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Album by Katryna Callaghan


Katryna Callaghan Product Designer

I am a product designer studying at Duncan of Jordanstone, Dundee. My teaching and practice over the past four years has allowed me to define and craft a sensory experience with the objects I craft, this is achieved through exploring and experimenting with users in order to communicate multiple values in one message. The various briefs have played a key role in extending my knowledge and skills that I am applying to my final project. The course has had a real focus on people, design and technology, which have been applied to all aspects of my projects over the course of my time here.


Acknowledgements Tutors Chris Lim Ryan Mcleod Makespace Staff Ali Napier Rob Jackson Beth Spowart Workshop Technicians Lyle McCance Malcolm Cheyne Sean Kingsley Roddy Mathieson Graham Interviewees Jay Grant Trudy Cunningham Pamela Shaw Anne McMillan Elizabeth Hawkins Julie Willoughby Gurus See Pages 12-15 Participants James and Isobel Brown Trevor and Teresa Fields Gillian Griffiths Shelia Horton Lynne and John Callaghan Anthea Reid A special thanks to Balcarres Care Home and all those who helped contribute to this project


Table of Contents Introduction to Album Introduction A quick overview of my project including the people, design and technology breakdown Find The initial stage of the design process focuses on research and ideation. It is the place where a trigger is found and explored to its potential. Play Going forward from this the next stage is gathering all the information I have in order to generate a concept and work with my focus Make Using my research as a place to develop my concept and bring my technology and model to life Talk Presenting my final idea


People, Design and Technology People (40%) People have played a vital role in determining what the interaction and relationship between user and object can be identified as. Album is based around the experience that a user can have with an object through audio. Understanding dementia and how it can change and influence individuals was significant in allowing this to be a unique experience that focuses on individuals needs. The tone of voice and way this brand is visually expressed was strongly based around working with a user to see what they would like out of a project of this nature. Design (20%) The design of the bench is intended to be simplistic in order to fit into its surroundings wherever this may be from a more private location in a garden to a public space. Once the users needs were taken into account, considering the need for a backrest and the overall height of the bench, the visual representation of the bench remained very much consistent. However a lot of work was put into configuring a brand identity that was strongly linked to the mid-century theme that is showcased through the legs with a design that was suitable to be easily identified but also linked to that of the benches current form. Technology (40%) The relationship that technology has played is seen as one of the most significant components. For this a raspberry pi was used as it already offered an audio output. One of the challenging parts I have found was learning how to code in python and understanding a different language in order to write code that is correctly executed. A lot of components were trialled and tested in order to achieve the best interaction but also allowing consideration to be put in place to allow for several participants to use this bench, opening up the possibilities.


One Great Image

100 Words There are 850,000 people with dementia in the UK, with numbers predicted to rise over 1 million by 2025 and seen to soar to 2 million by 2051. Album is a bench that provides those with dementia a sense of confidence and empowerment. The interaction that occurs between the user and object is achieved through a series of audio recordings that are played through the bench; this is significant in allowing the sharing of experiences, memories and stories whilst providing exercises for the brain’s memory mechanism that provides positive emotional feedback, which in turn helps improve the quality of life.


Further Details Function of Product Album plays a significant role in acting as a placeholder where family and friends are able to record and upload sound onto the bench for a loved one, these vary and can be done to suit the needs of the user based on what is significant and relevant to them. Each RFID tag is given an identity, which allows information to be sorted and is only relevant to them. When the tag is scanned the identity is recognised and the information is gathered and played for the user.

The Aim The aim of this bench is to not only play a significant role in helping with reminiscence, it is hoping to offering a talking point which in return raises awareness. The outdoors is seen as a significant environment that can help a user; unfortunately a lot of these areas are not suitable for those with dementia. This bench not only is important in helping with memory but plays a role in identifying an area that meets the users needs and recognises that actions need to be taken to help. This project is largely based around the relationship user and objects can have but going forward is key in making a subtle statement.

