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Interracial Marriage  and  the  Beginning  of  the   Priesthood  and  Temple  Ban  on  Black  Africans     The  priesthood  and  temple  ban  on  black  members  of  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-­‐day  Saints   existed  for  more  than  a  century  before  the  ban  was  repealed  via  revelation  in  1978.    Many  members  of   the  church  have  tried  to  find  reasons  for  the  previous  ban.    BYU  Professor  Randy  Bott  tried  to  explain   why  priesthood  and  temple  ordinances  were  banned  for  black  church  members  prior  to  1978  in  an   interview  with  Washington  Post  reporter  Jason  Horowitz  published  on  February  28.Jason  Horowitz   summarized  his  interview  with  Randy  Bott.   In  his  office,  religion  professor  Randy  Bott  explains  a  possible  theological  underpinning  of  the   ban.  According  to  Mormon  scriptures,  the  descendants  of  Cain,  who  killed  his  brother,  Abel,   “were  black.”  One  of  Cain’s  descendants  was  Egyptus,  a  woman  Mormons  believe  was  the   namesake  of  Egypt.  She  married  Ham,  whose  descendants  were  themselves  cursed  and,  in  the   view  of  many  Mormons,  barred  from  the  priesthood  by  his  father,  Noah.  Bott  points  to  the   Mormon  holy  text  the  Book  of  Abraham  as  suggesting  that  all  of  the  descendants  of  Ham  and   Egyptus  were  thus  black  and  barred  from  the  priesthood.1   Bott  had  described  the  traditional  understanding  of  the  ban,  but  the  very  next  day,  the  church   strenuously  tried  to  distance  itself  from  Bott’s  remarks  by  issuing  an  official  statement.   “For  a  time  in  the  Church  there  was  a  restriction  on  the  priesthood  for  male  members  of  African   descent.    It  is  not  known  precisely  why,  how,  or  when  this  restriction  began  in  the  Church  but   what  is  clear  is  that  it  ended  decades  ago.”2       The  statement  that  “It  is  not  known  precisely  why,  how,  or  when  this  restriction  began”  was  in  line  with   an  official  church  statement  from  1969  stating  blacks  did  not  receive  the  priesthood  “for  reasons  which   we  believe  are  known  to  God,  but  which  He  has  not  made  fully  known  to  man.”3    However,  both  the   2012  and  1969  statements  are  a  departure  of  past  teachings  on  the  topic  of  the  priesthood  and  temple   restrictions.    Early  church  leaders  have  given  various  reasons  for  the  ban:  early  church  apostle  Parley  P.   Pratt  was  the  first  to  claim  that  the  Curse  of  Ham  prevented  blacks  from  holding  the  priesthood  in  1847.     1

http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/the-­‐genesis-­‐of-­‐a-­‐churchs-­‐stand-­‐on-­‐race/2012/02/22/gIQAQZXyfR_story_2.html   retrieved  4/13/2012.    Jason  Horowitz  paraphrased  BYU  Psychology  Associate  Professor  Randy  Bott  as  saying  that  blacks   couldn’t  receive  the  priesthood  because  God  “protected  them  from  the  lowest  rungs  of  hell  reserved  for  people  who  abuse   their  priesthood  powers.  [Bott  said]  You  couldn’t  fall  off  the  top  of  the  ladder,  because  you  weren’t  on  the  top  of  the  ladder.  So,   in  reality  the  blacks  not  having  the  priesthood  was  the  greatest  blessing  God  could  give  them.”    Also  found  at  the  Provo  Daily   Herald  link  http://www.heraldextra.com/news/local/lds-­‐church-­‐condemns-­‐racism-­‐after-­‐byu-­‐prof-­‐s-­‐ statements/article_87bbb4c8-­‐1f93-­‐56ae-­‐91b3-­‐ea0d4b897625.html?oCampaign=hottopics  retrieved  3/3/2012.   2  http://www.mormonnewsroom.org/article/racial-­‐remarks-­‐in-­‐washington-­‐post-­‐article  retrieved  on  3/3/2012.    The  press   release  was  a  response  to  a  Washington  Post  article  from  Feb  28.       3  Official  Church  Statement  dated  December  15,  1969  addressed  to  General  Authorities,  Regional  Representatives  of  the   Twelve,  Stake  Presidents,  Mission  Presidents,  and  Bishops.  

Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [1]: Via gives  an  informal  tone.   Consider  choosing  another  word.  

Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [2]: Chicago 8.97.  I  know  the  church   style  guide  capitalizes  the  general  term  church,  but   Chicago  specifically  says  not  to.  Make  sure  to   consult  who  the  paper  is  intended  for  and  what   version  of  church  they  would  prefer.  

Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [3]: Disconnect between  these  two   sentences.    

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Apostle Orson  Hyde  claimed  that  the  ban  was  a  result  of  decisions  made  in  our  pre-­‐mortal  life,  while   Brigham  Young  disputed  this  assertion.    In  his  1958  book  titled  Mormon  Doctrine,  Bruce  R.  McConkie   agreed  with  Hyde’s  conclusion  that  blacks  were  not  as  valiant  in  the  pre-­‐mortal  life.    Mormon  Doctrine   has  been  very  popular  over  the  years  despite  the  fact  that  it  was  known  to  contain  many  errors.4    LDS   Church-­‐owned  Deseret  Book  announced  in  May  2010  that  it  had  decided  that  the  book  would  no  longer   be  reprinted.5    This  essay  will  examine  historical  records,  concerning  temple  and  priesthood  restrictions   for  blacks,  to  uncover  information    that  will  help  determine  more  “precisely  why,  how,  or  when  this   restriction  began  in  the  Church.”       A  point  of  clarification  needs  to  be  made  here.    Many  have  viewed  the  temple/priesthood  ban  as  a  racial   ban,  but  church  leaders  have  always  viewed  it  as  lineage-­‐based.    The  official  Church  statement  refers  to   members  of  “African  descent”,  though  white  Africans  prevalent  in  South  Africa  have  never  been   excluded  from  temple  or  priesthood  ordinances.    It  should  also  be  noted  that  blacks  in  North/South   America,  Cuba,  Haiti,  and  other  places  away  from  Africa  were  generally  believed  to  have  been  brought   to  the  North  and  South  American  continent  as  slaves  descended  from  Africa,  and,  therefore,  ineligible   for  priesthood  or  temple  ordinances.    However,  blacks  determined  to  be  non-­‐African  were  not  restricted   from  priesthood  or  temple  ordinances.       For  example,  in  1948,  during  the  George  Albert  Smith  administration,  missionaries  in  the   Philippines  did  not  know  how  to  handle  natives  of  a  group  called  “Negritos,”  who  had  black  skin   but  no  known  African  ancestry.  The  First  Presidency  authorized  ordination,  saying  descent  from   black  Africans  was  the  disqualifying  factor,  not  skin  color  or  other  racial  characteristics.  6   With  that  caveat,  the  overwhelming  majority  of  black  Mormons  have  been  excluded  from  the  temple   and  priesthood  for  more  than  one  hundred  years.    It  is  clear  from  the  historical  record  that  there  was  no   ban  in  the  1830s.    Black  Pete,  Walker  Lewis,  Elijah  Abel,  and  Joseph  Ball  are  four  black  men  believed  to   have  received  the  Priesthood  in  the  early  period  of  church  history.    Other  black  men  received  the   priesthood  in  the  early  1840s  period  as  well.    There  has  been  some  debate  as  to  precisely  when  the  ban   occurred.  Lester  Bush  has  put  forth  several  essays  on  this  particular  subject.7  He  noted  that  there  had                                                                                                                           4

Greg  Prince,  David  O  McKay:  The  Rise  of  Modern  Mormonism,  49-­‐52.  President  McKay  asked  apostles  Marion  G.  Romney  and   Mark  E.  Peterson  to  review  McConkie’s  book.    Mark  E.  Peterson  documented  more  than  1000  errors  in  Mormon  Doctrine.   5  Salt  Lake  Tribune  reported  in  May  2010,  see  http://www.sltrib.com/news/ci_15137409  retrieved  4/1/2012.   6  Edward  Kimball,  Lengthen  Your  Stride,  200.    The  Kimball  footnote  states,  “While  in  the  Philippines  to  dedicate  the  land  for   proselytizing,  Joseph  Fielding  Smith  observed  native  peoples  who  appeared  to  be  negroid.    Despite  this,  he  said  in  the   dedicatory  prayer,  ‘I  bless  the  native  inhabitants  both  black  and  white  with  the  blessings  of  the  gospel  and  the  priesthood— Amen.’    When  asked  about  this,  he  responded  upset,  ‘That  is  what  the  Lord  required  me  to  do.’    He  confirmed  several  years   later  that  the  event  occurred  and  said,  ‘I  would  not  want  it  to  be  supposed  that  I  gave  the  priesthood  to  negroes.’”  (emphasis  in   original.)   7  Bush  published  several  essays  in  the  magazine  Dialogue:  A  Journal  of  Mormon  Thought.    His  first  essay  in  Dialogue  was   published  in  1969  and  was  titled  “A  Commentary  on  Stephen  G.  Taggart’s  Mormonism’s  Negro  Policy:  Social  and  Historical   Origins”  and  is  available  at  http://www.dialoguejournal.com/wp-­‐content/uploads/sbi/articles/Dialogue_V04N04_88.pdf   retrieved  3/11/2012.    His  most  ground-­‐breaking  paper  was  published  in  the  spring  of  1973,  “Mormonism’s  Negro  Doctrine:  A   Historical  Overview”  and  is  available  at  https://www.dialoguejournal.com/wp-­‐ content/uploads/sbi/articles/Dialogue_V08N01_13.pdf  retrieved  3/11/2012.    Dialogue  devoted  an  entire  issue  in  1979  to  the   subject  of  the  priesthood  ban,  and  Lester  Bush  wrote  the  introduction.    It  is  available  at  https://www.dialoguejournal.com/wp-­‐ content/uploads/sbi/issues/V12N02.pdf  retrieved  3/11/2012.    In  1984,  Bush  wrote  “Whence  the  Negro  Doctrine?  A  Review  of  

Tanner 7/11/12 10:19 AM Deleted: although

Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [4]: Do you  need  a  footnote  showing   the  validity  of  each  of  these  references?  

Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [5]: Chicago 6.31  

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Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [6]: Was that  supposed  to  be  a  direct   quote?  

Tanner 7/11/12 10:26 AM Deleted: look into  the  historical

Tanner 7/11/12 10:30 AM Deleted: see what

Tanner 7/11/12 10:31 AM Deleted: can be  uncovered  to  try  to

Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [7]: For clarity,  I  might  still  put  a   footnote  here  and  just  say  in  footnote  see  note  2   above)  

Kaylee Herrick 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [8]: This seemed  like  a  jump  from  the   last  paragraph.  Make  a  stronger  transition  from   though  to  though  in  these  paragraphs.  

Kaylee Herrick 7/11/12 4:29 PM Deleted: As well  it

Kaylee Herrick 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [9]: Is this  part  of  the  quote?    

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been no  contemporary  statements  concerning  the  ban  until  1847.8    Ronald  Esplin  wrote  an  essay  in   1981  disputing  Bush’s  timing  of  the  ban.    Bush  and  Esplin  agree  that  Parley  P.  Pratt  had  made  a   statement  on  April  25,  1847,  declaring  that  William  McCary  had  “the  blood  of  Ham  in  him  which   line[a]ge  was  cursed  as  regard  [to]  the  priesthood.”  9    However,  Esplin  feels  that  Pratt  must  have  made   the  statement  due  to  something  declared  by  Joseph  Smith.  Esplin  reaso,   Unless  Brigham  Young  taught  the  principle  to  Parley  P.  Pratt  between  8  and  14  April  1847  the   origin  for  the  teaching  is  pushed  back  to  at  least  mid-­‐1846  before  Elder  Pratt  left  for  England.     Given  the  exigencies  of  1846  that  strongly  suggests  a  Nauvoo  origin  a  possibility  historians  have   failed  to  embrace.    I  feel  that  two  related  misconceptions  help  explain  why  that  alternative  has   not  been  pursued  more  vigorously.    The  first  has  to  do  with  the  nature  of  Brigham  Young’s   leadership,  the  second  with  Joseph  Smith’s  teachings.10     Esplin  states  that  not  all  of  Joseph’s  words  were  recorded  and  speculates  that  perhaps  there  were   “secret  temple  teachings”  not  documented  that  resulted  in  the  ban.    He  believes  the  ban  originated  with   Joseph  Smith  in  Nauvoo  in  1843,  shortly  before  the  founding  prophet’s  death.    Bush  notes  a  lack  of   contemporary  evidence  to  back  up  Esplin’s  claim.    Bush  states,     In  particular  Esplin  has  focused  attention  on  the  new  temple  rituals,  introduced  and  expanded  in   Nauvoo  in  the  1840s.  While  there  may  well  be  merit  in  linking  black  policies  with  temple   development,  it  is  still  difficult  to  believe—given  the  apparent  chronology  of  the  actual   practice—that  a  concrete  policy  of  priesthood  denial  to  blacks  dated  much  before  spring  1847.11     While  many  endorse  Bush’s  work  on  the  subject,  some  still  believe  that  Esplin’s  essay  has  merit.    As   recently  as  2009,  historian  Mark  Staker  noted  that  Esplin’s  article  from  1981  made  “a  strong  case  for  a   ban  on  priesthood  for  black  men”  originating  with  Joseph  Smith,12  although  he  also  praised  Bush’s                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Ten  Years  of  Answers”  found  in  Neither  Black  Nor  White,  edited  by  Newell  Bringhurst.    In  1998,  Bush  wrote,  “Writing     ‘Mormonism’s  Negro  Doctrine:  An  Historical  Overview’  (1973):  Context  and  Reflections,  1998,”  Journal  of  Mormon  History   25(1):229-­‐271  (Spring    1999).    It  is  available  at  http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/mormonhistory/vol25/iss1/  retrieved   6/2/2012.   8  There  are  two  possible  statements  about  a  ban  in  1847.    In  Lester  Bush,  “Whence  the  Negro  Doctrine?  A  Review  of  Ten  Years   of  Answers”  Bush  accepts  that  Parley  P.  Pratt  made  a  statement  about  Negro  denial  in  1847.    Bush  makes  a  footnote  in  Neither   Black  Nor  White  page  70  that  William  Appleby  may  have  recorded  a  ban  in  1847,  though  that  is  questionable.    Appleby  was   upset  on  meeting  a  mixed-­‐race  couple  and  their  child  in  1847.    When  recording  the  event  later,  Appleby  made  a  note  about   blacks  being  denied,  but  that  wasn’t  recorded  until  later  when  reviewing  the  events  of  his  notes  from  that  date.   9  Newell  G.  Bringhurst,  “‘A  Servant  of  Servants  …  Cursed  as  Pertaining  to  the  Priesthood’:  Mormon  Attitudes  toward  Slavery  and   the  Black  Man  1830-­‐1880,”  Ph.D.  dis.,  University  of  California-­‐Davis,  1975,  p.  121,  and  “An  Ambiguous  Decision:  The   Implementation  of  Mormon  Priesthood  Denial  for  the  Black  Man—A  Re-­‐examination,”  Utah  Historical  Quarterly  46  (Winter   1978):  47,  62-­‐63;  Ronald  K.  Esplin,  “Brigham  Young  and  Priesthood  Denial  to  the  Blacks:  An  Alternate  View,”  BYU  Studies19:394-­‐ 402.  The  Pratt  quotation  is  from  minutes,  15  Apr.  1847,  Brigham  Young  Papers,  Historical  Department  Archives,  hereafter  cited   as  LDS  Church  Archives  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-­‐day  Saints.   10  Ronald  Esplin,  “Brigham  Young  and  Priesthood  Denial  to  the  Blacks:  An  Alternate  View”,  BYU  Studies,  Vol  19:3,  396   11  Bush,  Whence  the  Negro  Doctrine,  a  Review  of  Ten  Years  of  Answers.   12  Mark  Lyman  Staker,  Hearken  O  Ye  People:    The  Historical  Setting  of  Joseph  Smith’s  Ohio  Revelations,  Greg  Kofford  Books,   2009,  70  

Kaylee Herrick 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [10]: You  switch  from  present  to  past   with  Bush  and  Esplin  agree  to  Esplin  felt.  Are  you   working  in  historical  present  when  referring  to  the   articles  or  still  referring  to  them  in  past  tense?  Make   sure  to  pick  one  for  and  stick  with  it.  You  can  refer   to  when  it  was  written  in  past  tense,  but  if  it  is   ongoing  conversation  many  scholars  choose  to   discuss  it  in  historical  present  as  if  the  debate  is  still   going  on.  

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Kaylee Herrick 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [11]: Tense change  again.  

Kaylee Herrick 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [12]: stet

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Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [13]: Chicago 6.29  

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Kaylee Herrick 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [14]: Change in  tense  again.  I  am   editing  in  historical  present,  but  you  can  do  either   one  as  long  as  you  are  consistent.  Feel  free  to  ignore   my  changes  if  you  want  to  do  it  the  other  way.  

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scholarship on  the  issue.    This  paper  will  examine  additional  evidence  not  available  to  Bush  or  Esplin  that   shed  light  on  the  role  that  interracial  marriage  played  in  regards  to  the  priesthood  and  temple  ban.     Before  the  Ban   13

In June  of  1831,  Joseph  Smith  stated  that  blacks  were  “descendants  of  Ham,”  although  such  a   statement  did  not  restrict  blacks  to  the  priesthood.    Here  is  a  brief  chronology  of  some  of  the  major   events  during  the  decade.14   1830   Black  Pete   A  freed  slave,  named  Black  Pete,  living  in  Kirtland,  Ohio,  is  the  earliest  known  black  to  have  joined  the   church  in  December  1830  when  missionaries  Parley  P.  Pratt,  Ziba  Peterson,  Peter  Whitmer,  and  Oliver   Cowdery  visited  Kirtland,  Ohio.    In  the  first  year  of  the  organization  of  the  cvhurch,  male  members  were   typically  ordained  immediately  after  their  baptism.    It  seems  likely  that  Black  Pete  was  baptized  and   ordained  in  December  1830.    Historian  Mark  Staker  has  noted  that  

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Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [15]: This feels  like  a  second  thesis.  

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Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [16]: Feels fragmented  from   paragraph  before  and  after.  A  stronger  connection   between  paragraphs  will  help  the  flow  of  the  paper.  

Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [17]: Makes it  sound  like  he  was   Mormon  before  he  joined  the  church.  

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Short lists  of  those  who  were  ordained  and  commissioned  to  preach  after  their  baptism  never   included  Black  Pete.    However,  the  men  who  wrote  about  their  baptisms  note  they  were  also   ordained  and  commissioned  as  part  of  their  conversion  process,  and  many  of  the  early  converts   were  not  included  in  lists  of  commissioned  preachers,  leaving  Black  Pete’s  authority  to  preach   and  baptize  uncertain.    As  part  of  Kirtland’s  ecstatic  religious  experiences,  a  number  of  men   received  “letters”  that  fell  from  heaven  which  were  copied  onto  paper  before  the  original  letter   disappeared.    Black  Pete  was  among  those  who  received  one  of  these  letters,  his  delivered  by  a   black  angel.    Because  these  letters  were  apparently  divine  commissions  to  travel  the  countryside   preaching  and  baptizing  and  because  Black  Pete  was  among  those  who  went  about  the  country   preaching,  it  is  likely  he  also  performed  baptisms  during  January  of  1831.15   1831  

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Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [18]: Fragmented thought  from   sentences  around  it.  

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Staker goes  on  to  show  that  Pete  was  a  recognized  leader  in  the  early  Mormon  movement.16    Within  a   few  months  of  his  baptism,  Black  Pete  was  serving  a  mission  for  the  church.   In  early  February  [1831],  Black  Pete  and  his  group  found  themselves  in  Ashtabula  County  on  the   shores  of  Lake  Erie  about  halfway  between  Kirtland  and  Erie,  Pennsylvania.    It  was  probably   their  activities  that  influenced  the  publication  of  an  article  that  appeared  on  February  5  in  the                                                                                                                           13

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Smith,  History  of  the  Church,  1:75.  The  earliest  published  version  of  the  account  (Times  and  Seasons  5  [1844]:  448)  deletes   this  expression;  however,  it  is  present  in  the  original  handwritten  entry  of  the  Manuscript  History  of  the  Church,  19  June  1831,   LDS  Church  Archives.   14    Bush’s  1973  article,  “The  Negro  Doctrine:  An  Historical  Overview”  contains  many  other  details.   15  Mark  Lyman  Staker,  Hearken  O  Ye  People:    The  Historical  Setting  of  Joseph  Smith’s  Ohio  Revelations,  64-­‐65   16  Mark  Lyman  Staker,  Hearken  O  Ye  People:    The  Historical  Setting  of  Joseph  Smith’s  Ohio  Revelations,  95.  

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Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [19]: Nice connection  here.  

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Ashtabula Journal.    It  identified  Black  Pete  as  a  leader  in  this  new  religion,  suggesting  that  the   group  of  young  men  recognized  him  as  their  chief  source  of  influence.  17   After  hearing  news  of  the  new  converts  in  Kirtland,  Joseph  Smith  made  arrangements  to  travel  to   Kirtland,  arriving  in  February  1831.18    Two  church  members19  in  Kirtland  even  acknowledged  that  Black   Pete  claimed  to  have  received  a  revelation  to  marry  a  white  young  woman  named  Lovina  Williams,   Frederick  G.  Williams’  youngest  daughter.    Staker  notes  that  church  member   Henry  Carroll  claimed  that  Black  Pete  sought  a  revelation  from  Joseph  Smith  after  his  arrival  in   Kirtland  “And  wanted  to  marry  a  white  woman.    Jo  Smith  said  he  could  get  no  revelations  for   him  to.    Pete  claimed  he  [Black  Pete]  did.20    Three  years  later,  Lovina  married  Burr  Riggs,  one  of   Black  Pete’s  closest  associates,  on  November  18,  1834.  21   Black  Pete’s  attempts  to  marry  a  white  woman  bring  up  some  interesting  points  regarding  interracial   marriage  during  that  time.    Americans  in  the  1830s  held  differing  views  on  whether  marriage  between   whites  and  non-­‐whites  was  acceptable.    Mormons  encouraged  marriage  with  Indians,  and  at  that  time   may  have  been  ambivalent  about  black-­‐white  intermarriage. Historian  Lawrence  Foster  has  noted  that   Joseph  Smith  received  a  revelation  concerning  interracial  marriage  on  July  17,  1831  which  said,    

Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [20]: Make a  stronger  connection  why   this  sentence  is  here  because  it  seems  out  of  place   until  you  read  the  quote  of  why  it  is  important  he   came  to  visit  the  saints.  

