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RESEARCH BOOK: Echo - A MULTI-SENSORY VISUALISATION OF LIGHT DIPO K AYODE- OSI


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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would to take this time to thank everyone who has taken time out of their lives to help me complete my Major Project.

academic tutors for their time, guidance and useful critiques of this Major Project. I would also like to thank Adam Popli, for allowing me access to his smoke machine, which without i would have be unable to complete my project. My grateful thanks to L.EG and The Winchester Pub who gave me the opportunity to exhibit my installation. Finally, I wish to thank my family and friends for their support and encouragement throughout my study.

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I would like to express my deep gratitude to my


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Lauson, 2013, p. 18


ABSTRACT My Major Project will be an exploration of light as a physical element, how it occupies a space and how individuals react to it. Light is an intangible medium the first stimuli we come in to contact with, it has been associated with gods - Greek, Roman, Christian, Mayan, etc - purety and good. Light is an important part of our lives yet it is not something we can hold, we can feel the warm of the sun but the light itself isn’t tactile. However I aim to give light some palpable form. Artists and designers having been experimenting with light throughout the years, from the Light & Space artists from the ‘60s to the many design studios creating audiovisual installations with light projections. They have manipulated light to create entirely immersive and tangible experiences that one could only fully appreciate in person. I aim to use light and perspective to create outcomes that will question our preconceptions on the quality and perception of illumination - sculptural spaces that evokes a real reaction from its viewers.

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that we interact with on a daily basis. Light is one of


Aims Aim 1

To provide you with the opportunities to exercise and enhance your knowledge and abilities in the development of a body of creative and technically competent work appropriate to your course aims and criteria at Level 6.

Aim 2

To provide opportunities for you to learn from the increased complexity and rigour of creative production

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required for this unit. Aim 3

To encourage you to apply the advanced level of discipline and time- management, which are required during the unit

Aim 4

To encourage you to work independently, albeit with supervision, in the development of your work, in a way, which reflects contemporary professional practice. You are also encouraged to work effectively as a team member where this is demanded by your project or subject specialism.

Aim 5

To provide a culmination to the Major Project through critical self-reflection on the learning outcomes and body of work produced.

Aim 6

To encourage you to recognise critical reflection as a key element of creative thinking, practice and lifelong learning.


Objectives LO1

Demonstrate the ability to rigorously apply specialist knowledge, understanding and creativity in the production of your Major Project. Demonstrate the ability to manage the complexity of practice demanded by the Major Project by managing your time and work efficiently.

LO3

Demonstrate ability in the coherent use of various representation techniques, documentation and presentations to specialists and employers.

LO4

Demonstrate your awareness of the ethical, social and cultural issues appropriate to the concept of a responsible professional practitioner, whether working independently or as part of a team.

LO5

Objectively self-evaluate your work and that of others

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LO2


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IDEATION & EXPERIMENTS

WRITE RESEARCH BOOK

REASEARCH

EVALUATION

REFINEMENT

EXPERIMENT

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MAKE BOOK


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CONTENTS -

13 33 57

Chapter One The Experiments

Chapter Two The Spark + Initial Research

Chapter Three Lightshow Exhibition Research


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93 99

Chapter Five Further Research

Chapter Six Light Within Culture

Chapter Seven Developing the Outcome 11

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Chapter Four Science + Light


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ECHO - A MULTI-SENSORY VISUALISATION OF LIGHT

Chapter One The Experiments

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EXPERIMENT dreams & sleep I was interested in documenting my dreams and finding out the neurological aspects of dreaming and sleep. However without a deep understanding of neuroscience and the lack of a definitive means to interpret dreams I deemed this theme to wishy-washy

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to continue.

CIRCADIAN RHYTHM 2 CHRONOTYPES

LARKS

OWLS

PREFER TO AWAKE AND SLEEP EARLY

PREFER TO AWAKE AND SLEEP LATE

ZEITGEBERS

“Time Giver”, “Synchroniser”

To maintain a 24-hour day/night cycle, the biological clock needs regular environmental time cues or Zeitgebers. Time cues keep the normal human circadian clock aligned with the rest of the world. National Institutes of Health. “Sleep - Information about Sleep”

Light Temperature Exercise Eating Patterns


HAPPY

SAFE

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& EVERYONE ELSE

ME

HAPPY

SCARED

SAFE

SAD

SCARED

SAD

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EXPERIMENT pATTERNS This was an experiment to test my motion graphics skills by taking patterns from different cultures from around the world. I liked the outcomes however I felt the

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possible outcomes were very obvious and lacked depth.


