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Worldwide Headquarters for the Nature Conservancy Thesis Proposal

Kazuki Daimo B. Lowenthal & S. Falls 660 Directed Thesis Research December 17, 2012


Table of Contents

Research......................................................................................................................5 Thesis Topic/Problem Statement/Client Profile...................................................7 Case Study 1.........................................................................................................9 Case Study 2.......................................................................................................23 Case Study 3.......................................................................................................29 VisualizaƟon.......................................................................................................41 Introductory Essay..............................................................................................43 Supplemental Research: Abbreviated Case Study 1...........................................49 Supplemental Research: Abbreviated Case Study 2...........................................55 Supplemental Research: ArƟcle 1.......................................................................61 Supplemental Research: ArƟcle 2.......................................................................63 Codes and Guidelines.........................................................................................65 PotenƟal Sites.....................................................................................................81

Project Program.........................................................................................................91 StaƟsƟcal Charts and FuncƟonal DescripƟons...................................................93 Bubble Diagram..................................................................................................99 Stacking Diagram..............................................................................................101 Bibliography.............................................................................................................103

Site SelecƟon and DocumentaƟon..........................................................................107 Site Analysis.....................................................................................................109 Base Building Drawings....................................................................................117

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Research


Thesis Topic/ Problem Statement/ Client Profile Thesis Topic My thesis topic is to design the Worldwide Headquarters for the Nature Conservancy that will serve as a mutual mee ng place for the various departments of the Nature Conservancy interna onally. The space will be used to collaborate and exchange ideas, as well as to provide public gathering and educa onal facili es on nature conserva on that can be applied to peoples’ everyday lives. Design Problems The various design problems this project will address are: 1. How can built environments and natural environments coexist in a way that is more effec ve than they have in the past? (Can they be more integrated within one another?) 2. How can natural elements be used in the design to create a sense of awareness toward the environment that can be felt throughout the building? (Through biomimicry? Symbio c rela onships of building and nature?) 3. How can a gathering space be designed to encourage the public to enter and interact with the space and with one another? 4. Can humans benefit from an interior environment that is more connected with nature in the same way they benefit from being outdoors? 5. Can the design of a space increase human-to-human interac on?

Client Profile The client for my thesis topic is the Nature Conservancy (www.nature.org). The Nature Conservancy is the largest worldwide organiza on working to conserve ecologically significant bodies of land and water for people and nature. Founded in 1951, the Nature Conservancy has over 1 million members and has protected over 119 million acres of land and 5,000 miles of river worldwide. It is the largest environmental nonprofit organiza on in the U.S. with assets and revenue totaling over $5.64 billion as of 2009. The Nature Conservancy’s president and CEO is Mark Tercek, an adjunct professor at New York University’s Stern School of Business and former managing director at Goldman Sachs. Their staff consists of over 550 scien sts dispersed throughout all 50 states of the U.S. and within 33 countries. The Conservancy believes human collabora on is an integral aspect of conserva on. Without the support of their partners ranging from individuals, businesses, and governments the organiza on would not be a func oning organiza on.

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Case Study 1 Overview Name of Facility: California Academy of Sciences by Renzo Piano LocaƟon: 55 Music Concourse Drive Golden Gate Park San Francisco, CA 94118 Program: Museum of natural history; Research and storage insƟtute The California Academy of Sciences operates primarily as a museum of natural history but also contains a research and collecƟon facility.

Image from rpbw.com

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Image from ArchitectureWeek.com

Basement Plan_________________________________________________________________________ N. T. S.


Image from ArchitectureWeek.com

Ground Plan___________________________________________________________________________ N. T. S.

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Image from ArchitectureWeek.com

Upper Level___________________________________________________________________________ N. T. S.

Image from ArchitectureWeek.com

Longitudinal SecĆ&#x;on____________________________________________________________________ N. T. S.


Image from ArchitectureWeek.com

Cross SecƟon_________________________________________________________________________ N. T. S.

Rainforest Biosphere SecƟon Sketch:

Planetarium SecƟon:

Images from ArchitectureWeek.com

Rainforest Biosphere SecƟon Sketch N. T. S.

Planetarium SecƟon______________________ N. T. S.

Image from ArchitectureWeek.com

North ElevaƟon________________________________________________________________________ N. T. S.

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Image from rpbw.com

South ElevaƟon________________________________________________________________________ N. T. S.

Image from rpbw.com

East ElevaƟon__________________________________________________________________________ N. T. S.

Image from rpbw.com

West ElevaƟon_________________________________________________________________________ N. T. S.


User Groups Primary User Groups: General Public Although the building has dual-funcƟonality, its primary funcƟon is to educate the general public on the natural history of the earth. Therefore, the general public is the primary user group. Secondary User Groups: Researchers, ScienƟsts, Teachers, Field Associates, Fellows, Docents, Curators, Animal Care Takers, Engineers, Divers, AdministraƟon, and Building Employees The user groups who aid in carrying out the primary funcƟon of the building (to educate the public) are the secondary user groups. TerƟary User Groups: Food Deliverers, Supply Deliverers, and Cleaners The user groups who provide services to the building but do not have a direcƟon relaƟonship with the building’s funcƟon are the food deliverers to the ground-level restaurant, the supply deliverers to the labs and administraƟon, and the building cleaners as the terƟary users.

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AcƟvity Areas Analysis OrganizaƟon:

Basement Level

Research & CollecƟon

Exhibit


Ground Floor

Research & CollecĆ&#x;on

Exhibit

Planetarium

Rainforest

Piazza

Main Concourse

Museum Store

Restaurant

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Upper Level

Research & CollecĆ&#x;on

Exhibit

Planetarium

Rainforest

Piazza

Auditoriums


Primary CirculaĆ&#x;on:

RESEARCH ENTRY

MAIN ENTRY

Primary Corridor

Secondary Corridor

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Unique Requirements:

Image from rpbw.com

The California Academy of Sciences contains several systems of sustainable design. The iconic curving green roof provides rainwater management in addi on to insula on and passive cooling. Within the green roof are operable skylights that allow for natural ven la on in addi on to direct sunlight. Concrete walls and sunshades contribute to passive cooling systems. Radiant flooring minimizes heat loss, and photovoltaic cells are used at the perimeter of the green roof for energy eďŹƒciency.

Square Footage: Overall Total: 410,000 SF Exhibi on: 209,250 SF (51%) Research & Collec on: 116,160 SF (28%) Administra on: 34,700 SF (8%) Circula on, Concourse, and Other: 34,160 SF (8%) Restaurant: 8,100 SF (2%) Piazza: 3,500 SF (1%) Auditoriums: 2,850 SF (0.7%) Retail: 1,280 SF (0.3%)


AestheƟcs: The building is primarily composed of glass, iron, and concrete, with photovoltaic cells and green roofing on the exterior, allowing for natural light and venƟlaƟon to fill the interiors of the building.

Piazza Skylight & Green Roof

Main ExhibiƟon Space

Piazza Interior

Rainforest Biosphere

Images from ArchitectureWeek.com

Images from ArchitectureWeek.com

EvaluaƟon of Design The California Academy of Sciences (CAS) designed by Renzo Piano and completed in 2008 is a building that I find to be very successful and helpful to my thesis project objecƟves. The design merges contemporary concepts and technology with the stylisƟcally classical influence of the original CAS building. Certain porƟons of the original building such as the entrance to the African Hall were restored and incorporated into the new design. Although the building appears light from the exterior (the green roof almost appears to float), the interior is a completely new experience in museum design. Skylights and glazed parƟƟons looking out to the park create an overall feeling of transparency and light within the museum’s main exhibiƟon areas that is atypical from tradiƟonal museum design. The environment is kept comfortable with green

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strategies of natural venƟlaƟon through the green roof’s operable windows, radiant heaƟng, many skylights, and green materials such as reused denim insulaƟon. What I find parƟcularly inspiring about this building is its mulƟ-funcƟonality as a museum and research facility. Although the research area is kept within the northernmost porƟon of the building, it is not in any way treated as private program. The researchers do have a separate entrance on the north façade, but the transparency within the museum carries through to the research and lab areas of the academy. There is only a glazed parƟƟon separaƟng the research insƟtute from the general museum, and visitors can even look into lab windows to get a closer understanding of the research that takes place within the building. This strong idea of programmaƟc transparency while maintaining clear program zones is a model that I think is interesƟng and may become helpful to my thesis design.