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“For it  is  my  will,  that  in  time,  ye  should  take  unto  you  wives  of  the  Lamanites  and  Nephites  that   their  posterity  may  become  white[,]  delightsome[,]  and  just,  for  even  now  their  females  are   more  virtuous  than  the  gentiles.”22  

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Interracial  marriage  proves  to  be  an  important  point  to  consider  as  one  looks  at  the  timing  and   justifications  for  the  ban.    Mormons,  as  well  as  Americans  in  general  were  wrestling  with  interracial   marriage,  and  held  many  views  on  the  subject.    For  example,  The  Last  of  the  Mohicans  was  published  in   1826  by  James  Fenimore  Cooper,23  the  most  popular  book  of  the  1820s.    The  plot  portrays  the  marriage   between  Indians  and  white  women  among  events  taking  place  during  the  French  and  Indian  War.       Elise  Lemire  in  her  2002  book,  Miscegenation:  Making  of  Race  in  America,  talks  about  various  waves  of   thought  regarding  interracial  marriage  in  America.    Lemire  states  that  “Cooper  is  clear  that  marriages   are  shunned  in  the  novel  for  racial  reasons  and  in  large  part  out  of  fear  for  the  interracial  alliances  that   would  result.”24    However,  Lemire  states  that  not  everyone  held  Cooper’s  view.    In  1803  Thomas                                                                                                                           17

Mark  Lyman  Staker,  Hearken  O  Ye  People:    The  Historical  Setting  of  Joseph  Smith’s  Ohio  Revelations,  95.    Staker  cites  “The   Golden  Bible  or  the  Book  of  Mormon,”  Ashtabula  Journal,  3,  no.  10  (February  5,  1831):    3.     18  Mark  Staker,  footnote  23  on  page  117,  Hearken  O  Ye  People.    Joseph  Smith  left  the  Morley  farm  on  June  19;     19  Mark  Lyman  Staker,  Hearken  O  Ye  People:    The  Historical  Setting  of  Joseph  Smith’s  Ohio  Revelations,  105.    W.R.  Hine  and   Henry  Carroll  claimed  that  Black  Pete  sought  a  revelation  from  Joseph  Smith  about  marrying  Lovina  Williams.   20  Staker  cites  Henry  Carroll,  “Statement,”  3.   21  Mark  Lyman  Staker,  Hearken  O  Ye  People:    The  Historical  Setting  of  Joseph  Smith’s  Ohio  Revelations,  105.   22  W.W.  Phelps,  Letter  to  Brigham  Young,  August  12,  1861,  quoted  in  Lawrence  Foster,  Religion  and  Sexuality:  The  Shakers,  the   Mormons,  and  the  Oneida  Community,  134-­‐35.   23  Elise  Lemire,  Miscegenation:  Making  of  Race  in  America,  35.   24  Elise  Lemire,  Miscegenation:  Making  of  Race  in  America,  46-­‐47.  

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Jefferson argued  that  “inter-­‐marriage  would  solve  the  problem  of  what  to  do  with  the  Indians.”     Intermarriage  with  them  might  help  solve  land  disputes.    Lemire  writes  that  “state  governments   considered  rewarding  those  citizens  who  would  intermarry  with  the  Indians.”    However,  “no  such   suggestions  were  ever  made  by  the  government  regarding  blacks.”    Lemire  notes  that  sixteen  of  twenty-­‐ three  states  prohibited  black-­‐white  intermarriage,  but  just  seven  states  prohibited  white-­‐Indian   marriage  in  the  1820s.  25   Black  Pete  disappeared  from  the  historical  record  “sometime  between  1831  and  1834.”26    While  there   isn’t  clear  evidence  that  Black  Pete  held  the  priesthood,  the  evidence  seems  quite  compelling  that  he   did  serve  a  mission  and  was  an  early  church  leader  in  Ohio.    It  seems  highly  probable  that  Black  Pete   held  the  priesthood,  and  probably  performed  baptisms.27    Evidence  for  other  black  members  holding  the   priesthood  prior  to  1840  is  even  stronger.  

Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [21]: This would  make  a  nice   connection  and  fit  into  what  you  were  already   saying  with  Americans  had  differing  views  in  the   1830s  in  the  paragraph  above.  Making  a  nice   transition  between  Americans  general  view  and   narrowing  it  down  to  Mormons  view  on  the  subject.    

1832   Joseph  Ball  was  born  in  Cambridge,  Massachusetts.    Ball  was  the  child  of  mixed-­‐race  parents.    His  father   (also  named  Joseph)  was  from  Jamaica;  his  Anglo-­‐Breton  mother  was  named  Mary  Montgomery  Drew.28     He  was  baptized  in  the  summer  of  1832  by  either  Brigham  Young  or  his  brother  Joseph  Young  in  Boston.     It  is  not  known  if  the  Youngs  were  aware  of  Ball’s  mixed-­‐race  heritage.  

Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [22]: Creates parallelism    with  the   phrase  before.  

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                                                                                                                      25

Elise  Lemire,  Miscegenation:  Making  of  Race  in  America,  47.    She  writes,  ‘In  some  instances  where  Indians  were  still  in  the   vicinity,  state  governments  considered  rewarding  those  citizens  who  would  intermarry  with  the  Indians.    In  Georgia,  for  another   example,  Secretary  of  War  William  Harris  Crawford  recommended  in  1816  that  those  Indians  who  did  not  choose  to  migrate   beyond  the  Mississippi  should  inter-­‐marry  with  the  whites.    In  contrast,  no  such  suggestions  were  ever  made  by  the   government  regarding  blacks.    While  many  of  the  colonies  and  then  states  in  the  United  States  legislated  against  fornication   and  marriage  between  whites  and  blacks,  there  was  far  less  legislation  concerning  mixture  between  whites  and  Indians.    By  the   1820s,  out  of  the  twenty-­‐three  states  in  existence,  only  New  Jersey,  New  York,  Connecticut,  New  Hampshire,  Vermont,  and   Pennsylvania  did  not  prohibit  black-­‐white  marriage.    In  the  same  period,  only  seven  states  prohibited  marriage  between  Indians   and  whites:    Virginia,  North  Carolina,  South  Carolina,  Georgia,  Massachusetts,  Rhode  Island,  and  Maine.    And  importantly,  these   latter  three  states,  all  in  the  Northeast  legislated  against  Indian/white  marriage  solely  out  of  the  belief  that  the  remaining   Indians  had  intermarried  with  blacks.    As  Winthrop  Jordan  asserts  of  the  period  from  1550  to  1812,  “the  entire  interracial   complex  did  not  pertain  to  Indians.’   26  Mark  Lyman  Staker,  Hearken  O  Ye  People:    The  Historical  Setting  of  Joseph  Smith’s  Ohio  Revelations,  188.    However,  Newell   Bringhurst  speculates  Pete  may  have  been  cut  off  in  relation  to  D&C  43.    Bringhurst  says  in  Saints,  Slaves,  and  Blacks,  page  37,   “The  Mormon  Prophet  proclaimed  that  only  authorized  individuals  could  ‘receive  revelations.’    As  a  result  Black  Pete  was   apparently  ‘tried  for  [his]  fellowship’  and  ‘cut  off’  from  the  church.”  In  footnote  27  Bringhurst  states  his  reasons  for  believing   Black  Pete  was  cut  off.    “This  according  to  a  later  recollection  in  the  Times  and  Seasons,  1  Apr.  1842.    However,  it  is  unclear   whether  ‘Black  Pete’  was  among  those  ‘cut  off.’”    No  documentary  evidence  has  been  found  to  support  Bringhurst’s   speculation.   27  Mark  Lyman  Staker,  Hearken  O  Ye  People:    The  Historical  Setting  of  Joseph  Smith’s  Ohio  Revelations,  64-­‐65.    Staker  states,   “Black  Pete  was  among  those  who  received  one  of  these  letters,  his  delivered  by  a  black  angel.    Because  these  letters  were   apparently  divine  commissions  to  travel  the  countryside  preaching  and  baptizing  and  because  Black  Pete  was  among  those  who   went  about  the  country  preaching,  it  is  likely  he  also  performed  baptisms  during  January  1831.”   28  Newell  Bringhurst  and  Craig  Foster,  The  Persistence  of  Polygamy,  Vol  2,  2012.    Connell  O’Donovan  wrote  a  chapter  discussing   Ball  in  the  book,  titled  “Polygamy  and  African  American  Mormons:  Race,  Schism,  and  the  Beginnings  of  Priesthood  and  Temple   Denial  in  1847”  and  reference  to  Ball’s  parents  is  found  on  page  2  of  this  chapter.      

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That same  year,  Elijah  Abel  was  baptized  in  Maryland  by  Ezekiel  Roberts.29    Both  of  these  converts     playedimportant  roles  in  the  1840s.    Abel  would  go  on  to  serve  three  missions  for  the  church.    He  is   probably  the  best  known  black  member  to  have  received  the  priesthood.    Census  records30  from  the   period  have  indicated  that  he  was  black  and/or  mulatto.  Some  have  claimed  that  he  was  so  fair-­‐skinned   that  some  could  not  tell  he  was  black,  although  Margaret  Young  and  Darius  Gray  dispute  this  assertion.31     Abel’s  mother  Delilah  was  a  slave.   1833  

Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [23]: Seems just  like  an  extra  fact.  

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Figure 1  -­‐  Elijah  Abel  

Ball moved  to  Kirtland  in  September  1833,  becoming  acquainted   with  Joseph  Smith.    He  may  have  been  ordained  as  early  as  1833,  or  as  late  as  1837;  he  served  a  mission   with  Wilford  Woodruff  in  1837  in  New  England  and  New  Jersey.32       In  Missouri,  W.W.  Phelps  noted  that  there  were  no  current  restrictions  on  black  members.    As  editor  of   the  church’s  newspaper  Evening  and  Morning  Star,  he  wrote  in  July  1833,  “…  So  long  as  we  have  no   special  rule  in  the  Church,  as  to  people  of  color,  let  prudence  guide,  and  while  they,  as  well  as  we,  are  in   the  hands  of  a  merciful  God,  we  say:  Shun  every  appearance  of  evil.”    The  article  ignited  a  firestorm  of   controversy  in  Missouri,  a  slave  state,  because  many  felt  the  Mormons  were  encouraging  free  blacks  to   come  to  the  state.    The  printing  press  was  destroyed  on  July  20  and  Mormons  were  expelled  from   Jackson  County,  Missouri,  in  November  and  December  of  that  year.    Mormons  would  encounter  many   difficulties  while  living  in  Missouri,  finally  being  expelled  from  the  state  in  1838  when  Governor  Boggs   issued  the  Extermination  Order.  

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Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [24]: So we  are  positive  he  received   the  priesthood?  That  would  seem  like  good   evidence  to  include  of  how  we  know  that  for   certain.  

Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [25]: Both feel  like  extra  facts.  Even   though  it  is  stated  in  the  footnote.  It  might  help  the   flow  of  the  paper  to  make  a  stronger  assertion  of   why  they  disputed  this  idea  in  your  paper  and  the   importance  of  why  he  is  a  slave  if  it  isn’t  just  extra   information,  but  important  to  the  point  of  you   paper.  

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Comment [26]: Is this  to  a  Mormon  audience,  a   general  religious  audience?  If  to  a  Mormon   audience  this  feels  like  extra  information  that  is  not   developing  your  thesis.  Unless  you  are  saying  you   think  it  is  connected  to  the  racial  tensions  in   Missouri.    

Andrew  Jenson,  Latter-­‐day  Saint  Biographical  Encyclopedia  (Salt  Lake  City:  A.  Jenson  History  Co.,  1901-­‐1936),  3:577.    Census  records  in  1870  list  him  as  black,  and  subsequent  census  records  show  that  he  was  mulatto.   31  Margaret  Young  and  Darius  Gray,  One  More  River  to  Cross.    On  page  26  they  note  that  “According  to  Margery  Taylor’s   research,  Elijah  Abel  reported  his  mother  as  “[D]Elilah  Williams  [Abel]”    (she  is  listed  as  “Delilah  Abel”  in  baptisms  for  the  dead   records,  as  noted  in  chapter  1)  and  his  father  as  “Andrew  Abel”  in  missionary  registry  (microfilm  025664—Missionary  record   books,  A-­‐C,  1860-­‐1906).    The  fact  that  he  named  his  father  seems  to  contradict  the  once  popular  idea  that  Elijah  Abel  was  an   unusually  fair  skinned  mulatto,  the  son  of  a  white  man—possibly  his  master.    (Elijah’s  father,  for  whatever  reason,  did  not   remain  with  his  family,  for  Elijah’s  patriarchal  blessing  mentions  that  his  father  “[had]  not  done  his  duty”  towards  him.)     Though  we  do  not  know  the  exact  racial  mixture  of  Elijah  Abel’s  lineage  (slavery  brought  a  very  common—though  hidden— interracial  relations),  it  is  vital  to  dispel  the  folklore  about  Elijah,  which  has  sometimes  cast  him  as  so  white  that  his  race  was   not  discernible  and  that  (as  Zebedee  Coltrin  falsely  claimed)  when  Joseph  Smith  learned  of  Abel’s  black  lineage  “[Abel]  was   dropped  from  the  quorum  and  another  was  put  in  his  place”  (Bringhurst,  “Elijah  Abel,”  139)…There  is  even  more  persuasive   evidence  that  Elijah  Abel  was  indisputably  black  and  recognized  as  black  during  his  lifetime:    Census  takers,  who  were  to   identify  a  person’s  race  by  appearance  only,  identified  Abel  as  black.  (The  choices  the  census  taker  was  given  were  W  [White],  B   [Black],  and  M  [Mulatto].    Margery  Taylor’s  research  shows  that  the  1850  census  in  Cincinnati,  Hamilton  County,  Ohio  tenth   ward,  page  89,  lists  Elijah  as  B  [Black].    Though  a  Salt  Lake  City  census  lists  him  as  “M,”  the  census  taker  could  have  so  identified   him  without  noting  African  characteristics.   32  Connell  O’Donovan’s  cites  Joseph  Smith  to  “Viana  Jaquish”  [Vienna  Jacques],  September  4,  1833,  Joseph  Smith  Papers;   Kirtland  High  Council  Minute  Book,  March  17,  1836,  p.  146;  Jonathan  Oldham  Duke,  Personal  History,  pp.  5-­‐6,  Vault  MSS  227,  L.   Tom  Perry  Special  Collections,  Harold  B.  Lee  Library,  Brigham  Young  University;  Conference  Minutes,  August  9,  1839,  Times  and   Seasons,  vol.  1  no.  3,  p.  4;  Wilford  Woodruff  journal,  December  12,  1839;  John  Carlin’s  autobiographical  entry  in  Nauvoo   Seventies  Record,  p.  12;  Inez  Smith  Davis,  The  Story  of  the  Church,  Chapter  51  “Welding  the  Fragments,”  n.  p.;  Times  and   Seasons,  vol.  2  no.  4,  pp.  253-­‐254,  December  15,  1840;  “Revival  in  Maine,”  Vermont  Chronicle  (Bellow  Falls,  VT),  August  9,  1843;   and  “S.  Brannan”  to  Wilford  Woodruff,  reprinted  in  Times  and  Seasons,  January  1,  1844,  vol.  5  no.  1.  p.  388.  


1835 Meanwhile,  in  what  later  proved  to  be  an  important  event,  Michael  Chandler  visited  Kirtland,  Ohio,  as   part  of  a  traveling  exhibit  of  Egyptian  mummies.    Having  heard  that  Joseph  Smith  might  be  able  to   translate  some  of  the  papyrus,  Chandler  sold  some  scrolls  and  Egyptian  mummies  to  the  church  in  1835   for  $2400.33    Joseph  Smith  claimed  that  some  of  these  writings  contained  a  record  of  Abraham.    Though   the  papyrus  wasn’t  translated  until  1837,  the  Book  of  Abraham  would  be  an  important  justification  for   the  priesthood  ban  for  some,  and  was  cited  by  Randy  Bott  in  his  justification  for  the  priesthood/temple   ban.   Despite  the  troubles  in  Missouri,  in  November  1835  Smith  said  that  the  gospel  should  be  preached  to   everyone  including  slaves  if  they  received  permission  from  their  masters.    Smith  sent  a  letter  to   missionaries  abroad  stating  that  “if  permission  was  denied  by  the  masters,  ‘the  responsibility  be  upon   the  head  of  the  master  of  that  house,  and  the  consequence  thereof  …’”34       1836   However,  it  appears  that  Smith  softened  his  stance  just  a  few  months  later.    In  April,  Smith   recommended  that  masters  should  be  converted  before  missionaries  taught  slaves.35    Black  Mormons   continued  to  be  ordained  to  the  priesthood  in  1836.    Having  been  a  member  for  four  years,  Elijah  Abel   was  ordained  an  Eeder  on  March  3,  1836,36    confirmed  in  his  patriarchal  blessing.    Patriarch  Joseph   Smith  Sr.  confirmed  that  Abel  was  “ordained  an  Elder.”    In  an  unusual  move,  rather  than  proclaiming   that  Abel  was  of  the  House  of  Israel,  Smith  declared  that  Abel  was  “an  orphan.”37    Abel  received  his   washing  and  anointing  in  the  Kirtland  Temple  in  the  1836,38  and  he  helped  build  the  Kirtland,  Nauvoo,  

Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [27]: Sounds like  you  are  discussion  it   as  it  is  happening,  but  then  change  back  to  past   tense.    

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Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [28]: Same tense  issue  here  as  well.  

Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [29]: Chicago 6.31  

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Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [30]: Chicago 6.47  

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Gee,  John  (2000),  A  Guide  to  the  Joseph  Smith  Papyri,  Provo,  Utah:  Foundation  for  Ancient  Research  and  Mormon  Studies,  3.   34  Lester  Bush,  1969,  A  Commentary  on  Stephen  G.  Taggart’s  Mormonism’s  Negro  Policy:  Social  and  Historical  Origins.    In   summarizing  Smith’s  position,  Bush  says  “Joseph  Smith  in  a  letter  to  the  “elders  abroad,”  in  which  Smith  made  it  clear  that  the   obligation  to  teach  slaves  the  gospel  had  not  been  removed.  The  elders  were  simply  instructed  to  consult  the  masters  first.    He   footnotes  Messenger  and  Advocate  l  (Sept.  1835):  180,  2  (Nov.  1835):  210-­‐11  stating  that  “If  permission  was  denied  by  the   masters,  ‘the  responsibility  be  upon  the  head  of  the  master  of  that  house,  and  the  consequence  thereof  …’”  as  well  as  Joseph   Smith,  Jr.,  History  of  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-­‐day  Saints,  B.  H.  Roberts.   35  Lester  Bush,  1973,  Mormonism’s  Negro  Doctrine:  An  Historical  Overview.    Bush  cites  Messenger  and  Advocate  2  (April  1836),   289-­‐301.   36  Date  of  ordination  from  Andrew  Jenson,  Biographical  Encyclopedia,  3:577.  The  patriarchal  blessing  is  found  in  Joseph  Smith’s   Patriarchal  Blessing  Record,  p.  88,  without  date,  and  is  headed,  “A  blessing  under  the  hands  of  Joseph  Smith,  Sen.,  upon  Elijah   Abel,  who  was  born  in  Frederick  County,  Maryland,  July  25,  1808.”  No  lineage  was  assigned.  It  is  clear  that  the  blessing  was   given  after  Abel’s  ordination,  for  the  Patriarch  states,  “Thou  has  been  ordained  an  Elder.”    An  1891  letter  from  Eunice  Kinney  to   Brother  Watson  in  Bay  Springs,  Michigan,  claims  that  Abel  was  ordained  by  Joseph  Smith.    Kinney  was  converted  by  Abel  in   1838.   37  “Joseph  Smith’s  Patriarchal  Blessing  Record,”  88,  as  cited  in  Lester  E.  Bush,  “Compilation  on  the  Negro  in  Mormonism,”  16-­‐ 17.   38    Zebedee  Coltrin  claimed  in  1879  that  he  personally  washed  and  anointed  Elijah  Abel  in  the  Kirtland  Temple  (around  1836).     However,  Abel  disputed  this  claim.    Abel  said  that  Coltrin  ordained  him  a  Seventy.    From  the  record,  it  appears  that  Abel  was   washed  and  anointed  in  the  Kirtland  Temple,  meaning  there  was  no  restriction  on  blacks  at  that  time.    History  of  the  Church   2:269  states  the  inclusive  nature  of  the  Kirtland  Temple.    “No  man  shall  be  interrupted  who  is  appointed  to  speak  by  the   presidency  of  the  church…from  old  or  young,  rich  or  poor,  male  or  female,  bond  or  free,  black  or  white,  believer  or  unbeliever.     It  is  important  to  note  that  the  Kirtland  Temple  was  open  to  the  public  on  occasion.  For  example,  the  Egyptian  Mummies  

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and Salt  Lake  Temples.    Later  that  year,  Abel  was  ordained  a  seventy  by  Zebedee  Coltrin  on  December   20,  1836,39  in  preparation  for  Abel  to  serve  the  first  of  three  missions  for  the  church  to  Ohio,  New  York,   and  Canada.40  In  1895,  Apostle  (and  future  President)  Joseph  F.  Smith  claimed  that  Abel  was  ordained  a   high  priest.41      An  editorial  most  likely  written  by  Oliver  Cowdery  appeared  in  the  Latter  Day  Saint   Messenger  and  Advocate  showed  disgust  for  interracial  marriage,  stating  that  “low  indeed  must  be  the   mind,  that  would  consent  for  a  moment,  to  see  his  fair  daughter,  his  sister,  or  perhaps,  his  bosom   companion  in  the  embrace  of  a  NEGRO!”42   1837   It  is  significant  to  note  that  the  Book  of  Abraham  was  translated  in  1837.    As  mentioned  earlier,  the  Book   of  Abraham  played  a  role  in  justifications  for  the  priesthood  ban,  although,  it  did  not  have  an  immediate   impact.    The  beginning  of  the  Book  of  Abraham  states  that  “the  first  government  of  Egypt  was   established  by  Pharaoh,  the  eldest  son  of  Egyptus,  the  daughter  of  Ham  (Abr.  1:25).”    Verse  26  explains   that  the  righteous  Pharaoh  was  “cursed  as  to  the  priesthood”  because  Pharaoh  was  “of  that  lineage  by   which  he  could  not  have  the  right  of  Priesthood,  notwithstanding  the  Pharaohs  would  fain  claim  it  from   Noah,  through  Ham.”   Despite  this  translation,  no  priesthood  restrictions  came  about  directly  as  a  result  of  the  translation  of   the  book.    Future  justifications  for  priesthood  denial  would  hinge  on  blacks  being  cursed  because  they   were  descendants  of  Cain  or  Ham.    Since  the  patriarchal  blessing  of  Elijah  Abel  declared  that  he  was  “an   orphan,”  it  is  conceivable  that  he  would  not  have  been  considered  to  be  under  the  curse  of  Ham  or  Cain.     However,  Joseph  Ball  was  of  the  “tribe  of  Canaan,”  yet  held  the  priesthood  at  this  early  date.    There  may   have  been  an  informal  ban  against  slaves  receiving  the  priesthood  as  early  as  1837.    Lester  Bush  states   that    

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            purchased  from  Michael  Chandler  were  on  display  in  the  temple.    The  public  was  charged  admission  to  see  the  mummies.    Bush   cites  Adam  S.  Bennion  Papers,  Lee  Library,  Brigham  Young  University,  Provo,  Utah.     39  Minutes  of  the  Seventies  Journal,  kept  by  Hazen  Aldrich,  20  Dec.  1836.  Abel  was  one  of  several  ordained  by  Zebedee  Coltrin   to  the  Third  Quorum  of  Seventy.  Aldrich  and  John  Young,  who  with  Coltrin  were  presidents  of  the  seventies,  also  ordained   several  seventies  that  evening.  This  journal  is  found  in  the  Historical  Department  of  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-­‐day   Saints,  Salt  Lake  City;  hereafter  cited  as  LDS  Church  Archives.    In  1895,  Joseph  F.  Smith  also  claimed  that  Joseph  Smith  had   ordained  Elijah  Abel,  and  stated  Elijah  was  a  ordained  a  High  Priest.    However,  he  reversed  himself  in  1908  and  claimed  that   Joseph  Smith  had  declared  Abel’s  ordination  “null  and  void.”   40  Elijah  Abel’s  obituary  from  the  Deseret  News.    A  copy  of  the  obituary  is  found  in  the  University  of  Utah  library.    Digital  image   found  at  http://udn.lib.utah.edu/cgi-­‐bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/deseretnews3&CISOPTR=2224509&filename=2224510.pdf   accessed  3/10/2012.   41  Minutes  of  the  Seventies  Journal,  kept  by  Hazen  Aldrich,  20  Dec.  1836.  Abel  was  one  of  several  ordained  by  Zebedee  Coltrin   to  the  Third  Quorum  of  Seventy.  Aldrich  and  John  Young,  who  with  Coltrin  were  presidents  of  the  seventies,  also  ordained   several  seventies  that  evening.  This  journal  is  found  in  the  Historical  Department  of  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-­‐day   Saints,  Salt  Lake  City;  hereafter  cited  as  LDS  Church  Archives.    In  1895,  Joseph  F.  Smith  also  claimed  that  Joseph  Smith  had   ordained  Elijah  Abel,  and  stated  Elijah  was  a  ordained  a  High  Priest.    However,  he  reversed  himself  in  1908  and  claimed  that   Joseph  Smith  had  declared  Abel’s  ordination  “null  and  void.”    Margaret  Young  mentioned  this  in  a  Mormon  Stories  interview   with  John  Dehlin,  “In  1895,  Joseph  F  Smith  claims  Elijah  Abel  was  ordained  a  High  Priest.”—  a  transcript  of  the  conversation  is   available  at  http://www.mormonheretic.org/2008/09/14/was-­‐priesthood-­‐ban-­‐inspired/)   42  Quinn,  Origins  of  Power,  625.  

