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Front Cover

AGE


Exhibition Diagram EFFERENTION

Back Cover

IMAGE

ef·fer·ent: noun: the process by which information is carried away from or between nerve cells in the brain. The role of designers in society is continually changing. More than ever, they are not only localized, but global problem solvers. They try to focus their time and talents on the communities and world around them in an effort to make changes and solve problems. Design has become a tool to not only disseminate information—potentially speaking beyond politics and rhetoric—but also to guide and encourage mass cultural movements. It has the power to persuade and to unite towards a common goal. In the summer of 2013, members of the interdisciplinary group Designers and Forests met in Utah to explore and experience the region. They assembled to address the interrelated issues of forests devastated by the Mountain Pine Beetle and sudden aspen decline, struggling rural communities, and the growth of economic monocultures. They travelled across the state, from the forests to the deserts, from the streets of Salt Lake City to isolated, back-country campsites. They spoke with foresters, activists, farmers, artists, and regular folks. In the course of their journeys, they began to familiarize themselves with the complex factors contributing to forest stress. They discovered several distinct, yet interrelated, issues; water use: oil, mineral, and gas rights: land regulation and administration: ecological systems: and the history of Mormonism and its attitude towards the land. These points of conflict and opportunity were then presented to us, Graphic Design students at the State University of New York at Fredonia. We then began a process of research, discussion, and collaboration. For several months, we wrote and designed in an attempt to explain these factors and how they contributed to the devastation of the forests of the Intermountain West. As outsiders, we brought a degree of objectivity to our research of the factors contributing to the deaths of entire forests and the resulting impact on both the natural and economic environment of rural Utah. We learned how inter-related every aspect of Utah’s environment is, on both a physical and cultural level, and how those relationships are key to understanding, or possibly diagnosing, the problem. Through this research, we began to realize the potential that design has to connect people of multiple backgrounds, in multiple places, and in multiple disciplines toward a common goal. We became invested in the idea that our training in design offered, in some small way, the ability to create awareness and possibly to help solve a global problem. A burned-out bulb won’t get changed unless someone tries to turn it on. Our ultimate goal was to flip that switch, to make the problem known, so that changes could eventually be made to mend Utah’s forests.

Front Cover

On a basic level, this project was an incredible experience in team-building and communication. However, it taught us much more about societal and environmental interconnection. We hope to continue not only this particular topic of discussion and research, but also this collaborative and inclusive approach to solving a problem; whether that problem is design-related or not. This document is the result of our efforts.

Sometimes I feel like a coroner. –Sarah Tharp, U.S. Forest Service Biologist

Initial Design & Research

Final Design & Layout

Advisors

Maribel Avila, Alison Dyer, Kayleigh Forger, Lisa Hinterberger, Athena Kolokotronis,Anne Leue, Jon McCray, Christina Shults, Barbara Sum, Jessie Wilcox

Maribel Avila, Alison Dyer, Kayleigh Forger, Lisa Hinterberger, Athena Kolokotronis,Anne Leue, Jon McCray, Jessie Wilcox

Jason Dilworth, Megan Urban

27

1

58%

40

Utah has an extensive geological history that is not only visually stimulating, but also serves as a source of various natural resources and formations which affect the flow of water throughout the state and its surrounding areas.

35,384,000

35

GEOLOGICAL REGIONS CONVERGE IN THE STATE OF UTAH: THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS, THE GREAT BASIN AND THE COLORADO PLATEAU.

THE INCHES OF ANNUAL RAINFALL, MAKING UTAH THE SECOND DRYEST STATE.

25

30,189,515 24,669,279

The state is abundant with rock due to billions of years of geological processes, including uplift of mountain ranges, fracturing and erosion, and transport and deposition by streams and glaciers. Central and eastern Utah contain various crucial energy sources such as coal, oil, natural gas, and uranium. The production of oil and gas forms the foundation of the state’s economy. The industry is made up of six producing regions within the state and is ranked the 8th most oil rich in the United States3.

27,705,048

Gallons (million)

30

20

15

12.2

10

5

Because of this fact, it is essential for Utah to effectively use the water obtained from its natural resources. The Western states have been managing an ongoing struggle for fresh water; since Utah is located in the uppermost of the seven basins, the state is obligated to sacrifice water to the lower basins if a drought were to occur.