Previous Building

Building Axonometric

Image from ASLA.org

Image by Bryan ChrisƟe Design

Research-and-Storage InsƟtute Image from California Academy of Sciences: Architecture in Harmony with Nature by Susan Wels


Case Study 2 Overview Name of Facility: 590 Madison Avenue Public Atrium (formerly the IBM Building) Loca on: 590 Madison Avenue (Madison Avenue between 56th & 57th Streets), New York, NY Date of Visit: September 28, 2012 and October 1, 2012 Program: Public Sea ng Area; Covered Pedestrian Walkway The atrium is a privately-owned public space opera ng between the hours of 8:00AM and 10:00PM. The actual building of 590 Madison Avenue is a commercial oďŹƒce building with 41 floors and retail frontage. The atrium was originally designed by Edward Larabee Barnes in 1982 for IBM, and was renovated by Robert A. M. Stern in 1995 when IBM sold the building to E. J. Minsko Equi es.

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DiagrammaƟc Plan:

Image from Nyc.gov

Layout Sketch:

56th Street

Approx. 84’ Bamboo Planters

Obika

Entry from Street

Entry from Street

SeaƟng Area

Walkway

Trump Tower

590 Madison Ave N Entry from Street


Typical Building Floor Plan:

Atrium

Image from 590madison.com

User Groups Primary User Groups: General Public The space is intended mainly as sea ng for visitors. Since the loca on is in a primarily commercial area, the space is densely occupied during lunch hours on work days. When I visited on a Friday a ernoon around 1:00PM, I found that almost all the tables and chairs were occupied and it was diďŹƒcult to even find a seat. Although there was not much foot traďŹƒc, through the atrium space itself, there is an adjacent covered walkway for pedestrian use as an alterna ve way to cut through the block. The space also is used as a sculpture park. Secondary User Groups: Food Vendor; Cleaners There is a food stand within the atrium called Obika Mozzarella Bar that has sandwiches and other lunch-type foods. The secondary users would be the workers of Obika. Also, the daily cleaners of the space are secondary users. Ter ary User Groups: Food Deliverers, Sculpture Movers The ter ary users would be the deliverers to Obika, as well as the sculpture movers.

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AcƟvity Areas Analysis OrganizaƟon: The Atrium is a double height ground-level space. Its triangular shape in plan is filled by 590 Madison Avenue’s wedge-shaped building. The building has 41 floors of commercial rental space. 590 Madison Avenue used the adjacent public atrium as a way to obtain more square footage in the building due to a 1961 zoning resoluƟon that replaced setback rules with a floor-to-area raƟo requirement. Primary CirculaƟon: 56th Street Primary Walkway Walkway Thru Atrium

Trump Tower

590 Madison

N 57th Street The primary walkway connects 56th Street to 57th Street and also is adjacent to Trump Tower. Although the atrium is primarily seaƟng, there is a trajectory along the adjacent building façade of 590 Madison in which most people within the atrium use to circulate into the space. Unique Requirements: One of the atrium’s primary aestheƟc elements are the bamboo tree planters within the space. The atrium contains 8 planters approximately 6’ x 6’ in dimension. Since the atrium has a glazed roof and exterior walls, the plants get adequate sunlight, although need watering. There are sprinklers within the planters for watering purposes.


Bamboo Planters

Square Footage: Total Overall:

7,500 SF (approximately)

SeaƟng Area:

2,300 SF (31%)

Primary Walkway:

2000 SF (27%)

Obika:

250 SF (3%)

AestheƟcs:

Glass and steel roof and walls

Primary Walkway/Atrium/590 Madison Interface

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The structure is a glass and steel atrium with black granite planters and light gray granite floors. The space receives a large amount of direct light from its glass enclosure. 590 Madison Avenue’s building is gray green glass and polished granite. Evalua on of Design The dense occupancy of the space speaks to some extent of the success of its design. Because I was curious if the building was used during the day aside from lunch me, I visited the space again on a Monday around 10:30AM. The space was much less populated during this me, with around 23 chairs full out of 110 chairs and 32 tables. Most people were si ng alone and on a computer or phone. The amount of natural light in the space and bamboo trees is what I feel contributes most to the space’s pleasant feeling. It is essen ally an oasis in New York—s ll somewhat a ached to the street yet far removed from the hustle and bustle associated with street-level spaces in New York. The tall bamboo camouflages the visual density of surrounding buildings and provides a natural element to the space. Even so, there is no ques on the space feels like it is s ll indoors. The hard floors and walls echo the voices within the atrium, although the space is insulated from sounds from the street. Overall, I liked the feeling of this space. The 50’ (approximately) high ceiling and glass enclosure made the atrium feel open and airy. When entering the space, you immediately feel removed from the street—there are hardly any traffic noises—yet you s ll have a visual connec on to the street. This atrium design does make me curious to see how the addi on of more natural elements could alter the feeling of the space, and how this might affect visitors psychologically.


Case Study 3 Overview Name of Facility: Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art by Moshe Safdie Loca on: 660 Museum Way Bentonville, AR 72712 Program: Art Museum The Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art is a func oning art museum which includes (but it not limited to) spaces of exhibi on, library, lecture hall, classrooms, mee ng rooms, café, store, and offices. The museum has 3 objec ves: to exhibit its art collec on, to connect visitors to its natural se ng, and to create a community through educa on.

Image from ArchRecord.ConstrucƟon.com

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Image from ArchitectureWeek.com

Site Plan______________________________________________________________________________


D

C

B

A

Image from ArchitectureWeek.com

Main Floor Plan________________________________________________________________________

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Image from Buildipedia.org

SecƟon A_____________________________________________________________________________

Image from Buildipedia.org

SecƟon B_____________________________________________________________________________

Image from ArchitectureWeek.com

ParƟal SecƟon B________________________________________________________________________


Image from ArchitectureWeek.com

ParƟal SecƟon D________________________________________________________________________

User Groups Primary User Groups: Visitors; Students According to the main objecƟves of the Crystal Bridges Museum (stated in the program descripƟon) the primary users are visitors who come to view the art collecƟon, as well as the students who come to take classes within the building’s educaƟonal faciliƟes. Secondary User Groups: Curators; Educators; AdministraƟon Employees; Museum Employees The secondary users of the building are the people who help to facilitate the building’s objecƟves. TerƟary User Groups: Maintenance; Building Cleaners; Food Deliverers; Supply Deliverers The terƟary users are the people who contribute to the building’s needs, but do not necessarily assist in the building’s main objecƟves.

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Museum Café

Image from ArchitectureWeek.com

Ac vity Areas Analysis Organiza on: Main Level: 12345678910-

Main Lobby Gallery Gallery Gallery Gallery Gallery Gallery Museum Café Gallery Great Hall

2nd Level: 2- Mee ng Rooms 3- Educa on Rooms 8- Offices 3rd Level: 3- Museum Library Image from CrystalBridges.org

A- East Entrance B- The Landing

C- South Lobby D- South Entrance

E- Museum Store F- Observa on Deck


Primary CirculaƟon:

Primary CirculaƟon

Unique Requirements: The building’s high-vaulted roofs require a unique tension cable system that pulls huge cables across concrete abutments and secures at either end of the bridges.

Image from ArchitectureWeek.com

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Images from CrystalBridges.org

The museum’s relaƟon to its natural surroundings is emphasized by a series of paths and bike trails which surround the premises of the building and meander into the surrounding woods. Certain trails display outdoor sculptures and an installaƟon by arƟst James Turrell.

