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STUDIO AIR

2018, SEMESTER 2, Tutor: Moyshie Elias

TONG SU 846112


PART

2

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A


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

A.1 DESIGN FUTURING case study 1 DOME OVER MANHATTAN case study 2 EDEN PROJECT

A.2 DESIGN COMPUTATION case study 1 CENTRE POMPIDOU-METZ case study 2 ICD/ITKE PAVILION

A.3 COMPOSATION/GENERATION case study 1 GALAXY SOHO case study 2 THE MAOHAUS

A.4 CONCLUSION

A.5 LEARNING OUTCOMES

A.6 APPENDIX - ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES - BIBLIOGRAPHY

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INTRODUCTION

My name is Tong SU, I am currently in my third year of the university of Melbourne and majoring in architecture. I was born in the North part of China, which is very close to Russia, and I spent 6 years studying in Beijing, Tsinghua High School. The architectures in my hometown are not only the Traditional Chinese buildings but also the European architecture due to the influence of geographic location. I can always see the effect on architecture style of different cultures, therefore architecture caught my interest since then. Another reason that I find architecture is interesting is that I love making models, especially hand making models. It makes me feel existing when I made a microcosm of an architecture. I like architecture style which is simple but enriched with lots of possibilities. In my opinion the architecture is not enclose people inside the building but provide the unique experience to people which we cannot gain from the natural environment. Fujimoto is currently my favorite architect, his concept is that future architecture will put the natural environment inside as a part of the structure, which is really leading and sustainable concept.

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A.1 DESIGN FURTURING With the increasing population in the global scale, the resources of the planet are exhausted gradually. The artificial world has brought lots of impact on the natural environment. The earth had already reminded us by the gradually rising temperature and the sea level. This means the damage that we brought to the nature will finally result in our human being. Therefore, the way we design and occupy the earth must to be changed to ensure our sustainability. In this case, the architects need to take the responsibility to design for the future. The sustainability of architecture is the primary factor for our new generation architects. However, the architects need to be the compass instead of maps during the process of designing for the future. The projects analysed in this chapter are all focusing on and contributed to the sustainability of the planet, which aimed on creating the better future.

1. ANTHONY DUNNE AND FIONA RABY, SPECULATIVE EVERYTHING ([S.L.]: MIT, 2013), PP. 44-45. 2. TONY FRY, DESIGN FUTURING (LONDON: BLOOMSBURY ACADEMIC, 2014). 6

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We are too many, we have done too much ecological damage, and we have become too dependent upon the artificial worlds that we have designed, fabricated and 2 occupied. - Tony Fry

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Case Study 1 Project: DOME OVER MANHATTAN Architect: Buckminster Fuller Date: 1960

The Dome over Manhattan is a program proposed by Buckminster Fuller in 1961. It is basically a giant geodesic dome which is three-kilometre (1.864-mile) spanning above Midtown Manhattan. The dome was designed with the aim of sustainable development as the dome can be self-sufficient, regulate weather and reducing air pollution. But the project was not built in the end as its conceptual structure was impossible to achieve. Fuller worked as a ‘comprehensive anticipatory design scientist’ who did not limit himself in one field, he works in lots of fields to create a more sustainable planet. Fuller lives in the last century but thinks of the development in this century. He have not only foreseen the environmental difficulties

According to the reading ‘Design Futuring - sustainability, ethics and new practice’ 2write by Tony Fry, people have done too much ecological damage, therefore the design of nowadays needs to be focus on the balance between nature and artificial world instead of only destructing the environment to achieve our goals. The dome over Manhattan is a solution to deal with the shortage of resources. The city inside the dome can form a self-sufficient metabolic system and protect the city from all kinds of disaster such as solar storm. It ensures the sustainable development of Manhattan,

FIG.1: TIME MAGAZINE COVER: R. BUCKMINSTER FULLER (1960)

FIG.2: DOME OVER MANHATTAN

IMAGE SOURCE:HTTP://CONTENT.TIME.COM/

IMAGE SOURCE:HTTPS://THEREALDEAL.COM/2016/02/28/

TIME/COVERS/0,16641,19640110,00.HTML

WHAT-IF-MIDTOWN-MANHATTAN-HAD-A-DOME/

2. TONY FRY, DESIGN FUTURING (LONDON: BLOOMSBURY ACADEMIC, 2014). 8

that we faced now, but also thinks much more further. Such as what we need to do when the resources of the plant are exhausted completely.