1,300,000

3

Sources: “Oil & Gas Production Map,” Utah Oil and Gas, Department of Natural Resources, 2009; “Utah Rivers Map,” Geology.com

Annual Oil Production

WATER, OIL, GAS, & GEOLOGY

0 1951

1976

1990

2010

2012

Time 3

Source: “U.S. Proved Reserves of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Liquids by State,” EIA, U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves, 2011

Source: Utah’s Department of Natural Resources, 2014

25

24

9

Natural Resources

8

1846

Surface Water

Gas Wells

Ground Water

Oil Wells

Coal Fields 6

HISTORY & DEMOGRAPHICS THE YEAR IN WHICH THE FIRST PERMANENT NON-NATIVE SETTLEMENTS BEGAN BY JOSEPH SMITH AND HIS MORMON FOLLOWERS.

Utah was primarily settled by members of the Mormon faith during the middle of the 19th century after Brigham Young and his followers moved west to avoid persecution.

UTAH’S GROWTH RATE, COMPARED TO 9.7% NATIONAL AVERAGE

U.S. Census Bureau, 2000–2010

31

Mormonism plays a substantial role in the social, economic, demographic, and political structure of Utahn society today. It affects everything from partisan preference, industry and employment, overarching personal values, population growth and family size, and views on environmental conservation.

23.8%

73%

Sources: “Population Density by Census Tract,” U.S. Census Bureau, 2010; “Religious Congretations and Membership in the United States,” ASARB, 2000

Because family is a central part of the Mormon belief system, married couples are encouraged to have many children1. Unfortunately, this rapid family growth is leading to increasing concern regarding overpopulation. Mormons also hold the belief that personal fortune and the acquisition of worldly wealth is a result of being blessed by God for being religiously pious2. For this reason, some Mormons believe they need to fill the earth, use the resources, and demonstrate that they are blessed with success and prosperity. Others feel they need to assume the role of being a steward to the earth.

PERCENTAGE OF YOUTH SURVEYED FELT PREVIOUS GENERATIONS HAD DAMAGED THE ENVIRONMENT. The Nature Conservancy, 2011

Those who are most opposed to environmentalism and conservation tend to be politicians and leaders of older generations 3. However, there has been a shift in these views among younger generations of Utahn citizens.

”The Family; a Proclamation to the World,” LDS President Gordon B. Hinckley, 1995

1

5

Population Growth by Year

1.723 MILLION

2

Unknown 1800

1848

1900

1910

1930

1950

We have taught our children by percept and example that every living thing exists to be converted into cash, and that whatever would not yeild a return should be quickly exterminated to make way for creatures that do. -Hugh Nibley

1.0593 MILLION

688,862

507,847

373,351

11,380

0

276,749

1

1970

1990

2010

2030

Time 4

Source: U.S. Census Bureau

2 Mosiah 1:7, The Book of Mormon: “And now, my sons, I would that ye should remember to search them diligently, that ye may profit thereby; and I would that ye should keep the commandments of God, that ye may prosper in the land according to the promises which the Lord made unto our fathers.” 3

”Mormon Values and the Utah Environment,” Richard C. Foltz, 2000

Rapid population growth within the past 30 years has caused a boom in Utah’s young demographic which has the potential to rapidly shift the state’s attitudes and practices towards conservation. 3

Population density Least

Most

Mormon Population Density 2

3.915 MILLION 2.763 MILLION

Population (million)

3

4

30

Population & Demographics

28

29


55

58%

Division of Forests by Type of Tree

50

45

55

50

Percentage

17

45

40

35

Sources: “Utah Climatic Life Zones,” R. Douglas Ramsey, Rangeland Resources of Utah, 2009; “Utah Rivers Map,” Geology.com

30

25

20

5%

8%

5

7%

9%

10

13%

15

0 Pinyon/Juniper

Aspen

Spruce/fir

Douglas-fir

Gambel oak

Other

Tree Types Source: USDA Forest Service, 2000

18

15

LAND DISTRIBUTION & FOREST USES

UTAH IS HOME TO 5 NATIONAL PARKS

43 STATE PARKS & 6 NATIONAL FORESTS

Offering outdoor activities for both tourists and residents, such as sightseeing. The state of Utah benefits extensively from its parks and forests; jobs such as forest rangers, forest firefighters, park naturalists, tour guides and camp directors, as well a tourist expenditures and timber sales help stimulate the state’s economy.