Images from ArchitectureWeek.com

Since the museum is sited on the perimeter of a tributary of McKissic Creek, certain requirements had to be met to maintain the environmental needs of the tributary. Brent Massey, the civil engineer on the project, discussed these concerns: “Due to the low flows of this tributary and the species present, it was determined that there was not a need for fish passage for this project. [The


project included] miƟgaƟon of riparian plant materials and streambank protecƟon miƟgaƟon, as well as flood miƟgaƟon measures that were incorporated into the design of the dams using labyrinth weir structures.” Square Footage: 112,600 SF on 120 acres of wooded land The museum is considered to be 93,300 SF; although, with the inclusion of administraƟon the area is 112,500 SF. The enƟre complex spans 217,000 square feet including the outdoor gathering spaces and sculpture garden. Lobbies:

4,000 SF (4%)

Galleries:

48,500 SF (43%)

Café:

3,300 SF (3%)

AdministraƟon:

19,300 SF (17%)

Classrooms/MeeƟng Rooms:

9,000 SF (8%)

Library:

19,300 SF (17%)

Community Showcase:

3,300 SF (3%)

Great Hall:

3,400 SF (3%)

Museum Store:

2,500 SF (2%)

AestheƟcs:

Gallery

Museum Store

Images from ArchitectureWeek.com

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Bridge Gallery

Gallery

Images from ArchitectureWeek.com

The Crystal Bridges Museum is designed with its surrounding natural landscape as a major design feature. Not only is the layout situated around its tributary, but the museum’s interior frames views outside to further connect the building with the outdoors. With this in mind, the architect implemented a design that features large glazed walls and a curved wood skylight system. The curved laminated beams create strips of skylight and ceiling allowing for natural light. This curved wood mo f is carried throughout the building; even in the museum’s store where there is no natural light available. The interiors implement concrete which is repeated in the outdoor gathering spaces. The overall feeling is bright and airy, with reference to the surrounding grounds. Interview: I was fortunate enough to interview the Director of Communica ons, Laura Jacobs, on how she feels about the design of the Crystal Bridges Museum. Kazuki Daimo: Do you enjoy working in this space? Why or why not? Laura Jacobs: I believe the Crystal Bridges staff find it a pleasure to work in the museum. It is an interes ng and beau ful space in a gorgeous natural se ng. KD: What is your favorite feature or space in the building? LJ: Everyone will probably have their own favorite spaces, but I think many will say their favorite features are the bridge structures: the museum’s restaurant, and the early twen eth-century art gallery. The beau ful views outside and the drama c arched roofs make them unique and impressive. So much of our experience is outside of the building as well, with 3.5 miles of beau fully designed trails on a 120-acre park-like se ng. KD: What feature or space do you find visitors gravita ng toward in the building? LJ: Again, the bridges are the most striking areas and provide good views of the museum campus as a whole. The museum’s restaurant, Eleven, is located in one bridge, and is a popular gathering place for guests.


KD: Are there any design flaws that you have no ced, or anything that you think could be improved in the func onality of the design? LJ: We find that the sheer uniqueness of the architecture can some mes be overwhelming to visitors at first. There are several different levels, and visitors must travel down three floors to reach the museum entrance. This is truly the opposite of how most museums—most public buildings in general, in fact—operate, and can confuse guests at first, simply because they have never experienced anything like it. It some mes takes a few minutes for first- me visitors to get oriented. KD: In your opinion, how has the use of natural elements as a design feature impacted the feel of the building, posi vely or nega vely? LJ: It is part of Crystal Bridges’ mission to unite the power of art with the beauty of landscape. The building’s design accomplishes that very well. Between each set of galleries are “reflec on areas” with large windows opening onto the natural landscape. Equipped with comfortable sea ng, these areas provide guests a chance to relax and enjoy the museum’s natural se ng in between art experiences. It enriches guests’ visits and encourages them to go outside to enjoy the museum’s extensive grounds and trails.

Reflec on Area

Image from ArchitectureWeek.com

Evalua on of Design The design of the Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art is integrated in nature through both its exterior site planning and its interior spaces which connect to views of the outdoors. As discussed with the Director of Communica ons, Laura Jacobs, the museum’s natural se ng is most o en viewed as the most dynamic element of the design, and is enjoyed by visitors and workers alike.

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I have to agree that I believe the natural seƫng is pleasant and emphasizes the beauty of the artwork within the museum. I parƟcularly find the nature paths and sculpture park to be a nice way to translate the interior funcƟon of the building onto the outdoors and encourage visitors to experience nature during their visit. The skylights are an interesƟng way to bring natural light into the galleries, and the bridges seem unique and fun. There are some aspects of the design that I think could use improving. Many of the materials in the project are not necessarily “green” materials. The wood skylight arches use a local pine, yet are glulam and not sustainably manufactured. I also think in addiƟon to natural light that the use of natural venƟlaƟon could be a nice feature to further connect the interior spaces to the outdoors. Also, the fact that the pond in which the museum surrounds was created by damming McKissic Creek seems unnatural because it was not preexistent to the design. It seems to achieve a certain aestheƟc, the architect decided to work against nature in some instances instead of working with nature to emphasize his design fully.


VisualizaĆ&#x;on

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Introductory Essay Connec ng to Nature through Design From the beginning of me, architects have struggled to find a balance between buildings and nature. Architecture originated as a necessity to provide shelter for humans and separa on from nature, yet as me and society progressed, the separa on between humans and nature grew. According to Bill Millard in his ar cle “Designing the Building-Landscape Interface” (Architect Magazine, July 2011), buildings and landscapes became disconnected in the second half of the 20th century. Nature was viewed as unruly and was avoided at all costs. Yet there were a group of designers who recognized this movement away from nature as a nega ve mo on and have worked to con nually revolu onize design as a way to reintegrate nature back into our buildings, and thus into our lives. There are virtually endless ways to incorporate nature into buildings. Use of materials, visual and physical connec ons to the outdoors, and mimicking nature are methods that come to mind. An effec ve way to understand the different strategies to bring nature into buildings is through understanding some of the exis ng typologies of this design. Green architecture is a term used frequently today. We associate the word green with being environmentally conscious and quite frequently see various green strategies promoted in our daily lives. Yet green architecture, as defined by James Wines in Green Architecture (Taschen: Italy, 2000) incorporates 4 aspects: environmental technology, energy conserva on, sustainability, and ar s c design. Wines believes the current environmental crisis is provoking a movement toward green architecture, and that the current environmental crisis is our primary concern and responsibility as humans—over any other social, poli cal, and scien fic issues today. Wines and his colleagues believe humans should live in harmony with nature. He provides various case studies which execute green architecture successfully, one of which is Thomas Herzog’s House in Regensburg. Although it was designed in 1977, the House in Regensburg uses green

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architecture strategies that are s ll applicable today. Herzog used a sloping glass roof that cascades toward the ground and believes green architecture should “make necessary technical features visible.” The house uses passive solar dwelling with its house-within-a-house intermediate temperature zones, passive solar heat gains from the sloping glazed roof, radiant hea ng in its natural limestone floor les, and construc on materials that blend with the surrounding nature. The design incorporates the aspects of green architecture by using environmental technology, energy conserva on, and sustainability while being executed in an ar s c way.

Herzog’s House in Regensburg

Images from Green Architecture

Wines concludes his book by claiming it is impossible for architecture today to be truly green. No architecture is completely beneficial to nature, and green architecture “is s ll nothing more than band-aid treatment where major surgery is required.” Yet Wines believes every effort to conserve nature is beneficial to the environment. Another discipline in the realm of design with nature is biophilic design. Although similar to green architecture, biophilic design “emphasizes the necessity of maintaining, enhancing, and restoring the beneficial experience of nature in the built environment”, writes Stephen R. Kellert and Judith H. Heerwagen in the book Biophilic Design (Wiley: Hoboken, 2008). Where green design emphasizes natural conserva on technology, biophilic design focuses on experiences of nature and how they can be


integrated with the built environment. Kellert and Heerwagen iden fy 3 important ways to accomplish biophilic design that are inten onally ideas linked to architecture of the past: using local materials, implemen ng pa erns and themes of nature within the building’s ar facts, and connec ng to culture and heritage of the site. Kellert further explains biophilia as the inherent need of humans to aďŹƒliate with natural systems and processes. Kellert has concluded from various studies from pioneers of biophilia that contact with nature has: expedited that healing process of pa ents with illness and major surgical procedures; minimized health and social problems in people who live in close proximity to nature; increased produc vity for workers that have natural ligh ng, natural ven la on, and other natural features; enhanced cogni ve func oning; encouraged healthy child development; and provided a higher quality of life for communi es with access to nature.

Charts from Biophilic Design

In biophilic design, Kellert recognizes six design elements: environmental features, natural shapes and forms, natural pa erns and processes, light and space, place-based rela onships, and evolved human-nature rela onships. Within these design elements Kellert has recognized over 70 a ributes such as color, water, air, etcetera. These a ributes are specific ways of represen ng biophilic

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design. One of these aƩributes is biomimicry, classified under the natural shapes and forms element of biophilic design. Biomimicry is another common term when describing nature in design. It is a subcategory of biophilic design and therefore is not as broad of a strategy, but is a specific way to represent nature in design. In the book Biomimicry: InnovaƟon Inspired by Nature (Harper: New York, 1997), Janine M. Benyus defines biomimicry as a science that imitates nature’s models as inspiration and applies them to solve human problems. Biomimicry is not only an aspect of design, it serves as a model that can be applied to how we eat, gather energy, heal ourselves, compute knowledge, and conduct business. Yet in design, biomimicry is a specific form of biophilia where nature provides a model. An example of this is using the water flow structures of marine sponges to inspire Swiss Re’s London Headquarters.