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Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [31]: No connection  between  these   two  sentences.  

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Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [32]: Not a  clear  connection  between   this  sentence  and  the  previous  sentence.  


Smith allegedly  gave  the  same  advice  …  directed  at  Negroes  “in  the  Southern  States.”  Most,  if   not  all,  of  the  Negroes  involved  in  these  accounts  were  slaves.  It  may  be,  notwithstanding  the   lack  of  contemporary  documentation,  that  a  policy  was  in  effect  denying  the  priesthood  to   slaves  or  isolated  free  southern  Negroes.   No  slaves  are  known  to  have  held  the  priesthood  although  Bush  cites  a  lack  of  contemporary   documentation  to  fully  support  this  view.43    Newell  Bringhurst  shows  a  table  of  thirteen  black  men  and   nine  black  women  known  to  be  living  in  Nauvoo  between  1839  and  1846.    As  you  can  see  in  the  table   below,  no  black  slaves  are  known  to  have  received  the  priesthood  infrom  the  Nauvoo  period.    But  free   blacks  Walker  Lewis  and  Warner  McCary  are  known  to  have  received  the  priesthood,  in  addition  to  the   free  blacks  mentioned  earlier  that  received  the  priesthood  in  the  1830  period.   Table  1               Names  of  Blacks  (Slave  and  Free)  Living  in  Nauvoo,  Illinois  during  the  Mormon  Sojourn,  1839-­‐1846   Knew   Years  in   Migrate   Male/   Known   Free/   Joseph   Name  of  Black   Nauvoo   West?   Female   Priesthood   Slave   Smith   Elijah  Abel   1839-­‐1842   Yes,  1853   M   Yes   Free   Yes   Luke  Redd   1840-­‐1846   Yes,  1850   M       Slave       Sammy  Jolley   1840-­‐1846   Yes,  1850   M       Slave       "Black  Jack"   1840s   No   M               Green  Flake   1840s   Yes,  1847   M       Slave   Yes   Sylvester  James   1843-­‐1846   Yes,  1847   M       Free       Isaac  James   1843-­‐1846   Yes,  1847   M       Free   Yes   Isaac  Lewis  Manning   1843-­‐1846   No   M       Free       Peter  Manning   1843-­‐1846   No   M       Free       Anthony  Stebbings   1843-­‐1846   No   M        Free       Chism   1843   No   M               Cato  Mead   1840s   No   M       Free   Cato  Treadwell   1843-­‐1845   No   M       Free   Escaped   Slave/   Warner  "William"   1846   No   M   Yes   No   living  as   McCary*   free   man                                                                                                                                         43

Lester  Bush,  1973,  Mormonism’s  Negro  Doctrine:  An  Historical  Overview.    Bush  states  “a  second-­‐hand  account  related  by   Smoot  in  which  Smith  allegedly  gave  the  same  advice  was  also  directed  at  Negroes  ‘in  the  Southern  States.’”  Most,  if  not  all,  of   the  Negroes  involved  in  these  accounts  were  slaves.  It  may  be,  notwithstanding  the  lack  of  contemporary  documentation,  that   a  policy  was  in  effect  denying  the  priesthood  to  slaves  or  isolated  free  southern  Negroes.    Bush  cites  L.  John  Nuttall  Journal,  31   May  1879,  typescript  at  Harold  B.  Lee  Library,  Brigham  Young  University,  vol.  1,  (1876-­‐84),  pp.  290-­‐93;  a  copy  is  also  included  in   the  Council  Meeting  minutes  for  4  June  1879  (Bennion  papers).  Smoot  attributed  the  second-­‐hand  accounts  to  W.  W.  Patten,   Warren  Parrish,  and  Thomas    B.  Marsh.  

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Women Venus  Redd   Chaney  Redd   Amy  Redd   Marinda  Redd   Liz  Flake  Rowan   Jane  M.  James   Eliza  Manning   Lucinda  Manning   Angeline  Manning   Sarah  Ann  Stebbings      

1840-­‐1846   1840-­‐1846   1840-­‐1846   1840-­‐1846   1840s   1843-­‐1846   1843-­‐1846   1843-­‐1846   1843-­‐1846   1843-­‐1846  

Yes,  1850   Yes,  1850   Yes,  1850   Yes,  1850   Yes,  1848   Yes,  1847   Yes,  1847   No   No   No  

F   F   F   F   F   F   F   F   F   F  

Years in   Boston  

Migrate West?  

Male/ Female  

Joseph  T.  Ball  

1832-­‐1845

No

M

Evelyn Wilber  Teague  

1842-­‐1845 At  least   1842-­‐1845     1842-­‐1851  

No

F

 

Free

 

 

M

 

Free

 

short visit  

M

 

1846

No

M

Name of  Black  

Enoch Lewis   Walker  Lewis   Warner  "William"   McCary*  (also  in  Nauvoo)  

                                       

Slave   Slave   Slave   Slave   Slave   Free   Free   Free   Free    Free  

Known Priesthood  

Free/ Slave  

Yes

Free

Yes

                    Yes                  

Knew Joseph   Smith   Yes  

Free     Escaped   Slave/   living  as   free   man  

No

*Note Warner  McCary  lived  in  both  places,  so  he  is  highlighted  in  yellow   The  1840s     At  the  beginning  of  the  decade,  no  priesthood  restrictions  were  planned  for  the  Nauvoo  Temple;  during   general  conference  in  1840  it  was  stated  that,     we  may  soon  expect  to  see  flocking  to  this  place,  people  from  every  land  and  from  every  nation,   the  polished  European,  the  degraded  Hottentot  [native  people  of  southwestern  Africa,  closely   related  to  the  Bushmen],44  and  the  shivering  Laplander  [of  the  Arctic  Circle  in  Northern  

                                                                                                                      44

The  Khoikhoi  are  native  people  of  southwestern  Africa,  closely  related  to  the  Bushmen.  They  lived  in  southern  Africa  since   the  5th  century  AD.    European  immigrants  colonized  the  area  in  1652  and  labeled  them  Hottentots,  in  imitation  of  the  sound  of   the  Khoekhoe  language,  but  this  term  is  today  considered  derogatory.  

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Europe].45  Persons  of  all  languages,  and  of  every  tongue,  and  of  every  color;  who  shall  with  us   worship  the  Lord  of  Hosts  in  his  holy  temple,  and  offer  up  their  orisons  in  his  sanctuary.”46   In  order  to  arbitrate  between  Bush  and  Esplin  concerning  the  timing  of  the  ban,  the  decade  of  1840   becomes  very  important.    Public  opinion  against  blacks  became  more  antagonistic  in  the  1840s  within   the  U.S.    Though  Illinois  was  a  free  state,  they  did  not  want  to  welcome  blacks  into  the  state.    Newell   Bringhurst  said   In  fact,  antiblack  discrimination  ‘intensified’  during  the  late  1840s  and  1850s  [throughout  the   U.S].  Illinois,  just  after  the  Mormon  exodus  from  Nauvoo,  approved  a  statute  that  absolutely   prohibited  black  migration  into  the  state.  Therefore,  Nauvoo  antiblack  statutes  conformed  with   those  of  the  larger  American  society  that  routinely  discriminated  against  blacks  in  the  political   realm.47    

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1841 Because  the  temple  in  Nauvoo  had  not  yet  been  completed,  Elijah  Abel  participated  in  baptisms  for  the   dead  in  Nauvoo  in  1841  in  the  Mississippi  River.    Abel  was  baptized  on  behalf  of  his  mother  and  his   daughter,  both  named  Delilah,  as  well  as  his  friend,  John  F.  Lancaster.48    Over  time,  black  Mormons  were   discouraged,  though  not  prohibited  from  participating  in  baptisms  for  the  dead.49   1842   The  Book  of  Abraham  was  first  published  serially  in  1842  in  the  Times  and  Seasons  newspaper.     Following  the  publication  of  the  Book  of  Abraham,  Latter-­‐day  Saints  could  have  referred  to  the  passage   that  the  lineage  of  the  pharaoh  was  “cursed  as  to  the  priesthood”.50    Yet,  the  scripture  was  not  utilized   at  this  early  date.    There  were  still  no  restrictions  placed  on  free  black  men,  or  upon  white  members   who  married  blacks  during  the  year  of  1842.       The  branch  of  Lowell,  Massachusetts,  would  have  a  presence  of  black  Mormons  in  this  early  period  of   church  history.    Connell  O’Donovan  put  together  brief  genealogies  of  all  the  known  members  in  this                                                                                                                           45

The  name  Lapland  refers  to  land  inhabited  by  the  Sami  people,  formerly  called  Lapp  people,  who  are  the  minority  indigenous   people  of  the  region.    Lapland  is  a  region  in  northern  Europe,  largely  within  the  Arctic  Circle  stretching  across  Norway,  Sweden,   Finland  and  Russia.    On  the  North  it  is  bounded  by  the  Barents  Sea,  on  the  West  by  the  Norwegian  Sea  and  on  the  East  by  the   White  Sea.         46  “Report  of  the  Presidency”  at  General  Conference,  3-­‐5  Oct.  1840,  in  Times  &  Seasons,  1:188,  or  History  of  the  Church,  4:213.   47  Bringhurst,  Saints,  Slaves,  and  Blacks:    The  Changing  Place  of  Black  Mormons  p.  90.   48  In  Newell  Bringhurst’s  essay  Elijah  Abel  and  the  Changing  Status  of  Blacks  Within  Mormonism,  Bringhurst  cites  “Elijah  Abel   bapt  for  John  F.  Lancaster  a  friend,”  as  contained  in  Nauvoo  Temple  Records  Book  A100,  LDS  Church  Archives.  Also  see  two   other  entries  in  this  same  record:  “Delila  Abel  bapt  in  the  instance  of  Elisha  [sic]  Abel.  Rel  son.  Bapt  1840,  Book  A  page  l”and   “Delila  Abel  Bapt.  in  the  instance  of  Elijah  Abel  1841,  Rel.  Dau.  Book  A  page  5.”   49  David  O.  McKay  diary  of  Feb  14,  1964,  approved  changes  to  the  Book  of  Decisions  for  Temple  Presidents  that  Hugh  B.  Brown   and  N.  Eldon  Tanner  of  the  First  Presidency  recommended.    “It  was  suggested  that  the  ordinance  of  baptism  for  members  of   the  Negro  race  be  performed  by  others  than  negroes  if  this  can  be  accomplished  without  offense.  Entry  is  recorded  in  The   Development  of  LDS  Temple  Worship  1846-­‐2000  edited  by  Devery  S.  Anderson,  page  342.   50  Randy  Bott  referred  to  this  passage  in  his  remarks  to  the  Washington  Post.  

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period.  Of  the  353  Mormons  in  the  Boston  area,  five  were  black,  and  some  participated  in  race-­‐mixing.     Black  men  exercised  their  priesthood  without  restriction.    For  example,  Joseph  Ball  utilized  his   priesthood  when  he  baptized  William  Willard  Hutchings  on  May  2,  1842.51    Irishman  John  R.  Teague  Sr.   joined  the  church  in  1842  with  his  black  wife,  Eveline  Wilbur.    (They  had  been  previously  married  in  1839   in  Boston.)    Eveline  had  a  light  complexion,  and  could  pass  as  a  white  woman.52    Under  the  hands  of   Apostle  Willard  Richards  and  Elder  Erastus  Snow,  John  was  ordained  a  priest  in  1842.  If  it  was  known   that  Eveline  was  black,  future  regulations  would  have  prevented  her  husband  from  obtaining  the   priesthood.  (The  Teagues  later  joined  the  Strangite  Church  in  1848.53)    Restrictions  implemented  in  the   1850s  prohibited  the  priesthood  from  anyone  that  “mixed  seed”  with  blacks,  but  such  a  policy  did  not   exist  in  Joseph’s  lifetime.       1843   The  year  of  1843  would  prove  to  have  many  events  concerning  blacks  and  the  priesthood.    In  Nauvoo,   Smith  encouraged  white  members  to  marry  American  Indians  polygamously,54  but  stated  that  he  was   against  whites  and  blacks  marrying  (also  referred  to  as  miscegenation  or  amalgamation)  stating  on   January  2,  1843,  “Had  I  anything  to  do  with  the  negro,  I  would  confine  them  by  strict  law  to  their  own   species.”55         In  April  1843,  the  Kinderhook  Plates  were  discovered  in  an  indian  mound  in  Kinderhook,  Illinois.     Conspirators  Bridge  Whitten  and  Robert  Wiley  planted  the  bell-­‐shaped  plates  with  strange  writing  and                                                                                                                           51

Connell  O’Donovan  wrote  a  chapter  in  the  book  by  Newell  G.  Bringhurst  and  Craig  L.  Foster,  Persistence  of  Polygamy:  Post-­‐ Joseph  Smith  Mormon  Polygamy  from  1844  to  1890  Volume  II,  p  3  of  O’Donovan’s  chapter.   52  Connell  O’Donovan,  Boston_MormonsJ-­‐Z.pdf,  230.    Copy  in  my  possession.   53 Times  &  Seasons,  vol.  4,  no  2,  pp.  31-­‐32;  Gospel  Herald,  vol.  4,  no.  39,  December  13,  1849,  p.  216.  Connell  O’  Donovan  states   in  his  article  The  Mormon  Priesthood  Ban  and  Elder  Q.  Walker  Lewis:  “An  example  for  his  more  whiter  brethren  to  follow”:   Had  John  and  Eveline  Teague  joined  the  church  after  the  priesthood  and  temple  ban  was  instigated  in  1847,  John,   although  white,  would  not  have  been  allowed  to  receive  the  priesthood  –  in  fact  he  and  all  their  mixed-­‐race  children   would  have  been  potential  victims  of  blood  atonement.    Brigham  Young  informed  the  all-­‐LDS  territorial  legislature  on   or  around  January  6,  1852:     And  if  any  man  mingles  his  seed  with  the  seed  of  Cane  the  ownly  way  he  Could  get  rid  of  it  or   have  salvation  would  be  to  Come  forward  &  have  his  head  Cut  off  &  spill  his  Blood  upon  the   ground.    It  would  also  take  the  life  of  his  Children.   Young  then  added  that  should  all  church  priesthood  leaders  say  “we  will  all  go  &  mingle  with  the  seed  of  Cane…That   moment  we  loose  [sic]  the  priesthood  &  all  Blessings.”  (Wilford  Woodruff  Journal,  undated  entry  between  January  4,   1852,  and  February  8,  1852,  pages  97-­‐99.)   Young  again  affirmed  blood  atonement  for  white-­‐black  sexual  relations  on  March  8,  1863  –  in  the  midst  of  the  Civil   War.    “Shall  I  tell  you  the  law  of  God  in  regard  to  the  African  race?,”  rhetorically  queried  Young.    “If  the  white  man   who  belongs  to  the  chosen  seed  mixes  his  blood  with  the  seed  of  Cain,  the  penalty,  under  the  law  of  God,  is  death  on   the  spot.  This  will  always  be  so.”  (Journal  of  Discourses,  Vol.  1,  p.  110.)   54  Eugene  Campbell  in  “Establishing  Zion,”  page  114  states  James  Brown  was  called  on  a  mission  to  the  Indians  in  Utah.     According  to  Brown,  the  purpose  of  the  mission  was  to  “build  an  outpost  from  which  to  operate  as  peacemakers  among  the   Indians,  to  teach  civilization  to  them,  to  try  to  teach  them  to  cultivate  the  soil,  to  instruct  them  in  the  arts  and  sciences  if   possible,  and  by  that  means  prevent  trouble  for  the  frontier  settlements  and  the  immigrant  companies.  We  were  to  identify  our   interest  with  theirs  and  even  to  marrying  among  them  if  we  would  be  permitted  to  take  the  young  women  of  the  chiefs  and   leading  men  and  have  them  dress  like  civilized  people  and  educated.  it  was  thought  that  by  forming  that  kind  of  alliance  we   would  have  more  power  to  do  them  good  and  to  keep  peace  among  the  adjacent  tribes  and  also  with  our  own  people.”   55  Michael  Quinn,  Mormon  Hierarchy:  Origins  of  Power,  (Salt  Lake  City:  Signature  Books,  1994),  636.  

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then dug  them  up  with  great  fanfare.    William  Clayton  recorded  in  his  journal  that  the  Prophet  Joseph   Smith  “has translated a portion and says they contain the history of the person with whom they were found and he was a descendant of Ham through the loins of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and that he received 56 his kingdom from the ruler of heaven and earth.”    Apostle  Parley  P.  Pratt  indicated  that  the  Jaredites  

may have  been  descendants  of  Ham.    If  Hamitic  descendants  held  the  priesthood,  once  again,  this  would   indicate  that  Hamitic  lineage  would  not  have  precluded  blacks  from  holding  the  priesthood.    Pratt  wrote   in  a  letter  on  May  1:  

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Six plates  having  the  appearance  of  Brass  have  lately  been  dug  out  of  a  mound  by  a  gentleman   in  Pike  Co.  Illinois.  They  are  small  and  filled  with  engravings  in  Egyptian  language  and  contain   the  genealogy  of  one  of  the  ancient  Jaredites  back  to  Ham  the  son  of  Noah.  His  bones  were   found  in  the  same  vase  (made  of  Cement).  Part  of  the  bones  were  15  ft.  underground...57     The  Kinderhook  Plates  were  part  of  a  hoax  intended  to  trap  Joseph  Smith.    Whitten  and  Wiley   attempted  to  get  Joseph  Smith  to  translate  the  plates;  the  two  men  were  testing  the  claims  of   translation  of  Joseph  Smith,  and  hoped  to  prove  that  he  did  not  have  a  prophetic  gift  of  translation.     Smith  never  translated  the  plates;  he  died  just  a  year  later.     Jane  Manning  James58   Jane  Manning  was  baptized  in  1841  in  Connecticut.59    She  traveled  by  foot  with  brothers,  sisters,  and  in-­‐ laws  in  1843  to  Nauvoo  to  join  the  saints,  living  for  a  time  with  Emma  and  Joseph  Smith.    Once  there,   she  married  a  black  Mormon  man  named  Isaac  James  in  1844.    Isaac  worked  for  Brigham  Young,  and   they  married  in  Young’s  home  in  Nauvoo  shortly  after  Joseph  Smith’s  death  in  1844.60    She  and  Isaac   later  divorced,  and  she  was  denied  permission  to  be  sealed  to  another  black  man  later.   Elijah  Abel   The  only  limits  on  blacks  that  can  be  traced  specifically  to  the  time  period  of  Joseph  Smith  concerns   Elijah  Abel,  but  the  restriction  wasn’t  made  by  Joseph  Smith.    Minutes  from  the  meeting  dated  June  25,   1843,  show  that  a  travelling  high  council  consisting  of  John  E.  Page,  Orson  Pratt,  and  Heber  C.  Kimball   visited  the  Cincinnati  branch  to  resolve  issues  of  dissension  and  “bad  management.”    Some  members  of   the  congregation  were  upset  that  a  black  man  was  preaching.    Abel  was  directed  that  he  was  to  preach  

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Tanner,  Jerald;  Tanner,  Sandra.  "The  Kinderhook  Plates:  Excerpt  from  Answering  Mormon  Scholars  Vol  2".  Retrieved   5/25/2012.    The  History  of  the  Church  Vol.  5,  p.  372  contains  a  similar  phrasing  as  the  Clayton  journal,  though  Joseph  Smith  is   speaking  in  first  person.        Diane  Wirth,  writing  in  Review  of  Books  on  the  Book  of  Mormon  (4:210),  states:  "A  first-­‐person   narrative  was  apparently  a  common  practice  of  this  time  period  when  a  biographical  work  was  being  compiled.  Since  such   words  were  never  penned  by  the  Prophet,  they  cannot  be  uncritically  accepted  as  his  words  or  his  opinion."   57    Stanley  Kimbal,  "Kinderhook  Plates  Brought  to  Joseph  Smith  Appear  to  Be  a  Nineteenth-­‐Century  Hoax,  Ensign,  Aug  1981.   58  For  an  excellent  description  of  Jane  E.  Manning  James’  life  and  activities  see  Wolfinger  “Test  of  Faith,”  pp.  126-­‐147.  Also  see   her  autobiographical  “Life  Sketch  of  Jane  Elizabeth  Manning  James,”  LDS  Church  Archives,  and  printed  in  Wolfinger,  pp.  151-­‐56.     Also  see  Mormon  Enigma,  page  338.   59  According  to  grave  marker  in  Salt  Lake  City  Cemetery.   60  The  Deseret  News  recorded  a  life  sketch  written  by  Jane  published  originally  on  April  16,  1908.    It  is  available  at   http://www.blacklds.org/manning  accessed  5/26/2012.  

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only to  black  people  in  1843  and  “Instructions  were  then  given  him  concerning  his  mission.”61    Abel   appears  to  have  affiliated  briefly  with  excommunicated  William  Smith’s  LDS  Church  in  Cincinnati,  Ohio,   and  Covington,  Kentucky,  in  the  early  1850s  but  then  returned  to  the  mainstream  LDS  Church,62  and  his   priesthood  was  never  revoked,  despite  allegations  to  the  contrary.    He  produced  certificates  of   ordination  in  1841  and  1879.    

