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Week 4 - Projects Researching, Critiquing, Presenting and Report Writing Skills

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Projects Part 1: Two Types of Research Part 2: Doing the Secondary Research Part 3: Doing the Primary Research Part 4: Preparing Critiques Part 5: Writing the Research Report Part 6: Doing Oral Presentations 2


Projects

Part 1: Two Types of Research 

Secondary Research

Primary Research

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PART 1: Two Types of Research Primary and Secondary Research

Secondary Research

Primary Research

Information that you can find easily from various sources:

Information that you need to create on your own:

Newspapers, the internet, books, magazines, etc

Surveys, Focus Groups, Observations, Interviews, Creating Case Studies, etc

Which type of research do you do first? Secondary Research 4


Projects

Part 2: Secondary Research 

Types of secondary research materials

Keyword searches

Time management

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Part 2: Secondary Research

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Part 2: Secondary Research STATISTICS Statistics Singapore: http://www.singstat.gov.sg/stats/latestdata.html Statistics UK:

http://www.statistics.gov.uk/hub/index.html

Statistics US:

http://www.fedstats.gov/

Statistics China: http://www.stats.gov.cn/enGliSH/ Statistics India: http://www.indiastat.com/default.aspx / http://mospi.gov.in/ Statistics Viet Nam: http://www.gso.gov.vn ASEAN Statistics and Reports: http://www.aseansec.org/4913.htm 7


Part 2: Secondary Research NEWSPAPERS     

BBC CNN Channel News Asia Straits Times Interactive Business Times

For a listing of many other newspapers from around the world: http://www.onlinenewspapers.com 8


Part 2: Secondary Research SEARCH ENGINES   

Google Yahoo Bing

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Part 2: Secondary Research Research QUESTION: 2. What has the local government done to keep the internet safe?

Did you type in smart keywords Did you give specific details to be searched?

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Part 2: Secondary Research Research QUESTION: 2. What has the local government done to keep the internet safe?

Choose the right keywords

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Part 2: Secondary Research How much time should you spend on your project? Researching for information

Report Writing and Editing

Oral Presentation

50 %

30 %

20 %

SO‌......... Spend most time on research to get good, complete, interesting facts You can then prepare to write a good report And prepare for a confident presentation 12


Part 2: Secondary Research

EXERCISE:  You are the Marketing Manager of Raffles Education.  You need to write a short report to a potential investor.  The investor must be given information on Raffles Education Corp so that he will be interested to invest more money. Do the secondary research to help prepare you for this short report. The report should be 1 page long.

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Projects

Part 3: Primary Research 

Types of primary research methods

Exercises

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Part 3: Primary Research Primary Research Surveys Interviews / Focus Groups Observations

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Part 3: Primary Research Surveys

Surveys are also called Questionnaires

4 types of questions    

Verbal or open  unstructured question List Category Structured questions Ranking

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Part 3: Primary Research Surveys 1.

Verbal or open  Expected responses  word, phrase, extended comment  Useful answers, but problematic analysis

2.

List  Choose responses from a list  Eg: Select the qualifications you have  High School Certificate  Diploma  Bachelor’s Degree  Master’s Degree

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Part 3: Primary Research Surveys 3.

4.

Category  One response expected  Eg: age categories  15 – 19 20 – 24

25 - 29

Ranking  Place responses in a rank order  Eg: Which facilities do you consider to be most important to have in a university?  High-speed internet 1 Be clear with questions.  2 Well-stocked library Rank how?  4 Computer labs  3 Recreation room  5 Restaurants 18


Part 3: Primary Research Surveys

Online surveys: 3. Free Online Survey : http://www.freeonlinesurveys.com/ 5. Survey Monkey: http://www.surveymonkey.com/

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Part 3: Primary Research Surveys Think about: 3. What your research objectives are 5. How can your questions help you answer your research objectives? 7. Ask generic questions: age, occupation, gender, income, as a guideline 9. Ask questions beginning with Who, When, Why, What, Where, How 11.Have a method to collect and cross-reference the data • Microsoft Excel