London Headquarters

Marine Sponges

Images from Biophilic Design

Vivian LoŌness and Megan Snyder discuss biophilic design, specifically the interface between indoors and outdoors in the essay “Where Windows Become Doors” from Biophilic Design. Here the authors reverse the common approach of bringing the outdoors-in, to focusing on bringing the indoors-


out. They claim both direc ons of connec on are equally cri cal for human health and inspira on. They use the example of coffeehouses: one opaque from the street, one transparent but sealed from the street, and one with large open windows which eliminate the separa on from outdoors and indoors. According to Lo ness and Snyder, the coffeehouse that has removed the physical barrier between indoors and outdoors supports ongoing growth of community spirit, ensures safety for those on the street, and provides a sense of belonging and inclusion. Certain architects such as Frank Lloyd Wright and Tadao Ando are famous for their ability to connect to nature through their architecture. Frank Lloyd Wright coined the term organic architecture and believed in building in harmony with nature as can be seen in his famous works Falling Water and Taliesin. Wright used various techniques—from designing with the site in mind, to organic mo fs, to natural materials—as a way to bring nature into his designs. Ando on the other hand is a master at using his architecture’s clean lines and play of light and shadow with spa al varia ons to poe cally complement nature. His approach is more symbolic than literal. Although these architects use very different ways to connect to nature in their designs, they both are considered successful in this respect.

Wright’s Fallingwater Image from David Pearson’s In Search of Natural Architecture

Ando’s Langen Founda on

Image from ArchDaily.com

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With the limitless ways to connect to nature in architecture it seems that there is always a common goal: to build harmoniously with nature so that humans can live healthier lives. There is no precise formula or measure for how to achieve a successful design that connects to nature, but depends on each unique piece of architecture and how the elements of architecture relate to the elements of nature. The harmony of architecture and nature relies on the discreĆ&#x;on and arĆ&#x;sĆ&#x;c ability of the architect or designer to create a balance of built and natural elements which promote healthy lifestyles.


Supplemental Research: Abbreviated Case Study 1 Name of Facility: U. S. Green Building Council Headquarters by Envision Design Loca on: Washington, DC Program: Office Building

Image from USGBC.org

USGBC’s “Dashboard” displays sta s cs on its design’s energy saving

Upper level of the office, above the lobby Images from MetropolisMag.com

The 73,770 square-foot headquarters for the U.S. Green Building Council was completed in 2009 as a 2-level headquarters in Washington, DC. Designed by Envision Design, the office incorporates various energy- and water-saving strategies as well as sustainable materials and an innova ve layout.

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th

th

The 2-level headquarters takes the 5 and 6 floors of a curtainwalled oďŹƒce building Image from MetropolisMag.com


Main Level

Image from MetropolisMag.com

The main floor contains 2 adjacent conference rooms and a lecture hall. The above diagram shows a playful seaĆ&#x;ng area in the center to encourage socializing.

Upper Level

Image from MetropolisMag.com

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Ar ficial Light

Natural Light

The upper level contains private offices as well as an open office space. An “ecocorridor” maximizes natural sunlight into the offices.

Eco-corridor

Images from MetropolisMag.com


Kitchen/Lounge area

Image from MetropolisMag.com

Sustainable materials breakdown

MetropolisMag.com

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Evalua on of Design The USGBC Headquarters is a great example of innova ve spa al planning that emphasizes its core values of sustainability and green design. I par cularly thought the several playful sea ng arrangements within the oďŹƒce were a great way to encourage casual social interac on. The ecocorridor was another idea I found to be really beneficial not only to save energy consump on, but to create a more pleasant environment for people to work in. The various sustainable materials are incorporated into the design in a fresh and fun way that I believe reflects the en re a tude of the USGBC: that green design can not only benefit our environment but can also improve the way we live and work.


Supplemental Research: Abbreviated Case Study 2 Name of Facility: Ford Founda on Building by Kevin Roche John Dinkeloo and Associates (KRJDA) Loca on: 320 East 43rd Street New York, NY 10017 Program: OďŹƒce Building

Indoor atrium/winter garden

Image from MetropolisMag.com

55


The Ford Founda on Building is a 12-story oďŹƒce building completed in 1968 and located in Midtown Manha an. The building is characterized by its large indoor atrium and winter garden along with its transparent oďŹƒce layout. The building creates an L-shape in plan that par ally wraps around the garden.

Sec on_______________________________________________________________

View to atrium below

Images from MetropolisMag.com


View up to atrium skylight

Model from ini al design presenta on shows light flooding the atrium Images from MetropolisMag.com

The winter garden requires natural sunlight to penetrate the building. Two glazed facades along with the large roof-skylight flood the building with natural sunlight resul ng in a bright, airy space. The Ford Founda on Building also displays a balance between public and private working spaces. KRJDA wanted to create a design that would establish a sense of community within the oďŹƒce. Rather than designing an open working space with cubicles, KRJDA created visual connec ons with transparencies where workers could close their doors if they needed sound isola on.

57


Building Plan

Windows look out into atrium

Image from docomomo-us.org

OďŹƒce with view out to atrium

Image from MetropolisMag.com

Image from MetropolisMag.com


Evalua on of Design: The design of the Ford Founda on Building is s ll admired today for its design despite being built over 40 years ago. I personally think the atrium is ingenious, providing natural sunlight, visual transparencies, and natural vegeta on within the building. One aspect of this design that I think could be improved is increased natural ven la on into the atrium space by opening the surrounding program to the atrium space. Sound control would be an issue, but from what we know today about indoor air biofilters, perhaps the winter garden could increase the indoor air quality and provide natural air systems to be incorporated into the design. Overall, I find the Ford Founda on Building to be an inspiring piece of architecture. I find the strength of its design to rest primarily on the indoor garden and atrium space as an unprecedented element of oďŹƒce design.

59


Supplemental Research: ArƟcle 1 “Indoor Air Biofilters Deliver Clean Air Naturally”

By Peter J. Arsenault November 2012 Architectural Record hƩp://conƟnuingeducaƟon.construcƟon.com

Five-story Indoor Air Biofilter at Drexel University

Image from Architectural Record

61


Ar cle Summary: People spend approximately 80-90% of their en re lives indoors. As a result, indoor air quality (IAQ) has become a major concern for our health and general well-being. Plant-based indoor air biofilters are a new trend for increased IAQ . Air contaminants exist in our indoor environments and are most commonly in the form of vola le organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs exist in building materials such as paints, adhesives, and furniture, but can also be introduced through cleaning supplies, photocopiers, computers, and even peoples’ perfume. Addi onally, concentra ons of par culate ma er (dust) can create respiratory problems, and high levels of gases such as carbon monoxide can create health issues. The most common way to solve these issues of air contaminants and par culate ma er is to exhaust out contaminated air and replace it with fresh outdoor air. Air filtra on has typically been done mechanically but thanks to the research done at the University of Guelph, Ontario we are now finding ways to do this naturally and effec vely. In 1994, the University of Guelph began research on “indoor air biofilters” and has advanced their design since then. The indoor air biofilter requires a ver cal hydroponic green wall that is water-based and soil-free to filter air through specific types of plants. The indoor air biofilter needs to be in a tall ver cal space that is open (such as an atrium or by a stairway) to maximize its effec veness per square foot. The plants remove indoor air contaminants while filtering the indoor air naturally. This works by breaking down the benign pollutants while conver ng water and carbon dioxide processes to distribute clean, cool air through the building with mechanical systems. Po ed plants do not have the same effect the indoor air biofilters have because the removal of air contaminants occurs within the microbes of the roots and not from the plant leaves. Thus, po ed plants are not effec ve because they do not have their roots exposed for air to flow through. An indoor air biofilter can remove up to 90% of VOCs in a single pass of contaminated air. Indoor air biofilters are more effec ve than High-Efficiency Par culate Air (HEPA) filters because they have the ability to remove gaseous par cles as well as airborne dust par cles; whereas the HEPA filters can only remove airborne dust par cles. Indoor air biofilters improve the overall environment within the space. Since they require natural light for the plants to grow, sunlight is required to penetrate the space. Exposure to natural light and vegeta on has proven psychological benefits on people. Studies also show that workers exposed to natural elements (like plants, sunlight, and fresh air) feel less frustrated, more pa ent, report higher levels of overall sa sfac on and well-being, and are therefore more produc ve employees. Along with improvements in IAQ, common office ailments are decreased, employee absenteeism is decreased, and typical employee produc vity is increased. Common office ailments include fa gue, headaches, sore throats, coughs, and dry skin issues.


