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Aquaculture Publications social, policy and management dimensions Fish cage culture 1

Lebel P, Sriyasak P, Kallayanamitra C, Duangsuwan C, Lebel L. 2016. Learning about climate-related risks: decisions of Northern Thailand fish farmers in a role-playing simulation game. Regional Environmental Change 16:1481-1494.

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Lebel L, Lebel P, Lebel B. 2016. Climate-related risks to cage aquaculture in the reservoirs of Northern Thailand. Environmental Management 58(6):931-945. DOI 10.1007/s00267-016-0764-5 Chitmanat C, Lebel P, Whangchai N, Promya J, Lebel L. 2016. Self-reported fish disease and management in river-based cage aquaculture in Northern Thailand. Journal of Applied Aquaculture 28:9-16.

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Lebel P, Whangchai N, Chitmanat C, Lebel L. 2015. Climate risk management in river-based Tilapia cage culture in Northern Thailand. International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management 7:476-498.

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Lebel P, Whangchai N, Chitmanat C, Promya J, Lebel L. 2015. Perceptions of climate- related risks and awareness of climate change of fish cage farmers in Northern Thailand. Risk Management 17: 1-22. Lebel P, Whangchai N, Chitmanat C, Promya J, Lebel L. 2015. Impacts of extreme weather, climate and seasons on riverbased Tilapia cage culture in Northern Thailand. International Journal of Global Warming 8:534-554. Lebel P, Whangchai N, Chitmanat C, Promya J, Lebel L. 2014. Access to fish cage aquaculture in the Ping River, Northern Thailand. Journal of Applied Aquaculture 26:32-48. Lebel P, Whangchai N, Chitmanat C, Promya J, Chaibu P, Sriyasak P, Lebel L. 2013. Tilapia cage culture and business management practices in the Ping River, Northern Thailand. Natural Resources 4:410-421 Lebel P, Chaibu P, Lebel L. (2009). Women farm fish: gender and commercial fish cage culture on the Upper Ping River, Northern Thailand. Gender, Technology and Development, 13(2):199-224

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Fish pond culture 10

Sriyasak P, Chitmanat C, Whangchai N, Lebel L, Pimolrat P, Sangsawang K, Suwanpakdee S. 2015. Effect of Water Destratification on Dissolved Oxygen and Ammonia in Tilapia Ponds in Northern Thailand. International Aquatic Research 7(4):287-299.

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Pimolrat P, Whangchai N, Chitmanat C, Itayama T, Lebel L. 2014. Off-flavor characterization in high nutrient load tilapia ponds in Northern Thailand. TrJFAS 15:275-283 Sriyasak P, Chitmanat C, Whangchai N, Lebel L. 2013. Effects of temperature upon water turnover in fish ponds in Northern Thailand. International Journal of Geosciences 4:18-23.

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Hatcheries, value chains and sector 13 14 15

Uppanunchai A, Apirumanekul C, Lebel L. 2015. Planning for production of freshwater fish fry in a variable climate in Northern Thailand. Environmental Management 56:859-873. Deutsch L, Gräslund S, Folke C, Troell M, Huitric M, Kautsky N, Lebel L. 2007. Feeding aquaculture growth through globalization: exploitation of marine ecosystems for fishmeal. Global Environmental Change 17:238-249 Uppanunchai A, Chitmanat C, Lebel L. 2016. Mainstreaming climate change into inland aquaculture policies in Thailand. Climate Policy, in press.

Shrimp culture 16 17 18 19

Lebel L, Garden P, Luers A, Manuel-Navarrete D, Giap D. H. (2016). Knowledge and innovation relationships in the shrimp industry in Thailand and Mexico. PNAS, 113(17):4585-4590. Lebel L, Mungkung R, Gheewala S. H, Lebel P. (2010). Innovation cycles, niches and sustainability in the shrimp aquaculture industry in Thailand. Environmental Science & Policy 13: 291-302 Lebel L, Lebel P, Garden P, Giap D. H, Khrutmuang S, Nakayama S. (2008). Places, chains and plates: governing transitions in the shrimp aquaculture production-consumption system. Globalizations 5(2):211-226 Lebel L, Tri N. H, Saengnoree A, Pasong S, Buatama U, Thoa L. K. (2002). Industrial transformation and shrimp aquaculture in Thailand and Vietnam: pathways to ecological, social and economic sustainability? Ambio 31(4):311-323

Unit for Social and Environmental Research (USER), Chiang Mai University www.sea-user.org | louis@sea-user.org


Climate Change and Water Publications institutional and governance dimensions Adaptation 1

Lebel L. 2014. Closing knowledge-action gaps in adaptation to climate change in the Asia-Pacific region. Int. J. Environment and Sustainable Development 13, 204-221.

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Lebel L. 2013. Local knowledge and adaptation to climate change in natural resource-based societies of the Asia-Pacific. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 18, 1057-1076. Lebel L, Sinh B. T, Chinh N. C, Boontaveeyuwat S, Kimkong H. 2013. Risk communication and adaptation planning in deltas and coastal settlements of the Mekong Region. Pages 253-269 in S. Moser and M. Boykoff, editors. Successful adaptation to climate change: linking science and policy in a rapidly changing world. Routledge, New York. Lebel L, Foran T, Garden P, Manuta, B. J. 2009. Adaptation to climate change and social justice: challenges for flood and disaster management in Thailand, Pages 125-141 in F. Ludwig, P. Kabat, H. van Schaik, and M. van der Valk, editors. Climate change adaptation in the water sector. Earthscan, London. Dany V, Taplin R, Bajracharya B, Regan M, Lebel L. 2016. Entry points for climate-informed planning for the water resources and agriculture sectors in Cambodia. Environment, Development and Sustainability 1-22. Dany V, Bajracharya B, Lebel L, Regan M, Taplin R. 2016. Narrowing gaps between research and policy development in climate change adaptation work in the water resources and agriculture sectors of Cambodia. Climate Policy 16:237-52. Huntjens P, Lebel L, Pahl-Wostl C, Schulze R, Camkin J, Kranz N. 2012. Institutional design propositions for the governance of adaptation to climate change in the water sector. Global Environmental Change 22:67-81.

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Water Governance 8

Lebel L, Lebel P, Sriyasak P, Rattanawilailak S, Bastakoti RC, Bastakoti GB. 2015. Gender relations and water management in different eco-cultural contexts in Northern Thailand. Int. J. Agricultural Resources, Governance and Ecology, 11:228-246.