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Quacko Walker  Lewis   Quacko  Walker  Lewis  and  his  wife  Elizabeth  Lovejoy  Lewis  joined  the  church  in  1843.    Walker  was  a   leading  abolitionist  in  Massachusetts,  a  master  mason  in  Freemasonry,  and  helped  to  free  many   southern  slaves  as  part  of  the  Underground  Railroad.    His  wife  Elizabeth  was  the  daughter  of  an   interracial  couple  (her  father  was  black).    She  was  so  light-­‐skinned,  that  she  was  recorded  as  white  on   the  1850  Census.    It  is  believed  that  Lewis  was  baptized  by  Parley  P.  Pratt.63    Lewis  was  ordained  an  elder   by  William  Smith  in  the  summer  of  1843.64    Missionaries  Brigham  Young,  William  Smith,  Wilford   Woodruff,  Ezra  Taft  Benson,  and  Parley  P.  Pratt  all  served  missions  in  Boston  and  were  well  acquainted   with  Lewis.    Mission  president  William  Appleby  would  later  write  in  his  journal  that  Lewis  was  “an   example  for  his  more  whiter  brethren  to  follow.”65     1844   Early  in  the  year  of  1844,  James  J.  Strang  would  travel  from  Wisconsin  in  February  to  learn  more  of   Mormonism  and  to  meet  with  Joseph  Smith.    The  prophet  would  baptize  James  Strang  into  the  church   and  would  ordain  him  an  elder  a  few  days  later.66    With  Nauvoo  becoming  more  volatile,  Joseph  sent   Strang  on  a  mission  “to  return  to  Wisconsin  and  make  more  full  examinations  of  the  country  with  direct   reference  to  the  advantages  it  might  offer  to  the  Saints.”67    In  a  few  months,  Strang  would  claim  he   believed  he  was    going  to  be  the  next  leader  of  the  Mormon  Church.                                                                                                                             61

“Minutes  of  a  conference  of  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-­‐day  Saints  held  in  Cincinnati,  June  25,  1843,”  LDS  Church   Archives.     62

The  1850  Census  of  Cincinnati  shows  William  Smith’s  apostle,  Henry  Nisonger,  residing  with  the  Abel  family  –   and  William  Smith  sought  refuge  at  the  home  of  the  Abels-­‐Nisongers  in  September  1850,  when  an  angry  husband   of  a  woman  Smith  had  seduced  came  looking  to  kill  him.   63

Connell  O’  Donovan,  The  Mormon  Priesthood  Ban  and  Elder  Q.  Walker  Lewis:  “An  example  for  his  more  whiter  brethren  to   follow”.  He  references  a  letter  between  Jane  Elizabeth  Manning  James  to  Joseph  F.  Smith,  February  7,  1890,  LDS  Church   Archives,  transcript  in  Connell  O’  Donovan’s  possession.   64  Newell  G.  Bringhurst  and  Craig  L.  Foster,  Persistence  of  Polygamy:  Post-­‐Joseph  Smith  Mormon  Polygamy  from  1844  to  1890   Volume  II,  p  2.    Another  reference  is  found  at  Calvin  P.  Rudd,  William  Smith:  Brother  of  the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith,  Master’s   thesis,  Brigham  Young  University,  LDS  Church  Archives,  p.  86.    It  should  also  be  noted  that  Jane  Manning  James  wrote  a  letter  to   Apostle  Joseph  F.  Smith  stating  that  “parley  P  Pratt  ordained  Him  [Walker  Lewis]  an  Elder.”   65  Connell  O’Donovan,  The  Mormon  Priesthood  Ban  and  Elder  Q.  Walker  Lewis:  “An  example  for  his  more  whiter  brethren  to   follow,”  83.   66  For  a  fuller  treatment  of  Strangism,  refer  to  Robin  Jensen’s  chapter  “Mormons  seeking  Mormonism”  in  Newell  Bringhurst  and   John  Hamer’s  book,  Scattering  of  the  Saints.    This  information  is  found  on  page  116.      Vickie  Speek  has  also  written  a  book  on   Strangism,  God  Has  Made  Us  a  Kingdom:  James  Strang  And  the  Midwest  Mormons”.   67  Jensen  quotes  Chronicles  of  Voree,  8.  

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Nauvoo had  a  law  enacted  sometime  prior  to  1844  outlawing  sexual  relations  between  blacks  and   whites.68    In  1844,  as  mayor  of  Nauvoo,  Joseph  Smith  fined  two  African  American  men  $25  and  $5   respectively  for  “trying  to  marry  white  women.”69  1844  would  prove  to  be  an  extremely  tumultuous   year  for  the  prophet.    Earlier  in  that  year,  he  announced  his  candidacy  for  president  of  the  United  States   because  he  was  dissatisfied  with  the  presidential  contenders.    In  addition  to  asking  for  redress  for  the   problems  Mormons  experienced  in  Missouri,  Smith  announced  plans  to  resolve  the  burning  question  of   the  day:  slavery.    Mormons  had  adopted  both  an  anti-­‐abolitionist  and  anti-­‐slavery  position.    As  part  of   his  candidacy,  Joseph  Smith  was  perhaps  the  first  politician  to  propose  a  compensated  emancipation   plan.    He  proposed  freeing  the  slaves,  compensating  slave-­‐owners  through  the  sale  of  public  lands,  and   sending  freed  slaves  to  Texas  (which  he  proposed  to  annex  from  Mexico).70    His  candidacy  did  not  last   long;  he  was  killed  by  a  mob  on  June  27,  1844,  in  Carthage,  Illinois,  leading  to  a  succession  crisis,  with   several  men  vying  for  the  leadership  of  the  Church,  most  notably  Brigham  Young,  Sidney  Rigdon,  and   James  Strang,  as  well  as  several  other  men.         James  Strang  announced  that  he  had  an  angelic  visitation  on  the  day  of  Joseph  Smith’s  death,  and  the   angel  had  ordained  him  as  prophet  of  the  church.    Strang  also  claimed  that  Joseph  Smith  had  written  a   letter  proclaiming  Strang  as  the  new  prophet.  71      Many  questioned  the  authenticity  of  the  letter  at  the   time.Even  though  Strang’s  auothority  was  under  examination,  he  would  still  gain  a  large  following  which   included  prominent  members  such  as    William  Smith,  William’s  mother  Lucy  Smith,  and  Martin  Harris.     Strang’s  group  would  rival  the  Brigham  Young-­‐led  group  in  size,  and  be  a  major  rival  for  Mormon   converts.    In  the  aftermath  of  Smith’s  death,  charges  of  apostasy  and  resulting  excommunications   occuredwould  occur.    Brigham  Young  excommunicated  Strang  on  August  26,  1844,  after  hearing  about   Strang’s  personal  missionary  tour.72    Sidney  Rigdon  was  excommunicated  next  on  September  8,  1844,   and  would  return  to  Pittsburgh,  Pennsylvania,  to  lead  a  rival  Mormon  group  there.    Both  men  would  vie   for  new  converts  and  be  a  major  source  of  schism  for  the  rest  of  the  decade.    Rigdon  and  Strang  would   send  emissaries  to  other  Mormon  congregations  to  persuade  these  congregations  to  follow  them.         As  has  been  demonstrated,  there  are  no  known  priesthood  or  temple  restrictions  in  place  prior  to   Joseph  Smith’s  death  on  June  27,  1844,  and  other  ordinations  of  black  men  would  continue  to  happen   after  his  death.    Following  the  founding  prophet’s  death,  a  black  man  preached  a  funeral  sermon  on   Joseph  Smith  along  with  an  unnamed  apostle  in  Lowell,  Massachusetts.    It  is  believed  that  Enoch  Lovejoy  

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                                                                                                                      68

In  Jan.  1844,  Mayor  Joseph  Smith  fined  two  Negroes  “for  attempting  to  marry  white  women”  (History  of  the  Church,  6:210).    Quinn,  Origins  of  Power,  636  and  660;  Nauvoo  Municipal  Court  minutes,  as  quoted  in  Quinn,  Origins  of  Power,  642  and   Quinn,  “Quotes  in  Origins.”   70  Michael  Quinn,  “The  Mormon  Hierarchy:  Origins  of  Power,”  119.   71  The  letter  was  declared  a  forgery  by  Brigham  Young.    While  the  postmark  appears  to  be  genuine,  the  letter  was  written  in   block  letters,  written  on  a  different  kind  of  paper,  and  Dale  Morgan  said  it  appears  to  be  a  forgery.    The  actual  text  of  the  letter   is  vague,  and  it  could  be  argued  that  even  if  the  letter  was  legitimate,  Joseph  Smith  was  simply  asking  Strang  to  be  a  stake   president  in  Voree,  Wisconson.    The  text  of  the  letter  can  be  found  at   http://churchofjesuschristoflatterdaysaintsstrangite.com/pdf/thediamond.pdf  retrieved  3/11/2012.    A  digital  image  of  one   page  of  the  3  page  letter  is  found  at  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Strang1.jpg  retrieved  3/11/2012.   72  Scattering  of  the  Saints,  118-­‐119.       69


Lewis, the  son  of  Walker  Lewis,  was  the  black  man  preaching  about  the  prophet’s  death  in  1844.73     William  Appleby  noted  that  Enoch  was  an  elder  in  1847,  and  it  is  likely  that  he  had  already  been   ordained  an  elder  when  preaching  at  this  funeral  sermon  of  Joseph  Smith.     Just  four  months  after  Smith’s  death,  Joseph  Ball  was  ordained  a  leader  of  the  Lowell  branch  in  October   1844.  Ball  became  a  leader  amidst  a  storm  of  controversy.    The  previous  branch  president  John  Hardy   had  served  from  February  1843  to  October  7,  1844.    Under  Hardy’s  leadership,  the  branch  had  grown   and  thrived.    However,  Hardy  became  upset  when  he  discovered  that  William  Smith  had  secretly   introduced  polygamy  to  the  congregation  and  Hardy  resigned  in  protest.  74     This  was  not  the  first  time  that  William  had  been  accused  of  sexual  impropriety.    In  1842,  the  Nauvoo   High  Council  investigated  William  (along  with  John  C.  Bennett)  about  sexual  improprieties.75    The   allegations  against  William      prompted  many  of  the  men  to  resign  their  priesthood  in  protest,  leaving  the   branch  with  a  dearth  of  leadership  in  1844.    William  Smith  accepted  Hardy’s  resignation,  and  installed   Ball  as  branch  president.76      Tainted  by  the  polygamy  scandal,  Ball  was  not  sustained  unanimously.     Wilford  Woodruff  recorded  that  Jacob  Phelps  opposed  the  ordination  of  Ball  as  branch  president,77  and     Woodruff,  while  not  voicing  public  opposition,  wrote  his  concerns  to  Brigham  Young  on  October  9,  1844:  

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Elder Ball  has  taught  as  well  as  Wm  Smith  the  Lowell  girls  that  is  not  wrong  to  have  intercourse   with  the  men  what  they  please  &  Elder  Ball  tries  to  sleep  with  them  when  he  can  They  have   tried  to  remove  a  good  presiding  Elder  [Hardy]  in  Lowell  &  put  in  Bro  Robins  who  is  in  their   company,  But  they  would  not  have  this  the  Lowell  Church  is  shaking.     It  is  not  known  if  Walker  Lewis  was  aware  of  polygamy  allegations  in  the  branch,  but  with  the  turmoil  in   the  branch,  it  seems  likely  that  Lewis  knew;  he  did  support  local  branch  leaders  as  noted  in  passing  by   visiting  Apostle  Wilford  Woodruff  in  November  1844.    Additionally,  John  Teague  was  ordained  an  elder   in  1844  in  the  branch,  despite  the  fact  that  his  wife  Evelyn  was  black.    Ball  served  as  branch  president  for   just  six  months  from  October  1844  toMarch  1845.         1845   Apostle  Parley  P.  Pratt  arrived  in  the  Lowell  Branch  on  March  1  and  directed  William  Smith,  Joseph  Ball   and  others  to  go  to  Nauvoo  “prepared  to  spend  the  summer  there  in  working  on”  the  temple.    Ball  went                                                                                                                           73

Newell  G.  Bringhurst  and  Craig  L.  Foster,  Persistence  of  Polygamy:  Post-­‐Joseph  Smith  Mormon  Polygamy  from  1844  to  1890   Volume  II,  13.   74  John  Hardy,  History  of  the  Trials  of  Elder  John  Hardy  Before  the  Church  of  Latter  Day  Saints  in  Boston  (Boston:  Conway  &   Company,  1844),  page  5  and  throughout;  also  Wilford  Woodruff  Journal,  October  7,  9,  and  12,  1844.   75  Quinn,  Origins  of  Power,  pp.  220  and  429,  nn.  183  and  184.   76  Hardy  was  later  excommunicated  on  charges  of  slander.    See  Connell  O’Donovan  The  Mormon  Priesthood  Ban  and  Elder  Q.   Walker  Lewis:  “An  example  for  his  more  whiter  brethren  to  follow.”   77  O’Donovan,  Polygamy  and  African  American  Mormons:Race,  Schism,  and  the  Beginnings  of  Priesthood  and  Temple  Denial  in   1847,  6  cites  Wilford  Woodruff  journal,  October  7,  1844:  “the  first  business  that  was  done  after  I  arived  was  Elder  John  Hardy   resigned  his  office  as  presiding  Elder,  And  Joseph  Ball  appointed  in  his  stead.    The  appointment  of  Elder  Ball  was  opposed  by   Elder  Jacob  Phelps,  but  Phelps  was  soon  bourn  down  by  Sam  Brannan  and  Wm.  Smith.    I  saw  things  were  wrong  sumwhare.”    

Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [35]: You have  not  mentioned  him  for   a  long  time.  I  would  try  to  make  more  of  a   connection  between  how  he  fits  into  all  this  and  the   previous  sentence.  

Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [36]:

Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [37]: Chicago 9.59  

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to Nauvoo  with  the  understanding  that  he  was  to  “receiv[e]  instruction  preparatory  to  the  great   endowment  which  is  promised  to  them  who  keep  the  commandments  of  God.”78    This  is  significant   because  it  appears  that  there  was  no  temple  restriction  in  1845,  and  casts  doubt  on  the  claim  by  Esplin   that  Joseph  Smith  must  have  made  some  “secret  temple  teachings”  prohibiting  blacks  from  priesthood   and  temple  ordinances  as  early  as  1843.       At  this  point,  the  groundwork  was  being  laid  for  the  priesthood/temple  ban.    In  Nauvoo,  the  Latter-­‐day   Saint  newspaper  Times  and  Seasons  published  an  article,  “A  Short  Chapter  on  a  Long  Subject,”  stating   that  “the  descendants  of  Ham”  had  “a  black  skin  which  has  ever  been  a  curse  that  has  followed  an   apostate  of  the  holy  priesthood,  as  well  as  a  black  heart.”    In  commenting  about  the  slavery  issue,  the   article  justified  that  descendants  of  Ham  “have  been  servants  to  both  Shem  and  Japheth,  and  the   abolitionists  are  trying  to  make  void  the  curse  of  God,  but  it  will  require  more  power  than  man   possesses  to  counteract  the  decrees  of  eternal  wisdom.”  The  article  stated  that  “Ham  had  dishonored   the  holy  priesthood,”  and  justified  blacks  being  servants  of  whites.  80   A  few  weeks  later,  Apostle  Orson  Hyde  addressed  the  High  Priest’s  group  on  April  25,  1845.    Hyde’s  main   purpose  of  speaking  was  to  denounce  Sidney  Rigdon,  and  to  warn  everyone  to  stay  away  from  his  group.     In  denouncing  Rigdon,  Hyde  compared  Rigdon  to  the  deceptive  Lucifer  who  deceived  those  in  the  pre-­‐ mortal  life.    Hyde  was  the  first  to  make  the  claim  that  blacks  were  not  valiant  in  this  pre-­‐mortal  war  in   heaven.    According  to  Hyde,  “those  spirits  in  heaven  that  …  did  not  take  a  very  active  part  any  way,  were   required  to  come  into  the  world  and  take  bodies  in  the  accursed  lineage  of  Canaan;  and  hence  the  negro   or  African  race.”81   The  Times  and  Seasons  published  Hyde’s  remarks  shortly  thereafter.    William  Smith  and  Joseph  Ball   arrived  in  Nauvoo  on  May  10,  1845.    It  is  likely  that  William  was  aware  of  the  article,  and  may  have   influenced  his  comments  later  that  year.    Arriving  in  Nauvoo,  William  Smith  denied  the  rumors  that  he   had  participated  in  polygamy  in  Massachusetts,  and  was  ordained  Church  Patriarch  just  two  weeks  later   on  May  24,  1845.    One  of  his  first  acts  was  to  give  a  patriarchal  blessing  to  Joseph  Ball.    In  the  blessing   Smith  revealed  that  Ball  had  been  ordained  a  high  priest  when  he  was  set  apart  as  leader  of  the  branch   in  Lowell,  Massachusetts.82    Smith  also  proclaimed  that  Ball  was  from  the  Tribe  of  Joseph.    With  Ball  a   descendant  of  the  cherished  Tribe  of  Joseph,  rather  than  the  cursed  Tribe  of  Canaan,  Ball  would  not   have  been  under  the  curse  mentioned  by  Orson  Hyde  and  his  priesthood  ordination  would  still  have   been  considered  legitimate.      

Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [38]: Was he  told  this  personally?   Telling  some  more  information  of  why  he   understood  this  statement  applied  to  him  will   strengthen  your  argument.  

Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [39]: So he  never  received  the   endowment?  Make  more  of  a  connection  between   what  makes  this  significant.  It  sounds  like  it  was   because  before  he  got  there  he  planned  on  getting   the  endowment,  but  then  he  never  did.  Make  sure   that  is  clear.  

Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [40]: Doesn’t seem  to  further  your   argument.  

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Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [41]: It seems  explicit  that  the   temple/  priesthood    ban  is  for  the  blacks  so  I  feel   you    don’  

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Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [42]: I am  not  sure  if  this  should  be   possessive.  The  Priests  have  a  group,  but  they  don’t   necessarily  own  the  group.  It  sounds  more  like  you   are  trying  to  make  it  plural  that  it  is  a  group  of  High   Priests.  I’ll  let  you  decide  what  you  mean  in  the   context  of  the  sentence.  I  just  wanted  to  make  you   aware.  

Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [43]: Did he  say  that  during  this   specific  speech?  That  connection  is  a  little  unclear  

Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [44]: The church  patriarch  or  a  church   patriarch?  

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“Notice  to  the  Elders,”  The  Prophet,  March  1,  1845,  p.  3;  and  Ezra  Taft  Benson  autobiography  online  at   http://www.boap.org/LDS/Early-­‐Saints/ETBenson.html.   80  The  article  is  unsigned,  but  John  Taylor  was  the  editor  of  the  paper  at  that  time.    A  digital  copy  of  the  article  is  available  at   http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/cdm/compoundobject/collection/NCMP1820-­‐1846/id/9684  retrieved  4/28/2012.   81  Orson  Hyde,  “Speech  Given  Before  the  High  Priests  Quorum  in  Nauvoo,”  April  25,  1845  (Liverpool,  England,  1845),  p.  30,   quoted  in  Newell  G.  Bringhurst,  “Servant  of  Servants…Cursed  as  Pertaining  to  the  Priesthood”:  Mormon  Attitudes  Toward   Slavery  and  the  Black  Man,  1830-­‐1880,  University  of  California-­‐Davis,  Ph.D.  dissertation,  1975,  pp.  121-­‐122.    Also  found  at   http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/Hyd1845A.htm  retrieved  4/25/2012.   82  Joseph  T.  Ball  Patriarchal  Blessing,  July  14,  1845,  H.  Michael  Marquardt  (editor),  Early  Patriarchal  Blessings  of  the  Church  of   Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-­‐Day  Saints  (Salt  Lake  City:  Smith-­‐Pettit  Foundation,  2007),  320.  

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However, the  stain  of  polygamy  would  haunt  both  Smith  and  Ball.    A  month  after  the  patriarchal   blessing,  Parley  P.  Pratt  wrote  a  letter  dated  June  30,  1845,  questioning  Ball’s  integrity  and  accusing  him   of  adultery  and  fornication.83    Orson  Hyde  wrote  another  letter  saying  Ball  is  “very  corrupt”  and  said  the   Lowell  branch  was  free  of  “Ballism.”84    A  few  months  later,  William  Smith  was  excommunicated  on   October  18,  1845,85  after  publicly  announcing  his  belief  and  practice  of  polygamy.    Within  a  month  of  his   excommunication,  Smith  began  criticizing  the  Church  publicly.    He  gave  an  interview  to  the  New  York   Herald,  criticizing  Spiritual  Wifery  (among  other  things)  and  said  that  the  church  was  “receiving  no   negroes  into  their  church”86    perhaps  because  of  the  Orson  Hyde  speech  and  the  Times  and  Seasons   article.         It  is  not  known  if  Ball  was  excommunicated  or  if  he  resigned  his  membership  at  this  time,  but  it  appears   that  he  left  Nauvoo  with  William  Smith.      Ball  is  known  to  have  joined  the  Strangite  movement  by  1849,   and  may  have  joined  with  Smith  in  1846.    In  1849,  Joseph  Ball  co-­‐signed  a  letter  about  the  missionary   efforts  of  Strangism  in  Boston.  87    Ball  died  September  20,  1861,  in  Boston.    But  contrary  to  William   Smith’s  statement  that  the  church  was  “receiving  no  negroes  into  their  church,”  one  more  black  man   would  be  ordained  shortly  thereafter.     Warner  “Wiliam”  McCary                                                                                                                           83

O’Donovan  in  “Polygamy  and  African  American  Mormons:    Race,  Schism,  and  the  Beginnings  of  Priesthood  and   Temple  Denial  in  1847”  cites  Parley  P.  Pratt  to  Brigham  Young,  June  30,  1845,  Brigham  Young  Papers,  LDS  Archives,   Box  69,  Folder  2;  transcription  provided  by  John  Turner.    The  actual  letter  states,     I  write  this  to  Inform  you  that  I  have  no  Confidence  whatever  in  the  virtue,  honesty  and  integrity  of  Elder   Ball,  who  lately  Started  for  the  west.     I  have  become  fully  Convinced  from  the  Most  positive  testimony,  and  feel  also  assured  by  the  Spirit  that  he   is  a  very  Corrupt  Man,  and  guilty  of  Adultery,  fornication,  or  attempts  at  seduction  and  Crime  of  the  gravest   kind.  And  all  this  by  pretended  revelation,  something  like  Olneys,  Gladen  Bishops,  and  Sidney  Rigdons.   There  is  no  public  fuss  about  it,  nor  have  I  acted  upon  it  publicly,  or  in  a  formal  manner.  But  if  he  were  here   I  should  immediately  disfellowship  him  and  call  him  to  account.  But  as  it  is  I…inform  you  of  the  facts  and   there  is  abundance  of  evidence.  Nor  have  Br  B[enson].  and  myself  any  Confidence  in  any  promises  he  may   make  to  do  better,  as  we  have  both  charged  him  in  the  most  faithful  manner,  here  to  fore  and  got  fair   promises,  but  I  fear,  no  repentance  or  real  reformation.”   84  O’Donovan  in  “Polygamy  and  African  American  Mormons”  cites  Orson  Hyde  to  Newel  K.  Whitney,  August  24,  1845,  Vault  MSS   th th 76;  Newel  Kimball  Whitney  Papers;  19  &  20  Century  Western  &  Mormon  Americana;  L.  Tom  Perry  Special  Collections,  Harold   B.  Lee  Library,  Brigham  Young  University.    The  letter  states,   By  accounts,  Bro.  Joseph  Ball  is  any  thing  but  a  pure  hearted  man.    He  is  represented  as  very  corrupt,  like   [George  J.]  Adams.–  He  is  gone  to  Nauvoo.    You  will  no  doubt  have  an  eye  to  him.....   Prospects  very  good.    The  [Boston]  church  is  nearly  free  from  the  effects  of  Rigdonism,  and  nearly  free  from   a  worse  malady  –  Adamsism  and  Ballism.”   85  Quinn,  Origins  of  Power,  pp.  222-­‐223.   86  “Growth  and  Prosperity  of  the  City,”  New  York  Herald,  November  16,  1845,  p.  2.   87  Newell  G.  Bringhurst  and  Craig  L.  Foster,  Persistence  of  Polygamy:  Post-­‐Joseph  Smith  Mormon  Polygamy  from  1844  to  1890   Volume  II,  12.    O’Donovan  “Polygamy  and  African  American  Mormons”  states,  “As  for  Joseph  T.  Ball,  after  he  left  Nauvoo  with   William  Smith  in  the  fall  of  1845,  there  is  no  record  of  him  again  until  1849  when  Charles  Greenwood,  a  Strangite  Mormon   living  in  Boston,  wrote  to  James  J.  Strang  at  Voree,  Wisconsin  in  July  that  year  to  report  on  the  state  of  Strangism  in  Boston.     ‘Joseph  Ball’  co-­‐signed  the  letter  with  Greenwood,  so  from  this  we  know  that  Ball  had  left  Brighamite  Mormonism  and  had   joined  the  ranks  of  the  Strangite  schism.”  