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FIG.3: DOME OVER MANHATTAN IMAGE SOURCE: HTTPS://MEDIUM.COM/DESIGNSCIENCE/1960-750843CD705A

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Case Study 2 Project: EDEN PROJECT Architect: Nicholas Grimshaw Date: 2001

The Eden project is using artificial biomes to emulates the natural biomes. There are lots of plants collect from different environment and climate. I think the Eden project is an achievement of the concept of Fuller’s Dome over Manhattan, which creates the sustainable environment for a part of the planet using technological development. The project is created by digital design tools which shows that the widely usage of computer design in architecture, which provides more convenient and possibilities of design. The hexagonal tessellation material was used for the construction of grid and membrane material contributes to the temperature and heat

transfer required by the plants inside the building. The project more focus on the independence between the nature and human being. And it demonstrates that nature can be self-sufficient without humans. I think architects of dome over Manhattan and Eden project are both have found the well balance between nature and human construction. Human can protect the environment by reducing the damage that we create and result in the planet. The project also including its exclusive education significance on environmental protection which gives the great example and will teach and encourage generations to create better practice.

FIG.4: THE EDEN PROJECT, 2001. IMAGE SOURCE: HTTPS://GRIMSHAW.GLOBAL/


FIG.5: EDEN PROJECT BY GRAMSHAW, 2001. IMAGE SOURCE:HTTPS://WWW.WEEKENDNOTES.CO.UK/EDEN-PROJECT/


A.2 DESIGN COMPUTATION In the past architects sometimes face the problem that they got the concept and idea but unable to achieve. With the technology and software development, the computer are widely used in lots of field which also include architectures. It is important to distinct the word computerisation and computation. The first one is modelling digitally, and anther is to design approach. The computational design method makes the design process more accurate and convenient and enables lots of process including form-finding, materialization, digital analysis. It can help designers achieve a wide range of geometries to design. Computational design also can provide the test of constructability or structure stability before building it. However, it cannot be used to re-define practice. Computational design can only use computer to produce the idea of architects but cannot problem solving. 3 Computer is just the tool that designer used, it cannot replace human and work independently.

3. YEHUDA E KALAY, ARCHITECTURE’S NEW MEDIA (CAMBRIDGE, MASS.: MIT PRESS, 2004), PP. 20-21. 4. RIVKA OXMAN AND ROBERT OXMAN, THEORIES OF THE DIGITAL IN ARCHITECTURE, PP. 1-10. 12

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This is an age in which digitally informed design can atually produce a second nature. - Rivka and Robert Oxman4

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Case Study 1 Project: CENTRE POMPIDOU-METZ Architect: Shigeru Ban Architects Date: 2010

The building is an innovatory architecture which forms a continuous structure combines wall, rood and columns together, which make a big step of difference compared with early years that wall defines boundary of the space. The structure forms a continuous space which will make visitors to engage with artistic creation. The Pompidou Centre was using the proprietary form-finding parametric design software to form a structure which consist with triangles. The design methodology enabled architects using algorithmic program to achieve this complex form and make the design concept visualized. Also, the parametric

FIG.6: CENTRE POMPIDOU INTERNAL VIEW IMAGE SOURCE:HTTPS://WWW.ARCHDAILY. COM/490141/CENTRE-POMPIDOU-METZ-SHIGERU-BANARCHITECTS/53324E2EC07A80CB6B00008F-CENTREPOMPIDOU-METZ-SHIGERU-BAN-ARCHITECTS-PHOTO

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modelling method gives the opportunity altering and adjusting the material and structure performance. The final choice of material of the building is the wood due to its recyclable properties. The architect meets the high environmental and sustainable requirements to find the balance between the natural environment and artificial world.

FIG.7: CENTRE POMPIDOU EXTERNAL VIEW IMAGE SOURCE: HTTPS://WWW.ARCHDAILY. COM/490141/CENTRE-POMPIDOU-METZ-SHIGERU-BANARCHITECTS/53324E78C07A808489000088-CENTREPOMPIDOU-METZ-SHIGERU-BAN-ARCHITECTS-PHOTO


FIG.8: CENTRE POMPIDOU IMAGE SOURCE :HTTPS://WWW.ARCHDAILY. COM/490141/CENTRE-POMPIDOU-METZSHIGERU-BAN-ARCHITECTS/53324E23C0 7A806C36000082-CENTRE-POMPIDOUMETZ-SHIGERU-BAN-ARCHITECTS-PHOTO

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Case Study 2 Project: ICD/ITKE PAVILION Architect: Achim Menges Date: 2013-2014

This building was design by the institute for computational design (ICD) and the institute of building structures and structural design (ITKE). They aimed in exploring more possibilities by using digital design and design the building by using the concept of nature, which is the shells of beetles. The building was inspired by the shells of beetles, which opens on two side to show the bending form. The pavilion employed the computational design methodology to discover the building form and spatial qualities by using bionics to create a more lightweight and fibre composite system.

the way to create various structures and achieve more possibilities. 5 The pavilion also in 2013 also improved through the software and technology development. The biomimetic processes also help to enrich the design of the structure. The natural structure inspired people with the adaption between the human creature and the natural environment. This helps people to find the balance between them. The structure slow reveals the potential of computational design of the architecture in the future.