Geography

In recent years, the Intermountain West has been experiencing a decline in timber sales due to a widespread and increasing amount of dying trees. This is directly caused by an increase in the number of Mountain Pine Beetles, which prey on the trees and ultimately lead to their demise. The overarching cause of this upsurge in Mountain Pine Beetle activity is global climate change.

Alpine

Mountian

Desert

Subalpine

Upland

Lakes and Rivers

4

THE BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT “To maintain the health, diversity and productivity of public lands, which are used for hiking, sightseeing, hunting, and rock climbing. They also oversee the National Landscape Conservation System, whose goal is to raise awareness for the protection of the land’s scientific, educational, cultural and ecological values.”

Semidesert

THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE

16

High Mountain

The number of agencies into which the federal land of the United States is divided, each having a separate mission.

“To care for the land which has been set aside for people to enjoy; they also strive to preserve local history, celebrate heritage, and create opportunities for outdoor activities.”

THE U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE “To conserve, protect and enhance wildlife and their habitats. They enforce wildlife laws, protect endangered species and work toward restoring and conserving wildlife habitats.”

7

THE FORESTRY SERVICE

“To improve water resource, create jobs and restore and enhance landscapes. The land they manage is protected for recreation, timber, minerals, water, grazing, fish and wildlife.” The first three bureaus are part of the Department of the Interior, whose mission is to protect the natural and cultural resources dispersed throughout the country. Sources: “Land Management Divisions,” USGS, 2013; “2007 General & Limited Entry Buck Deer Reference Map,” Wildlife.Utah.Gov, 2007

12

21

66.5%

Division of Land Mass by Type

60

33.3%

Percentage

40

30

20

Bureau of Indian Affairs

Buck/Bull Combination Area

National Park Service

Department of defense

5-day General Season Hunts

Bureau of Land Managment

0.2%

10

Forest Service

0

Desert

Forest

Wetlands

Land Type

Limited-entry Deer Units 26

Land Management & Hunting

50

Source: Utah Wildlife in Need, 2009; Utah Education Network, 2014

22

11

10

23

Forests, and the beauty their complexity holds, may serve as an elixir to societal ills; those busy and stressed lives overly dependent on instant gratification. We can learn from the forests around us by making connections. The wisdom of these lessons helps us all live compatibly together.

–Paul Rogers, Director of the Western Aspen Alliance and Professor in the Wildland Resources Department at Utah State

20

Directions:

ECOSYSTEMS & ANIMALS

NUMEROUS

FACTORS

DESTRUCTIVE

FUNGI

1) Take two copies of this booklet to ensure both front and back are shown. 2) Open each booklet so the pages lay completely flat. 3) arrange each sheet according to the corresponding page numbers in the diagram. 4) Enjoy

AN ISSUE IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICA IS THE DEVASTATION AND DECLINE IN THE NUMBER OF TREES, SPECIFICALLY ASPENS, DUE TO A VARIETY OF FACTORS.

One of these is climate change, which affects the ecosystems of the west and their various inhabitants. Warmer temperatures have caused an increase in an invasive insect called the mountain pine beetle, resulting in a condition known as sudden aspen decline.

WARMER

TEMPERATURES

THESE BEETLES INFILTRATE TREES BY BURROWING UNDER THE BARK AND LAYING EGGS. THEY ALSO CARRY HIGHLY DESTRUCTIVE FUNGI, WHICH DEHYDRATE THE TREES AND PREVENT THE PROPER FLOW OF NUTRIENTS.