Supplemental Research: Ar cle 2 “Designing the Urban Landscape to Meet 21st Century Challenges”

By Diane Toomey December 5, 2012 Yale Environment 360 h p://e360.yale.edu

Martha Schwartz Image from e360.yale.edu

Ar cle Summary: This interview with Martha Schwartz, a landscape architect and professor at Harvard’s Graduate School of Design explores the role of landscape design in urban sustainability. Schwartz believes the premiere role of an urban landscape is to a ract people, and the best way to do that is to understand the unique culture of the city in which you are designing. “How people use open space in the Middle East is very different than how they use it in China,” Schwartz explains. “So if you don’t really understand people’s cultural values, you’ll get it wrong.” In the United States in par cular, Schwartz finds a disconnection between urbanism and environmentalism. The bulk of our urban environments are not parks, but streets and sidewalks, yet most of our focus on design is either in maintaining lush green parks or in the architectural design of buildings. There seems to be a lack of a ention in the design for the places we use the most, which are the streets and sidewalks. “It’s not architecture. It’s not landscape. It’s not designed,” says Schwartz. Schwartz recognizes a few urban projects she finds successful in their ability to fuse urban planning, landscape design, and human usability together. In Copenhagen, Denmark, urbanist Jan Gehl promoted the use of streets through implemen ng bike lanes. He believed the investment in bike lanes would eventually decrease the general cost of healthcare and was found to be correct in his predic on. In Melbourne, Australia, Rob Adams designed a basin for street-lined tree plan ngs to store water under the street for watering during the dry season. As a result, the trees bring down the demand for cooling

63


the neighboring buildings. Schwartz recognizes both of these instances as integrated systems: where one change in design impacted many aspects of the environment. It is also important that people want to live in ci es, according to Schwartz. When people live in ci es and in close proximity to one another, less resources are used in terms of energy, food, and transport. I found this part to be extremely important for my thesis because not only does encouraging city living reduce consump on of resources, but it also conserves the land on which we live. Schwartz believes the best way to make ci es more pleasant is to bring nature to where people are. She finds the Scandinavians and the Germans to be the most advanced in their abili es to incorporate sustainability in urban areas and thinks we can learn from their examples. Sharing ideas on sustainability and nature conserva on is the main objec ve of my thesis program for the Worldwide Headquarters for the Nature Conservancy. Since cultures have different values and beliefs (as Schwartz has men oned) a Worldwide Headquarters is a way to learn from different cultures on the various strategies of sustainability. I think this is truly important since we are all connected through this world and are all responsible in sustaining it. Schwartz adamantly believes the best sustainable design does not just rebuild buildings, but works with the landscape and urban planning to create an integrated system that creates benefits on many levels. I think that as interior designers we are also a part of this conversa on. Interiors are also responsible for sustainability since the way in which we design our interior environments can affect sustainability. When we start shi ing our thinking to the large-scale picture of how design affects the world in which we live, we then can take steps toward improving how we live within this world through design.


Codes and Guidelines Building Codes Occupancy Group: Mul -use Occupancy: A-2, A-3, B A-2: Restaurants A-3: Community Halls, Exhibi on Halls, Lecture Halls B: Civic Administra on Offices, Libraries when not classified in Group E, Offices Occupancy Loads: Assembly without fixed seats: Business areas: Educa onal, Classroom area: Kitchens, commercial: Library, Reading Rooms: Library, Stack Area:

7 net SF/occupant 100 gross SF/occupant 20 net SF/occupant 200 gross SF/occupant 50 net SF/occupant 100 gross SF/occupant

Number of Egresses: Occupancy Group A-2: Minimum 2 exits Occupancy Group A-3: Minimum 3 exits Occupancy Group B: Minimum 2 exits Maximum Exit Access Travel Distance: Occupancy Groups A-2 & A-3: Sprinklered: Occupancy Group B: Sprinklered:

Primary: 150

Secondary: 250

300

Maximum Length of Dead End Corridor: 20

maximum length

Stairs: Width: minimum 44” Headroom Clearance: minimum 84” Minimum Riser Height: 4” Maximum Riser Height: 7” Minimum Tread Depth:11”

65


Maximum Tread Depth: Shall not exceed the smallest tread depth by more than 0.375” Interior Finishes: Occupancy Group A-2 & A-3 (Sprinklered): VerƟcal Exits & Exit Passageways: Exit Access Corridors & Other Exitways: Rooms & Enclosed Spaces: Occupancy Group B (Sprinklered): VerƟcal Exits & Passageways: Exit Access Corridors & Other Exitways: Rooms & Enclosed Spaces:

Class B Class B Class C Class B Class B Class B

Restroom Fixture Minimums: Occupancy Group A-2: Water Closets/Urinals: Lavatories: Drinking Fountains: Other: Occupancy Group A-3: Water Closets/Urinals:

Lavatories: Drinking Fountains: Other: Occupancy Group B: Water Closets/Urinals:

Lavatories:

Drinking Fountains: Other:

1 per 75 Males, 1 per 75 Females 1 per 200 Males, 1 per 200 Females 1 per 500 people 1 Service Sink 1 per 70 for the first 210 and 1 per 125 for the remainder Males, 1 per 35 for the first 210 and 1 per 65 for the remainder Females 1 per 200 Males, 1 per 200 Females 1 per 500 people 1 Service Sink For number of persons for each sex: 1-20 1 fixture 21-45 2 fixtures 46-70 3 fixtures 71-100 4 fixtures 101-140 5 fixtures 141-190 6 fixtures 1 fixture for each addiƟonal 60 persons For number of persons for each sex: 1-25 1 fixture 26-50 2 fixtures 51-75 3 fixtures 76-115 4 fixtures 116-160 5 fixtures 1 fixture for each addiƟonal 60 persons 1 per 100 1 Service Sink


Fire Stairs:

Plan of Fire Stair________________________________________________________________________ ¼” = 1’-0”

67


ADA/Universal Design Requirements Minimum corridor widths: The minimum clear passage width for a single wheelchair shall be 36 inches (915 mm) minimum along an accessible route, but may be reduced to 32 inches (815 mm) minimum at a point for a maximum depth of 24 inches (610 mm), such as at a doorway. Minimum clear width for passage of two wheelchairs is shown to be 60 inches minimum. The space required for a wheelchair to make a 180-degree turn is a clear space of 60 in (1525 mm) diameter or a T-shape space is 36 inches (915 mm) wide at the top and stem within a 60 inch by 60 inch (1525 mm by 1525 mm) square.

Images from hĆŠp://www.access-board.gov


Images from hĆŠp://www.access-board.gov

The minimum clear width of an accessible route shall be 36 in (915 mm) except at doors. A 90 degree turn can be made from a 36 inch (915 mm) wide passage into another 36 inch (915 mm) passage if the depth of each leg is a minimum of 48 inches (1220 mm) on the inside dimensions of the turn. A U-turn around an obstrucĆ&#x;on less than 48 inches (1220 mm) wide may be made if the passage width is a minimum of 42 inches (1065 mm) and the base of the U-turn space is a minimum of 48 inches (1220 mm) wide.

Images from hĆŠp://www.access-board.gov

69


Restrooms: Water Closets Clear floor space for water closets not in stalls shall comply with Fig. 1. Clear floor space may be arranged to allow either a leŌ-handed or right-handed approach. The height of water closets shall be 17 in to 19 in (430 mm to 485 mm), measured to the top of the toilet seat (see Fig. 2). Seats shall not be sprung to return to a liŌed posiƟon. Grab bars for water closets not located in stalls shall comply with Fig. 3. The grab bar behind the water closet shall be 36 in (915 mm) minimum. Controls for flush valves shall be mounted on the wide side of toilet areas no more than 44 in (1120 mm) above the floor. Toilet paper dispensers shall be installed within reach, as shown in Fig. 2. Dispensers that control delivery, or that do not permit conƟnuous paper flow, shall not be used.

Images from hƩp://www.access-board.gov

Fig. 1_________________________________________________________________________________


Fig. 2____________________________________

Images from hĆŠp://www.access-board.gov

Fig. 3_________________________________________________________________

Toilet Stalls Accessible toilet stalls shall be on an accessible route. The size and arrangement of the standard toilet stall shall comply with Fig. 4, Standard Stall. Standard toilet stalls with a minimum depth of 56 in (1420 mm) shall have wall-mounted water closets. If the depth of a standard toilet stall is increased at least 3 in (75 mm), then a floor-mounted water closet may be used. Arrangements shown for standard toilet stalls may be reversed to allow either a leĹŒ- or right-hand approach.