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Warner McCary  arrived  in  Nauvoo  in  1845  and  claimed  to  be  part  Choctaw  Indian  even  though  this  was   not  true.    He  was  an  escaped  slave  from  Mississippi,  and  has  been  hard  to  trace  because  of  the  multiple   aliases  he  used.88   1846   McCary  is  quite  a  colorful  character.    Ironically,  he  was  baptized  and  ordained  an  elder89  in  1846  by   Apostle  Orson  Hyde.90    With  McCary  claiming  to  be  part  Indian,  he  would  have  held  both  the  cherished   status  of  a  repentant  Lamanite,  as  well  as  the  cursed  lineage  of  Ham.    He  often  dressed  as  an  Indian  and   claimed  to  be  a  new  Lamanite  prophet.       The  same  year  that  McCary  was  ordained,  Enoch  Lewis,  a  black  man  in  Massachusetts,  would  marry   Mary  Matilda  Webster  in  Boston  on  September  18,  1846.91  Massachusetts  had  recently  legalized   interracial  marriage  in  1843  due  to  abolitionist  influences.    Lewis  and  Webster  took  advantage  of  the                                                                                                                           88

Connell  wrote  a  biography  on  Warner  McCary  included  in  Newell  G.  Bringhurst  and  Craig  L.  Foster,  Persistence  of  Polygamy:   Post-­‐Joseph  Smith  Mormon  Polygamy  from  1844  to  1890  Volume  II.    McCary’s  father  James  was  the  product  of  a  mixed-­‐race   marriage.    In  a  strange  act,  the  Last  will  and  testament  of  McCary’s  father  James  stipulated  that  Warner  was  to  remain  the  slave   to  his  older  brother  Robert,  older  sister  Kitty,  and  mother.    Warner  grew  up  learning  many  musical  instruments,  and  escaped   from  his  family  at  age  20.    McCary  hid  his  past  from  others,  claiming  to  be  an  Indian.    Connell  O’Donovan  and  UCLA  folklorist   Patrick  Polk  have    documented  at  least  fourteen  aliases  used  by  McCary  and  his  strange  life.       1.   Julius  Cary/Carey   2.   William  Cary/Carey   3.   William  Chubbee   4.   War-­‐ne-­‐wis  ke-­‐ho-­‐ke  Chubbee   5.   Chief  Wah  Bah  Goosh   6.   William  Chubbee  King   7.   Julius  McCary   8.   William  McCary   9.   William  McChubby   10.   Dr.  Okah  (and  Dr.  O.K.)   11.   Choc-­‐Chu-­‐Tub-­‐Bee   12.   Okah  Tubbee   13.   James  Warner   14.   Amosholi-­‐T-­‐ubi  or  Moshulatubbe.  

 

89

True  LDS  Herald,  March  1861  and  Wilford  Woodruff,  February  26,  1847,  3:139.    Connell  O’Donovan  reports  that  “The   Strangites  also  heard  a  similar  rumor,  only  they  heard  McCary  was  only  Native  American,  and  not  part  African  as  well.    In   October  1846,  the  Strangite  newspaper,  the  Voree  Herald,  reported,  “We  are  informed  that  Orson  Hyde,  before  leaving  the   camp  near  Council  Bluffs…has  made  a  tool  of  an  Indian  whom  he  has  baptized  and  ordained  to  go  out  among  the  churches,  and   call  himself  a  Lamanite  prophet.”    The  “Indian”  was  no  Indian  at  all,  but  Warner  McCary,  using  his  nephew  William’s  name  as  an   alias.    (Warner’s  nephew,  the  real  William  McCary,  would  become  a  prominent  African  American  in  Natchez,  Mississippi  during   the  Reconstruction.)   90  Newell  G.  Bringhurst  and  Craig  L.  Foster,  Persistence  of  Polygamy:  Post-­‐Joseph  Smith  Mormon  Polygamy  from  1844  to  1890   Volume  II,  15.   91  Massachusetts  Marriages,  1695-­‐1910,  indexing  project  (batch)  number:  M01905-­‐3,  system  origin:  Massachusetts-­‐EASy,   source  film  number:772614,  reference  number:p.137,  no.55.    Available  https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/FHHJ-­‐D9M   retrieved  3/5/2012  

Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [46]: Chicago 6.31  

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Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [47]: Chicago 6.29  

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Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [48]: A white  women?  

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law, and  soon  after  would  have  a  baby.    This  mixed-­‐race  child  would  become  important  to  later   developments  towards  the  priesthood  ban.   As  mentioned  earlier,  William  Smith  officially  sustained  James  Strang  as  the  new  prophet  of  the   Mormon  movement  and  joined  the  Strangite  movement.    He  was  quickly  ordained  Apostle  and  Patriarch   sometime  between  April  and  August  1846.92    Strang  would  send  missionaries  to  various  Mormon   congregations  to  try  to  persuade  them  to  ally  with  his  group.    Church  units  away  from  Nauvoo  were  still   trying  to  decide  whether  to  align  with  Rigdon,  Strang,  or  Young,  and  it  appears  that  some  members  in   Cincinnati  had  at  least  been  talking  with  leaders  of  the  Strangite  movement.    Coincidentally,  McCary  had   moved  to  Cincinnati  by  October  1846.      McCary  met  with  Charles  B.  Thompson,  a  Strangite  leader  in   Cincinnati.    Thompson  had  been  upset  that  he  had  been  passed  over  as  an  apostle  in  the  Strangite   church.    McCary,  sensing  an  opportunity,  conferred  upon  Thompson  the  title  of  apostle  and  the  two   began  a  new  variation  of  Mormonism  with  Thompson  claiming  to  be  “Preaching  under  a  Pretended   Lam[an]ite  Prophet,  or  Jesus  Christ”.    McCary,  at  times  claimed  to  be  Jesus  Christ  reincarnated  utilizing   the  scars  from  his  days  in  slavery  to  prove  the  point.93    A  Strangite  newspaper  claimed  that  “We  also   learned  by  the  Cincinnati  Commercial  that  the  little  company  who  followed  this  colored  leader  abolished   marriage  and  practiced  many  evils.”94    The  congregation  soon  fizzled,  and  by  February  1847  McCary   returned  to  Illinois.  

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Carol Miles 5/28/12 12:03 AM Deleted:

Kaylee Herrick 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [49]: Is the  Mormon  movement  those   who  branched  away  from  the  original  LDS  church?   That  is  what  I  assume  from  how  it  is  stated  here.  

Kaylee Herrick 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [50]: William Smith  or  James  Strang?   Make  sure  it  is  clear.  

Kaylee Herrick 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [51]: This seems  to  constitute  church   units  away  from  Nauvoo  so  make  it  clear  if  there  is  a   reason  you  emphasized  it  since  it  fits  in  the  category   of  church  units  away  from  Nauvoo  as  well.  

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1847 The  year  of  1847  would  prove  to  be  a  pivotal  year  for  blacks  and  the  priesthood.    Soon  after  his  return  to   Nauvoo,  McCary  courted  and  married  Lucile  Celestia  Stanton.    Lucy  was  the  white  daughter  of  Quincy,   Illinois,  Stake  President  Daniel  Stanton.    She  had  previously  been  married  to  a  man  by  the  name  of  Oliver   Bassett;  they  divorced  in  1842  or  1843.    (It  is  worthy  to  note  that  the  Stantons  and  the  Bassetts  had   been  enamored  with  Black  Pete  in  Kirtland  back  in  1831.)    As  mentioned  earlier,  Mormons  were   encouraged  to  inter-­‐marry  with  Indians,  but  it  is  unlikely  that  anyone  in  Nauvoo  would  have  been  aware   of  McCary’s  activities  in  Cincinnati.    Once  again,  it  was  apostle  Orson  Hyde  that  performed  the  wedding.       At  this  time,  there  was  a  concern  about  men  with  the  sealing  power  performing  unauthorized  sealings   or  engaging  in  unapproved  polygamous  relationships.    Wilford  Woodruff  records  in  his  journal  from   February  16,  1847,  that  some  were  claiming  that  “there  is  no  harm  for  them  to  sleep  together  before   they  are  sealed.”    He  was  concerned  that  these  men  were  manipulating  “innocent,  ignorant  females”.     Woodruff  then  says  that  these  men  would  “go  to  some  doe-­‐head  of  an  elder  and  get  him  to  say  the   ceremony,  all  done  without  the  knowledge  of  the  authority  of  this  Church.  This  is  not  right,  and  will  not  

                                                                                                                      92

Short  biography  of  William  Smith  in  Strangism  is  found  at  http://www.strangite.org/Famous.htm,  retrieved  3/11/2012.    Connell  wrote  a  biography  on  Warner  McCary  included  in  Newell  G.  Bringhurst  and  Craig  L.  Foster,  Persistence  of  Polygamy:   Post-­‐Joseph  Smith  Mormon  Polygamy  from  1844  to  1890  Volume  II.       94  “Charles  B.  Thompson,”  Gospel  Herald,  (Voree,  Wisconsin)  vol.  3  no.  29,  October  25,  1848,  140.   93

Kaylee Herrick 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [52]: McCary?

Kaylee Herrick 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [53]: Seems like  unnecessary   information.  Show  the  reader  why  this  is  essential   to  your  point  if  you  feel  it  shows  something  that  you   haven’t  already  stated.  

Kaylee Herrick 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [54]: Make a  connection  between   paragraphs  


be suffered.”  95    With  his  experiences  in  Lowell,  Woodruff  could  have  been  referring  to  William  Smith  or   John  C.  Bennett  who  both  engaged  in  unauthorized  polygamy.   Ten  days  later,  Woodruff  records  that  on  February  26,  McCary  played  the  flute  at  a  meeting  among  the   Saints  preparing  to  move  west.       And  we  received  a  visit  from  A  man  from  New  orleans  formally.    He  professed  to  be  an  Indian.     Most  of  persons  believed  him  to  be  a  descendant  of  Ham.    Br  Hyde  baptized  him  in  Nauvoo.    He   was  an  eccentric  character.    He  was  the  most  perfect  natural  musician  I  ever  saw  on  a  flute  or   fife,  sauce  pan,  ratler,  whistle  &c.    He  was  invited  into  the  Council  spent  a  few  moments  &   returned  to  Br  Youngs.    He  married  Br  Stantons  daughter  for  a  wife.    He  went  to  Br  Bensons  to   spend  the  night.    We  want  to  hear  him  make  some  music  but  he  was  some  disappointed  angry  &   sullen  &  would  not  make  any  music.    His  name  was  Wm  Carey.96   McCary  may  have  been  offended  by  racial  remarks  by  members  of  the  church  upon  his  arrival  with   comments  such  as  “there  go  the  old  nigger  &  his  White  Wife.”    He  also  said  that  “the  bishops  have   councilled  the  p[eo]pl[e]  not  to  suffer  such  a  In[dian]  as  me  in  their  Wig  wams.”    He  stated  these   concerns  when  he  met  with  eight  of  the  apostles  in  a  four-­‐hour  meeting  on  March  26,  1847.    Connell   O’Donovan  relates  the  meeting.   At  the  beginning  of  the  meeting,  “William”  McCary  introduced  himself  and  paid  obeisance  to   Young  “as  my  bro.  &  my  leader.”    While  McCary  was  satisfied  with  how  Young  had  treated  him,   in  other  places,  by  other  people,  McCary  felt  “hypocritically  abused.”    In  particular,  “the  bishops   have  councilled  the  ppl  not  to  suffer  such  a  In[dian]  as  me  in  their  Wig  wams.”    Others  say   “there  go  the  old  nigger  &  his  White  Wife.”    McCary  reported  that  on  that  very  day  a  Mormon   woman  had  said  to  him  (and  several  others  heard  her),  “that  is  the  man  that  bro  Brigham  tells   his  family  to  treat  with  dis  respect.”       He  asked  Young  if  he  was  dissatisfied  and  promised  to  “walk  right.”    If  he  was  not  walking  right,   he  begged  Young  to  tell  him  so.    He  then  brought  up  race  and  color:    first  McCary  claimed  “I                                                                                                                           95

As  mentioned  earlier,  McCary  went  by  several  names  including  William.    Wilford  Woodruff  Journal,  December  3,  1847.    The   full  quote  is  “But  those  who  suffer  fears  and  jealousies  to  arise  in  their  bosom  either  back  right  out  or  get  to  be  mighty   righteous  and  for  fear  that  they  are  sleeping  with  other  men's  wives-­‐-­‐they  kick  up  a  dust  or  broil  at  home  and  perhaps  abuse   their  own  companion  through  jealousy  then  go  off  to  some  woman  that  does  not  under-­‐[37]stand  what  is  right  or  wrong  and   tell  her  that  she  cannot  be  saved  without  a  man  and  he  has  almighty  power  and  can  exalt  and  save  her  and  likely  tell  that  there   is  no  harm  for  them  to  sleep  together  before  they  are  sealed;  then  go  to  some  doe-­‐head  of  an  elder  and  get  him  to  say  the   ceremony,  all  done  without  the  knowledge  of  the  authority  of  this  Church.  This  is  not  right,  and  will  not  be  suffered.  The  God  I   serve  will  reward  every  man  openly  without  his  being  under  the  necessity  of  going  secretly  and  privately  palming  himself  on  the   credulity  of  innocent,  ignorant  females.  Such  jealousies  do  exist,  and  were  I  to  say  to  the  elders,  you  now  have  the  liberty  to   build  up  your  kingdoms,  one  half  of  them  would  lie,  swear,  steal,  and  fight  like  the  very  devil,  to  get  men  and  women  sealed  to   them.  They  would  even  try  to  pass  right  by  me  and  go  to  Joseph  thinking  to  get  between  him  and  the  Twelve.  Some  have   already  tried  to  use  an  influence  against  me,  but  such  jealousies  and  selfishness  shall  be  stopped  and  if  the  brethren  don't  stop   it,  I  will  blow  it  to  the  four  winds  by  making  them  all  come  and  be  sealed  to  me  and  I  to  my  father  and  he  and  all  this  Church  to   Joseph.  When  I  go  astray  and  give  wrong  counsel  and  lead  this  people  astray  then  is  time  enough  to  pull  me  down  and  then   God  will  remove  me  as  he  has  done  all  others  who  have  turned  from  the  faith.   96  Wilford  Woodruff  journal,  February  26,  1847,  vol.  3,  p.  139.  

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came in  as  a  red  man  &  want  to  go  out  as  a  red  man”  but  then  stated  “we  were  all  white  once”   and  queried  “why  [h]av[e]  I  the  stain  now”  referring  to  the  Mormon  doctrine  of  dark  skin  being   a  curse  from  God  for  unrighteous  behavior.   However,  three  times  during  this  meeting,  Young  emphasized  to  McCary  that  one’s  skin  color  or   body  was  irrelevant  to  spiritual  worthiness.    After  McCary  informed  the  council  that  some   people  referred  to  him  as  Adam  and  “some  Old  Nigger,”  and  he  wanted  to  know  what  the   difference  was,  Young  interestingly  replied,  “your  body  is  not  what  is  your  mission.”       Still  not  having  fully  developed  the  “curse  of  Cain”  doctrine  prohibiting  blacks  from  holding   priesthood  or  participating  in  temple  rituals,  Young  then  told  McCary  about  the  faithful  black   Elder,  Q.  Walker  Lewis,  back  in  Lowell,  Massachusetts:  “Its  nothing  to  do  with  the  blood  for   [from]  one  blood  has  God  made  all  flesh,  we  have  to  repent  [to]  regain  what  we  [h]av[e]  lost  –   we  [h]av[e]  one  of  the  best  Elders  an  African  in  Lowell.”97       Interestingly,  Young  here  paraphrased  Paul’s  statement  to  the  people  of  Athens  in  Acts  17:26,   “And  [God]  hath  made  of  one  blood  all  nations  of  men,”  which,  in  its  full  context,  could  have   been  used  as  a  clear  scriptural  basis  for  not  having  a  race-­‐based  priesthood  ban.    However,   church  leaders  may  have  not  wanted  to  point  out  this  particular  passage,  since  Paul  also  said  in   the  same  speech  that  God,  the  “Lord  of  heaven  and  earth,  dwelleth  not  in  temples  made  of   hands”  (verse  23).         Later  on,  McCary  stated  that  he  was  no  president,  nor  a  leader  of  the  people  but  a  common   brother,  “because  I  am  a  little  shade  darker.”    And  again,  Young  emphasized,  “we  dont  care   about  the  color.”    McCary,  needing  further  assurance,  asked  the  entire  council,  “do  I  hear  that   from  all?”  to  which  he  received  a  unanimous  “Aye.”    This  seems  to  have  been  a  specially   important  moment,  for  Heber  C.  Kimball  chimed  in,  “dont  you  feel  a  good  spirit  here  bro   William?”    McCary  replied,  “Yes  –  thank  God.”   The  meeting  continued  on  for  quite  some  time.    Warner  then  claimed  to  be  Adam,  and  asked  those   present  to  see  if  he  was  missing  a  rib.    Those  present  indicated  that  nothing  seemed  to  be  out  of  the   ordinary,  and  then  McCary  pointed  at  his  wife  Lucy  and  said  she  was  his  missing  rib.   McCary  indicated  his  desire  to  go  west,  but  had  no  money.    Brigham  Young  suggested  that  he  put  on  a   concert  for  the  saints  to  raise  money  for  himself  and  Lucy.    Four  days  later  on  March  30  McCary  played  a   concert  and  earned  some  money.    What  happened  next  with  McCary  is  not  exactly  clear,  but  it  is  clear   that  Parley  P.  Pratt  soon  had  a  poor  impression  of  McCary.    Pratt  returned  from  a  mission  to  England   around  April  7,  and  one  week  later  Brigham  headed  west  with  a  group  on  April  14-­‐15  leaving  Pratt  to   lead  the  group  that  was  left  behind.      

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Brigham  Young  Papers,  March  26,  1847,  LDS  Church  Archives;  the  same  is  also  found  in  the  Manuscript  History  of  the  Church,   under  the  same  date.  

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Newell Bringhurst  says  that  “Following  this  March  1847  meeting,  Church  leaders  expelled  McCary  from   the  Mormon  camp  at  Winter  Quarters.  “    Perhaps  Pratt  had  been  tipped  off  to  McCary’s  activities  in   Cincinnati  with  Strangite  leaders  there.  Perhaps  McCary  had  engaged  in  strange  practices  in  Boston   which  Pratt  would  have  discovered.  Perhaps  Pratt  was  uncomfortable  with  McCary’s  antics.    Whatever   the  reason,  on  April  25,  Parley  Pratt  warned  against  Strangism,  as  well  as  those  who  “want  to  follow  this   Black  man  who  has  got  the  blood  of  Ham  in  him  which  line[a]ge  was  cursed  as  regards  [to]  the   Priesthood.”98        Even  Orson  Hyde,  the  man  who  baptized  and  ordained  McCary,  began  to  preach  against   him.  99      

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Since the  apostles  were  needed  to  supervise  the  trek  west,  the  first  non-­‐apostle  to  serve  over  the   Boston  area  was  called    William  Appleby.    On  May  19,  1847,  Appleby  recorded  in  his  journal  that  Walker   Lewis  had  been  ordained.    He  echoed  Pratt’s  words  in  his  journal.   Left  this  Afternoon,  for  Lowell,  where  I  arrived  in  about  one  hour  and  a  half,  distance  25.  miles.   Here  I  found  a  branch  of  the  Church  of  about  20  members  in  tolerable  good  standing.  Elder   [Darius]  Longee  presiding.  In  this  Branch  there  is  a  Coloured  Brother,  (An  Elder  ordained  by  Elder   Wm.  Smith  while  he  was  a  member  of  the  Church,  contrary  though  to  the  order  of  the  Church  or   the  Law    of  the  Priesthood,  as  the  Descendants  of  Ham  are  not  entitled  to  that  privilege)  by  the   name  of  Walker  Lewis.  He  appears  to  be  a  meek  humble  man,  and  an  example  for  his  more   whiter  brethren  to  follow.100     Newell  Bringhurst  cautions  against  reading  too  much  into  this  journal  entry.    He  says  that  Appleby  wrote   the  journal  entry  in  the  1850s  based  on  notes  that  Appleby  kept  previously.    In  the  1850s,  the  Curse  of   Ham  doctrine  was  probably  more  developed  than  it  was  in  1847.101    (Appleby  also  had  copied  the   relevant  extract  from  the  Book  of  Abraham  into  his  journal.)    Just  twelve  days  after  this  journal  entry,   Appleby  didn’t  seem  as  adamant  that  a  black  holding  the  priesthood  was  contrary  to  the  “laws  of  God.”                                                                                                                             98

Newell  G.  Bringhurst,  Saints,  Slaves  and  Blacks:  The  Changing  Place  of  Black  People  Within  Mormonism  (Westport,  CT:   Greenwood  Press,  1981),  86.  (quote  found  in  LDS  Church  Archives.)  Newell  G.  Bringhurst,  “‘A  Servant  of  Servants  …  Cursed  as   Pertaining  to  the  Priesthood’:  Mormon  Attitudes  toward  Slavery  and  the  Black  Man  1830-­‐1880,”  Ph.D.  dis.,  University  of   California,  Davis,  1975,  p.  121,  and  “An  Ambiguous  Decision:  The  Implementation  of  Mormon  Priesthood  Denial  for  the  Black   Man—A  Re-­‐examination,”  Utah  Historical  Quarterly  46  (Winter  1978):  47,  62-­‐63;  Ronald  K.  Esplin,  “Brigham  Young  and   Priesthood  Denial  to  the  Blacks:  An  Alternate  View,”  BYU  Studies  19:394-­‐402.  The  Pratt  quotation  is  from  minutes,  15  Apr.   1847,  Brigham  Young  Papers,  Historical  Department  Archives.   99  Bringhurst  Neither  Black  Nor  White,  “Elijah  Abel  and  the  Changing  Place  of  Blacks  Within  Mormonism”  cites  Lorenzo  Brown,   Journal,  27  Apr.  1847,  LDS  Church  archives;  Lee,  Journal,  25  Apr.  1847.    Lorenzo  Brown  journal,  April  25,  1847,  vol.  2,  L.  Tom   Perry  Special  Collections,  Harold  B.  Lee  Library,  Brigham  Young  University.    General  Minutes,  April  25,  1847,  LDS  Church   Archives,  as  quoted  in  Bringhurst,  Saints,  Slaves,  pp.  86  and  101,  note  10;  Newell  G.  Bringhurst  and  Darron  T.  Smith,  editors,   Black  and  Mormon,  (Chicago:  University  of  Illinois  Press,  2004),  20-­‐21.   100

William  L.  Appleby  to  Brigham  Young,  2  June  1847,  William  L.  Appleby  Papers,  LDS  Church  Archives.    Also  see   Appleby’s  journal,  19  May  May  1847.  Bringhurst  notes  in  footnote  103  of  his  book  Saints,  Slaves,  and  Blacks,    “In   his  journal,  Appleby  acknowledges  that  the  ordination  of  Lewis  was  “contrary  though  to  the  order  of  the  Church  on   the  Law  of  the  Priesthood  as  the  descendants  of  Ham  are  not  entitled  to  that  privilege.”  There  are  indications,   however,  that  this  entry,  along  with  most  of  his  so-­‐called  journal,  was  not  written  until  the  mid-­‐1850s,  by  which   time  black  priesthood  denial  was  well  known  by  people  both  within  and  outside  of  Mormonism.”   101

Connell  O’Donovan,  The  Mormon  Priesthood  Ban  and  Elder  Q.  Walker  Lewis:  “An  example  for  his  more  whiter  brethren  to   follow,”  83.  