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EXPERIMENT soso tabasco A short exercise I set myself to help me learn and develop my motion graphics skills for live performance. These animation were made in Adobe After Effects and would be played live using Resolume Avenue and an app on my phone called Touch OSC which would let me load and play each animation on the fly. Although I wouldn’t carry this on further the skills i learnt would be re-used

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later on in my Major Project.


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EXPERIMENT Perspective - cube Experimentation with projection mapping where by i project and animated cube onto the corner of a room. Although the cube isn’t physically there the use of The idea of conjuring objects non-existing objects is a theme and technique I carried over to my Major Project outcome.

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projection tricks the viewer’s eyes into believe it is there.


EXPERIMENT Perspective - SPHERE

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Experimentation with projection mapping.


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““Sculpting” with lig has much to do wi and controlling its In response, artist different light sour each with distinctiv properties and sp


Lauson, 2013, p. 18

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ht therefore ith directing emanation. ts have used rces and supports, ve aesthetic patial possibilities�


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ECHO - A MULTI-SENSORY VISUALISATION OF LIGHT

Chapter Two The Spark + Initial Research

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THE SPARK + INITIAL RESEARCH

United Visual Artists Vanishing Point Inspired by sketches of great masters including Leon Battista Alberti, Leonardo Da Vinci and Albrecht Dürer, Vanishing Point explores the concept of perspective, volume and space. The installation uses perspective as both a tool and visual outcome to redefine space. The white lines created by white laser diodes (RGB) pierce through a haze filled environment to “re-shape, re-define and re-present

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an undefined area.”. It is a shame that I am unable to experience this installation live however I think the technique would be easy to appropriate and use in my own exploration of light and space.


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It’s indeed the flexibility that light offers, especially in the context of digital control that makes it so attractive. No other material is so easily and so utterly controllable, whilst having such an enormous impact on a space, or surface. Rather, it’s this control and especially the experiential result that are threading throughout all our work. (United Visual Artists and Gretsch, 2013)

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“The perspective we draw is an artificial one, with lines converging at the laser device as an arbitrary vanishing point. Dürer and Da Vinci used perspective as the cutting edge technology it was. Relying on the mathematics and rules to construct images. We’re doing pretty much the same, colouring in between the lines.” (United Visual Artists and Gretsch, 2013)


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THE SPARK + INITIAL RESEARCH

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United Visual Artists Momentum


Momentum is another installation by United Visuals Artists which utilises light and sound to create a hypnotising experience. The combination of sound and light is a tool I want to use and explore through my major project. I have used twitter and surveyed friends to identify the critical responses from people who have gone and viewed the installation. Using this feedback I am aiming to find qualities and themes that I can explore.

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“Drawing on physics and digital technology, UVA are turning the Curve into a spatial instrument, installing a sequence of pendulum-like elements throughout the 90 metre long gallery to create an evolving composition of light and sound. The pendulums – sometimes moving in unexpected ways – project shadows and planes of light across the 6 metre-high walls and curved floor of the space. Visitors are invited to explore the room at their own pace, and their movement through the gallery shapes their individual experience.” (United Visual Artists, 2014)

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“a haunting, beautiful juxtaposition of light, sound, and shadow”

“mesmerising”

#uvamo “a truly sensory experience”

“loving the Film


“bathed in light”

“hypnotic journey”

mentum “challenged our perception of space, place & time”

Noir feel”


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Momentum at the curve gallery in the barbican was a very immersive and hypnotic experience. At first when you enter the space your senses are diminished, there is complete blackness and you could not tell if there were people near you or not. This was due to the amount of smoke. This was the really fun bit, watching the light swing round and round in pitch blackness, the smell of smoke filling your nostrils and the inability to see made me feel like I was floating. As I moved further down the curve the smoke dissipated and you could see maybe 20 or so people scattered sitting or standing against the walls. This made it lose its immersive appeal. Yet when you sat and joined them, the instillation took on another quality. Like that of a mobile above a crib. You sit and stare and take in the light show which changes and incorporates some sound. At the end of the experience I felt very calm. However for me the initial moment of entering was the most magical. I think this has a lot to do with the level of smoke and darkness. When you see more it loses some of its magic. (Fleur-Willis, 2014)


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THE SPARK + INITIAL RESEARCH

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Nonotak Studio Daydream

A fine mesh fabric is stretched across multiple screens and hung off the ground. The combination of layering the mesh screens and the positioning of the projector creates an echo effect. The basic geometric elements - consisting of circles, squares and beams of light - is made more complex by the echo effect created by the installation and the visual outcome becomes chaotic and transfixing.