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Lebel L, Lebel P, Chitmanat C, Sriyasak P. 2014. Benefit sharing from hydropower watersheds: Rationales, practices, and potential. Water Resources and Rural Development 4:12-28. Lebel L, Manuta BJ, Garden P. 2011. Institutional traps and vulnerability to changes in climate and flood regimes in Thailand. Regional Environmental Change 11:45-58. Lebel L, Daniel R. 2009. The governance of ecosystem services from tropical upland watersheds. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 1:61-68. Lebel L, Sinh B. T, Garden P, Seng S, Tuan L. A, Truc D. V. 2009. The promise of flood protection: Dykes and dams, drains and diversions. Pages 283-306 in F. Molle, T. Foran, and J. Kakonen, editors. Contested Waterscapes in the Mekong Region. Earthscan, London. Jacobs K, Lebel L, Buizer J, Addams L, Matson P. A, McCullough E, Garden P, Saliba G, Finan T. 2016. Linking knowledge with action in the pursuit of sustainable water-resources management. PNAS 113:4591-4596. KäkÜnen M, Lebel L, Karhunmaa K, Dany V, Try T. 2014. Rendering Climate Change Governable in the Least-Developed Countries: Policy Narratives and Expert Technologies in Cambodia. Forum for development studies 41:351-376. Men, P, Thun V, Yin S, Lebel L. 2014. Benefit sharing from Kamchay and Lower Sesan 2 hydropower watersheds in Cambodia. Water Resources and Rural Development 4:40-53. Pahl-Wostl C, Lebel L, Knieper C, Nikitina E. 2012. From applying panaceas to mastering complexity: Towards adaptive water governance in basins. Environmental Science and Policy 23:24-34. Dore J, Lebel L, Molle F. 2012. A framework for analysing transboundary water governance complexes, illustrated in the Mekong Region. Journal of Hydrology 466: 23-36. Huitema D, Lebel L, Meijerink S. 2011. The strategies of policy entrepeneurs in water transitions around the world. Water Policy 13: 717-733. Gupta J, Lebel L. 2010. Access and allocation in earth system governance: water and climate change compared. International Environmental Agreements, 10, 377-395.

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Unit for Social and Environmental Research (USER), Chiang Mai University www.sea-user.org | louis@sea-user.org


JOURNAL OF APPLIED AQUACULTURE 2016, VOL. 28, NO. 1, 9–16 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10454438.2015.1104950

Tilapia diseases and management in river-based cage aquaculture in northern Thailand Chanagun Chitmanata, Phimphakan Lebela,b, Niwooti Whangchaia, Jongkon Promyaa and Louis Lebelb Faculty of Fisheries Technology and Aquatic Resources, Maejo University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; bUnit for Social and Environmental Research, Faculty of Social Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand

Downloaded by [Louis Lebel] at 18:04 22 April 2016

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ABSTRACT

KEYWORDS

A total of 662 farmers who rear tilapia in river-based cages in Northern Thailand were interviewed on their knowledge and perception on disease constraints and their control measures. Most farms (84%) had disease problems in the last two years. Exophthalmia ranked higher than other clinical signs. Most farmers noticed that the risk of disease problems was similar every month. Most (95%) believed that fish diseases were caused by bacterial pathogens. To treat perceived disease outbreaks, most farmers (96%) removed infected and dead fish and applied, usually inappropriately, antibiotics. As disease prevention through good management is better than treatment, farmers and fish disease experts could use these research findings as a tool to work together to develop better control strategies.

Cage culture constraints; disease outbreak; fish disease management; tilapia diseases

Introduction Tilapia cage culture in Thailand has rapidly expanded, as it is economically attractive, benefits landless people, and avoids the off-flavor problems that commonly impact pond-based systems. A serious obstacle to the sustainability and development of tilapia cage culture is the frequent occurrences of mass mortality. These events are probably caused by fish diseases, including bacterial infection (Yuasa et al. 2013), ectoparasite infestation, or water-quality problems, but have not been carefully studied. Several diseases are anecdotally related to high stocking density and improper feeding (Georgiadis et al. 2001) and climate change (Amal et al. 2013; Harvell et al. 2002; Karvonen et al. 2010). During 2005, tilapia cage culture all over Thailand suffered from acute fish mortality (Srisapoome & Areechon 2013). Moribund fish were sent to a diagnostic laboratory. Parasites, bacteria, and fungi were diagnosed, but it seems likely the underlying cause of this devastating loss was the deteriorated aquatic environment (Chitmanat 2009). In some locations, such as the Upper Ping River, severe floods also caused significant losses (Lebel et al. 2013). Again, in 2013, massive deaths of cage cultured tilapia occurred in major rivers, while the exact cause remained unknown (Nation Channel 2013; Manager Online 2013; Bangkokbiznews 2013; Phitsanulokhotnews 2013). Fish disease diagnosis and treatment should have on-the-spot investigation by veterinarians, but in practice, it is not feasible because of the unavailability of expertise and remote farm sites (Li et al. 2002). As a result, it is necessary to find out how fish farmers diagnose, treat, and prevent fish diseases to further improve the disease control system. Our article summarizes the current knowledge of fish cage farmers in Northern Thailand with regard to fish diseases and their management. CONTACT Chanagun Chitmanat chanagun1@hotmail.com Faculty of Fisheries Technology and Aquatic Resources, Maejo University, Chiang Mai, 50290, Thailand. Color versions of one or more of the figures in the article can be found online at www.tandfonline.com/wjaa. Š 2016 Taylor & Francis


International Journal of Geosciences, 2013, 4, 46-53 http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ijg.2013.45B008 Published Online September 2013 (http://www.scirp.org/journal/ijg)

Relationships of Dissolved Oxygen with Chlorophyll-a and Phytoplankton Composition in Tilapia Ponds Kornkanok Kunlasak1,2, Chanagun Chitmanat1, Niwooti Whangchai1, Jongkon Promya1, Louis Lebel2 1 Faculty of Fisheries Technology and Aquatic Resources, Maejo University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Unit for Social and Environmental Research (USER) Faculty of Social Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Email: louis@sea-user.org

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Received July 2013

ABSTRACT This study investigated the relationships among the parameters of dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll-a and phytoplankton composition in tilapia ponds. Each pond (a total of 18 ponds) was sampled once in the dry, winter season between January and March and again early in the rainy season between May and June. The data were analyzed by examining correlations among parameters as affected by season, altitude and culture system. Observations were made at sites located in 5 selected provinces of northern Thailand: Chiangrai, Chiangmai, Phayao, Lampang and Nakornsawan. Mean elevation of these areas range from 25 to 582 meters above sea level (masl) and were categorized into low (<400 masl) and high (>400 masl) elevation sites. Ponds were 0.8 - 2.0 m deep, 0.16 - 0.64 ha in area and could be further categorized into high and low input systems.Mean air temperature in winter ranged between 16.5˚C - 35.8˚C while mean water temperature ranged between 25.5˚C - 27.1˚C. In rainy season, air temperature ranged between 22.0˚C - 37.3˚C and water temperature ranged between 29.4˚C - 31.8˚C. The amount of chlorophyll-a in both seasons were comparable (p > 0.05), but chlorophyll-a in high input system was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in low input ponds. Only weak correlation was found between chlorophyll-a, DOmax and DOmin. Multifactor-ANOVA was used to analyze the difference of total bacteria and filamentous cyanobacteria in ponds based upon elevation, culture systems and season. Result shows that there is a significant interaction observed between elevation, culture system and season (p < 0.05). Species diversity and composition of phytoplankton in fish ponds in 2 seasons revealed the presence of 90 genera of phytoplankton under all 7 divisions. Divisions Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta had the most number of genera identified in both seasons with Pediastrum spp., and Scendesmus spp., and Anabaena spp. as dominant genera/genus, respectively. Keywords: Dissolved Oxygen; Chlorophyll-a; Phytoplankton Composition; Tilapia Ponds; Elevation, Season