71


In standard stalls, the front parƟƟon and at least one side parƟƟon shall provide a toe clearance of at least 9 in (230 mm) above the floor. If the depth of the stall is greater than 60 in (1525 mm), then the toe clearance is not required. If toilet stall approach is from the latch side of the stall door, clearance between the door side of the stall and any obstrucƟon may be reduced to a minimum of 42 in (1065 mm). Grab bars complying with the length and posiƟoning shown in Fig. 4, 5, 6, and 7 shall be provided. Grab bars may be mounted with any desired method as long as they have a gripping surface at the locaƟons shown and do not obstruct the required clear floor area. Grab bars shall comply with.

Images from hƩp://www.access-board.gov

Fig. 4____________________________________

Fig. 5___________________________________


Images from hĆŠp://www.access-board.gov

Fig. 6

Fig. 7 Urinals Urinals shall be stall-type or wall-hung with an elongated rim at a maximum of 17 in (430 mm) above the finish floor. A clear floor space 30 in by 48 in (760 mm by 1220 mm) shall be provided in front of urinals to allow forward approach. Urinal shields that do not extend beyond the front edge of the urinal rim may be provided with 29 in (735 mm) clearance between them. Flush controls shall be hand operated or automaĆ&#x;c and shall be mounted no more than 44 in (1120 mm) above the finish floor. Lavatories and Mirrors Lavatories shall be mounted with the rim or counter surface no higher than 34 in (865 mm) above the finish floor. Provide a clearance of at least 29 in (735 mm) above the finish floor to the boĆŠom of the apron. Knee and toe clearance shall comply with Fig. 8. A clear floor space 30 in by 48 in (760 mm by 1220 mm) shall be provided in front of a lavatory to allow forward approach. Such clear floor space shall adjoin or overlap an accessible route and shall extend a maximum of 19 in (485 mm) underneath the lavatory. Hot water and drain pipes under lavatories shall be insulated or otherwise configured to protect against contact. There shall be no sharp or abrasive surfaces under lavatories. Lever-operated, push-type, and electronically controlled mechanisms are examples of acceptable designs. If self-closing valves are used the faucet shall remain open for at least 10 seconds.

73


Mirrors shall be mounted with the boƩom edge of the reflecƟng surface no higher than 40 in (1015 mm) above the finish floor.

Image from hƩp://www.access-board.gov

Fig. 8______________________________

Door Clearances: Doorways shall have a minimum clear opening of 32 in (815 mm) with the door open 90 degrees, measured between the face of the door and the opposite stop. Minimum maneuvering clearances at doors that are not automaƟc or power-assisted shall comply with the following Fig. 9:


Fig. 9___________________________________________________________________ Images from hƩp://www.access-board.gov

The minimum space between two hinged or pivoted doors in series shall be 48 in (1220 mm) plus the width of any door swinging into the space. Doors in series shall swing either in the same direcƟon or away from the space between the doors. Thresholds at doorways shall not exceed 3/4 in (19 mm) in height for exterior sliding doors or 1/2 in (13 mm) for other types of doors. Raised thresholds and floor level changes at accessible doorways shall be beveled with a slope no greater than 1:2. Handles, pulls, latches, locks, and other operaƟng devices on accessible doors shall have a shape that is easy to grasp with one hand and does not require Ɵght grasping, Ɵght pinching,

75


or twisĆ&#x;ng of the wrist to operate. Lever-operated mechanisms, push-type mechanisms, and Ushaped handles are acceptable designs. When sliding doors are fully open, operaĆ&#x;ng hardware shall be exposed and usable from both sides. Hardware required for accessible door passage shall be mounted no higher than 48 in (1220 mm) above finished floor. If a door has a closer, then the sweep period of the closer shall be adjusted so that from an open posiĆ&#x;on of 70 degrees, the door will take at least 3 seconds to move to a point 3 in (75 mm) from the latch, measured to the leading edge of the door. Single Unisex Restroom:

Image from Bobrick.com


MulƟ-Stall Men’s Room:

Image from Bobrick.com

77


MulƟ-Stall Women’s Restroom:

Image from Bobrick.com


LEED for New Construction v2.2 Registered Project Checklist

Project Name: Project Address: Yes

?

10

No

4

Y

Sustainable Sites Prereq 1

1 Credit 1 1

Credit 2

1 Credit 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Yes

5 1 1 1 1 1 17 Y Y Y

?

Credit 4.1 Credit 4.2 Credit 4.3 Credit 4.4 Credit 5.1 Credit 5.2 Credit 6.1 Credit 6.2 Credit 7.1 Credit 7.2 Credit 8

Construction Activity Pollution Prevention Site Selection Development Density & Community Connectivity Brownfield Redevelopment Alternative Transportation, Public Transportation Access Alternative Transportation, Bicycle Storage & Changing Rooms Alternative Transportation, Low-Emitting & Fuel-Efficient Vehicles Alternative Transportation, Parking Capacity Site Development, Protect or Restore Habitat Site Development, Maximize Open Space Stormwater Design, Quantity Control Stormwater Design, Quality Control Heat Island Effect, Non-Roof Heat Island Effect, Roof Light Pollution Reduction

14 Points Required 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

No

Water Efficiency Credit 1.1 Credit 1.2 Credit 2 Credit 3.1 Credit 3.2

Water Efficient Landscaping, Reduce by 50% Water Efficient Landscaping, No Potable Use or No Irrigation Innovative Wastewater Technologies Water Use Reduction, 20% Reduction Water Use Reduction, 30% Reduction

Energy & Atmosphere Prereq 1 Prereq 2 Prereq 3

5 Points

Fundamental Commissioning of the Building Energy Systems Minimum Energy Performance Fundamental Refrigerant Management

1 1 1 1 1

17 Points Required Required Required

*Note for EAc1: All LEED for New Construction projects registered after June 26th, 2007 are required to achieve at least two (2) points under EAc1.

10

Credit 1

3

Credit 2

1 1 1 1

Credit 3 Credit 4 Credit 5 Credit 6

Optimize Energy Performance 10.5% New Buildings or 3.5% Existing Building Renovations 14% New Buildings or 7% Existing Building Renovations 17.5% New Buildings or 10.5% Existing Building Renovations 21% New Buildings or 14% Existing Building Renovations 24.5% New Buildings or 17.5% Existing Building Renovations 28% New Buildings or 21% Existing Building Renovations 31.5% New Buildings or 24.5% Existing Building Renovations 35% New Buildings or 28% Existing Building Renovations 38.5% New Buildings or 31.5% Existing Building Renovations 10 42% New Buildings or 35% Existing Building Renovations On-Site Renewable Energy 2.5% Renewable Energy 7.5% Renewable Energy 3 12.5% Renewable Energy Enhanced Commissioning Enhanced Refrigerant Management Measurement & Verification Green Power

1 to 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 to 3 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 continued‌

79


Yes

?

8

No

5

Y

Materials & Resources Prereq 1

1 Credit 1.1 1 Credit 1.2 1 Credit 1.3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Yes

?

Indoor Environmental Quality

Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Prereq 1 Prereq 2 Credit 1 Credit 2 Credit 3.1 Credit 3.2 Credit 4.1 Credit 4.2 Credit 4.3 Credit 4.4 Credit 5 Credit 6.1 Credit 6.2 Credit 7.1 Credit 7.2 Credit 8.1 Credit 8.2 ?

Innovation & Design Process

1 1 1 1 1 60

Minimum IAQ Performance Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring Increased Ventilation Construction IAQ Management Plan, During Construction Construction IAQ Management Plan, Before Occupancy Low-Emitting Materials, Adhesives & Sealants Low-Emitting Materials, Paints & Coatings Low-Emitting Materials, Carpet Systems Low-Emitting Materials, Composite Wood & Agrifiber Products Indoor Chemical & Pollutant Source Control Controllability of Systems, Lighting Controllability of Systems, Thermal Comfort Thermal Comfort, Design Thermal Comfort, Verification Daylight & Views, Daylight 75% of Spaces Daylight & Views, Views for 90% of Spaces

Credit 1.1 Credit 1.2 Credit 1.3 Credit 1.4 Credit 2 ?