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Part 3: Primary Research Interviews / Focus Groups  Centered  Gives  Time

around a topic

a wealth of valuable data

consuming to analyse

 Hard

to control  Respondent may react with bias  Interviewer may react with bias 21


Part 3: Primary Research Interviews / Focus Groups 

Interview Format  Checklist of questions and responses (structured)  Record conversation and record transcript (unstructured / semi-structured)  Eg:

Focus Groups/Market Research (Dodge Cars) – Focus Group (Salad Dressing) – Focus Group (MTV) - Ethnography  Eg:

Interview (Steve Jobs) – IPhone 2.0

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Part 3: Primary Research Interviews / Focus Groups Think about: 3. What your research objectives are 5. Prepare a list of questions to ask 7. Have a method to collect the information / answers given • A table • A list • A video / audio recording

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Part 3: Primary Research Observations 

2 types  Participant and Non-Participant 

Participant  Become immersed in an environment or situation to fully understand what is happening  Time-consuming  Unstructured  no preconceived ideas, checklists or charts  Observe events, situations, behaviour  Record all observations immediately (diary) 24


Part 3: Primary Research Observations

Non-Participant  Observe the surroundings and activities  Not an active participant  Eg: Mystery shopping (Burger King) (Mystery Shopping - Supermarket)

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Part 3: Primary Research Think about: 3. Exactly what you want to observe. Examples: • Age • Gender • Payment methods – cash or credit card • Type of clothing worn • Type of hairstyle • Shopping pattern 4. Have a method to collect the information / answers given • A table • A list Age

15 – 20 = 10

Gender

Female = 10 26


Part 3: Primary Research EXERCISE 1A  Conduct short interviews with 3 students from this school, all of whom should be of different nationalities.   

Topic: Quality of service and facilities on campus Choose structured, semi-structured or unstructured interviews Write a summary of the interview

EXERCISE 1B  Conduct interviews with 3 foreigners, of 3 different nationalities.   

Topic: Life in Singapore – a culture shock Choose structured, semi-structured or unstructured interviews Write a summary of the interview 27


Part 3: Primary Research EXERCISE 2A  Conduct surveys with 3 students from this school, all of whom should be of different nationalities.    

Topic: Quality of service and facilities on campus There should be at least 5 questions The survey should be done online Write a summary of the interview

EXERCISE 2B  Conduct surveys with 3 foreigners, of 3 different nationalities.    

Topic: Life in Singapore – a culture shock There should be at least 5 questions The survey should be done online Write a summary of the interview

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Part 3: Primary Research EXERCISE 3 Observe shoppers in a departmental store (Robinsons, Takashimaya, John Little, Metro, BHG, Isetan) AND Observe shoppers in a street market (Bugis Street, Little India, Chinatown, for example) 

What are the differences in the demographics and psychographics of the buyers / shoppers?

What are the differences in buying patterns?

Prepare a checklist of things you will observe for the purpose of this research

Write a summary of your observations

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Part 3: Primary Research Demographics    

Age Gender Income Level Race / Ethnicity

Psychographics     

Personality Values Attitudes Interests Lifestyles

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Projects

Part 4: Preparing Critiques 

What is a critique

What can be critiqued

Steps in critiquing

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Part 4: Preparing Critiques

What is a Critique?  An article, essay or report criticising or reviewing    

An article A book / movie Company decisions An event

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Part 4: Preparing Critiques Step 1: Find an event http://www.visitsingapore.com/publish/stbportal/en/home/apps/event.html Step 2: Give the background of the event:  what is the event  purpose of the event  is it the first time, or is this a yearly event? Step 3: Select a few areas to critique:  Venue selection  Theme  Crowd control  Lighting  suitability of event for the people who have attended  Clothes  Content  Hosts  Guests / guest speakers  Interactivity  Level of fun / interest  etc