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“DAYDREAM is an audiovisual installation that generates space distortions. Relationship between space and time, accelerations, contractions, shifts and metamorphosis have been the lexical field of the project. This installation aimed at establishing a physical connection between the virtual space and the real space, blurring the limits and submerging the audience into a short detachment from reality. Lights generate abstract spaces while sounds define the echoes of virtual spaces. Daydream is an invitation to contemplation. The frontality of the installation leads the visitors to a passive position.� (Nonotak, 2014)

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EXPERIMENT Telos This experiment explored projecting onto a semitransparent material using uncomplicated forms. Syncing the animation to sound I aimed to accentuate the abrasive quality and composition of the song by using short snappy animations.

I liked the outcome

however I want to create an environment that the viewer can freely explore and lose themselves in, rather

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than just stand and stare.


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Olivier Ratsi Onion Skin

“re-composition[ing] of time and space through a game of perspectives, both of the exhibition space itself and that of the projection canvas�

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(AntiVJ, 2014)

I am intrigued by the way perspective is used to transform a 2 dimensional surface into a faux 3 dimensional space. Although the spectator experiences the piece by standing and watching I think it is still immersive as the viewer has to constantly distinguish between the 2d projection and the 3d illusion that is cast.


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“Onion Skin” is an audiovisual installation combining physical elements with sound and projected light. The material part of the installation is made up of two walls which meet at right angles. The complex 2d plane then augmented by anamorphic projections of simple geometry. The spectators’ point of view is warped as squares and triangles seemingly emerge from or become lost in the ether. This ether is the third dimension created by the projection; the 2d walls are given volume and depth which is accentuated by the use of repetition - “peelings”. (AntiVJ, 2014)

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“the piece plays on the principle of repetition and scale to create a physical and hypnotic experience that opens doors onto the hidden and untouchable� (AntiVJ, 2014)


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Olivier Ratsi Interviewed by Laurent Diouf First, can you tell us about ... your personal artistic process?

My artistic process is primarily based on the perception of space. I consider objective reality, time, space and matter as intangible elements of information, and I use these notions to create installations that aim to question references to the perception of space.

How does Onion Skin, which is included in Exit festival’s Micro Macro exhibition, fit into this artistic journey?

... as a VJ I started to break free from the constraints of the 4:3 screen by doing projections in various formats ... Onion Skin inherited at least two concepts that are directly linked to mapping and that have become the heart of the project: perspective and anamorphosis.

What are the main concepts of this technique, which requires the viewer to be in a very specific position relative to the piece in order to appreciate it fully?

Onion Skin has a physical dimension—a module made of two walls positioned at a right angle—complemented by a double projection. The visual content is created from a technique that I developed personally called perspective mapping. The form is created from spatial data from the projection surface, according to the perspective observed by the viewer, which I determine beforehand. These forms, or “peelings”, are projected using a traditional mapping technique through the same module of the installation.


... The module and the visuals form an illusion based on the concept of alignment: three or more points are aligned if they are situated on the same line. To verify if these three points are aligned, just draw a line that passes through all three of them. The module represents the first of the three points. The “peelings” or visual content represent the second point. The third point is determined by the position of the viewer, who must be in the same position that I used to calculate my anamorphoses and my perspective mapping. This position is revelatory: once the viewer is positioned on the predetermined point of view, the “peelings” are revealed as anamorphoses that have dematerialized from their projection surface. The simple geometric elements, which at first seemed to be flat, suddenly begin to define a new space. The illusion of a new dimension within the installation appears under different layers, which seem to leave their physical surface behind them.