Other contributing factors to the sudden aspen decline are drought, forest fires, and poor growing conditions. When all of these factors occur simultaneously, aspens become far more susceptible to the attack led by mountain pine beetles. The decline in the quality of aspens causes the diets of many animals to suffer within the ecosystem. Omnivores such as the black bear, red fox, and three-toed woodpecker depend on trees for a main part of their food consumption and are being negatively impacted as a result of the dwindling tree population.

note: do not hang this page (inside cover) 14

13

19


Sometimes I feel like a coroner. –Sarah Tharp, U.S. Forest Service Biologist


EFFERENTION ef·fer·ent: noun: the process by which information is carried away from or between nerve cells in the brain. The role of designers in society is continually changing. More than ever, they are not only localized, but global problem solvers. They try to focus their time and talents on the communities and world around them in an effort to make changes and solve problems. Design has become a tool to not only disseminate information—potentially speaking beyond politics and rhetoric—but also to guide and encourage mass cultural movements. It has the power to persuade and to unite towards a common goal. In the summer of 2013, members of the interdisciplinary group Designers and Forests met in Utah to explore and experience the region. They assembled to address the interrelated issues of forests devastated by the Mountain Pine Beetle and sudden aspen decline, struggling rural communities, and the growth of economic monocultures. They travelled across the state, from the forests to the deserts, from the streets of Salt Lake City to isolated, back-country campsites. They spoke with foresters, activists, farmers, artists, and regular folks. In the course of their journeys, they began to familiarize themselves with the complex factors contributing to forest stress. They discovered several distinct, yet interrelated, issues; water use: oil, mineral, and gas rights: land regulation and administration: ecological systems: and the history of Mormonism and its attitude towards the land. These points of conflict and opportunity were then presented to us, Graphic Design students at the State University of New York at Fredonia. We then began a process of research, discussion, and collaboration. For several months, we wrote and designed in an attempt to explain these factors and how they contributed to the devastation of the forests of the Intermountain West. As outsiders, we brought a degree of objectivity to our research of the factors contributing to the deaths of entire forests and the resulting impact on both the natural and economic environment of rural Utah. We learned how inter-related every aspect of Utah’s environment is, on both a physical and cultural level, and how those relationships are key to understanding, or possibly diagnosing, the problem. Through this research, we began to realize the potential that design has to connect people of multiple backgrounds, in multiple places, and in multiple disciplines toward a common goal. We became invested in the idea that our training in design offered, in some small way, the ability to create awareness and possibly to help solve a global problem. A burned-out bulb won’t get changed unless someone tries to turn it on. Our ultimate goal was to flip that switch, to make the problem known, so that changes could eventually be made to mend Utah’s forests. On a basic level, this project was an incredible experience in team-building and communication. However, it taught us much more about societal and environmental interconnection. We hope to continue not only this particular topic of discussion and research, but also this collaborative and inclusive approach to solving a problem; whether that problem is design-related or not. This document is the result of our efforts.


ECOSYSTEMS & ANIMALS

NUMEROUS

FACTORS

AN ISSUE IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICA IS THE DEVASTATION AND DECLINE IN THE NUMBER OF TREES, SPECIFICALLY ASPENS, DUE TO A VARIETY OF FACTORS.

One of these is climate change, which affects the ecosystems of the west and their various inhabitants. Warmer temperatures have caused an increase in an invasive insect called the mountain pine beetle, resulting in a condition known as sudden aspen decline.

DESTRUCTIVE

FUNGI

WARMER

TEMPERATURES

THESE BEETLES INFILTRATE TREES BY BURROWING UNDER THE BARK AND LAYING EGGS. THEY ALSO CARRY HIGHLY DESTRUCTIVE FUNGI, WHICH DEHYDRATE THE TREES AND PREVENT THE PROPER FLOW OF NUTRIENTS.

Other contributing factors to the sudden aspen decline are drought, forest fires, and poor growing conditions. When all of these factors occur simultaneously, aspens become far more susceptible to the attack led by mountain pine beetles. The decline in the quality of aspens causes the diets of many animals to suffer within the ecosystem. Omnivores such as the black bear, red fox, and three-toed woodpecker depend on trees for a main part of their food consumption and are being negatively impacted as a result of the dwindling tree population.


HISTORY & DEMOGRAPHICS

1846

THE YEAR IN WHICH THE FIRST PERMANENT NON-NATIVE SETTLEMENTS BEGAN BY JOSEPH SMITH AND HIS MORMON FOLLOWERS.