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Part 4: Preparing Critiques Step 4: For every area that you critique, you must show three points (minimum): Example: Venue Selection The venue of this event was at the Gallery Theatre in the Singapore National Museum. The Gallery Theatre is able to accommodate 50 seats. Negative: It is a popular event that is held every year since 1995. It is a crowd-pulling event and the location is too small to fit a large number of people. Positive: The event was held at the very beautiful Gallery Theatre where the size of the audience can be controlled. Children were not allowed into the Theatre in order to keep the noise level low. Comment: The choice of venue can be improved. A larger space like the Esplanade should have been chosen in order to fit in a larger loyal audience. Alternatively, more shows should have been planned to allow more people to be entertained. 34


Part 4: Preparing Critiques

Step 5: Conclusion: Conclude the critique with an overall view of the event, and give final recommendations.

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Part 4: Preparing Critiques Exercise: Critique this school. You should follow the following steps: 

Background of the school

Points to be critiqued (think of minimum 5 different points to critique)

Conclusion and Recommendations

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Projects

Part 5: Writing the Research Report Step 1: Developing the structure Step 2: Using good writing styles Step 3: Citing references Step 4: Creating the reference list 37


STEP 1: Developing the structure Structure of Reports: 3. Executive Summary / Abstract 5. Background / Introduction 7. Body: Secondary Research 8. Body: Primary Research 10.Conclusion 12.Reference List 14.Appendices

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STEP 1: Developing the structure Structure of Reports: 3. Executive Summary / Abstract • •

This is shown first, but you should do this LAST. Choose either Executive Summary or Abstract.

The difference: Executive Summary – 1 page summary of all content in your report (more persuasive, giving end conclusions). Abstract – 1 paragraph overview or preview of the content of your report (more informative).

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STEP 1: Developing the structure Structure of Reports: 2. Background / Introduction • Gives the background of your research topic. •

What is your topic?

What is it about?

Why is it so interesting? / Why is it an important topic?

3. Secondary Research / Literature Review • Summarise the secondary research that you have got. Link this to your objectives. •

Explain how this information has allowed you to get the answer to your objective(s). 40


STEP 1: Developing the structure Structure of Reports: 4. Primary Research • What primary research have you done? •

Show the questions and the responses (table / list, etc)

Summarise the information in words – a table or graph is not enough.

5. Conclusion • From all the research you have done, what have you found out? •

What was interesting that you did not expect?

What was surprising / shocking?

Were you able to get answers to all of your research objectives? 41


STEP 1: Developing the structure Structure of Reports: 6. Reference List • Harvard Style Referencing. •

In-text citation must also be done.

7. Appendices • This is an optional section. •

You can choose to either have your graphs / tables / diagrams in the appendices, or in the body of your report.

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STEP 2: Using good writing styles 1. Use signpost words Therefore, In contrast, For instance, For example, It has been found, It is interesting to see, It is safe to say, etc

2. Write complete paragraphs Each paragraph should ideally contain: 1. 1 – 2 opening sentences on the idea you have. 2. 1 – 2 sentences giving facts, or details 3. 1 – 2 sentences to end the paragraph regarding your idea, if your o is not the same as the facts or details you have It is important to allow freedom of press in this country. However, reports by research company ABC have established that 90% of the 25 different newspapers available here have to undergo governmental censorship. In other parts of Asia, ABC found that more than 60% of the printed media are allowed freedom of press (ABC, 2008). It is clear that more needs to be done to allow the general public to express their views more openly. A fear of the government may be one of the reasons why people do not speak up more. 43


STEP 3: Citing references Referencing must be done in two parts:  

In-text referencing (also called Citation) Reference List (at the back of the report)

DO NOT take whole paragraphs or chunks of information and paste it in your report. Take only 1 – 2 sentences from a particular chapter or article. Everything else – your own ideas, thoughts and words.

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STEP 3: Citing references When taking sentences from articles or books, a good way to incorporate (put it in) your report: 

According to the BBC, men are smarter than women (BBC, 2008).