In this “protocol”, sound obviously has an important role: Onion Skin is “soundtracked” to music composed by Thomas Vaquié and played back in 5.1 surround sound…

Thomas Vaquié composed a musical score based on the movement of the “peelings”, which follow a progressive and linear script for 15 minutes, divided into four parts. The shape, speed, appearance, interaction, decomposition on the sight line/perspective axis of each “peeling” contributes to an original soundtrack that reinforces this impression of volume and space. (Diouf and Ratsi, 2014)

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Onion Skin is also the name of a frame-byframe animation technique. How does that fit into this installation, which ends up “hypnotizing” viewers with its vibrating geometric effects?


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Chapter Three Lightshow Exhibition Research 57


LIGHTSHOW EXHIBITION RESEARCH

Doug Wheeler SA MI 75 DZ NY 12 The space within the environmental installation is void of colour - except white. All the corners are curved and the lighting is set-up in such a way as to eliminate the casting of shadows. The light within the space is controlled by the artist and is set on a 32 minute loop meant to replicate the way light evolves during the day The lack of any discernable elements for the eyes to focus on changes the space into an illusionary vacuum,

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in which the viewer is engulfed in luminosity.


(Lauson, 2013)

“Wheeler’s installations focus the viewer’s perception on a physical experience of space, light and sound”

(Green, 2012)

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“After some time, I’m not sure how long, the installation became brighter. I could feel my iris contracting my pupil in response to the increasing intensity of the light. As the installation became brighter still, I thought I could see a tree in shadow in front of me, its leaves waving in the breeze and then a bird taking off. None of this was really there (right?), It was just the intensity and perhaps the heat of the light playing tricks on my eyes.”


“These ‘infinity environments’ are quintessential light-and-space masterpieces. They make us aware of light, unaware of space and unsure our sixth sense, perception.” (Green, 2012)


LIGHTSHOW EXHIBITION RESEARCH

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Erwin Redl Fade

Redl creates luminous spaces with the use of LEDs. I like how the shear amount of LEDs used become overwhelming and the light emitted drowns the space. Yet however this is very much a stand and watch experience where the spectators have little to no interaction with the piece.


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(Bodnar and Redl, 2014)`

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LIGHTSHOW EXHIBITION RESEARCH

JAMES TURRELL Wedgeworks I like how Turrell uses the space and perspective to trick the viewer, challenging their perception of depth and volume. Also the fact that the spectators must first enter a entirely dark empty room to gain access to the installation is a technique I want to also use. As this would help the viewer truly appreciate and become aware of light as their eyes have been deprived of it prior to experiencing the piece.


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“To experience this installation the viewer must first walk through a pitch black corridor. The blind walk could be a way for Turrell to cleanse the viewers senses, so the light they see within the installation is at it purest.

Once inside the room, one wall glows red becoming brighter as time passes. It is not clear whether this is a flat projection, coloured screens, or an entire room of translucent materials and artificial light. In reality, the installation is a room equipped with fluorescent light and light-reflective paint. The first plane, or window, that the viewer sees is merely a square cut out of the wall.� http://dailyserving.com/2012/07/james-turrells-wedgework-v/

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“In a Turrell Wedgework, the precise use of projected light creates the illusion of walls or barriers where none exist” Turrell, J. n.d.


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Chapter Four Science + Light

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SCIENCE + LIGHT

STUDIO SHIKAI & POETIC LAB Ripple Ripple explores the natural optic phenomenon that occurs when light refracts and reflects of a curved surface - caustics. This spectacle is commonly seen in poolhouse, or in shallow clear waters that is moving. The caustics move and shimmer across surfaces and display light in a beautiful and noticeable manner. The light effect created emanates a relaxing

ambience that

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catches and sustains the viewers attention. Ripple is created from traditional mouth-blown glass housed in a rotating base which a single beam of light is projected through creating the aesthetic blending of light and shadow which looks like rippling water.


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Caustics are the evolving light patterns one often sees at swimming pools, rivers, lakes and oceans. Sun light when it hits a water surface is reflected and refracted specularly in various directions. The water surface acts as a distorting lens focusing and defocusing the sunlight on nearby objects.


SCIENCE + LIGHT

IRIDESCENCE Is the property of certain surfaces that appear to change colour as the angle of view or the angle of illumination changes. It is caused by two or more layers of semi-transparent materials reflecting light that interfere with one another, increasing or decreasing the frequency of the reflected light wave. This optical phenomenon is regularly exhibited by

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animal fur and feathers, soap bubbles and thin hydrophobic films on water.