1. Introduction Increased demand for high protein food and apparent declines in capture fisheries together have helped drive rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry in the past two decades. The aquaculture industry however is facing challenges such as high cost of inputs and climatic changes. Climate effect such as increase in temperature is observed to increase disease transmission, deplete oxygen, increase incidence of harmful algal blooms in ponds to mention a few [1]. Tilapia culture is one of the major aquaculture industries in Thailand with river cage and earthen pond cultures were both practiced. However, some tilapia cage farmers have switched from river to earthen pond due to difficulties with extreme water flows and poor water quality. There are substantial differences in tilapia culture systems among places depending on various constraints and opportunities such as topography (lowland Copyright © 2013 SciRes.

and upland) and availability of water and alternative nutrient inputs [2]. Elevation above sea level, for instance, influences air and water temperature in pond culture [3]. Physical, chemical and biological water quality in fish pond ecosystem influences growth and survival rates as well as reproduction and likelihood of disease infection [4]. Dissolved oxygen (DO), in particular, is an important factor for fish respiration and phytoplankton dynamics. DO content typically correlates with phytoplankton density in fish ponds. Maintenance of phytoplankton populations at desired levels is an important but difficult aspect of fish pond management. Many fish culture manuals stress that an algal bloom must be maintained to improve oxygen levels, to prevent macrophyte growth, and to provide natural foods, either directly or indirectly, for fish in the pond [5-7]. At the same time, however, uncontrolled algal growth causes many serious problems for aquaculturists [8]. Thus, proper management of phytopIJG


Gender and the management of climate-related risks in Northern Thailand

Louis Lebel, Phimphakan Lebel and Boripat Lebel

Introduction

work to increase responsibilities without recognition or benefits, and simplify the real heteroIn many past projects aimed at improving the geneity in how women of different age, class sustainability of natural resource management and or family structure experience climate-related risks (Arora-Jonsson 2011). supporting rural development, Women who head a gender was either ignored or Dr Louis Lebel is Director of the Unit single-parent household, women were essentialised as for Social and Environmental Research for instance, often find natural ‘care-takers’ or ‘vic(USER) at Chiang Mai University. themselves in a situation tims’ (Cornwall et al. 2007; His research interests include global environment change, water governance, distinct from the majority. Nelson and Stathers 2009). resilience, gender and the sustainability of Thus, a study in Nigeria On the one hand, neglect of production-consumption systems. Email: found that although men and gender is a serious limitation, llebel@loxinfo.co.th, louis@sea-user. women had similar beliefs given the often large gender org. Dr Phimphakan Lebel is a researcher regarding causes of drought, differences in natural resource at the Unit for Social and Environthe adaptive responses of dependence, access to altermental Research, Chiang Mai University. women-headed households native livelihood options, and Her research interests include aquaculwere constrained by access decision-making or manageture, climate change adaptation, water manto resources and levels of ment roles (Figueiredo and agement, natural disasters, and gender. Email: phimphakan@sea-user.org. support received compared Perkins 2013; Morchain et al. Boripat Lebel BSc is a research assisto male-headed households 2015; Perez et al. 2015). On tant and communication specialist at (Yila and Resurreccion the other hand, essentialism the Unit for Social and Environmen2014). Likewise, in central is also problematic, because it tal Research, Chiang Mai University. His Vietnam, government hides the role of other factors research interests focus on innovative communication of risks and science. programmes aimed at and differences (Nightingale Email: boripat.lebel@gmail.com. reducing vulnerability 2009); and, as a result, because of inequalities may inadvertently create additional burdens for women without necessarily in resource access may instead further marginalise reducing vulnerabilities, or increasing incomes women household heads (Huynh and Resurreccion or power (Hamilton et al. 2001; Jost et al. 2015). 2014). Another common simplification is to assume Many recent programmes on disaster risk reduction and adaptation to climate change, when that the risks perceived by men and women are examined more closely, reveal the limitations of similar, and at the same time also assume that men making simplified assumptions about how gen- are primarily responsible for decisions around ecoder is experienced (Resurrecci´on 2013). Car- nomically important agricultural activities, and thus icatures of women as virtuous or vulnerable the focus in communicating risks should be to men.

C UNESCO 2017. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford, OX4 2DK, UK and 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148, USA. ISSJ 0 


Author's personal copy Environmental Management (2016) 58:931–945 DOI 10.1007/s00267-016-0764-5

PROFILE

Impacts, Perceptions and Management of Climate-Related Risks to Cage Aquaculture in the Reservoirs of Northern Thailand Louis Lebel

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Phimphakan Lebel1 Boripat Lebel1 ●

Received: 29 February 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published online: 1 September 2016 © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Abstract Weather is suspected to influence fish growth and survival, and be a factor in mass mortality events in cage aquaculture in reservoirs. The purpose of this study was to identify the important climate-related risks faced by cage aquaculture farms; evaluate how these risks were currently being managed; and explore how farmers might adapt to the effects of climate change. Fish farmers were interviewed across the northern region of Thailand to get information on impacts, perceptions and practices. Drought or low water levels, heat waves, cold spells and periods with dense cloud cover, each caused significant financial losses. Perceptions of climate-related risks were consistent with experienced impacts. Risks are primarily managed in the short-term with techniques like aeration and reducing feed. In the mid-term farmers adjust stocking calendars, take financial measures and seek new information. Farmers also emphasize the importance of maintaining good relations with other stakeholders and reservoir management. Larger farms placed greater importance on risk management than small farms, even though types and levels of risk perceived were very similar. Most fish farms were managed by men alone, or men and women working together. Gender differences in risk perception were not detected, but women judged a few risk management practices as more important than men. Fish farmers perceived that climate is changing, but their perceptions were not strongly associated with recently having suffered impacts from extreme weather. The

* Louis Lebel llebel@loxinfo.co.th louis@sea-user.org 1

Unit for Social and Environmental Research, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand

findings of this study provide important inputs to improving risk management under current and future climate. Keywords Drought Climate-related risks Perception Risk management Reservoir Cage aquaculture Thailand ●

Introduction To be successful, aquaculture farmers must often manage a combination of market, regulatory, production and climaterelated risks. Future prices, for example, were identified as key risks by salmon farmers in Norway (Bergfjord 2009), catfish farmers in Vietnam (Le and Cheong 2010), shrimp farmers in Bangladesh (Ahsan 2011) and mussel farmers in Denmark (Ahsan and Roth 2010). Regulatory risk on the other hand, relate to licensing and zoning of farm locations (Bergfjord 2009), food safety standards, and policies on allocation and management of water. Disease is often the largest production risk and may be exacerbated by poor water quality (Belton et al. 2009). By climate-related risks in this paper, we mean the likelihood and severity of extreme weather or climate events such as heat waves, cold spells and intense rainfall events, as well as other water conditions for which climate is a key driver, like floods and droughts. How fish farmers evaluate and perceive current and future risks is important, because it can strongly influence what actions they take to manage those risks (Bergfjord 2009; Lebel et al. 2015b). Farmers have been shown to differ in their attitudes towards risk—including to climaterelated risks—for a variety of reasons (Nielsen et al. 2013). Recent experience of losses is often found to lead to higher


Natural Resources, 2013, 4, 410-421 http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/nr.2013.45051 Published Online September 2013 (http://www.scirp.org/journal/nr)