Utah was primarily settled by members of the Mormon faith during the middle of the 19th century after Brigham Young and his followers moved west to avoid persecution. Mormonism plays a substantial role in the social, economic, demographic, and political structure of Utahn society today. It affects everything from partisan preference, industry and employment, overarching personal values, population growth and family size, and views on environmental conservation.

UTAH’S GROWTH RATE, COMPARED TO 9.7% NATIONAL AVERAGE U.S. Census Bureau, 2000–2010

23.8%

Because family is a central part of the Mormon belief system, married couples are encouraged to have many children1. Unfortunately, this rapid family growth is leading to increasing concern regarding overpopulation. Mormons also hold the belief that personal fortune and the acquisition of worldly wealth is a result of being blessed by God for being religiously pious2. For this reason, some Mormons believe they need to fill the earth, use the resources, and demonstrate that they are blessed with success and prosperity. Others feel they need to assume the role of being a steward to the earth.

73%

PERCENTAGE OF YOUTH SURVEYED FELT PREVIOUS GENERATIONS HAD DAMAGED THE ENVIRONMENT. The Nature Conservancy, 2011

Those who are most opposed to environmentalism and conservation tend to be politicians and leaders of older generations 3. However, there has been a shift in these views among younger generations of Utahn citizens. Rapid population growth within the past 30 years has caused a boom in Utah’s young demographic which has the potential to rapidly shift the state’s attitudes and practices towards conservation. ”The Family; a Proclamation to the World,” LDS President Gordon B. Hinckley, 1995 · 2 Mosiah 1:7, The Book of Mormon: “And now, my sons, I would that ye should remember to search them diligently, that ye may profit thereby; and I would that ye should keep the commandments of God, that ye may prosper in the land according to the promises which the Lord made unto our fathers.” · 3 ”Mormon Values and the Utah Environment,” Richard C. Foltz, 2000 1


0

1800

1848

1900

1910

1930

1

1950

1.0593 MILLION

688,862

507,847

373,351

276,749

Unknown

11,380

1.723 MILLION

2 2.763 MILLION

Population (million)

3.915 MILLION

Population Growth by Year

4

3

1970

1990

2010

2030

Time

Source: U.S. Census Bureau


“

We have taught our children by percept and example that every living thing exists to be converted into cash, and that whatever would not yeild a return should be quickly exterminated to make way for creatures that do.

“

-Hugh Nibley


Population & Demographics

Population density

Mormon Population Density

Least

Most


Sources: “Population Density by Census Tract,” U.S. Census Bureau, 2010; “Religious Congretations and Membership in the United States,” ASARB, 2000


Geography

Subalpine

Alpine

Upland

Mountian

Desert

Semidesert

Lakes and Rivers High Mountain


Sources: “Utah Climatic Life Zones,” R. Douglas Ramsey, Rangeland Resources of Utah, 2009; “Utah Rivers Map,” Geology.com


Natural Resources

Ground Water

Surface Water

Oil Wells

Gas Wells

Coal Fields


Sources: “Oil & Gas Production Map,” Utah Oil and Gas, Department of Natural Resources, 2009; “Utah Rivers Map,” Geology.com


58%

Annual Oil Production

40

35,384,000

35

30,189,515 24,669,279

27,705,048

25

20

15

10

5

1,300,000

Gallons (million)

30

0 1951

1976

1990

Time Source: Utah’s Department of Natural Resources, 2014

2010

2012


WATER, OIL, GAS, & GEOLOGY Utah has an extensive geological history that is not only visually stimulating, but also serves as a source of various natural resources and formations which affect the flow of water throughout the state and its surrounding areas.

3

GEOLOGICAL REGIONS CONVERGE IN THE STATE OF UTAH: THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS, THE GREAT BASIN AND THE COLORADO PLATEAU.

The state is abundant with rock due to billions of years of geological processes, including uplift of mountain ranges, fracturing and erosion, and transport and deposition by streams and glaciers. Central and eastern Utah contain various crucial energy sources such as coal, oil, natural gas, and uranium. The production of oil and gas forms the foundation of the state’s economy. The industry is made up of six producing regions within the state and is ranked the 8th most oil rich in the United States3.