Men are smarter than women, says John Smith of the BBC (Smith, 2008).

It has been found that men are smarter than women, (BBC, 2008) or (Smith, 2008). 45


STEP 3: Citing references Research and Reference (Example) {in the report - Citation}

An interesting new research has shown that men are actually more intelligent than women (Clerkin and MacRae, 2006) {on the last page of report – Reference List}

Clerkin, B., MacRae, F. ‘Men are more intelligent than women, claims new study’, MailOnline, 14 September 2006 Accessed 1st October 2008 http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-405056/Men-intelligent-

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STEP 3: Citing references Research and Reference (Example) {on the last page of report – Reference List} Clerkin, B., MacRae, F. ‘Men are more intelligent than women, claims new study’, MailOnline,

Surname, Initial, ‘Title’, Newspaper Name

14 September 2006, Accessed 1st October 2008 http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-405056/Men-intelligent-women-claims-new-stud

Date, Accessed date, url 47


STEP 3: Citing references Research and Reference (Example) {in the report - Citation}

An interesting new research has shown that men are actually more intelligent than women (MailOnline, n.d) {on the last page of report – Reference List}

‘Men are more intelligent than women, claims new study’, MailOnline, n.d. Accessed 1st October 2008 http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-405056/Men-intellig

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STEP 3: Citing references

Research and Reference (Example)

{on the last page of report – Reference List} ‘Men are more intelligent than women, claims new study’, MailOnline, n.d. Accessed 1st October 2008 http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-405056/Men-intelligent-

n.d (if no date given for the article) Start with article title if there are no writer names

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STEP 4: Creating the reference list

 The reference list must follow the Harvard Referencing System  The list of references must be in alphabetical order (A – B – C ..)

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Projects

Part 6: Doing Oral Presentations Point 1: Quality of PowerPoint slides Point 2: Preparation for Presentations Point 3: Body Language

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Point 1: Quality of PowerPoint Slides 

Make your 1st or 2nd slide an outline of your presentation  Ex:

previous slide

Follow the order of your outline for the rest of the presentation

Only place main points on the outline slide  Ex:

Use the titles of each slide as main points

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Point 1: Quality of PowerPoint Slides Slide Structure – Good 

Use 1-2 slides per minute of your presentation

Write in point form, not complete sentences

Include 4-5 points per slide

Avoid wordiness: use key words and phrases only 53


Point 1: Quality of PowerPoint Slides Slide Structure - Bad ď Ž

This page contains too many words for a presentation slide. It is not written in point form, making it difficult both for your audience to read and for you to present each point. Although there are exactly the same number of points on this slide as the previous slide, it looks much more complicated. In short, your audience will spend too much time trying to read this paragraph instead of listening to you. 54


Point 1: Quality of PowerPoint Slides Slide Structure – Good 

Show one point at a time:  Will help audience concentrate on what you are

saying 

Will prevent audience from reading ahead

Will help you keep your presentation focused

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Point 1: Quality of PowerPoint Slides Slide Structure - Bad 

Do not use distracting animation

Do not go overboard with the animation

Be consistent with the animation that you use

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Point 1: Quality of PowerPoint Slides Fonts - Good 

Use at least an 18-point font

Use different size fonts for main points and secondary points  this font is 24-point, the main point font is 28-point, and the title font is 36-point

Use a standard font like Times New Roman or Arial

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Point 1: Quality of PowerPoint Slides Fonts - Bad 

If you use a small font, your audience won’t be able to read what you have written

CAPITALIZE ONLY WHEN NECESSARY. IT IS DIFFICULT TO READ

Don’t use a complicated font

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Point 1: Quality of PowerPoint Slides Colour - Good 

Use a colour of font that contrasts sharply with the background  Ex: blue font on white background

Use colour to reinforce the logic of your structure  Ex: light blue title and dark blue text

Use colour to emphasize a point  But only use this occasionally 59


Point 1: Quality of PowerPoint Slides Colour - Bad 

Using a font colour that does not contrast with the background colour is hard to read

Using colour for decoration is distracting and annoying.

