's oceans included creatures and behaviour that had previously never been filmed

Societal Scale

Up close and personal

A call to the world to help recovery from a local disaster

UK’s longest running and most watched soap opera – all on one street

Local http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8IySBl2aq-A

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O6Cjced9RX0


Russian Doll Theory part 2 of 3 • Similar and different - 4 outlooks


Universal

General

Particular

Local


Universal

Particular

General

Local


Universal

louse

Particular

General

Local


Universal

Particular

General

Local


Universal http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t6k6JmsctwE

Particular

General

Local


QuickTime™ and a Sorenson Video 3 decompressor are needed to see this picture.


U G

P L


U G

P L


U G

P L


U G

P L


U G

P L


U G

P L


Russian Doll Theory part 3 • We are each multi-layered in senses of belonging – – – – – –

Our street District Town Region Country Continent &.... Societal themes and causes


One world Brands


Guinness limits use of Irishness

QuickTime™ and a Sorenson Video 3 decompressor are needed to see this picture.


... and returning to Glasgow Glasgu ="dear green place�

• A 15th century University town, a centre for the intellectual Scottish Enlightenment in the 18th century a global city in the 19th century with conserved architecture and a proud civic history.


Glasgow has a reputation for being the friendliest city in the world. ... but it is the oddities that stand out


Epitome of Scotland • The Tartan Army – Scottish travelling soccer fans have been regularly awarded a Fair Play prize


Brand defining a nation

• Scotland’s other national drink


A Scottish Cultural Dilemma

To define what something is – first what is it not?


IRN-BRU has a cunning plan..... • Brazil have won 5 World Cups • They’ve been at every tournament since it began • Who better to help Scottish football than the best in the world?


IRN-BRU has a cunning plan.....

• & Like us they have friendly fans


Ambassador Archie Gemmill - Scottish Hero – best goal in world cup 1978


IRN-BRU advertising......in Brazil

Hello Brazil lets get together and make Scotland magic at football


• With Bruzilian help – Scotland will win the World Cup in 2034! • IRN-BRU encourages “closer relationships” between Brazil and Scotland – the result will be a victorious Scottish 2034 World Cup team.......


IRN-BRU advertising......in Brazil

Hello Brazil lets get together and make Scotland magic at football


Bru-zil 2034 soccer world cup bid needs Brazilian Scots babies now

QuickTime™ and a Sorenson Video 3 decompressor are needed to see this picture.


Thank You Kim Sheehan ksheehan@uoregon.edu & Charlie Robertson charlie@redspiderglobal.com

Why do the Welsh wear Daffodils for St David’s day?


Football injects madness in men •

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NVT-NK_c6LU


Local Rivalry runs deep

•

Owned by Prime Mister Silvio Berlusconi


Competitive Stance fuels creative communications

Milan banner saying "Inter, the true comedy since 1908," with a caricature of Dante


U G

P L

Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Vandals, and Germans tried to destroy the Coliseum Will the Romans be able to do it?


U G

P L

One ticket for any transport in Zurich - Idea could adapt to any town


U G

P L


U G

P L

The Arrival of Freestyle Skateboarders


U G

P L


Audi ad


British Council’s English Language Courses


Generic Language School Proposition, with a twist


U G

A Universal Peculiarity

P L

• January 25th • All over the world people celebrate • Many men in tartan kilts, stand and applaud the parade of a haggis, which is then addressed with a poem and stabbed with a ceremonial dagger • Then served up to be eaten with mash potatoes and turnip with a glass of whisky.


Universal

Particular

General

Local


Milano talk  

charlie and I talked about this in milan

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