The Users The bench is designed to help with reminiscing not only as an individual but is also able to bring family and friends together in this sharing and reminiscing task. My inspiration was taken from interactive furniture that already exists and the roles they play in open spaces. I was inspired to make something that could have two functions. The functionality as a bench and furthering that focussing on the main purpose of the sharing experience and the interaction an object has between user and object.




Desk Research Desk research was the first pivotal stage I took in starting off my project, with no real focus I was struggling to define where I was actually going. In the beginning of this process there were lots of concepts getting brought into the mix. My breakthrough during this stage occurred when street furniture was introduced into the mix. As a piece of design it plays a significant role in blending into the background. By stripping down the different elements of street furniture and the roles they play opens up a range of possibilities to be explored. This helped refine the direction of research and interaction that can occur between an object and user in an outdoor environment. However very early on in this process I was advised to look into technology in a more physical form and to remove myself from following a product that can be interacted with through an interface. Hello Lamppost was an initiative ran in Bristol looking at the street furniture that existed and given it an identity at value. This project looked at bringing street furniture to life and giving it a secondary purpose, even though its actual purpose is frequently taken for granted. This concept allowed an interaction to occur and receives a response even though this is largely focussed around a screen-based activity. A real turning point came when Ross Atkins and Marshalls interactive street furniture was discovered which highlights very specific solutions to meet the users needs. This project was important in conveying an approach where adaptations were made to suit a particular users needs this was done by recreating and reshaping furniture to achieve this. This is relevant as it uses technology as the main focus to enable people to connect to their surroundings whilst allowing a natural experience to occur.


Photo Study A photo study was chosen as an appropriate method of researching in order to look at the furniture that is on display in different areas within Dundee. Dundee was chosen as a location to conduct this due to the regeneration of the waterfront and the contrast of street furniture on display in a short distance which presents questions that open a dialogue of the contrast of old and new and form over function. In order to conduct this research I looked into three areas. The areas I chose included; Magdalen Green, City square and Slessor Gardens. Even though these three areas are located within a mile radius each offered a different experience and the target audience was varied with different street furniture on offer. Magdalen Green is a park situated in the West End; it offers an array of benches from picnic tables to memorial benches and the bandstand that takes a prominent feature. Just a short walk away was Slessor Gardens; a recently developed area offered a completely unique experience by tailoring furniture that offered a more sustainable feel. This area was primarily developed after an adaption to the road layout from the Tay Bridge, which has offered a central place that will closely be linked with the V&A. Finally I finished the study in the City Centre, a multipurpose area that is designed with the need to suit a large population of shoppers and must be adaptable to suit the needs of all these users in one specific place. This also presented some of the less appealing furniture, however outside Caird Hall there are picnic benches that offer adaptable seating to suit the needs of those who need mobility access in a more discreet way. Overall from this study I have clearly seen and had the ability to identify the changes that can be seen in a short space, however lots of questions are presented based on the variety of furniture



Guru’s Day Gurus Day is a day where staff from the university and experts from industry are welcomed into the studio to offer advice on our projects. The studio is rearranged to just show our projects in one space whilst also demonstrating a break down of People Design and Technology which need to take form in an appropriate way to demonstrate our projects. In order to showcase my work I decided it would be appropriate to display my work by selecting the three areas I had used for my photo study and placing them on a map whilst using the locations to break down how I was dividing up my project to showcase my current thought process. For Gurus day I was assigned a few Gurus to discuss where I was at currently with my project and get advice on where I needed to go next with my project. I began explaining each of my stages, not really knowing where to begin I spoke through the process that had led me to street furniture. During my presentation I also mentioned memorial benches to a few of my Gurus and the idea of storytelling brought up some interesting conversations. Although some had concerns, I thought it was interesting to look at the story you can tell through this process, this is heavily influenced on a living digitally presentation by Dr Wendy Moncur on how storytelling through an object can take an interesting form. My first Guru was James Williams a research & development product designer at Glasdon and a DJCAD Product Design Graduate. This opportunity was pivotal as it offered me the opportunity to discuss street furniture with someone who works in a company that creates street furniture. He advised me to: -Look at other cities and see how they do it there is more than just Dundee, and look to create something that can be used in more than one location. -Remember to always have a reason why you decided to pick certain materials and provide a thought process to support your decision. -Find more informative research in order to start developing, look at the reasons why things are done in a certain way from product placement to a reason behind a design. -Step away from making it gimmicky as that can lose the value that they have because of this.