15 Points Required Required 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

No

5

Yes

Required Storage & Collection of Recyclables 1 Building Reuse, Maintain 75% of Existing Walls, Floors & Roof 1 Building Reuse, Maintain 100% of Existing Walls, Floors & Roof 1 Building Reuse, Maintain 50% of Interior Non-Structural Elements 1 Construction Waste Management, Divert 50% from Disposal 1 Construction Waste Management, Divert 75% from Disposal 1 Materials Reuse, 5% 1 Materials Reuse,10% 1 Recycled Content, 10% (post-consumer + ½ pre-consumer) 1 Recycled Content, 20% (post-consumer + ½ pre-consumer) 1 Regional Materials, 10% Extracted, Processed & Manufactured Regio 1 Regional Materials, 20% Extracted, Processed & Manufactured Regio 1 Rapidly Renewable Materials 1 Certified Wood

No

15

Yes

Credit 2.1 Credit 2.2 Credit 3.1 Credit 3.2 Credit 4.1 Credit 4.2 Credit 5.1 Credit 5.2 Credit 6 Credit 7

13 Points

Innovation in Design: Provide Specific Title Innovation in Design: Provide Specific Title Innovation in Design: Provide Specific Title Innovation in Design: Provide Specific Title LEED® Accredited Professional

5 Points 1 1 1 1 1

No

9

Project Totals (pre-certification estimates)

69 Points Certified: 26-32 points, Silver: 33-38 points, Gold: 39-51 points, Platinum: 52-69 po


PotenƟal Sites PotenƟal Site 1: Building LocaƟon:

33-01 Vernon Boulevard Queens, NY 11106

Block: 321 Lot:

11

Zoning:

Industrial/ Manufacturing

Building Area: 27,400 SF Number of Floors:

2

Lot Area:

31,759 SF

Year Built:

1952

Image from Google.com/maps

81


Image from OasisNYC.net

Street View Looking Northwest

Image from Google.com/maps


Street View Looking Southeast

Street View Looking South

Street View Looking West

Images from Google.com/maps

Site 1 is appealing because it is across the street from a park with views to the East River. The building has an aĆŠached parking lot on site. The neighborhood is somewhat industrial, yet on the verge of transformaĆ&#x;on to a more cultural hub with the Noguchi Museum and Socrates Sculpture Park in close proximity.

83


Poten al Site 2: Building Loca on:

110 Kent Avenue Brooklyn, NY 11211

Block: 2316 Lot:

49

Zoning:

Commercial/OďŹƒce Building

Building Area: 12,000 SF Number of Floors:

3

Lot Area:

5,000 SF

Year Built:

1925

Image from Google.com/maps


Image from OasisNYC.net

Street View Looking Southwest

Image from Google.com/maps

85


Street View Looking West

Street View Looking North

Street View Looking West (Lot Next to Site)

Images from Google.com/maps

Site 2 is on a waterfront block in Brooklyn with clear views to ManhaĆŠan. The building is located on a larger lot that connects directly to the waterfront. The neighborhood is industrial and in need of revitalizaĆ&#x;on.


Poten al Site 3: Building Loca on:

32-50 Vernon Boulevard Queens, NY 11102

Block: 313 Lot:

1

Zoning:

Commercial/OďŹƒce Building

Building Area: 113,146 SF Number of Floors:

1

Lot Area:

356,500 SF

Year Built:

1931

Image from Google.com/maps

87


Image from OasisNYC.net

Street View Looking Southwest

Image from Google.com/maps


Street View Looking North

Image from Google.com/maps

Street View Looking West

Image from Google.com/maps

View From West End of Lot Looking West

89


Site 3 is in very close proximity to Site 1—in fact it is on the same block but the opposite side. The locaƟon is directly on the East River and sandwiched between two parks: Rainey Park and the Socrates Sculpture Park. The site actually contains 2 structures that make up what is currently Costco Wholesale. Since the structures are so large, there are a lot of possibiliƟes in how to use the site to connect to the surrounding natural elements of the river and parks. AddiƟonally, the opƟon to demolish one building would be a way to deal with the amount of square footage.


Project Program


StaƟsƟcal Charts and FuncƟonal DescripƟons Public Entry

Project Summary Departments Public Lobby Public Exhibition Education Café Administration Service Project Totals

50

2

2

1

3264

Number of Area (SF) Rooms

AddiƟonal Exterior Space:

50

Room or Area within Primary Secondary Department Occupancy Occupancy

RecepƟon/ Lobby Area Subtotal CirculaƟon Factor 20% Department Totals

Secondary Occupancy

N/A

Description

984

50 400 409 67 58

Primary Occupancy

N/A

Extension (# areas x sq.

Lobby is also open gathering 3264 space for public 3264 653 3917

3,917 39,168 28,004 2 ,938 11,750 2,651

100

4 44 32 4 13 3

% of Total 2 4 2 2 2

88,428

Total Sq. Ft. of Department

12

(221,241)

Furniture Fixtures & Specific Remarks Equipment

RecepƟon desk with exhibiƟon and This area may educaƟon info; include adjacent public seaƟng exterior space

93


Public ExhibiƟon

200

200

4

2

2

1

1

16320

16320

Number of Area (SF) Rooms

400

Room or Area within Primary Secondary Department Occupancy Occupancy

ExhibiƟon Hall Permanent

ExhibiƟon Hall Temporary Area Subtotal CirculaƟon Factor 20% Department Totals

Extension (# areas x sq.

Description

Permanent exhibiƟon on world's ecosystems, current progress in conservaƟon, 16320 etc.

Furniture Fixtures & Specific Remarks Equipment

Abundant wall/display space; Natural sunlight Changing exhibiƟon addressing an aspect of nature: sustainability in Abundant design, natural wall/display space; Natural sunlight 16320 arƟfacts, etc. 32640 6528 39168


EducaƟon

30 200 5 2

30 1

0

2 0 0 0

0 0

2

1 1 1 1

4 2

1000

4997 12000 250 40

1000 25

Number of Area (SF) Rooms

Classrooms Supply Closets

50

2

Room or Area within Primary Secondary Department Occupancy Occupancy

Library Auditorium Green Room Projector Room

409

Lecture Hall Area Subtotal CirculaƟon Factor 20% Department Totals

Extension (# areas x sq. 4000 50

Description

Mixed-media 4997 center 12000 250 40

2000 23337 4667 28004

2 adjacent halls will have a movable parƟƟon to create one large open space

Furniture Fixtures & Specific Remarks Equipment

Desks, white board, projector/screen

Computers, printers, scanners, copiers Fixed seaƟng Projector

Movable seaƟng

95


Cafe

10

5

50

0

2

0

0

2

1

1

1

100

248

1000

1000

200 2448 490 2938

248

1000

1000

Extension (# areas x sq.

0

2

Number of Area (SF) Rooms

66

Room or Area within Primary Secondary Department Occupancy Occupancy

Dining Area

Kitchen

Order/Pay Area Storage Area Subtotal CirculaĆ&#x;on Factor 20% Department Totals

Description

This space may be combined with the public lobby/gathering space

Furniture Fixtures & Specific Remarks Equipment

Tables & sea ng

Standard commercial cooking appliances Menu, register, & counter w/ prepared goods 1 refrigerated Must have access to storage; 1 pantry delivery drop-o


AdministraƟon

6 1

5 10 3 15

2

0 0

1 0 1 0

2 1

1 1 5 1

500 917

225 2500 850 900

Number of Area (SF) Rooms

Lobby/RecepƟon Open Work Space Private Work Space Conference Room

58

Room or Area within Primary Secondary Department Occupancy Occupancy

CollaboraƟon Space Storage Area Subtotal CirculaƟon Factor 20% Department Totals

Service

Extension (# areas x sq.

6

0

2 2 2 1 1

2

325 112 25 35 600

325

650

Description

Description

225 2500 4250 900 Work staƟons conducive to brainstorming and small group 1000 work 917 9792 1958 11750

6

0 0 0 0 0

650 224 50 35 600 2209 442 2651

Extension (# areas x sq.