This building shows that the computation design can be

FIG.9: ICD/ITKE PAVILION 2013-14 IMAGE SOURCE:HTTPS://WWW.DESIGNBOOM. COM/ARCHITECTURE/ICD-ITKE-RESEARCH-

5. YEHUDA E KALAY, ARCHITECTURE’S NEW MEDIA (CAMBRIDGE, MASS.: MIT PRESS, 2004), PP. 2-3. 16

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FIG.10: ICD/ITKE PAVILION 2013-14 IMAGE SOURCE:HTTPS://WWW.


FIG.11: ICD/ITKE PAVILION 2013-14 IMAGE SOURCE:HTTPS://WWW.

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A.3 COMPOSITION/GENERATION

With the development of technology and software, there is no doubt that computation is changing the way that we design and explore architecture forms. The global rise of transformation from composition to generation also marked the new era of computational design. Is includes scripting, parametric design and algorithmic design, and basically gives the more fast and efficient way which helps designers to search various iterations. We can simply create the algorithm of our design concept and using less moderations to achieve more iterations. This methodology enables designers to practice more efficient and achieve more complex forms that may take lots of times before. The use of generative computational design also accurate the design visualisation. However, the popularization of generative computational design also requires lots of high skill workers. The following precedents provide below are all using generative thinking method to design architecture but still have their unique concept within the project.

5. BRADY PETERS AND XAVIER DE KESTELIER, COMPUTATION WORKS, P. 12. 18

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When architects have a sufficient understanding of algorithmic concepts, when we no longer need to discuss the digital as something different, then computation can become a true method of design for architecture. - Brady Peters

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Case Study 1 Project: GALAXY SOHO Architect: Zaha Hadid Date: 2009-2012

The GALAXY SOHO building is located in the one of the main commercial centres of Beijing, which is a continuous and flowing building for office, retail and entertainment purpose. The building has four volumes, and towers are connected with stretched bridges, which located at base, midpoint and the top. GALAXY SOHO using parametric design to achieve the flowing form into a digital model and make it possible to altering the material choice and the constructability of the building. The building is keeping the concept of Chinese traditional courtyard, but instead of the triangle block of the courtyard, Zaha is using circular form to replace the traditional form and using the bridges to achieve a continuous internal area.

The GALAXY SOHO was design by Zaha by using the Gehry Technologies Digital Project which is a 3D Building Information Modelling system. 6 The system gives more accurate outcome of the design scheme and can achieve the complex diversity. This form can be achieved by simply create the squares and make transformations and contouring. And extrude parts of the model to connected with each other and make it like a bridge. The building really represents the design future of architecture by using the computation design method to show the more possibilities that parametric design can achieve. This will also give a great design precedent to the architects to create better work.

FIG.12: CHINA TRADITIONAL COURTYARD IMAGE SOURCE:HTTPS://OLDCHINABOOKS. COM/YANGSHEN_EBOOK_BLOG/2013/09/02/

6. NICK LERNER, GRANDLY INNOVATIVE ICONS, 1ST EDN, 2010, PP. 32-33 <HTTPS://WWW.3DS.COM/FILEADMIN/INDUSTRIES/

FIG.13: GALAXY SOHO IN BEIJING IMAGE SOURCE:HTTPS://WWW. THEBEIJINGER.COM/BLOG/2018/06/14/


FIG.14: GALAXY SOHO IMAGE SOURCE:HTTP://WWW.ZAHA-HADID. COM/ARCHITECTURE/GALAXY-SOHO/

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Case Study 2 Project: THE MAOHAUS Architect: AntiStatics Architecture Date: 2017