River-Based Cage Aquaculture of Tilapia in Northern Thailand: Sustainability of Rearing and Business Practices Phimphakan Lebel1,2, Niwooti Whangchai1, Chanagun Chitmanat1, Jongkon Promya1, Prachaub Chaibu1, Patcharawalai Sriyasak1,2, Louis Lebel2 1

Faculty of Fisheries Technology and Aquatic Resources, Maejo University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Unit for Social and Environmental Research, Faculty of Social Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. Email: phimphakan@sea-user.org, niwooti@hotmail.co.th, chanagun1@hotmail.com, jongkolp@mju.ac.th, P_chaibu@yahoo.com, patcharawalai@sea-user.org, llebel@loxinfo.co.th Received July 23rd, 2013; revised August 22nd, 2013; accepted September 2nd, 2013 Copyright © 2013 Phimphakan Lebel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

ABSTRACT Cage-based aquaculture in rivers raises issues of natural resource management more familiar to fisheries management than does aquaculture in fish ponds on private land. Hybrid red and black Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus L) are reared for 4 - 5 months in cages in the upper Ping River in northern Thailand. Observed mean stocking density was 49 ± 16 fish·m−3, feed conversion ratio 1.47 ± 0.43 kg feed per kg fish and yield density 26.6 ± 8.1 kg·m−3. Input costs were dominated by feed (70%) and stock (16%). Most farms borrowed money and participated in contracts. Fish farming was usually a component of a portfolio of household activities but for some a core business. To succeed fish farmers must manage a combination of market, climate and environmental-related risks. Cage-based aquaculture in rivers faces many challenges; further research on farm practices and vulnerabilities, river and water management, and the commoditychain are needed. Keywords: Aquaculture; Sustainability; River; Climate Risks; Natural Resource Management

1. Introduction Cage-based aquaculture in rivers and other public water bodies raises issues of natural resource management that are more familiar to fisheries management than does aquaculture in fish ponds on private land [1]. Successful aquaculture depends on site selection, good quality water and the waste removal services of aquatic ecosystems. As practices expand and intensify, concerns about nutrient pollution, impacts on local ecosystems, and competition with other river and water users increase [2,3]. Understanding of rearing and business management practices in river-based cage aquaculture systems is fairly limited. The vast majority of studies of cage culture have been carried out in ponds, lakes or reservoirs. From these studies a few key messages about how fish rearing and business management practices influence sustainability have emerged. First, pellet feeds can greatly improve yields but are costly so precise management of feeding regimes and high feed quality are critical to improving feed use efficiency and profits [4-6]. Concerns with feed costs have triggered exploration of alternative feed sources and Copyright © 2013 SciRes.

more integrated culture systems but these have mainly been oriented towards water management in closed pond systems on farms [7-10]. Second, stocking density has a variable influence on yields depending on impacts on water quality and feeding efficiencies, and thus ultimately on profits [11-13]. Relationships between stocking densities and profitability can be expected to be even more complex if feeding efficiencies fall or growth rates slow at high densities given high costs of feed and size-specific prices for harvests [14]. Third, as fish farming commercializes additional business management, knowledge and institutional issues arise for farmers [15,16]. Access to credit and technical support, sometimes in form of contractual arrangements, can be important factors in commercial success [17,18]. Markets for inputs and products, availability of credit and technical support, and government regulations on access to public waterways have a major influence on aquaculture practices and the way an industry develops in particular places [19-21]. This paper analyzes an emerging industry based on NR


Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 26:32–48, 2014 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC ISSN: 1045-4438 print/1545-0805 online DOI: 10.1080/10454438.2014.877731

Access to Fish Cage Aquaculture in the Ping River, Northern Thailand PHIMPHAKAN LEBEL1,2 , NIWOOTI WHANGCHAI1 , CHANAGUN CHITMANAT1 , JONGKON PROMYA1 , and LOUIS LEBEL2 1

Downloaded by [Louis Lebel] at 19:05 21 March 2014

Faculty of Fisheries Technology and Aquatic Resources, Maejo University, Chiang Mai, Thailand 2 Unit for Social and Environmental Research, Chiang Mai University, Muang, Chiang Mai, Thailand

Aquaculture in rivers and other public water bodies raises issues of access and property rights. Over the past few years an industry has developed around the rearing of hybrid red and Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus L.) in cages in the Ping River in northern Thailand. In this article we report on a study of how households gain access to river cage sites to farm fish. The findings are based on a case-control study of 400 households, half of which had a history of fish farming and half which did not. Additional information was gathered from qualitative in-depth interviews with 93 stakeholders. Households with good access to farming sites, financial capital, and social networks are more likely to farm fish. Proximity to the river front was a very important factor and operated at a micro-level within villages with river borders. Land and vehicle assets were also associated with fish farming—more so than monthly income levels—probably because they reflect access to credit. Social capital measured as belonging to various kinds of groups was also associated with fish farming, but may have been in part an outcome rather than a pre-requisite. Many fish farmers start through encouragement and invitations by firms or the fisheries department. Sites for cage aquaculture in rivers have characteristics somewhere between a private and a club good: those who don’t live near the river are usually excluded, but rivalry for sites among those who live close becomes an issue with congestion of farms arising from expansion in number of cages or other factors Address correspondence to Phimphakan Lebel, Unit for Social and Environmental Research, Faculty of Social Sciences, P.O. Box 144, Chiang Mai University, Muang, Chiang Mai 50202, Thailand. E-mail: phimphakan@sea-user.org 32


The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available on Emerald Insight at: www.emeraldinsight.com/1756-8692.htm

IJCCSM 7,4

Climate risk management in river-based tilapia cage culture in northern Thailand

476 Received 28 January 2014 Revised 3 November 2014 19 January 2015 Accepted 20 January 2015

Phimphakan Lebel, Niwooti Whangchai and Chanagun Chitmanat Faculty of Fisheries Technology and Aquatic Resources, Maejo University, Chiang Mai, Thailand, and

Louis Lebel Unit for Social and Environmental Research, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse how fish farmers manage climate-related risks and explore possible ways to strengthen risk management under current and future climate. Design/methodology/approach – In total, 662 fish farmers in sites across Northern Thailand were interviewed about risks to the profitability of their fish farms and ways such risks were managed. Nonlinear canonical correlation analysis was used to relate risk factors to management practices at farm and river levels. In total, 68 in-depth interviews with farmers and other stakeholders provided additional information on climate risk management practices. Findings – Farmers use a combination of adjustments to rearing practices, cropping calendars and financial and social measures to manage those risks, which they perceive as being manageable. Many risks are season, river and place specific; implying that the risk profiles of individual farms can vary substantially. Individual risks are often addressed through multiple practices and strategies; conversely, a particular management practice can have a bearing on several different risks. Farmers recognize that risks must be managed at farm and higher spatial and administrative scales. Social relations and information play critical roles in managing these complex combinations of risks. Originality/value – This is one of the first papers to report in detail on how inland fish farmers manage climate-related risks. It underlines the need to consider multiple spatial and temporal scales and that farmers do not manage individual climate-related risks in isolation from other risks. Keywords Water management, Risk management, Adaptation, Aquaculture, Rivers, Climate-related risks Paper type Research paper

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management Vol. 7 No. 4, 2015 pp. 476-498 © Emerald Group Publishing Limited 1756-8692 DOI 10.1108/IJCCSM-01-2014-0018

1. Introduction Climate risk management refers to the inclusion of climate-related information into decisions to reduce losses or increase benefits (Travis, 2014). Relevant experience comes from early warning systems for extreme weather events, through to seasonal forecasts, and efforts to project inter-annual climate variability (Crane et al., 2010; Patt, 2013). The work was carried out with the aid of a grant from the International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada, as a contribution to the AQUADAPT project. Thanks to the many field assistants, students, officials and farmers who helped with the surveys.