My next Guru was Finlay Craig a Digital Interaction Graduate who is currently a Senior Mobile UX Designer at Farfetch, a digital marketplace for luxury fashion. After speaking through my initial concepts and where I could see my project developing he recommended a couple of things I needed to consider involving: -Find a problem “You are knocking at the door- but where is the problem?” -Look at how people interact with the outdoor space and look at what you can develop One of my other Gurus was Nick Taylor a Senior Lecturer and Dundee Fellow in DCJAD specialising in human–computer interaction. His main research interest is in the design of technology to support communities and civic engagement. His advice was simple and direct: -Understand spaces and figure out what I wanted to get out of this project in order to move forward. -Take this away from a phone device as a main functionality in relation to your product don’t overdo it Image on right is a copy of my People, Design and Technology boards used for Guru’s Day

“Find the people and the rest will come”. Craig Murdo UX consultant, Sopra Steria



Interviews Jay Grant My first interview was with Jay Grant, a project and development manager at Dundee City Council. A lot of the questions were tailored to Dundee with a focus on the waterfront development in comparison to some of the other locations. Key points taken away from this interview: -Every bench installed in the city has a; place, role and purpose -The location of the street furniture plays a role in what is installed be it the metal benches, which are predominately, used in housing areas to the more sustainable and picnic benches seen in city square and on the waterfront development -Responsive street furniture is something that would be considered in the future with new lampposts currently having Bluetooth and Wi-Fi Council Surveyor, England Key points gained from this interview: -Majority of street furniture is plastic due to the green factor and there is less vandalism, the street furniture is chosen based on the area initially -Main focus is on public areas near blocks of flats with picnic benches with wheelchair access and picnic benches are the most used in this area -Responsive street furniture is not appropriate for what is currently done Trudy Cunningham From a previous interview I was put in contact the Environment and Sustainable Officer for Dundee University. The key points taken from this were: -There is a strategy in place and it is the responsibility of the Estates to purchase and install all the street furniture for Dundee University and the Botanic Gardens -The campus is a campus of two halves between staff and students and it is a real difficulty to meet the needs of all the users on a site that changes over a 24-hour period. Image on right is Information given from Trudy on a multiptude of Heritage maps from Dundee





Why Dementia? “There are 850,000 people with dementia in the UK, with numbers set to rise to over 1 million by 2025.� One area that has contributed a lot to this was the sharing of memories and the importance this is with the increasing numbers of people with dementia. Typically, a person with dementia is more able to recall things from many years ago than recent memories, so reminiscence draws on this strength. Talking about the past can also bring up happy memories and good feelings, and this can be wonderful in itself, but particularly if a person is finding life difficult. This bench offers a place for the user to sit within their own outdoor environment that allows recordings to be played of memories shared with the sufferer from family and friends. Dementia is a word that describes symptoms related to memory loss and difficulties with thinking, problem-solving or language. These changes are often small to start with, but for someone with dementia they have become severe enough to affect daily life. For me dementia provides a topical conversation as the population of those suffering with dementia is seen to rise within the next few years. There is a significant amount of information available highlighting the importance of reminiscence therapy and how it can act as a comfort and be therapeutic. Due to this there is an interesting element that is able to be explored through the use of storytelling and the sharing of memories with the bench. From this it is key to further explore dementia and the services in place and how this bench should be presented to be most effective.