The MaoHaus was built by AntiStatics Architecture in Beijing. It is using a facade piece exploring the historical context of the location, and potential materials. The concept is to combine the portrait, the Chinese Traditional Printing and the Wind Simulation flowing fabric to show the collide of history and new technology. The facade is made by 6 individual ultrahigh performance concrete panels without the need of support and designed using fluid-dynamics algorithms.7 The computational design helps the architecture to become unique due to the array of apertures across the surface can give different experiences to the visitors depending on the time. From the front of the facade, it is perceptibly flattened revealing the image of Chairman Mao, but from other angles, the facade

can be read as flowing banners. The facade during the day time can be recognized as the advance sculpture in Hutong, which is surrounding historical building, but at night people can see the photo of Chairman Mao to corresponding the surround environment. The algorithmic thinking in the design concept of MaoHaus gives more convenient way to achieve the designer’s objective. At the same time, the porous of curve surface also makes the transformation of load to become more efficient to the foundation.

FIG.15: DESIGN CONCEPT OF THE MAOHAUS IMAGE SOURCE:HTTPS://WWW.ARCHDAILY. COM/886282/THE-MAOHAUS-ANTISTATICS-ARC HITECTURE/5A458F53B22E388CDE000046-THEMAOHAUS-ANTISTATICS-ARCHITECTURE-IMAGE

7. “THE MAOHAUS / ANTISTATICS ARCHITECTURE”, ARCHDAILY, 2018 <HTTPS://WWW.ARCHDAILY.COM/886282/ 22

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FIG.16: THE MAOHAUS AT NIGHT IMAGE SOURCE:HTTPS://WWW. ARCHDAILY.COM/886282/THE-MAOHAUSANTISTATICS-ARCHITECTURE/5A45205 8B22E38B707000002-THE-MAOHAUS-


FIG.17: THE MAOHAUS BY ANTISTATICS ARCHITECTURE IMAGE SOURCE:HTTPS://WWW.ARCHDAILY. COM/886282/THE-MAOHAUS-ANTISTATICS-ARC HITECTURE/5A452093B22E38B707000007-THEMAOHAUS-ANTISTATICS-ARCHITECTURE-PHOTO

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A.4 CONCLUSION

Part A includes the extent of development of sustainable and computational thinking of architecture. Through the discussion above, it can be stated that computational design is changing, but limiting the process of architects work, and will gradually become the key design method in the future. Also, designing the most sustainable architecture in the future is important as we must find the balance between nature and artificial world. I believe in the future there will be more approach invented to help designers work, but the sustainable concept will be existed perpetually. Therefore, my design intended approach is using algorithmic thinking to design the sustainable future. The computational approach will enrich the choices and opportunities of design outcomes and produce less restrictions on design concept. This will produce innovative projects which will have more options compared with before. It is significant to utilize this tool to reduce the impact we might brought to the natural environment. It will benefit both human being and the planet to meet sustainable development requirement.

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A.5 LEARNING OUTCOMES

Through the 3 weeks study, I learned a lot from the lectures, readings, tutorials and the research by myself. Before the class, I am just thought generative design and algorithmic method is just a tool that designers used to produce different outcomes, but now I find out that it not only a tool but also a type of thinking method. We can apply this type of thinking into the computer to physically produce projects now, but we can also use it to innovate more tools that we can use for future design. The thinking process will never restrict us from creating something new. After I realized this, I found out that if I apply the algorithmic thinking to the design I did before, which I want to create a blocky area with fill with random blocks, that troubled me a long time by creating lots of blocks, but now I can simply do this using grasshopper. The leaning through these weeks really inspired me with my future design.

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A.6 APPENDIX - ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES OCTREE

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CONTOURS AND SECTIONING SURFACE 1

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SURFACE 2

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A.6 APPENDIX BIBLIOGRAPHY

Dunne, Anthony, and Fiona Raby, Speculative Everything ([S.l.]: MIT, 2013), pp. 44-45 Fry, Tony, Design Futuring (London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2014) Kalay, Yehuda E, Architecture’s New Media (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2004), pp. 20-21 Lerner, Nick, Grandly Innovative Icons, 1st edn, 2010, pp. 32-33 <https:// www.3ds.com/fileadmin/Industries/Architecture-Engineering-Construction/ Pdf/articles/zaha-hadid-aec.pdf> [Accessed 9 August 2018] Oxman, Rivka, and Robert Oxman, Theories Of The Digital In Architecture, pp. 1-10 Peters, Brady, and Xavier De Kestelier, Computation Works, p. 12 “The Maohaus / Antistatics Architecture”, Archdaily, 2018 <https://www.archdaily. com/886282/the-maohaus-antistatics-architecture> [Accessed 9 August 2018]

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Studio Air Journal Part A  
Studio Air Journal Part A  
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