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He noted  that  Walker  Lewis    had  been  ordained  a  few  years  earlier  by  William  Smith,  and  Walker’s  son,   Enoch,  had  married  a  white  woman,  Matilda  Webster.    His  May  31  letter  to  Brigham  Young  states,   At  Lowell…I  found  a  coloured  brother  by  name  of  ‘Lewis’  a  barber,  an  Elder  in  the  Church,   ordained  some  years  ago  by  William  Smith.  This  Lewis  I  was  informed  has  also  a  son  who  is   married  to  a  white  girl  [Enoch  Lovejoy  Lewis  and  Mary  Matilda  Webster  Lewis]  and  both   members  of  the  Church  there.  Now  dear  Br.  I  wish  to  know  if  this  is  the  order  of  God  or   tolerated  in  this  Church  ie  to  ordain  Negroes  to  the  Priesthood  and  allow  amalgamation.  If  it  is  I   desire  to  Know,  as  I  have  Yet  got  to  learn  it.102  

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It seems  that  within  the  next  two  weeks,  Appleby  finally  met  the  Lewis  family  and  their  mixed-­‐race   infant  girl.103    His  June  16,  1847,  journal  shows  Appleby’s  dismay  at  meeting  them.    He  records  that  he   Visited  some  of  the  Brethren  and  viewed  some  of  the  improvements  of  the  city,  the  factories,   canals,  etc.    In  looking  for  a  Br[other]  in  the  Church,  I  called  at  a  House,  a  colored  man  resided   there.    I  set  myself  down  for  a  few  moments  presently[;]  in  came  quite  a  good  looking  “white   woman,  about  22  years  old    I  should  think  with  blushing  cheeks  and  was  introduced  to  me  as  the   negro’s  wife,  an  infant  in  a  cradle  nearby  the  evidence  of  the  fact.    Oh!    Woman,  thought  I,   where  is  thy  shame[?]    For  indeed  I  felt  ashamed  and  not  only  ashamed,  but  disgusted  when  I   was  informed  they  were  both  members  of  Church!  Respect  for  thy  family,  thyself,  for  the   offspring  and  above  all  the  law  of  God.104    

Figure  2  -­‐  Courtesy  Connell  O'  Donovan  

Another troubling  relationship  soon  followed.    After  leaving  the  Mormon  camp  in  Winter  Quarters,   Nebraska,  Warner  McCary  travelled  to  Springville,  Iowa,  and  started  having  white  women  sealed  to  him                                                                                                                           102

William  I.  Appleby  to  Brigham  Young,  May  31,  1847,  LDS  Church  Archives.    The  child  died  at  just  15  months  of  age.    See  Connell  O’Donovan,  The  Mormon  Priesthood  Ban  and  Elder  Q.  Walker  Lewis:   “An  example  for  his  more  whiter  brethren  to  follow,”  87.   104  Found  at  http://connellodonovan.com/black_white_marriage.html  retrieved  4/29/2012   103

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through a  special  sealing  ceremony.    The  ceremony  included  sexual  intercourse  witnessed  by  his  white   wife  Lucy.    Nelson  Wheeler  Whipple  recorded,  

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When I  arrived  in  this  branch,  it  was  in  rather  a  curious  fix.    A  man  had  been  there   by  the  name  of  McCarry.    He  was  said  to  be  a  mulatto  or  quarterrun  [quadroon]  who   professed  to  be  some  great  one,  and  had  converted  a  good  many  to  his  kind  of   religion  …  He  had  a  number  of  women  sealed  to  him  in  his  way  which  was  as  follows:  He   had  a  house  in  which  this  ordinance  was  performed.    His  wife,  Lucy  Stanton,  was  in  the   room  at  the  time  of  the  performance,  no  others  were  admitted.    The  form  of  sealing   was  for  the  women  to  bed  with  him,  in  the  daytime  as  I  was  informed  three  different   times  by  which  they  were  sealed  to  the  fullest  extent….  105   As  Mormons  learned  of  McCary’s  sealings  to  white  women,  many  were  upset  and  some  threatened  to   shoot  McCary.106    Because  of  this,  he  made  a  “fast  trot”  to  Missouri  in  mid-­‐July  1847.107    After  staying  in   Missouri  for  a  short  time,  the  McCarys  then  left  for  Washington,  DC,  to  begin  a  life  as  a  travelling  show.     O’Donovan  says  that     McCary,  the  half-­‐white  half-­‐black  escaped  slave,  finally  abandoned  his  family  name  altogether   and  recreated  himself  as  a  full-­‐blooded  Choctaw  named  Okah  Tubbee,  the  lost  son  of  an   important  historical  chief  named  Amosholi-­‐T-­‐ubi  or  Moshulatubbe.    Lucy,  the  Anglo-­‐Saxon   Mormon  woman,  turned  herself  into  a  Delaware  “Indian  Princess”  named  Laah  Ceil  Manatoi   Elaah  Tubbee.108   This  was  the  same  time  that  Mormon  settlers  entered  the  Salt  Lake  Valley  for  the  first  time.    On  the  trek,   Brigham  Young  was  beginning  to  broach  the  idea  of  becoming  the  next  prophet.    Perhaps  he  was   influenced  by  the  Strang  and  Rigdon  movements,  as  well  as  being  isolated  from  Nauvoo.    Wilford   Woodruff  recorded  that  Brigham  began  to  prepare  others  for  the  idea  that  he  had  the  ability  to  receive   revelation.    On  August  15,  1847,     “Some  have  had  fears  that  we  had  not  power  to  get  revelations  since  the  death  of  Joseph.  But  I   want  this  subject  from  this  time  forth  to  be  forever  set  at  rest.  I  want  this  Church  to  understand   from  this  day  henceforth  and  forever  that  an  apostle  is  the  highest  office  of  authority  that  there   is  in  the  Church  and  kingdom  of  God  on  the  earth.  From  whom  did  Joseph  receive  his  authority?     Just  such  men  as  sit  around  me  here  (pointing  to  the  Twelve  Apostles  that  sat  with  him).  Peter,   James  and  John  were  apostles  and  there  was  no  noise  about  their  being  seers  and  revelators   though  those  gifts  were  among  them.  Joseph  Smith  gave  unto  me  and  to  my  brethren,  the   Twelve,  all  the  priesthood  keys,  powers,  and  authority  which  he  had  and  those  are  powers                                                                                                                           105

Copy  of  the  History  of  Nelson  Wheeler  Whipple  1818-­‐1887,  by  Anor  Whipple  (His  son)  http://www.clegg-­‐ webb.com/Histories/Nelson%20Wheeler%20Whipple%20History.html   106  Bringhurst,  Saints,  Slaves,  pp.  84-­‐87.   107  Bringhurst  Neither  Black  Nor  White,  “Elijah  Abel  and  the  Changing  Place  of  Blacks  Within  Mormonism”  cites  Whipple,   Journal,  14  Oct.  1847.   108  Connell  wrote  a  biography  on  Warner  McCary  included  in  Newell  G.  Bringhurst  and  Craig  L.  Foster,  Persistence  of  Polygamy:   Post-­‐Joseph  Smith  Mormon  Polygamy  from  1844  to  1890  Volume  II.  

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Kaylee Herrick 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [59]: Sounds a  little  awkward.   Consider  rewriting.  

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Kaylee Herrick 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [60]: Sounds a  little  out  of  place.   Either  integrate  it  into  the  previous  sentence  or  says   something  like  on  August  15,  1847,  Brigham  Young   wrote,    


which belong  to  the  apostleship.  In  Joseph's  day  we  had  to  ordain  patriarchs.  Could  we  ordain   men  to  authority  greater  than  we  hold  ourselves?  No.  But  it  is  necessary  to  have  patriarchs  to   bless  the  people  that  they  may  have  blessings  by  the  spirit  of  prophecy  and  revelation  sealed   upon  their  heads  and  their  posterity  and  know  what  awaits  their  posterity.  Father  Smith  was  the   senior  patriarch  in  the  Church  and  first  patriarch  in  our  day  and  afterwards  Hyrum  was  the   senior  patriarch  for  his  father  sealed  it  upon  his  head,  but  was  their  power  and  authority  any   different  from  all  patriarchs  in  the  Church?  No.  They  were  all  alike  in  their  authority  and   blessings.”109     Then  Woodruff  notes  on  October  12,  1847:       En  route  to  Winter  Quarters  from  SLC,  I  had  a  question  put  to  me  by  President  Young-­‐-­‐what  my   opinion  was  concerning  one  of  the  Twelve  Apostles  being  appointed  as  the  President  of  the   Church  with  his  two  counselors.  I  answered  that  a  quorum  like  the  Twelve  who  has  seen   appointed  by  revelation,  confirmed  by  revelation,  from  time  to  time,  I  thought  it  would  require   a  revelation  to  change  the  order  of  that  quorum.       Anne  Wilde  typed  up  a  manuscript  of  the  journal  and  noted  that  “An  added  phrase  at  the  end  of  the   entry,  possibly  added  at  a  subsequent  time,  reads:  ‘Whatever  the  Lord  inspires  you  to  do  in  this  matter  I   am  with  you.’”110     Brigham  Young  returned  to  Winter  Quarters  on  October  31.    By  that  time,  Appleby  also  was  there  and   “gave  an  account  of  the  state  of  the  churches  in  the  east.”111    Young  met  with  several  apostles  in  a   private  meeting  where  they  discussed  the  problem  of  William  McCary  as  well  their  disdain  for  black  and   whites  intermarrying.    Young  stated  that  Enoch  and  Matilda  Lewis  should  be  killed.112    Minutes  from  the   December  meeting  were  recorded  by  scribe  Thomas  Bullock:   bro  Appleby  relates...   W[ilia]m  Smith  ordained  a  black  man  Elder  at  Lowell113  &  he  has  married  a  white  girl  &   they  have  a  child     Pres[iden]t.  Young     If  they  were  far  away  from  the  Gentiles  they  wo[ul]d  all  on  to  be   killed  -­‐  when  they  mingle  seed  it  is  death  to  all.                                                                                                                             109

Wilford  Woodruff  Journal,  August  15,  1847    Wilford  Woodruff  Journal,  Pioneer  Press,  typography  by  Anne  Wilde,  October  12,  1847   111  Wilford  Woodruff  Journal,  December  3,  1847.   112  Minutes  of  the  Quorum  of  the  Twelve  Apostles,  December  3,  1847,  6,  Miscellaneous  Minutes,  Brigham  Young  papers,  LDS   archives,  as  quoted  in  Quinn,  Origins  of  Power,  p.  478  and  Quinn,  The  Mormon  Hierarchy:  Extensions  of  Power,  p.  247  and  532,   note  145.   113  William  Smith  is  known  to  have  ordained  Walker  Lewis  to  LDS  priesthood  and  he  may  have  also  ordained  Walker’s  son,   Enoch  Lovejoy  Lewis.   110


If a  black  man  &  white  woman  come  to  you  &  demand  baptism  can  you  deny  them?    the   law  is  their  seed  shall  not  be  amalgamated   Mulattoes  r  like  mules  they  cant  have  children,114  but  if  they  will  be  Eunuchs  for  the   Kingdom  of  God  Heaven's  sake  they  may  have  a  place  in  the  Temple115   B[righam]  Y[oung]  The  Lamanites  r  purely  of  the  house  of  Israel  &  it  is  a  curse  that  is  to   be  removed  when  the  fulness  of  the  Gospel  comes  –   O[rson]  H[yde]    Has  taught  that  if  girls  marry  the  half  breeds  they  r  throwing  themselves   away  &  becoming  as  one  of  them   B.  Y.    It  is  wrong  for  them  to  do  so.   B.  Y.    The  Pottawatamies  will  not  own  a  man  who  has  the  negro  blood  in  him  –  that  is  the  reason   why  the  Indians  disown  the  negro  prophet  [Warner  McCary].116     As  Young  was  preparing  to  become  the  next  president  of  the  church,  it  seems  he  became  more   comfortable  with  the  proposal  “that  blacks  in  general  were  ineligible  to  participate  in  certain  temple   ordinances.”117    Young  would  reorganize  the  first  presidency  and  be  set  apart  as  prophet  on  December   27,  1847.   1848   Following  this  October  meeting  where  Young  expressed  outrage  over  the  Lewis  mixed-­‐race  child,  there   does  not  seem  to  be  much  attention  given  to  the  ban  among  other  members  of  the  leadership.    Elder   Albert  P.  Rockwood,  a  member  of  both  the  First  Quorum  of  Seventy  and  the  Council  of  Fifty,  arrived  in   Boston  for  a  regional  Conference  in  September  1848.    He  read  a  letter  from  the  Quorum  of  Twelve   Apostles  to  the  saints  encouraging  them  to  move  west.  118    Moving  on  to  the  congregation  in  Lowell  in   December,  he  did  not  note  anything  out  of  the  ordinary  despite  the  fact  that  the  meeting  was  held  in                                                                                                                           114

O’Donovan  notes  that  “This  idea  that  black  and  white  mixed  children  are  sterile  and  cannot  reproduce,  just  as  mules  cannot,   was  also  brought  up  later  in  Utah.    The  Juvenile  Instructor  said  in  1868,  ‘In  fact  we  believe  it  to  be  a  great  sin  in  the  eyes  of  our   Heavenly  Father  for  a  white  person  to  marry  a  black  one.    And  further,  that  it  is  a  proof  of  the  mercy  of  God  that  no  such  race   appear  able  to  continue  for  many  generations.’”    See  Juvenile  Instructor,  (1868)  vol.  3,  165.   115  This  is  taken  from  Matthew  19:12,  in  a  discussion  about  marriage  and  divorce,  which  is  apparently  about  the  castrated,  and   celibates  as  eunuchs:  “For  there  are  some  eunuchs,  which  were  so  born  from  their  mother's  womb:  and  there  are  some   eunuchs,  which  were  made  eunuchs  of  men:  and  there  be  eunuchs,  which  have  made  themselves  eunuchs  for  the  kingdom  of   heaven's  sake.  He  that  is  able  to  receive  it,  let  him  receive  it.”   116  Connell  O’  Donovan  cites  Quorum  of  the  Twelve  Minutes,  December  3,  1847,  pp.  6-­‐7,  electronic  scan  of  original  in  his   possession.   117  Lester  Bush  says  that  Appleby  “later  alluded  rather  harshly  to  blacks  in  an  article  he  published  on  the  book  of  Abraham.   While  Elijah  Abel  had  been  allowed  in  the  Kirtland  temple  for  the  ordinance  of  washing  and  anointing  in  1836,  blacks  who   applied  for  temple  ordinances  after  arrival  in  Utah  were  uniformly  refused.  On  the  evolution  of  Mormon  thinking  on  these   ordinances,  see  David  John  Buerger.  “‘The  Fulness  of  the  Priesthood’:  The  Second  Anointing  in  Latter-­‐day  Saint  Theology  and   Practice,”  Dialogue  16  (Spring  1983):  10-­‐44.   118  Note  that  with  the  death  of  Joseph  Smith,  the  Quorum  of  Twelve  took  over  leadership  of  the  church.    The  letter  was  called   General  Epistle  from  the  Council  of  the  Twelve  Apostles.  

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the home  of  Walker  Lewis  on  Christmas  Eve.    Rockwood  “preached  to  the  Saints  at  the  house  of  Br  Lewis   had  a  verry  attentive  audiance.”    Lewis  made  a  donation  to  Rockwood  that  he  noted  in  his  journal,  as   well  as  Lewis’  hospitality.    “Br  W  Lewis  the  coulerd  Br  gave  1oo  [donation]  he  lent  me  a  raesor  and   brusch  so  I  can  shave  with  a  raesor  that  is  borrowed  in  stid  of  one  that  is  pierced  [or  pitted?]  as  the   Anas_____[????]  will  be.”119     1849   At  this  time  Brigham  Young  felt  the  need  to  fill  vacancies  in  the  Quorum  of  Twelve  Apostles,  filling  four   new  positions  on  February  12,  1849.    Four  new  apostles  were  called;  one  of  them,  Apostle  Lorenzo  Snow   asked  if  there  was  a  “chance  of  redemption  …  for  the  Africans.”    Young  answered  the  blacks  were   ineligible  because  of  the  Curse  of  Cain.    At  this  point,  it  seems  that  Young  expanded  on  Parley  Pratt’s   previous  statement  that  blacks  were  cursed  from  the  priesthood  because  of  their  lineage  through   Canaan’s  seed.     The  curse  remained  upon  them  because  Cain  cut  off  the  lives  [sic]  of  Abel,  to  prevent  him  and   his  posterity  getting  ascendency  over  Cain  and  his  generations,  and  to  get  the  lead  himself,  his   own  offering  was  not  being  accepted  of  God,  while  Abel’s  was.  But  the  Lord  cursed  Cain’s  seed   with  blackness  and  prohibited  them  the  priesthood,  that  Abel  and  his  progeny  might  yet  come   forward,  and  have  their  dominion,  place,  and  blessings  in  their  proper  relationship  with  Cain  and   his  race  in  the  world  to  come.120   1851   Wilford  Woodruff  received  a  letter  from  Walker  Lewis  on  March  4,  1850.121    It  appears  that  Lewis  may   have  made  his  intentions  to  move  west  because  he  filed  his  Last  Will  and  Testament  a  year  later  (March   26,  1851),  giving  his  home  and  possessions  to  his  wife  Elizabeth  Lovejoy  Lewis.122    It  is  likely  that  Walker   Lewis  left  Massachusetts  in  April.    Cross  country  travel  took  about  six  months  at  that  time  and  several   wagon  trains  were  reported  to  have  arrived  in  September  of  1851.123       By  now  John  Smith,  uncle  of  the  prophet  Joseph,  was  named  the  new  Church  Patriarch.    Smith  gave  a   patriarchal  blessing  to  Walker  Lewis  on  October  4,  1851.    Smith  declared  that  Lewis  was  from  the  “tribe   of  Cana[a]n,”124  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  Lewis  had  already  been  ordained  an  elder  in  the  Melchizedek                                                                                                                           119

Connell  O’Donovan,  The  Mormon  Priesthood  Ban  and  Elder  Q.  Walker  Lewis:  “An  example  for  his  more  whiter  brethren  to   follow,”  88.   120  Manuscript  History  of  the  Church,  13  Feb.  1849,  LDS  Church  Archives.   121  Wilford  Woodruff  Journal,  March  4,  1850.   122  Last  Will  and  Testament  of  Walker  Lewis,  dated  March  26,  1851,  entered  into  probate  on  December  2,  1856,  Middlesex   County,  Massachusetts  probate  records,  Book  4,  p.  358,  no.  36420.   123  Journal  History  of  the  Church,  September  1,  12,  14,  24,  38,  29,  and  October  1,  1841.   124  Patriarchal  Blessing  Book,  vol.  11,  p.  326,  LDS  Church  archives.    Connell  O’Donovan  notes  “The  typewritten  index  to  the  early   patriarchal  blessings  indicates  the  tribe  of  “Cainan”  (a  rather  Freudian  conflation  of  Cain  and  Canaan),  but  when  I  was  given  the   opportunity  to  actually  view  Lewis’  blessing,  I  noted  that  John  Smith  had  actually  spelled  it  “Canan.”  As  I  am  not  a  descendant   of  Lewis,  I  was  not  allowed  to  copy  the  blessing,  and  unfortunately  I  do  not  recall  anything  more  of  the  details  of  its  contents.”  

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Priesthood which  seemingly    contradictedPratt’s  statement.    With  general  conference  occurring  on  Oct   5-­‐6,  it  seems  likely  that  Lewis  attended  those  meetings.    Some  forty  years  later,  Jane  Manning  James   wrote  a  letter  stating  that  Lewis  stayed  in  Utah  for  approximately  six  months.125  Lewis  returned  to   Lowell,  Massachusetts,  and  died  of  tuberculosis  October  26,  1856.     This  1890  letter  from  Sister  Manning  is  very  important.    Jane  had  been  married  to  Isaac  James,  but  they   divorced  and  he  left  the  family  in  1869.    He  later  returned,  and  Jane  cared  for  him  until  his  death  in   1891.    The  letter  implies  that  there  may  have  been  some  sort  of  proposal  between  Walker  Lewis  and   Jane  James  because  she  petitions  church  leaders  to  be  sealed  to  Walker  Lewis.         Dear  Brother  -­‐  -­‐  Please  excuse  me  taking  the  Liberty  of  Writing  to  you  -­‐  but  be  a  Brother…by   answering  my  questions  -­‐  There  by  satisfying  my  mind  -­‐  -­‐  First,  as  Brother  James  [her  husband   Isaac]  has  Left  me  21  years  -­‐  And  a  Coloured  Brother,  Brother  Lewis  wished  me  to  be  sealed  to   Him,  He  has  been  dead  35  or  36  years  -­‐  can  i  be  sealed  to  him  -­‐  parley  P  Pratt  ordained  Him  an   Elder.  When  or  how[?]  can  i  ever  be  sealed  to  Him.126     It  should  be  noted  that  Pratt  baptized  Lewis,  but  William  Smith  most  likely  ordained  Lewis  an  elder.    Also   in  1851,  Warner  McCary’s  traveling  show  became  known  nationally.    McCary  married  another  white   wife  Sarah  Marlett  at  Niagara  Falls  in  August  1851.    Sarah  later  sued  Warner  for  bigamy,  and  it  became  a   national  story.    The  McCarys  moved  to  Canada  to  get  away  from  their  troubles,  but  trouble  followed   them  there.    Willard  Richards  was  editor  of  the  Deseret  News,  which  published  McCary’s  polygamy   story,  and  a  veiled  reference  to  McCary’s  “missing  rib”  from  the  1847  meeting  in  Nebraska.    O’Donovan   describes  the   News  of  Warner  and  Lucy  McCary’s  charade  as  Indians  reached  Utah  and  Willard  Richards,  via   the  Deseret  News,  humorously  published  but  a  brief  summary  in  December:   Okah  Tubbee  has  been  called  in  question  by  the  Canadian  courts,  Toronto,  for  having   added  Sarah  Madlette  [Malette?],  to  his  broken  ribs,  while  his  old  wife  was  living.127   The  Mormons,  who  had  just  recently  admitted  publicly  that  they  were  practicing  polygamy  in   August,  obviously  took  delight  in  noting  that  “Okah  Tubbee”  was  practicing  plural  marriage.128     Willard  Richards,  editor  of  the  Deseret  News  from  1850  to  1854,  obviously  knew  that  Okah  

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Connell  O’Donovan,  The  Mormon  Priesthood  Ban  and  Elder  Q.  Walker  Lewis:  “An  example  for  his  more  whiter  brethren  to   follow”,91.    The  footnote  to  this  reference  states  that  O’Donovan  received  an  email  from  Margaret  Blair  Young,  “With  My   Comments,”  6  June  2006,  personal  email  (June  6,  2006).   126  Connell  O’Donovan,  The  Mormon  Priesthood  Ban  and  Elder  Q.  Walker  Lewis:  “An  example  for  his  more  whiter  brethren  to   follow”,  91.    The  footnote  to  the  letter  states  Jane  Elizabeth  Manning  James  to  Joseph  Fielding  Smith,  February  7,  1890,  LDS   Church  Archives,  transcript  in  his  possession.   127  “Gleanings  and  Sayings,”  Deseret  News,  December  11,  1852,  p.  3.   128  Orson  Pratt,  August  29,  1852,  Journal  of  Discourses,  vol.  1,  p.  58.  