Bare Conductive Prototype In order to consider both the aesthetic of the bench and the technology I created a prototype that uses bare conductive ink and uses a bare conductive board in order to test audio. To showcase this I created a video that demonstrates a proximity sensor in place and as you approach the ink dots audio is played and stopped. This looks into a way that the audio could be played when the user approaches the bench. My first prototype was constructed in half scale in order to begin to play and understand sizes. The creation of models was a challenge in itself to create something that is able to hold its weight was much more difficult than I had first imagined. But choosing half scale meant an appropriate scale was made and also enabled a more visual representation. Although there were a range of sketches drawn to define a final concept it was determined very early on that a large part of the benches role was to fit in to its surroundings. This meant that there was a focus on trying to create something that is aesthetically pleasing but also concentrate on something that could compliment the final user and those who would be experiencing the final object.

1/2 scale model with Condictive ink


Mark 1 Mark 1 presentations highlighted the next progression point from concept presentations. It was during this time I was able to demonstrate where my project had developed. I was able to update those in my group on the progression from street furniture to that of dementia and the facts I am aware of. The main change was the design of the bench, by identifying the user the design of the bench was altered to suit, the addition of a back support was seen as essential, however in 2014 data showed that there was over 40,000 people within the UK under 65 with dementia showing that the design needed to be suitable for a wide audience. Looking at the sizes of benches that currently existed and constructing scaled models allowed me to compare sizes to that of existing furniture. I have chosen hairpin legs as these keep in with the simplistic style while sourcing American oak wood which is suitable for an outdoor environment. For the technology I was advised to use raspberry pi, however in order to recreate the style of interaction I demonstrated the bare conductive board with the use of conductive ink I am able to have a proximity sensor work to replicate some sense of how I see the product functioning.

Hairpin legs


Full Scale Model In order to have a better understanding on the correct dimensions of the bench a full scale model was constructed that focuses on sizes of materials and the correct height for someone to sit at this is demonstrated next to a chair for comparison. The construction of this model was later recreated and the legs were removed as they were unable to support the weight of the material

Full size model in relation to a chair


Coding Take 1 As I was new to Raspberry Pi at the start of this project I decided to look at some simple coding experiments to see what I could achieve and to look at the structure of how the programming was coded in order to grasp what it came to later on. My first execution used python and terminal where I was able to get pi to ask for a name and when a name was then given to the program it was then outputted to say hello, this is a very simple and what seemed easy enough transaction. Moving on from this very early on I decided to play with the way that the interaction occurred and what component would be most suitable not only for the user but also what would be best in an ideal situation if it were to be executed for market. The first interaction I tested was a toggle switch; by easily adaptable coding I was able to configure continuous output and single output of when the switch was on and off. Originally I had thought this would be most suitable in allowing the user to turn on and off the audio as appropriate. Further testing meant that this component would need to be situated on show or something close to the surface would need to be created in order to act as a button.

A mockup of the wiring needed for the toggle switch


Balcarres Balcarres is a Bupa care home based in Broughty Ferry and I was fortunate to have access to talk to one of the members of staff Pamela Shaw. The interview offered a chance to talk through where my project was at and also find out her experience with dementia and the services on offer at Balcarres. Interesting points that came up from the interview include: -There are a variety of services on offer including; pampering, walking, art, baking, live entertainment, quiz night, knitting, toddlers club, Internet club and reminisce club -Reminisce club and the internet are beneficial in helping those with dementia with the opportunity to show images on the tv of old Dundee and Glasgow as they remember it -Music is seen to be really important, particularly as one resident doesn’t talk but when old music is played will sing every word -The role of family as a trigger really depends on the individual as even though some comes on a regular basis they may not be remembered by those in the care home -Family can have a various impact and can be dependant from one day to the next -Baby therapy is very important in reminding those of memories from a younger age as those there may not be able to remember their own family -A cheerful voice is important as it is needed to be uplifting and a sad tone of voice could make a negative effect, it also really needs to be interesting and be able to tell a story -The bench would be ideal in a setting like this especially with the hidden functionality and could be beneficial for the upbeat residents - Balcarres has a garden and a room full of 1940 possessions including irons. Furthering on from this interview I went back to Balcarres to view the facilities discussed in the interview and I was able to take photos to look at what they offer the residents and how they looked at incorporating a mixture of old and new to suit the residents needs. The images on the right were taken of the ‘wee 1940’s room’ and the gardens which act as a village from; a chapel to a post office and thrift shop.