Author's personal copy Reg Environ Change (2016) 16:1481–1494 DOI 10.1007/s10113-015-0880-4

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Learning about climate-related risks: decisions of Northern Thailand fish farmers in a role-playing simulation game Phimphakan Lebel1 • Patcharawalai Sriyasak1 • Chalisa Kallayanamitra1 Chatta Duangsuwan1 • Louis Lebel1

Received: 24 November 2014 / Accepted: 5 October 2015 / Published online: 30 October 2015  Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Abstract River-based cage aquaculture in Northern Thailand involves dealing with a number of climate- and weatherrelated risks. The purpose of this study was to improve understanding of how farmers make investment decisions in their fish farms when faced with risks from floods that are imperfectly known, and which may be changing. A roleplaying simulation game was created to capture some of the key features of the decision-making context and explored with farmers in the field. In-depth interviews were conducted postgame to reflect on strategies used in the game as compared to in practice. As hypothesized, more frequent or larger impact floods reduced cumulative profits. Farmers reduced their stocking densities when playing in games with high likelihood of floods, but did not do so in games with large impacts when a flood occurred. Contrary to initial expectations, farmers were less likely to learn from experience—choose the optimal density and thus improve score within a game—when floods were common or had large impacts. Farmers learnt most when risks were decreasing and least when they were increasing. Providing information about likelihoods prior to a game had no impact on performance or decisions. The methods and findings of this study underline the importance of understanding decision-making behaviour around risks for climate risk management. The novel combination of experimental,

Editor: James D. Ford.

Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10113-015-0880-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. & Louis Lebel louis@sea-user.org; llebel@loxinfo.co.th 1

Unit for Social and Environmental Research, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand

role-playing, and qualitative methods revealed limitations in common assumptions about the ease of learning about risks from previous experiences. The findings also suggest that decision-support systems for aquaculture need to take into account how recent experiences, understanding of information, and other factors influence risk perceptions and decisions. Keywords Risk management  Decisions  Role-playing games  Aquaculture  Perception  Floods

Introduction Farmers must often make decisions about their crops with only limited information about the probability and consequences of particular types of extreme weather events, seasonal patterns or change in climate (Wood et al. 2014; Crane et al. 2010). Under these conditions, farmers may learn about risks through experience or description; that is, information provided by others (Dutt and Gonzalez 2012a). Risk refers to uncertainty about the likelihood and consequences of an event with respect to something humans value (Aven and Renn 2009). Perceptions of climate-related risks are affected by personal experiences of weather and observations of impacts, and thus often differ regionally (Higginbotham et al. 2014; Manandhar et al. 2011). In practice, learning from experience is a dynamic task as key decision conditions change as a result of both external factors and past decisions (Lejarraga et al. 2010). Learning from experience, individuals may be able to improve their decisions with time; for example, by getting a better understanding of likelihoods or outcomes (Erev et al. 2010). Many studies suggest that people are often more strongly influenced by what they learn from

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Original Article

Perceptions of climate-related risks and awareness of climate change of fish cage farmers in northern Thailand Phimphakan Lebela,b, Niwooti Whangchaia, Chanagun Chitmanata, Jongkon Promyaa and Louis Lebelb,* a

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Faculty of Fisheries Technology and Aquatic Resources, Maejo University, Chiang Mai 50290, Thailand. b Unit for Social and Environmental Research, Chiang Mai University, 239 Huay Kaew Rd, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.

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*Corresponding author.

Abstract How climate risks are understood and perceived by farmers is important

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because it can influence their management practices. Farmers in Northern Thailand who rear fish in floating cages in rivers can cope with modest fluctuations in water levels, but appear vulnerable to more extreme changes in flow. This study used in-depth interviews and a quantitative survey across many sites to explore how fish farmers perceive climaterelated risks and understand climate change. Important climate-related risks – such as floods and droughts – vary by season, year and location, and are modified by water infrastructure. Recent experience of negative impacts increases levels of concern about risks. Risks from droughts were perceived to have significantly worsened. The overall level of awareness of climate change among fish farmers is high, suggesting that future work should focus on building on from how farmers manage risks under the current climate, to then take into account climate change. This study shows that a good understanding of risk perception is likely to be important in improving climate risk management, and thus adaptation to climate change. Risk Management (2015) 17, 1–22. doi:10.1057/rm.2015.4

Keywords: risk; perception; climate change; awareness; aquaculture

© 2015 Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 1460-3799 Risk Management www.palgrave-journals.com/rm/

Vol. 17, 1, 1–22


KKU Res. J. 2014; 19(5)

743

KKU Res. J. 2014; 19(5): 743-751 http : //resjournal.kku.ac.th

ผลกระทบจากสภาพอากาศและฤดูกาลต่อคุณภาพนํา้ ในบ่อเลีย้ งสัตว์ นํ้า Impacts of Climate and Season on Water Quality in Aquaculture Ponds พัชราวลัย ศรียะศักดิ1์ 2*,นิวุฒิ หวังชัย1, ชนกันต์ จิตมนัส1, จงกล พรมยะ1 และหลุยส์ เลอเบล2 Patcharawalai Sriyasak1 2, Niwooti Whangchai1, Chanagun Chitmanat1, Jongkon Promya1 and Louis Lebel2 คณะเทคโนโลยีการประมงและทรัพยากรทางนํ้า มหาวิทยาลัยแม่โจ้ หน่วยวิจัยสังคมและสิ่งแวดล้อม คณะสังคมศาสตร์ มหาวิทยาลัยเชียงใหม่ * Correspondent author: Patcharawalai@sea-user.org 1 2

บทคัดย่อ ฤดูกาล อากาศและสภาพภูมิอากาศมีผลต่อการเพาะเลี้ยงสัตว์นํ้า บทความนี้เป็นการรวบรวมผลกระทบ ของสภาพอากาศและฤดูกาลต่อคุณภาพนํา้ และสัตว์นาํ้ รวมถึงการใช้แบบจำ�ลองเพือ่ ทำ�ความเข้าใจกลไกระบบนิเวศ ในบ่อเลี้ยงสัตว์นํ้า ข้อค้นพบจากการศึกษาอธิบายถึงอิทธิพลของสภาพอากาศและฤดูกาลที่ส่งผลต่อคุณภาพนํ้าใน บ่อ เช่น อุณหภูมินํ้า ปริมาณออกซิเจนละลายนํ้า และแอมโมเนีย ปัจจัยเหล่านี้ส่งผลต่ออัตราการเจริญเติบโต อัตรา รอด และความเสี่ยงในการเกิดโรค แบบจำ�ลองระบบนิเวศในบ่อสามารถใช้เป็นเครื่องมือเพื่อสร้างความเข้าใจและ คาดการณ์การตอบสนองต่อความแปรปรวนและการเปลี่ยนแปลงของสภาพอากาศในการเพาะเลี้ยงสัตว์นํ้าในบ่อ เพื่อเสนอทางเลือกในการจัดการที่เป็นประโยชน์ต่อการรักษาสภาพคุณภาพนํ้าที่เหมาะสม คำ�สำ�คัญ:

สภาพอากาศ ฤดูกาล คุณภาพนํ้า การเพาะเลี้ยงสัตว์นํ้า

Abstract Seasons, weather and climate affect aquaculture. This article reviews the impacts of climate and season on water quality and aquatic animals, and speculates on the use of models to better understand aquaculture pond ecosystem dynamics. Findings underline how climate and season influence water quality, including water temperature, dissolved oxygen and ammonia concentrations. These factors, in turn, affect growth, survival and risks of disease. Pond ecosystem models appear a promising tool to understand and possibly project how pond aquaculture may respond to climate variability and change, and thus, explore management options useful for maintaining suitable water quality conditions. Keyword: Climate, Season, Water quality, Aquaculture


International Journal of Geosciences, 2013, 4, 54-59 http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ijg.2013.45B009 Published Online September 2013 (http://www.scirp.org/journal/ijg)

Survey of Climate-Related Risks to Tilapia Pond Farms in Northern Thailand Pornpimol Pimolrat1, Niwooti Whangchai1, Chanagun Chitmanat1, Jongkon Promya1, Louis Lebel2 1

Faculty of Fisheries Technology and Aquatic Resources, Maejo University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Unit for Social and Environmental Research (USER) Faculty of Social Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Email: paqua50@gmail.com

2

Received July 2013

ABSTRACT Climate is an important factor for aquaculture production. This study aimed to understand how farmers that culture tilapia in earthen ponds perceive and respond to climate impacts. Important climate-related risks identified include extreme temperatures (hot and cold), excessive rainfall, prolonged cloud cover, flood and drought. Site visits and data collection using questionnaires were conducted to identify important factors influencing farm profits, losses, decision to increase or decrease ponds. Special attention was given to knowledge about fish markets and weather and the impacts of weather and climate on fish growth, disease outbreaks and water quality in ponds. Altogether 585 fish farms in four provinces in northern part of Thailand selected to cover a range of elevations above sea level and thus climate were surveyed (Nakornsawan < 100 m, Lampang 100 - 300 m, Phayao 300 - 500 m and Chiang Mai > 500 m). Fish farms at different elevations reported different climate and weather-related impacts. In the area where elevation above sea level is < 100 m, farmers were affected more by floods and extreme hot weather which caused fish deaths and stress that reduced feeding and growth rates. Conversely, fish farmers in the area where elevation above sea level is >500 were impacted mainly by drought and cold weather. These conditions also caused disease outbreaks and reduced feeding rates. Farmers responded by reducing the amount of feed supplied and considering non-fish pond or non-farm supplementary occupations as an adaptation strategy. Among non-climate related factors high prices of feed were most commonly identified as a key issue by farmers. The differences among sites at higher and lower elevation provided insights into the kind of changes in risks farmers may face as climate changes that could be helpful in developing adaptation strategies for individual farmers and the sector as a whole. Keywords: Climate; Tilapia Pond Culture; Aquaculture; Thailand

1. Introduction Climate is an environmental factor that is strongly associated to aquaculture productivity [1]. Being coldblooded animal, fish is affected by the temperature of the surrounding water which influences the body temperature, growth rate, food consumption, feed conversion, and other body functions [2,3]. Over the past few years, rising global temperatures have received much attention because of their worldwide impact on ecosystems. The climate models referenced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) [4] predicted that global temperatures are likely to increase by 1.4˚C to 6.4˚C in this century. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is a freshwater fish of great commercial interest. It is easy to culture and adapts well to a range of environments. Tilapia culture is one of the largest aquaculture industries in Thailand [5]. In the mountainous northern region, relatively high altitude and latitude contribute to more pronounced seasonal Copyright © 2013 SciRes.

temperature variation, with cooler winters than in other regions. Numerous climate variables vary with elevation [6]. Some farmers rear fish in cages suspended in rivers. This culture system is sensitive to extreme weather events, such as floods or droughts [7,8]. It is also sensitive to seasonal differences in water temperature, flow speeds and water quality. Ponds, however, are the most common production systems on a worldwide basis. Tilapia fish culture in earthen ponds in northern Thailand can be divided into three categories: commercial, integrated (with pig or chicken) and subsistence. In recent years, production of pond-raised tilapia in northern Thailand has been hampered by climate-related risks including extreme temperatures (hot and cold), excessive rainfall, prolonged cloud cover, flood and drought all of which potentially cause fish deaths, stress and reduced feeding and growth rates. In order to better understand the effects of climate on tilapia pond farms IJG


534

Int. J. Global Warming, Vol. 8, No. 4, 2015

Risk of impacts from extreme weather and climate in river-based tilapia cage culture in Northern Thailand Phimphakan Lebel, Niwooti Whangchai and Chanagun Chitmanat Faculty of Fisheries Technology and Aquatic Resources, Maejo University, Chiang Mai 50290, Thailand Email: phimphakan@sea-user.org Email: niwooti@hotmail.co.th Email: chanagun1@hotmail.co.th

Louis Lebel* Unit for Social and Environmental Research, Faculty of Social Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand Email: llebel@loxinfo.co.th *Corresponding author Abstract: This paper analyses the direct impacts of extreme weather, high and low flow events, seasonality and other climate-related phenomena on river-based tilapia cage aquaculture in Northern Thailand. An interdisciplinary approach was taken, which included analysis of secondary water flow and meteorological data, quantitative and qualitative surveys of farmers’ experiences with extreme events, and direct observations during critical periods. Findings show that extreme high and low flows adversely impact a substantial fraction of farms, causing damage to cages, fish deaths, slow growth and disease problems. Economic losses are significant and result in financial debt. Compensation and assistance following floods is modest relative to losses, and coverage is incomplete. Probability of extreme flows and impacts vary among locations, are highly seasonal, and vary inter-annually. These findings are important to improving management of climate-related risks, under both current and future climatic conditions. Keywords: climate; floods; aquaculture; drought; adaptation; risk; tilapia; extreme weather; water infrastructure; Thailand. Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Lebel, P., Whangchai, N., Chitmanat, C. and Lebel, L. (2015) ‘Risk of impacts from extreme weather and climate in river-based tilapia cage culture in Northern Thailand’, Int. J. Global Warming, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp.534–554. Biographical notes: Phimphakan Lebel is a PhD candidate at the Faculty of Fisheries Technology and Aquatic Resources, Maejo University. Her research interests include aquaculture, natural disasters, and gender.