Using a different colour for each point is unnecessary  Using a different colour for secondary points is also unnecessary

Trying to be creative can also be bad 60


Point 1: Quality of PowerPoint Slides Background - Good 

Use backgrounds such as this one that are attractive but simple

Use backgrounds which are light

Use the same background consistently throughout your presentation

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Point 1: Quality of PowerPoint Slides

Background – Bad 

Avoid backgrounds that are distracting or difficult to read from Always be consistent with the background that you use

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Point 1: Quality of PowerPoint Slides Graphs - Good 

Use graphs rather than just charts and words  Data in graphs is easier to comprehend & retain than is raw data  Trends are easier to visualize in graph form

Always title your graphs

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Point 1: Quality of PowerPoint Slides Graphs - Bad

January February Blue Balls 20.4 27.4 Red Balls 30.6 38.6

March 90 34.6

April 20.4 31.6

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Point 1: Quality of PowerPoint Slides Graphs - Good Items Sold in First Quarter of 2002 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30

Blue Balls Red Balls

20 10 0 January

February

March

April

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Point 1: Quality of PowerPoint Slides Graphs - Bad 100 90

90

80

70

60 Blue Balls

50

Red Balls 38.6

40

34.6 31.6

30.6 27.4

30 20.4

20.4

20

10

0 January

February

March

April

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Point 1: Quality of PowerPoint Slides Spelling and Grammar 

Proof your slides for:  speling mistakes  the use of of repeated words  grammatical errors you might have make

If English is not your first language, please have someone else check your presentation!

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Point 1: Quality of PowerPoint Slides Conclusion 

Use an effective and strong closing  Your audience is likely to remember your last words

Use a conclusion slide to:  Summarize the main points of your presentation  Suggest future avenues of research

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Point 1: Quality of PowerPoint Slides Questions?? 

End your presentation with a simple question slide to:  Invite your audience to ask questions  Provide a visual aid during question period  Avoid ending a presentation abruptly

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Point 2: Preparation for Presentations 

The top ten “bloopers” of presentations:  Distracting mannerisms (verbal and/or physical)  Poor intonation, volume or rate  Not being prepared  Not connecting with the audience  Poor visual aids  Poor structure or fragmented speech  Not practicing and managing time  Lack of eye contact  Reading the presentation  Inappropriate humour 70


Point 3: Body Language 

Use up nervous energy – before the presentation push on the arms of a chair for a few seconds and then relax, or clench your fists, then relax. Repeat a few times

Actions during the introduction – smile and keep eye contact with the audience, and do something requiring movement but do not take more than two steps towards your audience as you will appear uneasy and unsure

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Point 3: Body Language

Actions during the remainder of the presentation – most people become more comfortable once they start presenting, speak loudly, pay attention to articulation and use gestures

Watch your audience’s eyes, postures and facial expressions to see whether they understand you

Use gestures naturally to emphasise your points 72


Point 3: Body Language Gesture Inhibiting Stances Stance

Characteristic

The Bear Hug

Arms across your chest

Ten-Hut!

Arms stiff, firmly nailed to the pelvis

The Flesh Wound

One arm hangs, the other acts as a tourniquet

Parade Rest

Legs slightly spread, hands behind back

The Choir Person

Hands clasped at waist, fingers entwined

Supplicant

Same as above but at chest level

The Fig Leaf

Demurely crossed hands

Sisters of Mercy

Hands in praying position

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Point 3: Body Language Gesture Enhancing Stances 

Open up your arms – to embrace your audience between your waist and shoulders

Drop your arms – to your side when not in use

Avoid – quick and jerky movements

Vary gestures – switch from hand to hand and at other times use both 74


Point 3: Body Language Conclusion 

Becoming an effective speaker requires work

You must develop speaking skills and refine them through practice

Take advantage of opportunities to speak

Apply the adage “practice makes perfect”

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Research  

Research Skills

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