“Remember to always have a reason why you decided to pick certain materials and provide a thought process to support your decision.� James Williams


Mark 2 Prototype Update: Since mark 1 I have really focussed on making the bench a reality. The prototype has taken shape with American white oak and attached the hairpin legs. Furthering on from this I am going to match the metal brackets that have been made and the hairpin legs will be spray-painted black. As this is a prototype I am planning on housing the electronics under the bench and encasing them in an oak box which may make a significant change to the bench but will hopefully be milled so even so will only make a slight change. Branding Update: One of my main aims is to express the message in the branding in hope that it will carry across the idea through the different stages. Users Update: One of my main aims is to express the message in the branding in hope that it will carry across the idea through the different stages. Update Technology: For technology I have come across a couple of issues, which I have tried to overcome through trial and error. Also I have begun to test out dropbox as an upload function. The Pack Update: In order to increase the service that I am offering my main plan is to decide something that will include a suitable service that my product should offer and if it should come in the form of physical instructions. WHAT’S NEXT? -Develop the service -Find a suitable sensor -Record the users data -Figure out the branding -Pull all the different components together.


Photo of bench in the workshop


Components The first part of this involved choosing the wood that I wanted the bench to be constructed from. I was advised to visit Brodies Timber in Dunkeld where there was an array of materials available. An initial conversation before this with Lyle, one of the workshop technicians at DJCAD pointed me to look into hardwoods with a real focus on having character in the wood due to the simplicity of the structure. From this I looked into the character and considered Elm and American Oak. On arrival to the Timber yard I was able to look at the two different materials and I further ordered the American Oak to feature as the main material with the seat to be constructed of two panels and one for the backrest. Very early on in the process I knew I wanted the design of the bench to be simplistic, yet timeless so a key part of this is the materials that are used. For the legs of the bench I decided that metal would be a good material to use and would offer the simple contrast I wanted. I was able to order legs from the Hairpin leg co. there was a few options for the finish of the legs. Due to the backrest panels getting constructed in DJCAD I decided that the finish should be uncoated in order to have the same consistency and match the back and legs together. After ordering all the components and waiting for the wood to settle appropriately it was time to begin the process of building the bench. The first stage after the wood was settled was to prepare it in order to create the seat of the bench. For this two of the boards had to be attached, originally I had envisaged the size of the bench to be approximately 500mm but after the material was purchased and reconsiderations a smaller width was applied. As you can see in the photos a biscuit joint was used and glue applied before leaving it to sit in clamps overnight.


In order to make the product more suitable for the users I am targetting this project it was decided to round the edges using a router to give a consistant edge around project. Once this was complete it was time to attach the hairpin legs


By having all these parts together meant I had majority of the physical object in one piece once this was constructed it was easier to have a visual representation of my final project, which was then used in mark 2. From this it became easier to have a clear idea on the metal back brackets that were made at DJCAD. Even though the coding took centre stage in the background I was able to clean the metal and coat that alongside with the legs to get a consistent finish before attaching them to the back in the designated routed area.


The technology box was created in order to hold the battery, RFID and raspberry pi in an easily removable unit. Once routed with the chosen measurements the box was easily able to hold all the devices. Whilst taking into consideration the sound outputting from the speaker a risen lid was created offering the ability for sound to output whilst also trying to fit into the aesthetic and fit into the simplistic design.

The only thing left to do was to apply the vinyl to the bench and apply oil, the image below shows the oil drying taking 8-10 hours to do so. After the first coat the finish wasn’t quite right so the bench was needing to be wiped down with a rough cloth before applying another coat of oil.