Copyright © 2015 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


International Journal of Geosciences, 2013, 4, 18-23 http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ijg.2013.45B004 Published Online September 2013 (http://www.scirp.org/journal/ijg)

Effects of Temperature upon Water Turnover in Fish Ponds in Northern Thailand Patcharawalai Sriyasak1,2, Chanagun Chitmanat1, Niwooti Whangchai1, Jongkon Promya1, Louis Lebel2 1 Faculty of Fisheries Technology and Aquatic Resources, Maejo University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Unit for Social and Environmental Research (USER), Faculty of Social Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Email: louis@sea-user.org

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Received June 2013

ABSTRACT Fish culture in earthen ponds is an important source of income for farmers in northern Thailand. Water quality in ponds has strong impacts on fish production farmersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; return and is sensitive to weather and climate. Low levels of dissolved oxygen in fish ponds are major cause of mass mortality. Stratification with depth in ponds followed by rapid turnover or exchange of surface and bottom water can expose fish to dangerously low dissolved oxygen levels. The main purpose of this study was to observe the effects of weather on stratification and subsequent water turnover in fish ponds in northern Thailand, especially in the winter and rainy season, when stratification was expected to be most severe. Temperature and water quality measurements were made in fish ponds at 18 farms with depths ranged from 0.8 - 2.0 m and size of 0.16 - 0.64 ha. Measurements were made during January and May 2013. Fish farm pond sites were divided into two groups based on elevation above sea level: low (<400 masl) and high (>400 masl) and categorized into 3 types of farming: commercial, integrated and subsistence. In lower elevation sites, water turnover occurred at night between 22.00 and 02.00 in winter and between 18.00 and 02.00 in rainy season. At higher elevation, turnover occurred in ponds between 20.00 and 22.00 in winter and between 14.00 and 18.00 in rainy season. Turnover was slower in the lower elevation than in higher elevation zones and generally occurred earlier during the rainy season than in the winter. Mean DO in winter was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in rainy season, whilst water temperature and amount of ammonia-nitrogen during the rainy season was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in winter. Turnover improves distribution of dissolved oxygen through the water column and minimizes organic matter accumulation. Cloud cover during the rainy season may have contributed to limit oxygen production and thus may have significantly affect water quality in ponds. Fish farmers should consider more explicitly the role of temperature and cloud conditions when managing dissolved oxygen levels in their fish ponds. Therefore, efficient pond aeration or pond mixing strategies for reducing stratification still plays an important component for providing sound pond management in tilapia production ponds. Keywords: Climate; Temperature; Oxygen; Turnover; Fish Culture

1. Introduction Tilapia fish culture in earthen ponds is expanding dramatically in Thailand [1]. Farmers, especially in the northern area raise these popular freshwater fish under intensive or extensive methods, in pond cages and most commonly along with livestock under the integrated farming scheme for local consumption and livelihood. Currently, fish farmers face difficulties in rearing tilapia in earthen ponds. Warmer pond temperatures due to climate change may be a contributing factor to this problem. Temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) have impacts on fish production [2,3] and may be affected by weather and climate [4,5]. Prolonged extreme hot weather followed by a heavy rain disturbs the surface water to cool lower temperatures where the cool heavy water layer Copyright Š 2013 SciRes.

sink to the bottom floor due to gravity can cause turnover of water in ponds [6,7]. Stratification with depth in ponds followed by rapid turnover or exchange of surface and bottom water can expose fish to dangerously low dissolved oxygen levels subjecting them to stress and vulnerability to diseases. Low levels of dissolved oxygen in fish ponds are major cause of fish death [8]. Tilapia fish culture in earthen ponds in northern Thailand can be divided into three categories: commercial, integrated (with pig or chicken) and subsistence. Sensitivity to lower dissolved oxygen in different culture systems causes different levels of risks of mortality from changes in weather and water turnover. The main purpose of this study was to measure the effects of weather on stratification and subsequent water turnover in fish ponds under different IJG


สาขาประมง

การประชุมทางวิชาการของมหาวิทยาลัยเกษตรศาสตร์ ครั้งที่ 53

Relation of Light Intensity with Dissolved Oxygen and Chlorophyll-a in Nile Tilapia Ponds Patcharawalai Sriyasak , Chanagun Chitmanat , Niwooti Whangchai , Jongkon Promya and Louis Lebel 1,2*

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ABSTRACT This study investigated the relations among the parameters of light intensity, dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll-a in earthen ponds used to rear tilapia. Fifteen ponds at sites located in 5 provinces in northern Thailand - Chiangrai, Chiangmai, Phayao, Lampang and Nakhonsawan - were sampled monthly between May 2013 and May 2014. Elevation of pond sites ranged from 25 to 582 meters above sea level (masl). Ponds were 0.8 to 2.0 meter deep and 0.16 to 0.64 hectare in area. Ponds were categorized according to elevation (low, <400 masl and high, >400 masl) and culture system (intensive and extensive). Pond water samples were further classified according to season (hot, wet and dry) and time of the day for analysis. ANOVA was used to analyze differences in mean light intensity, DO and chlorophyll-a in ponds by elevation, culture system, season and time of the day. The results showed that light intensity varied significantly with elevation, season and time of the day. Mean light intensity ranged from 16.0 to 951.9 µmol m-2 s-1. DO varied significantly with season, culture system and time of the day. Mean surface DO ranged between 1.83 to 10.53 mg/l. Light intensity was high from the afternoon to late afternoon and DO in fish ponds increased as light on ponds increased. Chlorophyll-a varied significantly by season and culture system. Intensive culture ponds contained higher concentrations of chlorophyll-a and hence higher DO levels than extensive culture ponds. In intensive culture ponds, the levels of DO in early morning (04:00 to 06:00) in 68% of observations were lower than the low threshold value for Nile tilapia. These findings suggest that farmers who raise fish in intensive culture ponds should adopt appropriate strategies that maintain favorable levels of DO in order to reduce risk of production losses, for example, from periods of prolonged cloud cover which block sunlight reducing photosynthesis by phytoplankton.

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Key words: Light intensity, Dissolved Oxygen, Chlorophyll-a, Tilapia *Corresponding author; e-mail address: patcharawalai@sea-user.org 1 Faculty of Fisheries Technology and Aquatic Resources, Maejo University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. 2 Unit for Social and Environmental Research (USER) Faculty of Social Science, Chiang Mai University 1184


Int Aquat Res DOI 10.1007/s40071-015-0113-y

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Effect of water de-stratification on dissolved oxygen and ammonia in tilapia ponds in Northern Thailand Patcharawalai Sriyasak . Chanagun Chitmanat . Niwooti Whangchai . Jongkon Promya . Louis Lebel

Received: 29 May 2015 / Accepted: 5 September 2015 Ó The Author(s) 2015. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com