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Kaylee Herrick 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [61]: Explain why  you  made  this   transition.  It  feels  like  a  random  jump  with  out  some   time  of  explanation.  


Tubbee was  in  fact  Warner  McCary,  for  he  obscurely  referred  to  the  scene  at  Winter  Quarters   when  McCary  tried  to  demonstrate  that  his  missing  “odd  rib”  had  been  found  in  his  wife  Lucy.129   In  June,  Wilford  Woodruff  quotes  Brigham  Young  expounding  upon  the  Curse  of  Cain  doctrine.   Their  has  been  a  great  stir  to  exhalt  the  Negro  &  make  him  equal  to  the  white  man  but  there  is  a   curse  upon  the  seed  of  Cain  &  all  Hell  cannot  wipe  it  out  &  it  cannot  be  taken  off  untill  God  takes   it  off.  When  A  person  unlawfully  seeks  for  power  &  exhaltation  by  taking  the  blessings  which   belongs  to  Another  He  will  sink  far  below  the  other.  As  Lucipher  the  son  of  the  morning  sought   Abels  Blessing  &  took  the  life  of  his  brother.  The  consequence  was  Cain  was  cursed  &  his  seed  &   this  curse  will  remain  untill  Abels  posterity  will  get  all  the  Blessing  their  is  for  him.  Then  the   curse  may  be  taken  from  Cain  or  his  posterity  but  his  posterity  will  be  below  Abels.    All  are   slaves.  Polititions  are  the  worst  slaves  And  if  we  dont  do  right  we  shall  ketch  the  lash.  We  are   the  freest  people  on  Earth.  Queen  Victoria  is  A  slave.  Had  to  Ask  the  liberty  to  Marry  prince   Albert.  But  we  are  free.  We  have  the  right  God  &  kingdom.130   1852   On  January  15,  1852,  Wilford  Woodruff  recorded  that  Brigham  Young  addressed  the  legislature  saying,     The  Lord  said  I  will  not  kill  Cane  But  I  will  put  a  mark  upon  him  and  it  is  seen  in  the  [face?]  of   every  Negro  on  the  Earth  And  it  is  the  decree  of  God  that  that  mark  shall  remain  upon  the  seed   of  Cane  &  the  Curse  until  all  the  seed  of  Abel  should  be  re[deem?]ed  and  Cane  will  not  receive   the  priesthooduntill  or  salvation  untill  all  the  seed  of  Abel  are  Redeemed.    Any  man  having  one   drop  of  the  seed  of  Cane  in  him  Cannot  hold  the  priesthood  &  if  no  other  Prophet  ever  spake  it   Before  I  will  say  it  now  in  the  name  of  Jesus  Christ.    I  know  it  is  true  &  they  know  it.    The  Negro   cannot  hold  one  particle  of  Government  But  the  day  will  Come  when  all  the  seed  of  Cane  will  be   Redeemed  &  have  all  the  Blessings  we  have  now  &  a  great  deal  more.    But  the  seed  of  Abel  will   be  ahead  of  the  seed  of  Cane  to  all  Eternity.       Let  me  consent  to  day  to  mingle  my  seed  with  the  seed  of  Cane[,]  It  would  Bring  the  same  curse   upon  me  And  it  would  upon  any  man.    And  if  any  man  mingles  his  seed  with  the  seed  of  Cane   the  ownly  way  he  Could  get  rid  of  it  or  have  salvation  would  be  to  Come  forward  &  have  his   head  Cut  off  &  spill  his  Blood  upon  the  ground.    It  would  also  take  the  life  of  his  Children....       Their  is  not  one  of  the  seed  of  old  Cane  that  is  permitted  to  rule  &  reign  over  the  seed  of  Abel   And  you  nor  I  cannot  Help  it.       Those  that  do  bear  rule  should  do  it  in  righteousness.    I  am  opposed  to  the  present  system  of   slavery.    The  Negro  Should  serve  the  seed  of  Abram  but  it  should  be  done  right.    Dont  abuse  the   Negro  &  treat  him  cruel....                                                                                                                               129

Connell  wrote  a  biography  on  Warner  McCary  included  in  Newell  G.  Bringhurst  and  Craig  L.  Foster,  Persistence  of  Polygamy:   Post-­‐Joseph  Smith  Mormon  Polygamy  from  1844  to  1890  Volume  II.,  32   130  Wilford  Woodruff  Journal,  June  29,  1851.  

Kaylee Herrick 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [62]: Not sure  if  the  extra  L  was  there   in  original  transcript  so  just  make  sure  you  check   that.  

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As an  Ensample  let  the  Presidency,  Twelve  Seventies  High  Priests  Bishops  &  all  the  Authorities   say  ["]now  we  will  go  &  mingle  with  the  seed  of  Cane  and  they  may  have  all  the  privileges  they   want.    We  lift  our  hands  to  heaven  in  support  of  this.["]    That  moment  we  loose  the  priesthood   &  all  Blessings  &  we  would  not  be  redeemed  untill  Cane  was.    I  will  never  admit  it  for  a   moment....   The  Devil  would  like  to  rule  part  of  the  time  But  I  am  determin[ed]  He  shall  not  rule  at  all  and   Negros  shall  not  rule  us.    I  will  not  admit  of  the  Devil  ruling  at  all.    I  will  not  Consent  for  the  seed   of  Cane  to  vote  for  me  or  my  Brethren....Come  here  with  a  part  of  the  Canaanite  [i.e.  African]   Blood  in  them  they  are  Citizens  &  shall  have  their  rights  but  not  to  rule  for  me  or  my   Brother....The  Canaanite  cannot  have  wisdom  to  do  things  as  the  white  man  has.    We  must   guard  against  Evil.    I  am  not  going  to  let  this  people  damn  themselves  as  long  as  I  can  help  it.131     The  speech  is  interesting  because  it  may  explain  the  rationale  on  why  interracial  marriage  was  accepted   prior  to  this  time.    It  seems  that  some  members  did  try  to  marry  blacks  so  “they  may  have  all  the   privileges  they  want.    We  lift  our  hands  to  heaven  in  support  of  this.”    It  is  hard  to  know  if  this  was  a   widely  or  narrow-­‐held  view  among  members  of  the  church.    It  could  have  been  a  view  shared  by  just  a   few  individuals.    However,  Young  now  claims  “That  moment  we  loose  the  priesthood  &  all  Blessings  &   we  would  not  be  redeemed  untill  Cane  was.    I  will  never  admit  it  for  a  moment”  and  previously  said,  “if   any  man  mingles  his  seed  with  the  seed  of  Cane  the  ownly  way  he  Could  get  rid  of  it  or  have  salvation   would  be  to  Come  forward  &  have  his  head  Cut  off  &  spill  his  Blood  upon  the  ground.    It  would  also  take   the  life  of  his  Children.”    This  mixing  of  seed  now  became  a  capital  crime,  whereas  prior  justifications   were  to  allow  the  seed  of  Cain  to  have  all  the  same  privileges  as  whites.    Obviously,  this  statement   changes  the  relationships  between  the  church  and  black  members  quite  considerably  from  the  previous   position  on  blacks.    It  also  seems  to  confirm  that  Young  was  the  author  of  the  ban:  “if  no  other  Prophet   ever  spake  it  before  I  will  say  it  now  in  the  name  of  Jesus  Christ  I  know  it  is  true  and  others  know  it.”    It   seems  that  Young  admits  that  “no  other  Prophet  ever  spake  it  before.”   While  Lewis  was  in  Utah,  an  Act  in  Relation  to  Service  was  passed  on  February  4,  1852,  by  the  territorial   legislature  in  Utah.    The  law  allowed  black  and  Indian  slavery  to  be  legal  in  Utah.132    With  the  passage  of   the  Missouri  Compromise  in  1820,  slavery  and  anti-­‐slavery  advocates  wanted  to  keep  the  balance  of   power  in  slavery  and  anti-­‐slavery  states.    The  Compromise  of  1850  allowed  California  to  enter  the  Union   as  a  free  territory.    New  Mexico  and  Utah  were  allowed  the  option  to  choose  whether  to  enter  the   Union  as  a  free  or  slave  territory.    Brigham  Young  felt  that  it  would  be  politically  advantageous  for  Utah   to  try  to  enter  the  Union  as  a  slave  territory  in  order  to  keep  the  balance  of  power  of  slave  states  in                                                                                                                           131

Wilford  Woodruff's  Journal  1833-­‐1898  Typescript,  Scott  G.  Kenney,  editor,  (Midvale  UT:  Signature  Books,   1983),  vol.  4,  undated  entry  between  4  January  and  8  February  1852,  97-­‐99. Connell  O’Donovan  first   published  The  Mormon  Priesthood  Ban  &  Elder  Q.  Walker  Lewis:  "An  example  for  his  more  whiter  brethren   to  follow"  in  the  2006  issue  of  the  John  Whitmer  Historical  Association  Journal.    He  has  published  an   updated  version  of  the  paper  at  http://people.ucsc.edu/~odonovan/elder_walker_lewis.html#_ftn145     accessed  5/26/2012  which  contains  the  Woodruff  speech.   132

It  should  be  noted  that  Indians  and  blacks  were  treated  differently.    The  act  required  that  Indians  were  to  be   educated,  but  no  such  regulation  existed  for  black  slaves.    Indian  slavery  was  not  to  exceed  a  maximum  of  twenty   years,  but  black  slavery    had  no  statutory  end  date.  

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Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [63]: Really nice  transition  and   reasoning  here.    


Congress.  On  January  23,  Young  said  that  “we  must  believe  in  slavery.”133    The  move  would  also  have   appeased  the  few  slaveholding  apostles,  such  as  Charles  Rich  and  Abraham  Smoot,134  that  slavery  would   be  legalized  in  Utah.    However,  it  was  not  in  line  with  Joseph  Smith’s  presidential  platform  that  all  slaves   should  be  educated  and  freed.135   In  addition  to  black  slavery,  Indian  slavery  was  also  legalized.    The  church  originally  opposed  slavery.   Prior  to  the  Mexican-­‐American  War  of  1847-­‐48,  Indians  were  selling  Indian  slaves  to  Mexicans  of  the   area.    When  Brigham  Young  brought  the  saints  to  the  Great  Basin,  Indians  tried  to  sell  captured  Indian   slaves  to  the  Mormons.    At  first  Mormons  refused,  stating  that  slavery  was  no  longer  legal  now  that  the   area  belonged  to  the  United  States  rather  than  Mexico.    Eugene  Campbell  recounted:   Stopping  the  slave  trade  embittered  some  Indians.  Some  of  them  attempted  to  sell  their   children  to  the  Mormons.  Jones  related  one  graphic  incident.    Arrapine,  [Ute  chief,  of  the   Timpanogot  Band,  Chief]  Walker’s  brother,  insisted  that  because  the  Mormons  had  stopped  the   Mexicans  from  buying  these  children,  the  Mormons  were  obligated  to  purchase  them.  Jones   wrote,  “Several  of  us  were  present  when  he  took  one  of  the  children  by  the  heels  and  dashed   his  brains  out  on  the  hard  ground,  after  which  he  threw  the  body  toward  us  telling  us  we  had  no   hearts  or  we  would  have  saved  its  life.”   Incidents  such  as  this  led  the  Legislative  Assembly  of  the  Territory  of  Utah  on  7  March  1852  to   pass  an  act  legalizing  Indian  slavery.  The  purpose  was  to  induce  Mormons  to  buy  Indian  children   who  otherwise  would  have  been  abandoned  or  killed.  It  provided  that  Indian  children  under  the                                                                                                                           133

Quinn,  Extensions  of  Power,  p.  749.    Carter,  The  Negro  Pioneer,  p.  24;  also,  C.  Elliot  Berlin,  “Abraham  Owen  Smoot,  Pioneer  Mormon  Leader”  (M.A.  thesis,   Brigham  Young  University,  1955),  for  Smoot’s  family  background.   135  In  his  1973  article  on  Mormonism’s  Negro  Problem:  A  Historical  Overview,  Lester  Bush  notes  that  “Even  in  private   conversation,  the  Prophet  advised  that  slaves  owned  by  Mormons  be  brought  “into  a  free  country  and  set  …  free—Educate       them  and  give  them  equal  Rights.” Bush  cites  Joseph  Smith’s  Journal,  kept  by  Willard  Richards  dated  30  Dec.  1842;  copy  at  LDS   Church  Archives.    He  recorded  a  similar  sentiment  in  his  history:  “Had  I  anything  to  do  with  the  negro,  I  would  …  put  them  on  a   national  equalization.”    Bush  cites  2  Jan.  1843,  History  of  the  Church,  5:217.   134

Many similar  expressions  are  to  be  found  in  1843  and  1844,  though  his  greatest  attention  to  slavery  was  evident  during  his   1844  presidential  campaign.  Joseph  Smith’s  “Views  on  the  Government  and  Policy  of  the  U.S.,”  prepared  in  February  as  a   campaign  platform,  included  a  plan  for  the  elimination  of  slavery  within  six  years  through  federal  compensation  of   slaveholders.    Bush  cites  several  sources  for  this.  “Gen.  Smith’s  Views  on  the  Government  and  Policy  of  the  U.S.”  See  Times  &   Seasons,  5:528-­‐33.  He  subsequently  spoke  against  slavery  on  7  Mar.  1844  (History  of  the  Church,  6:243);  14  Apr.  1844  (Times  &   Seasons  5:508-­‐510);  and  13  May  1844  (letter  published  4  June  1844  in  Times  &  Seasons,5:545).  Another  indication  of  his   interest  in  this  subject  were  entries  in  his  history  in  Feb.  1843,  on  a  John  Quincey  Adams  petition  against  slavery  (History  of  the   Church,  5:283),  and  in  May  1843,  on  the  abolition  of  slavery  in  the  “British  dominions  in  India”  (History  of  the  Church,  5:379);  in   November  of  that  year  the  Times  &  Seasons  carried  the  full  text  of  a  Papal  Bull  “Relative  to  Refraining  from  Traffic  in  Blacks”   (Times  &  Seasons,  4:381-­‐2).     He  later  added  that  this  might  be  accomplished  a  few  states  at  a  time  or  with  a  provision  that  slave  children  be  freed  after  a   “fixed  period.”  Bush  says  this  idea  was  expressed  7  Mar.  1844.  See  History  of  the  Church  6:243,  and  Matthias  Cowley,Wilford   Woodruff  (Salt  Lake  City:  Deseret  News  Press,  1909),  p.  203.  There  is  some  uncertainty  as  to  what  the  Prophet  planned  to  do   with  the  freed  slaves.  At  times  he  spoke  of  national  equalization  or  equal  rights;  on  this  occasion  he  stated,  “As  soon  as  Texas   was  annexed,  I  would  liberate  the  slaves  in  two  or  three  States,  indemnifying  their  owners,  and  send  the  negroes  to  Texas,  and       from  Texas  to  Mexico,  where  all  colors  are  alike.”

Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [64]: Create a  stronger  transition   between  these  setences.  

Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [65]: Chicago 9.60  


proper conditions  could  be  legally  bound  over  to  suitable  guardians  for  a  term  of  indenture  not   exceeding  twenty  years.  The  master  was  required  to  send  Indian  children  between  the  ages  of   seven  and  sixteen  years  to  school  for  a  period  of  three  months  each  year  and  was  answerable  to   the  probate  judge  for  the  treatment  of  these  apprentices.  As  a  result  of  this  act,  many  Mormon   families  took  small  Indian  children  into  their  homes  to  protect  them  from  slavery  or  from  being   left  destitute.  John  D.  Lee,  for  example,  wrote  in  his  journal  about  a  group  of  Indians  who   “brought  me  two  more  girls  for  which  I  gave  them  two  horses.  I  named  the  girls  Annette  and   Elnora.”136   Section  Four  of  the  act  also  prohibited  sexual  relations  between  whites  and  blacks:  “if  any  white  person   shall  be  guilty  of  sexual  intercourse  with  any  of  the  African  race,  they  shall  be  subject,  on  conviction   thereof  to  a  fine  of  not  exceeding  one  thousand  dollars,  nor  less  than  five  hundred,  to  the  use  of  the   Territory,  and  imprisonment,  not  exceeding  three  years.”    In  discussing  the  law,  Young  said  that   interracial  sexual  relations  required  blood  atonement  (offspring  included)  for  salvation.137     Following  up  on  the  January  speech  recorded  by  Woodruff,  Brigham  Young  stated  more  clearly  that  God   was  the  source  of  this  position,  and  confirmed  that  anyone  who  mixed  seed  with  Cain  would  lose   priesthood  blessings  as  well.    Addressing  a  joint  session  of  the  territorial  legislature  on  February  5,  1852,   Young  declared,   Now  then  in  the  kingdom  of  God  on  the  earth,  a  man  who  has  the  African  blood  in  him  cannot   hold  one  jot  nor  tittle  of  priesthood;  Why?  because  they  are  the  true  eternal  principals  the  Lord   Almighty  has  ordained,  and  who  can  help  it,  men  cannot.  the  angels  cannot,  and  all  the  powers   of  earth  and  hell  cannot  take  it  off,  but  thus  saith  the  Eternal  I  am,  what  I  am,  I  take  it  off  at  my   pleasure,  and  not  one  partical  of  power  can  that  posterity  of  Cain  have,  until  the  time  comes  the   says  he  will  have  it  taken  away.  That  time  will  come  when  they  will  have  the  privilege  of  all  we   have  the  privelege  of  and  more.  In  the  kingdom  of  God  on  the  earth  the  Affricans  cannot  hold   one  partical  of  power  in  Government.  The  the  subjects,  the  rightfull  servants  of  the  resedue  of   the  children  of  Adam,  and  the  resedue  of  the  children  through  the  benign  influence  of  the  Spirit   of  the  Lord  have  the  privilege  of  seeing  to  the  posterity  of  Cain;  inasmuch  as  it  is  the  Lords  will   they  should  receive  the  spirit  of  God  by  Baptisam;  and  that  is  the  end  of  their  privilege;  and   there  is  not  power  on  earth  to  give  them  any  more  power.          You  talke  of  the  dark  skin,  I  never  saw  a  white  man  on  earth.  I  have  seen  persons  whoes  hair   came  pretty  nigh  being  white,  but  to  talk  about  white  skins  it  is  something  intirely  unknown,   though  some  skins  are  fairer  than  others;  look  at  the  black  eye  and  the  jet  black  hair,  we  often   see  upon  men  and  women  who  are  called  white,  there  is  no  such  things  as  white  folkes.  We  are   the  children  of  Adam,  who  receive  the  blessings,  and  that  is  enough  for  us  if  we  are  not  quite   white.          But  let  me  tell  you  further.  Let  my  seed  mingle  with  the  seed  of  Cain,  that  brings  the  curse   upon  me,  and  upon  my  generations,  -­‐-­‐  we  will  reap  the  same  rewards  with  Cain.                                                                                                                           136

Eugene  Campbell,  Establishing  Zion,  107-­‐108.        Lester  Bush,  Dialogue:  A  Journal  of  Mormon  Thought,  Spring  1973,  26.  

137

Tanner 7/24/12 12:22 AM Comment [66]: Extra letter  not  sure  if  that  is  in   the  original.  I  have  noticed  a  couple  of  extra  letters   and  strange  capitalizations,  but  have  left  them   because  a  lot  of  the  time  old  sources  are  like  that  or   the  spelling  was  different  back  then.  Just  make  sure   you  really  look  through  them  carefully  to  make  sure   they  are  cited  as  written  or  that  you  have  bracketed   the  changes.  

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In the  priesthood  I  will  tell  you  what  it  will  do.  Where  the  children  of  God  to  mingle  there  seed   with  the  seed  of  Cain  it  would  not  only  bring  the  curse  of  being  deprived  of  the  power  of  the   priesthood  upon  themselves  but  they  entail  it  upon  their  children  after  them,  and  they  cannot   get  rid  of  it.  If  a  man  in  an  ungaurded  moment  should  commit  such  a  transgression,  if  he  would   walk  up  and  say  cut  off  my  head,  and  kill  man  woman  and  child  it  would  do  a  great  deal  towards   atoneing  for  the  sin.  Would  this  be  to  curse  them?  no  it  would  be  a  blessing  to  them.  -­‐-­‐  it  would   do  them  good  that  they  might  be  saved  with  their  Bren.  A  man  would  shuder  should  they  here   us  take  about  killing  folk,  but  it  is  one  of  the  greatest  blessings  to  some  to  kill  them,  allthough   the  true  principles  of  it  are  not  understood.138   Walker  Lewis  was  a  prominent  member  of  the  Underground  Railroad,  his  son  Enoch  had  married  a  white   woman,  and  his  wife  was  the  product  of  a  mixed-­‐race  marriage.    Passage  of  this  act,  and  talk  of   interracial  marriage  as  worthy  of  death  must  have  been  very  disconcerting  to  him.    He  left  Utah  in  the   Spring  of  1852.    His  son  Enoch  had  been  jailed  back  in  Massachusetts  for  stealing  clothes139and  he  may   have  returned  to  take  care  of  the  situation.    He  died  of  tuberculosis  in  1856.  

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1853-­‐4 Brigham  Young  went  on  to  declare  that  the  ban  would  end  “When  all  the  other  children  of  Adam  have   had  the  privilege  of  receiving  the  Priesthood….  it  will  be  time  enough  to  remove  the  curse  from  Cain  and   his  posterity.”140  In  1853,  Abel  migrated  to  Utah  and  had  at  least  3  children  by  the  time  they  migrated  to   Utah.  141    When  Abel  asked  to  participate  in  the  Nauvoo  version  of  the  endowment  in  the  Endowment   House  in  Salt  Lake  City,  Brigham  Young  denied  the  ordinance.142    After  Young’s  death  in  1877,  Abel   applied  again  with  Church  President  John  Taylor  but  was  denied  again.143       Conclusion  

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Here is  a  summary  of  early  blacks  who  received  the  priesthood  prior  to  1847.  