Fully Constructed Project



Coding the right sensor Trying to achieve the right interaction and understanding what sensors are needed is one of the most challenging tasks. In order to achieve this I decided to try a range of sensors. The first sensor I tried was a Distance Sensor, by using tutorials I was able to easily construct the setup and use readily available code. However I found some problems with the code when I attempted to run it through. The size of the sensor was too big and would need to be on show in order to record a distance that once reached would begin to play audio. Due to this I decided to move onto another sensor. The next sensor I tried was an Infrared PIR Motion Sensor Module. Once again by copying the coding available I was able to easily get this to work. For this coding the values printed every 0.5 seconds stated if there was an intruder or not which are also highlighted through the use of an LED, which also picks up the presence. This has a range of approximately 7 meters, and a 110° x 70° detection range which you can see it picking up a range of motion on the video. Other considerations I have taken in to account are based around the powering of the raspberry pi due to the power requirements and the need to achieve this in an outdoor setting I have looked into battery powering that will not only be able to power the raspberry pi but also should be able to power the raspberry pi for a substantial amount of time. My understanding at this stage is that although the sensors are effective in picking up distance there is an issue of having to have them on show and the main focus of the interaction that I wanted to occur between the bench and the user was hidden. By working with other forms of technology I know that this is a possibility as in previous projects I have placed a proximity on conductive ink so that sound was only outputted based on the users interaction. From this I am undecided if it is worth trying another capacitor or using a current capacitor I have and adapting it. Image on right shows Toggle Switch and sound set up



More Technology One of the skills I have managed to learn through trial and error is the language used to be applied in both terminal and in python. Terminal is set up in a way to work instantaneously, so at times it feels like the code that I have executed may not be shown in my progress. The biggest development is the purchase of an RFID reader. During the process I have purchased two but the distance needed from the MFRC522 component didn’t suit my needs so I got an ID-20LA with a USB board meaning no soldering is required and it is able to be plugged directly into the module. On the RFID there is a presoldered buzzer attached and when one of the RFID cards, with a value of 125 khz is scanned the you are able to hear a confirmation with the sound of a buzzer. The next part of this task was to apply an .mp3 file In python, due to installing different drivers I was fortunate to execute the sound with just three lines of code, although the sound clarity is not the greatest it is significant in showing a success and progress achieved. Although not every part of this week was a success as the range of coding and different stages I have followed have meant that it has become a challenge to record every stage of the journey and some files have become lost particularly when I ended up having to wipe my pi and download NOOBS again in as the default password wasn’t working and I hadn’t managed to change the values before a reboot had taken place. After the successes and knowing that I am able to do this and execute the code I am really hoping this weekend I will be able to add all the script together and have a product that will be successful in identifying different values and executing the correct audio.


RFID MFRC522 Component


Getting it to work One of the skills I have managed to learn through trial and error is the language used to be applied in both terminal and in python. Terminal is set up in a way to work instantaneously, so at times it feels like the code that I have executed may not be shown in my progress. The biggest development is the purchase of an RFID reader. During the process I have purchased two but the distance needed from the MFRC522 component didn’t suit my needs so I got an ID-20LA with a USB board meant that it could just be plugged directly into the pi and be connected through the serial port there. All I needed for the code to be executed: A power Supply A 1D-20LA RFID reader and Sparksfun USB port A Speaker A raspberry pi The python script turned out to be quite easy to be written however I was starting to notice code would be working one day and not the next. This however turned out to be the difference in opening python 2 or 3 automatically and that is why lots of errors occurred. However when executing this code on boot the code is set to read in python 2 based on the difference in values inputed, the errors occur due to the user of ascii and unicode to read values and each set runs it differently.

Image shows all the tools needed to run the code.


Final Code

Code saved in text form By defining values that I had gathered from the raspberry pi when working with other code I was able to tell a particular RFID what I wanted it to do. In this case each user has a folder full of pre-loaded music stored on the pi and when the RFID reader picks up one of the values audio is played based on the users choices. As this will be executed without a screen it was also important to have a switch off feature in order to safely turn off the pi and stop any errors from occurring. In order to achieve this a simple RFID is scanned and the computer is told to turn off until it is powered up again. Overall the code taken to get to this point is reasonably easy and by playing with a range of other programs and exploring how similar interactions can be achieved was a worthwhile learning experience.