Abstract Episodes of low concentrations of dissolved oxygen and high concentrations of ammonia are major causes of fish stress, which in turn, reduces growth and increases mortality rates in aquaculture ponds. This study measured the effects of water de-stratification on dissolved oxygen and ammonia concentrations in tilapia ponds in Northern Thailand. Fifteen ponds in five provinces in Northern Thailand were sampled on multiple dates in the hot, wet, and dry seasons. Thermal water stratification peaked around 14:00–16:00 h each day; wherein the differences between surface and lower water temperatures in the 0.8–2.0 m deep ponds reached 1.3–4.0 °C. Thermal de-stratification in the hot season and dry season usually occurred late at night; in the wet season however, it occurred early in the evening due to the cooling effects of rain. The mixing of surface and bottom waters decreased dissolved oxygen levels in water near the surface, and, increased concentration levels in the bottom water layer. Mean DO concentrations of integrated and commercial ponds were lower than 1 mg/L from 02:00 to 06:00 h, in 68 % of the observations. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis showed that water depth and fish culture systems have significant effects on total ammonia nitrogen (TAN). TAN concentrations near the surface were lower than at the bottom, and increased after water destratification. TAN in the integrated culture system was significantly higher than in commercial and subsistence systems. Toxic, un-ionized ammonia (NH3) concentrations in all culture systems, however, were still lower than standard toxicity level for tilapia. The improved understanding of the seasonal and culture-system specific effects of de-stratification on pond water quality provided by this study, are useful for improving pond management practices to reduce the risks of exceeding DO thresholds. In particular, fish farmers should: (1) take care to avoid over-feeding and manage water and sediments to prevent excessive accumulation of organic matter and waste at the bottom of ponds, which can influence other water quality parameters; and, (2) use aeration and mechanical mixing interventions at critical times to reduce stress on fish from low DO concentrations, and thus avoid risks of mass mortality events. Keywords

Thermal de-stratification  Dissolved oxygen  Ammonia  Fish culture

P. Sriyasak  C. Chitmanat  N. Whangchai  J. Promya Faculty of Fisheries Technology and Aquatic Resources, Maejo University, Chiang Mai, Thailand P. Sriyasak (&)  L. Lebel Unit for Social and Environmental Research, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand e-mail: kpatchara@hotmail.com

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CLIMATE POLICY, 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14693062.2016.1242055

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mainstreaming climate change adaptation into inland aquaculture policies in Thailand Anuwat Uppanunchaia, Chanagun Chitmanatb and Louis Lebelc a

Lamphun Inland Fisheries Research and Development Center, Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Bangkok, Thailand; bFaculty of Fisheries Technology and Aquatic Resources, Maejo University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; cUnit for Social and Environmental Research (USER), Faculty of Social Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand ABSTRACT

ARTICLE HISTORY

While there have been many pilot projects on adaptation undertaken in the fisheries and aquaculture sector, state policies are only just beginning to address let alone refer to climate change. This study explores the climate-related content, climate sensitivities, and opportunities to incorporate climate change concerns in a set of aquaculture policies by the government of Thailand. The analysis is based on content analysis of policy documents and in-depth interviews with 14 officials that had roles in the design or implementation of 8 Department of Fisheries policies. The Aquaculture Master Plan 2011â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2016 and the now abandoned Tilapia Strategy refer directly to climate variability or change. The Master Plan also suggests measures or strategies, such as investment in research, and the transfer of technologies, which would be helpful to sustainability and adaptation. Other policies suggest, or at the very least include, practices which could contribute to strengthening management of climate-related risks, for example: a registration policy included provisions for compensation; extension programme policy recognizes the importance of extreme events; and a standards policy gives guidance on site selection and water management. Most existing aquaculture policies appear to be sensitive to the impacts of climate change; for instance, the zoning policy is sensitive to spatial shifts in climate. Stakeholders had ideas on how policies could be made more robust; in the case of zoning, by periodically reviewing boundaries and adjusting them as necessary.

Received 15 February 2016 Accepted 6 September 2016 KEYWORDS

aquaculture policy; climate change; climate sensitivity; extreme events; inland aquaculture; mainstreaming; Thailand

POLICY RELEVANCE

This study is one of the first evaluations of the coverage and sensitivity of aquaculture policies to climate change. It shows that while existing policies in Thailand are beginning to refer explicitly to climate change, they do not yet include much in the way of adaptation responses, underlining the need for identifying entry points as has been done in this analysis. Further mainstreaming is one option; another possibility is to adopt a more segregated approach, at least initially, and to collect various policy ideas under a new strategic policy for the aquaculture sector as a whole.

1. Introduction Successful climate adaptation policies reduce vulnerabilities to climate extremes, variability, and change (Burton, Huq, Lim, Pilifosova, & Schipper, 2002). Policies are needed at multiple levels and in different sectors to support building adaptive capacities of local, as well as national institutions. A widely promoted approach is to endeavour to integrate, or mainstream, the most relevant adaptation policy elements into existing development policies and plans (Huq et al., 2004). The benefits of doing so include improving coherence with other key CONTACT Louis Lebel llebel@loxinfo.co.th Supplemental data for this article can be accessed at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14693062.2016.1242055. Š 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Author's personal copy Environmental Management (2015) 56:859–873 DOI 10.1007/s00267-015-0547-4

Planning for Production of Freshwater Fish Fry in a Variable Climate in Northern Thailand Anuwat Uppanunchai1,3 • Chusit Apirumanekul2 • Louis Lebel3

Received: 3 February 2015 / Accepted: 8 June 2015 / Published online: 24 June 2015 Ó Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Abstract Provision of adequate numbers of quality fish fry is often a key constraint on aquaculture development. The management of climate-related risks in hatchery and nursery management operations has not received much attention, but is likely to be a key element of successful adaptation to climate change in the aquaculture sector. This study explored the sensitivities and vulnerability of freshwater fish fry production in 15 government hatcheries across Northern Thailand to climate variability and evaluated the robustness of the proposed adaptation measures. This study found that hatcheries have to consider several factors when planning production, including: taking into account farmer demand; production capacity of the hatchery; availability of water resources; local climate and other area factors; and, individual species requirements. Nile tilapia is the most commonly cultured species of freshwater fish. Most fry production is done in the wet season, as cold spells and drought conditions disrupt hatchery production and reduce fish farm demand in the dry season. In the wet season, some hatcheries are impacted by floods. Using a set of scenarios to capture major uncertainties and variability in climate, this study suggests a couple of strategies that should help make hatchery operations more climate change resilient, in

& Louis Lebel llebel@loxinfo.co.th 1

Lamphun Inland Fisheries Research and Development Center, Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Lamphun 51000, Thailand

2

Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) – Asia Centre, Bangkok 10330, Thailand

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Unit for Social and Environmental Research (USER) Faculty of Social Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand

particular: improving hatchery operations and management to deal better with risks under current climate variability; improving monitoring and information systems so that emerging climate-related risks are known sooner and understood better; and, research and development on alternative species, breeding programs, improving water management and other features of hatchery operations. Keywords Tilapia  Flood  Drought  Aquaculture  Hatchery  Climate change  Scenarios

Introduction Climate change, especially changes in the frequency or severity of droughts or floods, will likely have major effects on aquaculture (De Silva and Soto 2009; Pickering et al. 2011), and thus potentially also on global food security (Troell et al. 2014). Climate has a substantial influence on what species are cultured and where. Aquaculture systems and cultured organisms are typically sensitive to temperature, water availability, and quality, as well as impacted by extreme events. Most studies have focused on impacts on growth and mortality in outgrowth ponds and cages. The impacts of climate on hatchery operations and young fish have received less attention by comparison, though scholarship on this is potentially significant to aquaculture development, as maintaining supplies of quality fish fry can be a major challenge even under current climate variability (Das et al. 2013). Analysis of future climate scenarios in the northwest USA suggests that altered hydrological regimes would significantly influence water resources important to hatchery operations for Pacific salmon (Hanson and Ostrand 2011). These include both direct issues of meeting water

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Publication abstracts from AQUADAPT project (2012-2016)