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Black Pete     • • • •

Baptized in  1830  by  one  of  four  missionaries  in  Kirtland  (Parley  P.  Pratt,  Ziba  Peterson,  Peter   Whitmer,  or  Oliver  Cowdery),.   Served  a  mission  in  Ashtabula  County,  Ohio,    in  1831.   Wanted  to  marry  a  white  woman  named  Lovina  Williams.   Left  the  Church  sometime  between  1831  and  1834.  

                                                                                                                      138

A  version  of  the  speech  is  found  at   http://www.utlm.org/onlineresources/sermons_talks_interviews/brigham1852feb5_priesthoodandblacks.htm   139  Lowell  Advertiser,  May  6,  1851,  and  Middlesex  County  Probate  Records,  February  17,  1857,  Book  38,  p.  32.   140  Journal  of  Discourses,  2:142-­‐43,  3  Dec.  1854.   141  Bringhurst,  Saints,  Slaves,  and  Blacks:  The  Changing  Place  of  Black  People  Within  Mormonism,  Table  7,  p.  222.   142  Bringhurst  cites  Council  Meeting  Minutes,  2  Jan.  1902,  George  A.  Smith  Papers,  University  of  Utah  library,  Salt  Lake  City;   Council  Meeting  Minutes,  12  Aug.  1908,  Adam  S.  Bennion  Papers,  Harold  B.  Lee  Library,  Brigham  Young  University,  Provo,  Utah.   143  In  Newell  Bringhurst’s  essay  Elijah  Abel  and  the  Changing  Status  of  Blacks  Within  Mormonism,  he  cites  Council  Meeting   Minutes,  2  Jan.  1902,  Bennion  Papers.  

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William T.  Ball     • • • • • • • •

Baptized in  1832  by  either  Brigham  or  Joseph  Young.   Served  a  mission  with  Wilford  Woodruff  in  1837.   Baptized  William  Willard  Hutchings  on  May  2,  1842.   Ordained  a  high  priest  and  set  apart  as  branch  president  in  Lowell,  Massachusetts,  by  William   Smith  in  1845.   Introduced  to  polygamy  by  William  Smith  in  1845,  and  had  sexual  relations  with  white  women  in   the  branch.   Traveled  to  Nauvoo  in  1845  to  receive  patriarchal  blessing  by  William  Smith.    Blessing  states   Ball’s  lineage  was  the  Tribe  of  Joseph.   He  was  supposed  to  receive  the  endowment  but  left  Nauvoo  before  temple  was  completed.   Joined  Strangism  sometime  between  1845  and  1849  

Elijah Abel   • • • • • • • • • •

Baptized in  1832  in  Maryland  by  Ezekiel  Roberts.   Ordained  an  Elder  on  March  3,  1836.   Patriarchal  blessing  states  Abel  was  “an  orphan.”   Received  his  washing  and  anointing  in  the  Kirtland  Temple  in    1836.   Helped  build  the  Kirtland,  Nauvoo,  and  Salt  Lake  Temples.       Ordained  a  seventy  by  Zebedee  Coltrin  on  December  20,  1836.   Participated  in  baptisms  for  the  dead  in  Nauvoo,  in  1841,  in  the  Mississippi  River.   Served  three  missions  for  the  Church  to  Ohio,  New  York,  and  Canada.   Died  Christmas  Day  in  1885.   In  1895,  Apostle  (and  future  President)  Joseph  F.  Smith  claimed  that  Abel  was  ordained  a  High   Priest.      Smith  later  claimed  that  Abel’s  priesthood  had  been  cut  off,  but  it  is  unknown  why   Smith  claimed  this.  

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Jane Manning  James   • • • •

Baptized in  1841  in  Connecticut.   Married  a  black  Mormon  man  named  Isaac  James  (later  divorced)  in  1844  in  Brigham  Young’s   home  in  Nauvoo.   Was  denied  permission  to  be  sealed  to  Walker  Lewis.   Even  though  living,  she  was  sealed  vicariously  to  Joseph  Smith  as  a  servant  (because  she  was  not   allowed  into  the  temple).  

Eveline Wilbur  Teague   • • •

Joined the  church  in  1842  with  husband,  Irishman  John  R.  Teague  Sr.     John  was  ordained  a  priest  in  1842  by  Apostle  Willard  Richards  and  Elder  Erastus  Snow.   John  Teague  was  ordained  an  elder  in  1844.  

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Left for  Strangism  in  1848.  

Q. Walker  Lewis   • • • • • • • •

It is  believed  that  Lewis  was  baptized  by  Parley  P.  Pratt  in  1843.       Leading  abolitionist  in  Massachusetts,  a  master  mason  in  Freemasonry,  and  helped  to  free  many   southern  slaves  as  part  of  the  Underground  Railroad.       His  wife  Elizabeth  was  the  daughter  of  an  interracial  couple  (her  father  was  black).       Missionaries  Brigham  Young,  William  Smith,  Wilford  Woodruff,  Ezra  Taft  Benson,  and  Parley  P.   Pratt  all  served  missions  in  Boston  and  were  well  acquainted  with  Lewis.       Mission  president  William  Appleby  wrote  that  Lewis  was  “an  example  for  his  more  whiter   brethren  to  follow.”   William  Smith  most  likely  ordained  Lewis  around  1844  to1845.   Traveled  to  Utah  in  1851  for  patriarchal  blessing  that  states  he  was  of  the  “Tribe  of  Canaan.”   Died  in  1856  in  Massachusetts.  

Enoch Lewis   • • • • •

Son of  Walker  Lewis.   Believed  to  preach  funeral  sermon  with  Apostle  Orson  Hyde  in  1844.   Married  a  white  woman  named  Mary  Matilda  Webster  in  Boston  on  September  18,  1846.   Mixed-­‐race  child—the  subject  of  scorn  in  meetings  of  church  leaders.   William  Appleby  records  that  Enoch  was  ordained  an  elder  probably  around  1844  or45  by   William  Smith  

Warner McCary   • • • • • •

Escaped slave  from  Mississippi  whofalsely  claimed  to  be  Indian.   Baptized  and  ordained  an  elder  in  1846  by  Apostle  Orson  Hyde.   Possibly  served  a  mission  in  Cincinnati.   Married  a  white  woman,  Lucy  Stanton,  marriage  was  performed  by  Orson  Hyde  in  1847.   Engaged  in  polygamous  sexual  relations  with  white  women  in  1847.  Left  Church  on  a  “fast  trot.”   Married  another  white  woman,  Sarah  Marlett,  at  Niagara  Falls  in  August  1851.    Sarah  later  sued   Warner  for  bigamy.  

Bush’s landmark  1973  paper,  “Mormonism’s  Negro  Doctrine:  A  Historical  Overview”  gives  a  good   background  on  events  following  the  1852  pronouncement  that  blacks  were  no  longer  to  receive  the   priesthood  and  whites  and  blacks  should  no  longer  mix  races.    Blacks  that  currently  held  the  priesthood   at  the  time  of  Young’s  teachings  in  1852  continued  to  serve  in  the  priesthood,  and  Elijah  Abel  served   another  mission  just  before  his  death  on  Christmas  Day,  1885.    No  black  men  were  allowed  to  receive  

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the priesthood  after  Warner  McCary’s  ordination  in  1846  for  more  than  50  years144  and  all  blacks  were   summarily  denied  temple  access  until  the  1978  revelation,  with  the  exception  that  blacks  could   participate  in  baptism  for  the  dead.   Modern  church  leaders  have  continued  to  discourage  mixing  of  races.    On  July  17,  1947,  the  first   presidency  sent  a  letter  to  Lowry  Nelson,  a  Utah  State  University  professor  stating  “your  ideas,  as  we   understand  them,  appear  to  contemplate  the  intermarriage  of  the  Negro  and  White  races,  a  concept   which  has  heretofore  been  most  repugnant  to  most  normal-­‐minded  people  from  the  ancient  patriarchs   till  now.”  The  letter  was  signed  by  President  George  Albert  Smith  and  future  president,  David  O.   McKay.145    McKay  expressed  discomfort  in  his  diary  with  interracial  marriage  and  was  concerned  with   students  at  church-­‐owned  BYU  thinking  “that  there  is  nothing  improper  about  mingling  with  other   races.”146    Future  church  President  Harold  B.  Lee  scolded  BYU  President  Ernest  L.  Wilkinson  in  1960,  “If  a   grand-­‐daughter  of  mine  should  ever  get  to  the  BYU  and  become  engaged  to  a  colored  boy  there,  I  would   hold  you  responsible.147  

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Apostle Boyd  K.  Packer  expressed  his  opinion  to  Lester  Bush  in  1973,  “there  was  something  about  ‘that   lineage’—referring  to  the  traditional  biblical  genealogy—which  would  bar  temple  marriages  with  blacks   even  if  they  received  the  priesthood.”148    President  Kimball  cautioned  against  interracial  marriages  as  an   apostle,  saying  “[T]here  is  one  thing  that  I  must  mention  &  that  is  interracial  marriages.  When  I  said  you   must  teach  your  young  people  to  overcome  their  prejudices  &  accept  the  Indians,  I  did  not  mean  that   you  would  encourage  intermarriage."149    Even  after  the  1978  revelation  lifting  the  temple  and   priesthood  ban  on  black  men  and  women,  President  Spencer  W.  Kimball  continued  this  theme,  “We   recommend  that  people  marry  those  who  are  of  the  same  racial  background  generally  &  of  somewhat   the  same  economic  &  social  &  educational  background  (some  of  those  are  not  an  absolute  necessity,   but  preferred),  &  above  all,  the  same  religious  background,  without  question.”150    This  statement  has   been  reprinted  in  the  2011  Aaronic  Priesthood  manual.151   Lay  members  continue  to  wrestle  and  have  some  discomfort  with  interracial  families.    Because  of   statements  church  leaders  have  made  about  intermarriage,  Keith  Smith,  a  white  man  married  to  a  black                                                                                                                           144

Elijah  Abel’s  son,  Enoch  was  ordained  an  Elder  on  November  27,  1900  and  Elijah’s  grandson,  also  with  the  name  of  Elijah  was   ordained  an  Elder  on  September  29,  1934.    A  handful  of  other  exceptions  have  taken  place  between  1846  and  1978.     Information  is  available  at  http://www.blacklds.org/abel.   145  The  letter  is  available  at  http://exmormon.org/d6/drupal/Mormon-­‐Church-­‐Blacks-­‐The-­‐First-­‐Presidency-­‐Officially-­‐Stated-­‐ Position   146  Greg  Prince  and  Robert  Wright,  David  O.  McKay  and  the  Rise  of  Modern  Mormonism,  p  65.   147  Greg  Prince  and  Robert  Wright,  David  O.  McKay  and  the  Rise  of  Modern  Mormonism,  p  64.   148  In  1998,  Bush  wrote,  “Writing    ‘Mormonism’s  Negro  Doctrine:  An  Historical  Overview’  (1973):  Context  and  Reflections,   1998,”  Journal  of  Mormon  History  25(1):229-­‐271  (Spring    1999).    It  is  available  at   http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/mormonhistory/vol25/iss1/  retrieved  6/2/2012.    Bush  is  paraphrasing  a  personal  meeting  he   had  with  Elder  Packer  in  which  Packer  stated  this,  as  well  as  his  discomfort  with  Bush’s  upcoming  paper  in  the  1973  issue  of   Dialogue.   149  Deseret  News,    June  17,  1978.   150  Kimball,  "Marriage  and  Divorce,"  BYU  devotional,  1976,  reprinted  in  "Devotional  Speeches  of  the  Year,"  1977   151  Electronic  version  of  the  2011  manual  is  found  at   http://www.lds.org/ldsorg/v/index.jsp?hideNav=1&locale=0&sourceId=1f4fa41f6cc20110VgnVCM100000176f620a____&vgnex toid=198bf4b13819d110VgnVCM1000003a94610aRCRD  

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woman, expressed  that  what  “is  frustrating  for  me,  or  difficult  for  me  is  based  on  the  prior  teachings  of   the  past  prophets,  and  how  unholy  I  am  for  having  gone  into  this  marriage,  I  wonder  if  they  still  feel  that   way,  if  I’ve  violated  the  covenants.”    His  wife  Tamu  has  worked  as  an  actress/model  in  various  church   films  and  commercials.    She  recounts  an  awkward  situation:  

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Tamu, “Well  they  would  ask  me  to  bring  my—you  know  is  your  husband  going  to  be  available   because  we  kind  of  need  a  guy  for  this  shot  also?    I  would  bring  Keith,  and  it  was  an   embarrassing  situation  for  everybody  involved  I  think.    I  think  for  me,  I  was  embarrassed,  I  was   more  upset,  but  for  the  people  there,  I  am  sure  that  it  was  embarrassing  because  then  they   would  have  to  explain  why  they  couldn’t  use  my  husband  and  why  I  was  with—you  know,  well   we’re  going  to  use  you  with  this  guy  because  your  outfit  matches  better,  [Tamu  interjects  what   she  felt  they  were  thinking]  and  your  skin  is  more  pigmented  like  his.  [Tamu  chuckles]    They   never  said  that,  but  they  wanted  to.”   Keith  expressed  that  “we  can  be  bound  for  eternity  in  the  temple,  but  the  Church  isn’t  willing  to   represent  that  today  in  the  world.”152    Caution  needs  to  be  exercised  with  referring  to  “the  Church.”  It  is   not  a  monolithic  institution,  and  opinions  among  members  can  vary  on  many  topics.    However,  such   questions  about  the  propriety  of  interracial  marriages  seem  likely  when  official  church  publications  such   as  the  recent  Aaronic  Priesthood  Manual  continue  to  publish  statements  from  President  Kimball   discouraging  interracial  marriage.    Clarity  on  interracial  marriage  or  disavowal  of  Kimball’s  statement   would  make  the  matter  better  understood  by  lay  members.   Precision  on  the  history  of  the  priesthood  and  temple  ban  on  black  members  is  also  needed.    The  church   continues  to  affirm  that  “It  is  not  known  precisely  why,  how,  or  when  this  restriction  began”  153    or  the   ban  happened  “for  reasons  which  we  believe  are  known  to  God,  but  which  He  has  not  made  fully  known   to  man.”154    Such  statements  leave  church  members  to  look  back  at  past  statements  by  Bruce  R.   McConkie,  Brigham  Young,  or  other  church  leaders  to  try  to  seek  clarification  on  the  issue.  Bush’s  1973   statement  still  seems  appropriate.   Though  it  is  now  popular  among  Mormons  to  argue  that  the  basis  for  the  priesthood  denial  to   Negroes  is  unknown,  no  uncertainty  was  evident  in  the  discourses  of  Brigham  Young.  From  the   initial  remark  in  1849  throughout  his  presidency,  every  known  discussion  of  this  subject  by  Young   (or  any  other  leading  Mormon)  invoked  the  connection  with  Cain  as  the  justification  for  denying  the   priesthood  to  blacks.  “Any  man  having  one  drop  of  the  seed  of  Cain  in  him  cannot  receive  the   priesthood.”  (1852)155    

                                                                                                                      152

The  Special  Features  of  a  2008  DVD  titled  Nobody  Knows:    The  Untold  Story  of  Black  Mormons.    http://www.mormonnewsroom.org/article/racial-­‐remarks-­‐in-­‐washington-­‐post-­‐article  retrieved  on  3/3/2012.    The  press   release  was  a  response  to  a  Washington  Post  article  from  Feb  28.       154  Official  Church  Statement  dated  December  15,  1969  addressed  to  General  Authorities,  Regional  Representatives  of  the   Twelve,  Stake  Presidents,  Mission  Presidents,  and  Bishops.   155  Matthias  Cowley,  Wilford  Woodruff  (Salt  Lake  City,  The  Deseret  News  Press,  1909),  p.  351.   153

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Further transparity  on  the  issue  would  be  very  helpful  in  refuting  errant  opinions  like  those  expressed  by   Bott.    Richard  Bushman  has  stated  the  need  to  strive  for  accuracy  when  discussing  church  history,  and   that  it  is  important  that  we  do  not  downplay,  ignore,  or  try  to  hide  uncomfortable  facts  about  church   history.    Bushman  says,   The  problem  is  if  you’re  not  accurate,  then  down  the  line  you  put  your  own  credibility  in   jeopardy,  and  I  just  think  all  of  our  young  people  should  feel  they  are  really  getting  the  straight   story  on  Joseph  Smith  or  they’re  going  to  go  through  the  experience  you’ve  had:   disillusionment,  anger.    It’s  a  very  sad  thing  and  it’s  unnecessary.    We  do  need  to  avoid  that.156   Marguerite  Driessen,  a  member  of  the  Genesis  Group,157  felt  the  official  church  statement  from   February  29  was  a  leap  forward.    In  a  panel  discussion,  Driessen  stated  that  the  2012  church  statement   was  “the  closest  one  to  actual  repudiation  of  the  past  folklore”158,  and  felt  that  it  would  be  wise  for  the   Church  to  clarify  the  position  further.   There  are  many  active  Mormons  that  will  not  accept  why  or  how  the  ban  originated  unless  it  is  stated  by   a  Mormon  prophet,  and  these  members  do  not  like  to  look  for  naturalistic  answers  to  explain  the  ban.     However,  it  is  important  to  remember  that  the  church  teaches  that  the  spiritual  and  temporal  are   connected.  Orson  Hyde  said,  “When  we  descend  to  the  matter  of  dollars  and  cents,  it  is  also  spiritual.”159     Brigham  Young  stated,    

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                                                                                                                      156

2007  interview  between  John  Dehlin  and  Richard  Bushman  is  available  at  http://mormonstories.org/mormon-­‐stories-­‐047-­‐ richard-­‐bushman-­‐and-­‐rough-­‐stone-­‐rolling-­‐part-­‐1-­‐experiences-­‐as-­‐a-­‐mormon-­‐historian/.    A  transcript  is  available  at   http://www.mormonheretic.org/2012/06/05/acknowledging-­‐tough-­‐church-­‐history/  accessed  6/5/2012.   157  The  Genesis  Group  was  created  by  President  Joseph  Fielding  Smith  on  June  8,  1971,  to  discuss  how  the  Church  might  better   support  its  members  of  African  descent.    It  was  initially  led  by  apostles  Gordon  B.  Hinckley,  Thomas  S.  Monson,  and  Boyd  K.   Packer.    The  group  still  meets  today  with  Elder  LeGrand  R.  Curtis,  Jr,  an  Area  Authority  Seventy  as  the  presiding  authority.   158  Audio  of  the  interview  is  found  at  http://mormonmatters.org/2012/03/09/79-­‐80-­‐how-­‐can-­‐we-­‐truly-­‐confront-­‐racism-­‐within-­‐ mormon-­‐thought-­‐and-­‐culture/  accessed  5/26/2012.    A  transcript  has  been  provided  at   http://www.mormonheretic.org/2012/05/02/confronting-­‐racism-­‐with-­‐the-­‐church/  accessed  5/26/2012.    Her  full  comment  was   “I’ve  been  hanging  out  with  Genesis  folks  who  by  and  large  are  black  people,  family,  friends  of  black  people  and  they  are   reflecting  upon  another  leap  forward.    In  that  the  statement  the  church  made  at  least  has  been  their  strongest  one  to  date¸  and     Eliminating  the  ban  was  one  thing,  and  now  President  Hinckley  in  the  priesthood  session  a  few  years  ago  condemned  racism   but  he’s  speaking  presently,  and  speaking  in  terms  of  future  conduct  and  how  we  should  interact  right  now.    This  time  what  the   Genesis  folks  were  rejoicing  about  is  that  the  statement  from  the  Church  clearly  condemned  racism  past  and  present  and   specifically  inside  the  Church  as  well  as  out.   They  didn’t  get  specific.    They  didn’t  tie  names  to  it  but  they  specifically  condemned  past  racism  inside  the  Church,  

acknowledging thereby,  that  there  was  racism  inside  the  Church  which  is  not  something  that  had  come  officially   from  the  Church  before.    So  the  Genesis  folks  were  celebrating  that  and  there  were  people  who  said  ‘yes  this  is  a   big  step;  wish  it  would  have  gone  a  little  further,’  there  was  some  of  that.    There  were  people,  the  black  people   especially  weren’t  necessarily  surprised  about  the  comments  that  Professor  Bott  made,  because  we  hear  that  all   the  time.  It  was  about  this  is  another  step  forward,  and  we’re  looking  forward  to  the  day  when  they  make  that   next  step.””   159

Sermon  on  September  24,  1853,  Journal  of  Discourses,  II,  118.  


We cannot  talk  about  spiritual  things  without  connecting  with  them  temporal  things,  neither   can  we  talk  about  temporal  things  without  connecting  spiritual  things  with  them.  They  are   inseparably  connected.160   There  are  many  temporal  events  that  invite  revelation.    Mormons  know  well  that  Emma  Smith’s  disgust   for  cleaning  up  tobacco  spit  after  meetings  inspired  the  revelation  on  the  Word  of  Wisdom,  and  it  is   even  included  in  the  preface  of  the  section.161    The  same  reasoning  should  apply  to  this  issue  as  well.    It   seems  that  Brigham  Young  and  William  Appleby’s  contempt  for  interracial  sexual  relations  of  Warner   McCary,  Enoch  Lewis,  and  Joseph  Ball  played  a  significant  role  in  discussions  about  the  appropriateness   of  whether  blacks  should  be  allowed  to  continue  to  hold  the  priesthood  in  the  period  between  1845-­‐ 1847.    If  these  three  black  men  had  not  engaged  in  interracial  sexual  relations,  the  ban  may  never  have   happened.162    It  seems  reasonable  to  conclude  that  fear  of  interracial  marriage  sparked  and  fueled  the   process  that  evolved  the  policy  of  priesthood  and  temple  denial  to  blacks  as  a  means  of  discouraging   such  marriages.    Such  discussions  seem  to  have  played  a  role  in  Brigham  Young’s  thought  process  on  this   topic.    It  is  my  hope  the  church  will  no  longer  discourage  such  relationships  and  more  fully  acknowledge   the  events  that  led  to  the  priesthood  and  temple  ban.    

                                                                                                                      160

Sermon  on  June  22,  1864,  Journal  of  Discourses,  X,  329.    Preface  to  D&C  89  states,  “Revelation  given  through  Joseph  Smith  the  Prophet,  at  Kirtland,  Ohio,  27  February  1833   (see  History  of  the  Church,  1:327–29).  As  a  consequence  of  the  early  brethren  using  tobacco  in  their  meetings,  the  Prophet  was   led  to  ponder  upon  the  matter;  consequently,  he  inquired  of  the  Lord  concerning  it.  This  revelation,  known  as  the  Word  of   Wisdom,  was  the  result.  The  first  three  verses  were  originally  written  as  an  inspired  introduction  and  description  by  the   Prophet.”   161

162

It  is  important  to  note  that  there  was  no  ban  in  other  Mormons  groups,  such  as  Strang’s  group,  Rigdon’s  group,   th the  RLDS  group,  Hedrickites  or  other  Mormon  schismatic  groups  that  date  to  the  19  century.  

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priesthood essay without name  

priesthood essay without name

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