Interviews Even though a lot of my research was conducted I know that there was still room to improve my knowledge on dementia and I was put in touch with Elizabeth Hawkins a Community Co-ordinator in Wolverhampton. Her advice about trying to find the correct tone was interesting and very informative and raised some interesting ideas on where I could go next. She gave me information on an anology she was given during training: “I remember in one training session that we had a really useful analogy was used. It went a little like this: If you imagine a bookcase that is filled to capacity with events (memories) with the bottom shelf being the oldest memories. As the shelves get higher they are filled with newer memories. Now the trainer then said that if you shake the bookcase , the memories get jumbled up. (so if that person was to read their books there would not be a logical sequence to them). I think that is the best way to describe dementia. Especially as a dementia crisis never happens in the same order of events.” Furthering on from this I had a phone interview with Julie a Consultant Nurse of Dementia Services at the Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust and has had experience of over 30 years. Some of the key takeaways from the interview include: -Don’t use suffering, this is terminology should be avoided -Each person is affected differently -Music can help relax people as long as the music is based on the individual’s likes as it can also act as a negative impact - A positive and uplifting tone of voice should be used but it really is difficult to say what will work and something that may work for one person may distress others - An outdoor sensory garden is seen to be really beneficial and was a radical addition to the ward. -Don’t group this project as this may not suit everyone as some people may struggle to understand the bench but it could really work for others.


“Don’t be disheartened you got tools in a toolbox not one size fits all” Consultant Nurse of Dementia Services at the Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust


Branding My branding is a significant part of expressing the tone of voice that I need to be applied to the identity of my product. One of the hardest tasks was trying to figure out a brand name. Throughout my sketchbook I have explored a range of techniques in regard to trying to find an appropriate name and the visual identity. The start of the branding discussion has always focussed on the form of the bench and how the legs play a significant role in the whole design and have really inspired me. Due to this I heavily concentrated on words related to memory due to the importance of memories in relation of my project and also the similarity of the shape of the three pins that come together. However very early on it was pointed out to me that when the bench is placed correctly (its current form is upside down on a bench) the legs are actually a W. This really was no easy task as I really needed to give my product a name and I had previously referred to it as reminisce, due to the relation of the task you are undertaking. But when it came to it I finally came around to deciding on Album. The reasons behind this choice are strongly based around the use of a photo album of documented significant memories and also following the fact that an album can hold several tracks of audio. (This still follows the rule of three with the structure of the A, something that was discussed as each part of the leg relate to the memories, the user and the family and friends) My first initial sketches are key in looking at shape and playing with a range of colours and thicknesses in lines in order to try and find some inspiration and just playing around with the letter A. However after my initial sketches were put onto paper it became clear very early on that the shapes and the use of text were not the right tone of voice that needed to be applied. So I decided to take it back to the initial concept and the focus of the legs and played around in creating the letter A and using this shape to create an individual shape.


First drawings/ ideas of the form of the A

Moving forward with the hair pin legs


Branding The next stage was very experimental which involved playing with etching and cutting out to see what is most effective and worthwhile when it comes to expressing the brand. I wanted to see what the brand looked likeat different widths. The letters and the focus on the red piece came across much nicer and gave off a better overall feel. Yet my issue is even though I want the colour of the plastic to contrast the oak I feel that the red is very much a bold colour and represents danger, which is not the identity I want to be associated with the brand. Developing on from my current form I looked into hairpin legs and mid century design with a true focus on a situation where form meets function and looked at making my brand fit accordingly. From this I took the current form and expanded it to see how the letter and the form of the legs would be changed with the focus on the circle holding it all together which again presents another intriguing use of a collective identity. Once I had chosen just a couple of logos I advanced my prototyping with exploring with text and moving on from plastic and using vinyl as an appropriate medium. Due to the availability of the material I decided to use a blue as an appropriate colour in order to stand out from the other colours used but also not to have the branding as a focal feature. The branding is similarly going to be put on the RFID tags that are on each key ring. Overall I have decided to pick quite a simple lettering using the three lines to match closely alongside the meaning of three I have tried to express throughout the development of the brand.