THE INCHES OF ANNUAL RAINFALL, MAKING UTAH THE SECOND DRYEST STATE.

12.2

Because of this fact, it is essential for Utah to effectively use the water obtained from its natural resources. The Western states have been managing an ongoing struggle for fresh water; since Utah is located in the uppermost of the seven basins, the state is obligated to sacrifice water to the lower basins if a drought were to occur. 3

Source: “U.S. Proved Reserves of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Liquids by State,” EIA, U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves, 2011


LAND DISTRIBUTION & FOREST USES

UTAH IS HOME TO 5 NATIONAL PARKS

43 STATE PARKS & 6 NATIONAL FORESTS

Offering outdoor activities for both tourists and residents, such as sightseeing. The state of Utah benefits extensively from its parks and forests; jobs such as forest rangers, forest firefighters, park naturalists, tour guides and camp directors, as well a tourist expenditures and timber sales help stimulate the state’s economy.

In recent years, the Intermountain West has been experiencing a decline in timber sales due to a widespread and increasing amount of dying trees. This is directly caused by an increase in the number of Mountain Pine Beetles, which prey on the trees and ultimately lead to their demise. The overarching cause of this upsurge in Mountain Pine Beetle activity is global climate change.

The number of agencies into which the federal land of the United States is divided, each having a separate mission.

4

THE BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT “To maintain the health, diversity and productivity of public lands, which are used for hiking, sightseeing, hunting, and rock climbing. They also oversee the National Landscape Conservation System, whose goal is to raise awareness for the protection of the land’s scientific, educational, cultural and ecological values.”

THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE “To care for the land which has been set aside for people to enjoy; they also strive to preserve local history, celebrate heritage, and create opportunities for outdoor activities.”

THE U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE “To conserve, protect and enhance wildlife and their habitats. They enforce wildlife laws, protect endangered species and work toward restoring and conserving wildlife habitats.”

THE FORESTRY SERVICE

“To improve water resource, create jobs and restore and enhance landscapes. The land they manage is protected for recreation, timber, minerals, water, grazing, fish and wildlife.” The first three bureaus are part of the Department of the Interior, whose mission is to protect the natural and cultural resources dispersed throughout the country.


55

58%

Division of Forests by Type of Tree

50

45

55

50

40

35

30

25

20

5% 7%

5

8%

10

13%

15

9%

Percentage

45

0 Pinyon/Juniper

Aspen

Spruce/fir

Tree Types Source: USDA Forest Service, 2000

Douglas-fir

Gambel oak

Other


Forests, and the beauty their complexity holds, may serve as an elixir to societal ills; those busy and stressed lives overly dependent on instant gratification. We can learn from the forests around us by making connections. The wisdom of these lessons helps us all live compatibly together.

–Paul Rogers, Director of the Western Aspen Alliance and Professor in the Wildland Resources Department at Utah State


60

66.5%

Division of Land Mass by Type

40

33.3%

30

20

10

0.2%

Percentage

50

0

Desert

Forest

Wetlands

Land Type Source: Utah Wildlife in Need, 2009; Utah Education Network, 2014


Land Management & Hunting

Forest Service

Department of defense

Bureau of Indian Affairs

5-day General Season Hunts

Buck/Bull Combination Area

Limited-entry Deer Units

National Park Service Bureau of Land Managment


Sources: “Land Management Divisions,” USGS, 2013; “2007 General & Limited Entry Buck Deer Reference Map,” Wildlife.Utah.Gov, 2007


Back Cover

IMA Initial Design & Research

Final Design & Layout

Advisors

Maribel Avila, Alison Dyer, Kayleigh Forger, Lisa Hinterberger, Athena Kolokotronis, Anne Leue, Jon McCray, Christina Shults, Barbara Sum, Jessie Wilcox

Maribel Avila, Alison Dyer, Kayleigh Forger, Lisa Hinterberger, Athena Kolokotronis,Anne Leue, Jon McCray, Jessie Wilcox

Jason Dilworth, Megan Urban

Icon Design Jason Dilworth


Designers & Forests