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FLUORESCENCE Substances that are fluorescent absorb electromagnet radiation and emit light. Using a UV light to radiate energy from the ultraviolet part of the elctreomagneti spectrum one will make the fluorscent substance

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produce light that is visble to the human eye.


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Chapter Five Further Research

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FURTHER RESEARCH

JAMES NIZAM James Nizam uses light and architecture to highlight and transform light into something palpable. By dissecting buildings and accurately manipulating the direction of light Nizam produces alluring aesthetics which simultaneously appear artificial and illusionary whilst maintaining the natural aura of light.

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In the photographic pieces Shard of Light, and the Thought Forms, Nizam harnesses the movement of the sun via making razor like incisions into the side of a building and mirrors attached to ball joints, to create structural form. The light sculptures reveal light can be experienced and seen as if it was a physical solid object.


Gallery Jones

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The resulting light sculptures establish a correspondence between room and camera as light capturing structures and extends it in time and space to the capture of solar phenomena within ancient astrological observatories such as those at Chaco Canyon or Xochicalco.


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YAYOI-KUSAMA Kusama creates mirrored infinity rooms, where the viewer enters a void-like area. These rooms are filled with fairylights suspended from the ceiling. She effectively creates environments that fully contain the viewer and gives light sense of physicality. However the way light is perceived is easily linked to the fairylights. There is no mystery, the source of the illumination is

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very apparent and clear.


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ECHO - A MULTI-SENSORY VISUALISATION OF LIGHT

Chapter Six Light Within Culture

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LIGHT WITHIN CULTURE

Diwali Diwali or Dipawali, which translates to row of lights, is an Indian festival of light. The celebration gets its name from the line (avali) of clay lamps (or deepa) that Indians light outside their homes to symbolise the internal light ’s triumph over darkness, knowledge over ignorance, good over evil, and hope over despair. Throughout the celebration of Diwali, light is used as a means to re-enact the legends of Lord Rama or Lord Vishnu. Light is used to connect those who are observing the festival and the people who the festival is celebrating. Their victories over adversity

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and evil are no longer just there victories but also their followers’ victories. Light is represented by candles and exploding fireworks yet the true light of Diwali is the internal light of the mind and spirit. Diwali is a festival of both the physical light that is seen and illuminates the streets and also the spiritual light which is meant to dispel the obscurity of ignorance. Light is a symbol of an enlightened awareness, a candle or firework is fleeting, its light fades and extinguishes but the internal light fuelled by love and divinity will not be smothered ¬. Homes are decorated with lanterns, not as a form of beautification but for more symbolic reasons. The light that emanates from the lanterns are metaphors for divine light, which removes and vanquished the shadows of pain, anger and ignorance that would be in a home and the everyday life of a person.


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LIGHT WITHIN CULTURE

Hanukkah Hanukkah, which roughly translates to “Dedication”, is a Jewish holiday which celebrates the Jews regained control of Jerusalem and the High Temple. The eight day holiday is observed by lighting eight candles – one per day. The candles are held in a unique candlestick holder called Menorah. The Menorah has nine branches, eight for each Hanukkah candle and one for a candle that can be used for practical and none Hanukkah related

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activities. The significance of Hanukkah is that once the Maccabees had retaken the High Temple, there was only enough kosher oil to burn for one night, yet the oil burnt for eight nights enough time for more kosher oil to be made. Light in the context of Hanukkah is a miracle, what should have only burned for a short temporal time, endure for much longer. ¬


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Chapter Seven Developing the Outcome

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DEVELOPING THE OUTCOME

TEST 1 This experiment was conducted in the front room of my home. I quickly set-up my rig, projector and smoke machine, and position it where i thought would give me the longest distance between the projector and myself. It was a quick way to simulate the space i hope to use for my final outcome . I did this test mainly to see if i could recreate the same

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effect that United Visual Artists had done for their installation ‘Vanishing Point ”. I found that simple lines and geometric shapes create very striking and strong aesthetic. By placing an white outlined square inside another outline square i was able to create volumetric shapes of light within the confines of my front room. The strong contrast between the what was illuminated and what wasn’t, was very strong. The edges of the volumetric light were very crisp and stepping between the lit volumes and the unlit was very immersive and it felt visceral. These are all elements that i am pleased worked.