Printing the shapes drawn on illustrator onto red acrylic

An initial mockup, there is now an addition of three lines instead of the one in the middle




100 Words There are 850,000 people with dementia in the UK, with numbers predicted to rise over 1 million by 2025 and seen to soar to 2 million by 2051. Album is a bench that provides those with dementia a sense of confidence and empowerment. The interaction that occurs between the user and object is achieved through a series of audio recordings that are played through the bench; this is significant in allowing the sharing of experiences, memories and stories whilst providing exercises for the brain’s memory mechanism that provides positive emotional feedback, which in turn helps improve the quality of life.




Video Once my bench had taken final form it was time to think about what I wanted the video to portray. I had initially spoken about having the user at Balcarres use the bench in that setting. But unfortunately I was not able to organise this to suit everybody, particularly the weather was not on my side with snow in April. A little disappointed but determined to try and get an effective video I decided to use a lady I had previously volunteered with at a social enterprise. The important message I was trying to convey in this video was the fact that the finished object could fit into its surroundings and not look out of place yet be recognised by users. For my video I located on campus and decided to play on the fact the bench is designed for the user to experience alone but also can be used to be a shared experience. The main parts of the video include the bench in use and the scanning of the RFID tag, which activates the audio. The video was a lot harder to execute than I had first anticipated but I am hoping the snippet of the project gives context to my project and provides a good base that demonstrates the key considerations I have made. On the right hand page there is screenshots taken from the video.



Critical Reflection As I entered fourth year I was excited for the challenge and to see what the following eight months would bring. I began fully prepared to push myself out of my comfort zone and take full advantage of the facilities and technicians to produce a product that I would be happy and proud to be standing next to at degree show. From very early on I knew that I really wanted to explore the interaction that exists between a user and object as this always intrigued me. This is particularly substantial when an environment can play a vital role in what it enables the user to achieve. With people, design, technology always an important aspect throughout my time at DJCAD I always knew that I would need to define each stage in an appropriate manner As technology and the interaction it can have is something that interests myself, particularly as it has a defining role in 21st century life, I decided that this year I would seek to expand my knowledge and use it in a way that offers something very unique in creating an experience. For this I branched out and was advised to use raspberry pi, this has challenged me in a way that I didn’t know possible, but by achieving and creating something that starting the year I had very little knowledge on has offered me great satisfaction on learning a new skill. One of the areas I struggled to define was what the focus of my project had which in essence grounds the project in terms of really diving into the true meaning of it. This journey has taught me the significance in speaking through your thought process and the influence others can offer in shaping your idea. I was fortunate to find a focus of Dementia in January, which defined the rest of my research and helped my passion to grow. With an area like this and a place to fully explore I was able to immerse myself and branch out to conduct interviews and step fully out of my comfort zone which also made me understand the passion that I truly do have for designing for a purpose and creating something that would be beneficial. Within the studio one of the tasks that happened at the start of the year was to divide the key tasks that needed to be undertaken within the class in order to meet goals including degree show and new designers. Due to this I decided to be on the fundraising team,


which consisted of only a few members. This meant that this was a really hands on role that was taken and by working together we were able to arrange a balloon drive, bake sales, pub quiz and a course ball. These tasks really offered a unique experience and insight in arranging a multitude of events in order to contribute to the fund all whilst offering me skills in negotiating, organising and management which helped me apply towards my dissertation module. My key takeaway from this year as a whole is to never be afraid, your design may not suit everyone that you are designing for and some people may not like it. Some advice I was given on this journey was “Do not be disheartened, you got tools in a toolbox not one size fits all.� This year was a unique challenge but it has helped to define me as a designer and appreciate the integral stages of design. This is particularly defining with the approach I have taken with; find, play, make, talk and the crossovers that exist with the relation to people, design and technology. From this I am uncertain what the next few months hold in regards to what direction I am hoping to go from here but I am really interested to see what it has to offer and what degree show and new designers holds.


Contact: Katryna Callaghan Twitter @katrynaclaire