5

0

Number of Area (SF) Rooms

17

Room or Area within Primary Secondary Department Occupancy Occupancy Men's Room Women's Room Fire Stairs N/A Passenger Elevator N/A Freight Elevator N/A Loading Dock Area Subtotal CirculaƟon Factor 20% Department Totals

Furniture Fixtures & Specific Remarks Equipment

RecepƟon Desk

Formal meeƟng

Informal meeƟng

1 Service Sink

Furniture Fixtures & Specific Remarks Equipment

12 WC/Urinals, 11 Lavatories

12 WC, 11 Lavatories 10 Drinking Fountains

97


Bubble Diagram

Men’s Room Women’s Room

Temporary ExhibiƟon

Passenger Elevator

Green Room

Auditorium

Permanent ExhibiƟon RecepƟon/ Lobby

Dining Area Order/ Pay Area

Freight Elevator

Enter

Loading Dock Kitchen

Storage Storage

Men’s Room

Classroom

Supply Classroom Closet

Lecture Hall

Classroom

Supply Classroom Closet

Library

Projector Room

Private Work Space

Private Lobby Passenger Elevator

Lecture Hall

Private Work Space

Storage CollaboraƟon Space Conference Room

Open Work Space Private Work Space

Private Work Space

Private Work Space

CollaboraƟon Space

Women’s Room

99


Stacking Diagram

Level 2: 16,384 SF Assigned/ 77,345 SF Available

Level 1: 71,260 SF Assigned/ 77,345 SF Available

RecepƟon/ Lobby 3917 SF

Service 634 SF

Service Cafe 1234 SF 2937 SF

ExhibiƟon 39168 SF

AdministraƟon 11750 SF

EducaƟon 4000 SF

EducaƟon 24004 SF

101


Bibliography Books Benyius, Janine M. Biomimicry: InnovaƟon Inspired by Nature. New York: Harper Perennial, 2002. Print. Falkenberg, Haike. Interior Gardens: Designing and ConstrucƟng Green Spaces in Private and Public Buildings. Basel: Birkhäuser, 2011. Print. Kayden, Jerold S. Privately Owned Public Space: The New York City Experience. New York: John Wiley, 2000. Print. Kellert, Stephen R., Judith H. Heerwagen, and Mar n L. Mador. Biophilic Design: The Theory, Science, and PracƟce of Bringing Buildings to Life. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2008. Print. McHarg, Ian L. Design with Nature. Garden City, NY: Natural History, 1969. Print Pearson, David. In Search of Natural Architecture. New York: Abbeville, 2005. Print. Wines, James. Green Architecture. Köln: Taschen, 2000. Print.

Periodicals Millard, Bill. "Designing the Building-Landscape Interface." Architect 100.7 (2011): 56-61. Art Full Text (H.W. Wilson). Web. 30 Sept. 02012. Pearson, Clifford A. "Renzo Piano Designs A Living, Breathing Building in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park." Architectural Record 197.1 (2009): 48. Art & Architecture Complete. Web. 21 Sept. 2012. Pollock, Naomi R. "Tadao Ando Bridges Nature and Structure at the Aomori Contemporary Art Center in the Wooded Hills of Northern Japan." Architectural Record 192.10 (2004): 124-131. Art & Architecture Complete. Web. 21 Oct. 2012.

103


Interviews "Interview with Laura Jacobs, Director of Communica ons." E-mail interview. 5 Oct. 2012.

Websites "About the Academy." CalAcademy.com. California Academy of Sciences, n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2012. <h p://www.calacademy.org >. Arsenault, Peter J. "Indoor Air Biofilters Deliver Clean Air Naturally." ConƟnuingEducaƟon.ConstrucƟon.com. Architectural Record, Nov. 2012. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <h p://con nuingeduca on.construc on.com >. Cockram, Michael. "Crystal Bridges Museum - Safdie in Arkansas." ArchitectureWeek. Architecture Week, 1 Feb. 2012. Web. 12 Oct. 2012. <h p://www.architectureweek.com >. Crystal Bridges Museum. Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, n.d. Web. 12 Oct. 2012. <h p://crystalbridges.org>. Currey, Mason. "Rediscovered Masterpiece: The Ford Founda on." MetropolisMag.com. Metropolis Magazine, 17 Dec. 2008. Web. 22 Nov. 2012. <h p://www.metropolismag.com >. Goff, Liz. "Astoria History." Astoria.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Dec. 2012. <h p://www.astoria.org >. LaBarre, Suzanne. "Ul mate Client." MetropolisMag.com. Metropolis Magazine, 17 June 2009. Web. 5 Nov. 2012. <h p://www.metropolismag.com >. Nature.org. The Nature Conservancy, n.d. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. <h p://www.nature.org>.


Toomey, Diane. "Designing the Urban Landscape to Meet 21st Century Challenges." E360.Yale.edu. Yale University, 5 Dec. 2012. Web. 6 Dec. 2012. <hƩp://e360.yale.edu>. "USGBC Project Profile: U. S. Green Building Council Headquarters Washington, DC." USGBC.org. U.S. Green Building Council, 2009. Web. 10 Oct. 2012. <hƩp://usgbc.org>.

105


Site SelecƟon and DocumentaƟon


Site Analysis

Image from Google.com/maps

Building LocaĆ&#x;on:

32-50 Vernon Boulevard Queens, NY 11102

Block: 313 Lot:

1

Zoning:

Retail

Building Area: 154,690 SF Number of Floors: Lot Area:

2

298,586 SF

109


Image from bing.com

Southeastern faรงade from Vernon Blvd.


PerspecĆ&#x;ve Key Plan:

Looking south on Vernon Blvd. with Costco on the right and the Noguchi Museum on the leĹ&#x152;

Map from Bing.com

Looking southwest through parking lot

Map from Bing.com

111


Looking southeast through parking lot

Map from Bing.com

Main entry; northeast faรงade from parking lot

Map from Bing.com


Northeast faรงade through parking lot

Map from Bing.com

Path at perimeter of parking lot facing East River

Map from Bing.com

113


View across East River looking west from path

Map from Bing.com

View looking North from path

Map from Bing.com


The site is directly on the East River and sandwiched between two parks: Rainey Park to the south and the Socrates Sculpture Park to the north. This waterfront neighborhood within Astoria, Queens is fairly residenƟal since the 1920s and ‘30s when rapid transit was established into ManhaƩan. Many apartment buildings and housing complexes were built at this Ɵme and are sƟll occupied today. The neighborhood also has a strong history in culture and the arts. Directly across Vernon Boulevard from the site is the Noguchi Museum (former studio of arƟst Isamu Noguchi), and less than a mile from the Museum of the Moving Image which was originally the studios of Paramount Pictures. The neighborhood also once contained the Steinway piano factories. Although many of these industries have since leŌ this neighborhood, there is sƟll a strong sense of community that I noƟced with people walking and jogging along the streets. I think siƟng my building here would add to this neighborhood’s culture as a public building of educaƟon and innovaƟve design. This site is suitable for my project because it is adjacent to water and land (the East River, Rainey Park, and the Socrates Sculpture Park) with views to ManhaƩan. When I visited this site I found a very pleasant tree-lined path at the perimeter of the Costco parking lot with seaƟng along the waterfront. People were here fishing and admiring the view and access to water, despite its somewhat hidden locaƟon behind the busy parking lot. Even though the current building does not take full advantage of its waterfront locaƟon (something I certainly intend to improve upon), it is clear there is a desire to gather on this site and appreciate its locaƟon even though the funcƟon of the building is enƟrely unrelated. Both aspects of nature and building will be visually and physically linked to my project to support the overall parƟ of building with nature. Since my project will include public programs of exhibiƟon and lectures on nature conservaƟon and a philosophy of living with nature (even in an urban environment), I believe the locaƟon in the urban metropolis of New York City is crucial to the strength of the various philosophies I will explore within my project: why it is important to access nature, how humans benefit from exposure to nature, and examining the interface between the built and natural environments. The site is currently accessible by mass transit. The N/Q subway line stops 8 blocks from the site at Broadway Avenue and 31st Street. From the subway you can walk or take the Q104 bus which stops directly in front of the site. AddiƟonally, the locaƟon on the water would allow for ferry access from ManhaƩan if I choose to incorporate that into my final design. The site actually contains 2 structures that make up what is currently Costco Wholesale. Since the structures are so large, I would propose to demolish one building to provide a more feasible square footage (154,690 SF among 2 floors). The building is a manufactured steel construcƟon with 7’ masonry walls at its base. It is a very simple building with metal siding and clerestory windows. The lack of design on the exterior will allow for greater opportuniƟes in the design process of the project.

115


Base Building Drawings

ManhaƩan

Socrates Sculpture Park

East River

Astoria Health Playground

Roosevelt Island Noguchi Museum

East River

on

n Ver

Br oa

d Blv

dw ay

33r dR

d

Rainey Park

21 st St

Long Island City High School

34t

hA ve

35t

hA ve

N

Site Plan 100 Ō

200 Ō

Astoria, Queens

400 Ō

117


33RD RD A

B

VE

RN

ON

BL VD

B

A

TO BE DEMOLISHED

EAST RIVER PARKING

N Site Plan 1/64” = 1’-0”

119


Southeast ElevaƟon 1/32” = 1’-0”

Northeast ElevaƟon 1/32” = 1’-0”

121


SECTION A-A 1/64” = 1’-0”

SECTION B-B 1/64” = 1’-0”

123



Thesis Proposal Research Book by Kazuki Daimo