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DEVELOPING THE OUTCOME

I hadn’t completely cleared the space i was working in and there were some physical obstructions that i just couldn’t remove. These objects would interrupt the projection of the geometric shapes which stopped the beam of light prematurely thus removing parts of the volumetric shapes the objects would give the eye a reference for scale

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which then removed the illusion of it being in a much bigger environment.


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DEVELOPING THE OUTCOME


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DEVELOPING THE OUTCOME

TEST 2 I started to formulate an idea of what i wanted my outcome to be. Using the technique i had been exploring prior to and the research i wanted to create an ethereal and immersive audiovisual installation that would make the spectator aware of light. i projected a grid onto the smoke and layered an animation of walking individuals on top.

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This test proved fruitful as i was able to see that this way of do it was too unsubtle. By casting the grid onto the smoke most of the space was illuminated, thus one could easily distinguish the size of the space. Much of the mystery and feeling of enormity is lost and the immersion is broken.


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DEVELOPING THE OUTCOME


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DEVELOPING THE OUTCOME


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TEST 3 -

This test was more fruitful than the last, instead of projecting a grid, i filled the silhouettes of the figures with white. When projected onto the smoke only the figures can be seen. Given the airy nature of the smoke the figures fluctuate between being fully defined and partially visible which gives the piece a ominous atmosphere. I believe with a bit more refinement and the addition of audio my outcome will be close to fruition.


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DEVELOPING THE OUTCOME


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DEVELOPING THE OUTCOME


TEST 4 What Worked? The space is similar to the one i envision i will hope to use but on a smaller scale. As it was a more vacant without being obscured. This fourth test has made me come to the realisation that the installation would work best when the smoke has not settled. When the smoke settles the multi-layered effect is lost and the installation becomes dull and less immersive. I think either a rig in which i can pump the smoke to different parts of the room simultaneously would work or maybe using more than one smoke machine. Another system in which the smoke is constantly produce from the front and then sucked out the back could be another solution, that way the room is never filled with too much smoke and the smoke it self would never settle.

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space more of the animation could be projected


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DEVELOPING THE OUTCOME


drives the piece. inside of using white silhouettes of people i instead left the silhouettes black but gave them a white stroke. Looking back i should have immediately done this as this is the effect i found during my first test. Like my first test and Vanishing Point by United Visual Artists the thick withe lines pierce the smoke and darkness and create very strong striking incisions of light. The stroked lines of the people create different spaces within the room, it allows you to see the people as two dimension planes but then you move to the left and right you in sense move room on enclosed volume bordered by light and move into another. Its this mixture of 2 dimensional and 3 dimensional viewing that i want to explore and refine as i do more experiments

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I changed how the aesthetic of the animation which


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After i had tested my installations i then went onto project some other animations i had made prior just to see what effects would be produced ad what would and wouldn’t aesthetically work. Fine stroked lines too far together don’t produce a pleasing affect, you can’t really see the lines and the lack of enough contrast lessens any visual effects. Also have the projectors brightness too high dulls the effect as the light reflects and diffuses so much more that it overpowers the black. This is where a laser system would work best as it can produce a beam of light with a small radius which still stays amazingly bright and crisp. I will try to use two projectors in my next test, this would require me getting a VGA splitter and another cable. I don’t think ill will be able to fully capture any visual outcomes from using two projectors if i don’t find a room that could allow me to position two projectors far enough from each other.


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TEST 5 Basic geometric shapes work effectively in the environment. Undulating outlined geometric shapes create very immersive visuals that feel like the viewer is entering several rooms at a time. A web-ish type if pattern projected in to the smoke create imagery that looks like the caustics found at a swimming pool. This is something i am going to looking into as i want to try and recreate that mesmerising feeling

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that i feel when i see caustics.


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[Accessed 3 Feb. 2014].

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Dezeen, (2014). Ripple Light by Poetic Lab Milan 2014. [image] Available at: http://static. dezeen.com/uploads/2014/04/Ripple-light-by-Poetic-Lab_dezeen_3.jpg [Accessed 9 March. 2014].

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Nizam, J. (2014). Thought Form (Fan). [image] Available at: http://www.galleryjones.

Echo - Light Installation Research Book  

Research book designed to document my experimentation, research, development and critical evaluation. Laser printed on Original GMund Tacti...

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