STUDIO AIR 2018, SEMESTER 2, Tutor: Moyshie Elias TONG SU 846112

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TABLE OF CONTENT PART B1 RESEARCH FIELD - GENETIC ARCHITECTURE - RECURSION 5

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PART B2A L-SYSTEMS

- Written Analysis 6-7 - Matrix of Iterations 10-13

PART B2B WRITTEN ANALYSIS (BLOOM PROJECT) 14-15 PART B2C COMPONENT DESIGN & AGGREGATION -Component Design 16-17 - Aggregation 1 TILE 18-21 - Aggregation 2 SPREAD 22-25 - Aggregation 3 INVIDE 26-29 - Aggregation 4 COMPRISE 30-33

PART B3 CASE STUDY 2.0 AGGY-ATTACK COMPONENT AGGREGATION RECEIPT 34-35 PART B4 TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT - Component design 36-37

- Localised Differentiation 38-39 - STUMPY AGGREGATION 1 40-43 - STUMPU AGGREGATION 2 44-47 - Localised Differentiation 48-49 - BILATERIAL AGGREGATION 1 50-53 - BILATERIAL AGGREGATION 2 54-57

PART B6 TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL 58-59 PART B7 LEARNING OVJECTIVES & OUTCOMES 60-61 PART B8 APPENDIX : ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES 62-65

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PART B1 RESEARCH FIELD

GENETICS Housings -Six maisons non-standards, 1999 The genetic architecture refers to using the genetic algorithm to generate the idea and expression of the structure. The genetic algorithm adopts the rules from the â€˜natural processâ€™ which using DNA as carrier to generate information about their form. Therefore, the genetic algorithm is using computer to stimulate the biological genetic variation and the natural selection process of Darwinâ€™s theory of evolution, to find the best solution of a large information base. The natural process has similarities with the architecture design process, which are both needed to be test and improve repeatedly, to find the best result. This is a big step of improvement for architecture design which will significantly increase the efficiency of design process. Housings project by Kolatan / Mac Donald

http://www.archilab.org/public/2000/catalog/kolata/kolataen.htm

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studio can be the great example for genetic architecture. The project is the initial step for mass-customized prefabricated housing experiments, which was selected from the variations of information pool. This information pool was using the normal house plan as base and the object-products as objective. The combination between the base and objective generated numbers of chimerical houses. The project aiming 3 objectives, the first one is to explore the capacity of generating different iterations and transformations. The second one is in relation with the problem of survive which is to find out whether the iteration can keep its standard form in different social and ecological situations. And the third one is combing the composite materials and digital fabrication processes.

RECURSION Recursive Tectonics - Ayax Abreu Garcia Recursion can be defined as using simple definition or element to generate unique and impressive aggregations. The first iteration begins with just a simple element such as one object or shape which not designed to grow recursively. The following items will be defined using the data loop in which they are recursively repeating in the slimier way. The recursion in mathematic is the function which is defined with itself, which means it will repeating itself until the satisfactory result has been reached. The recursive tectonics is an architecture which have high adaptability to switch for different demand. The structure can be

rescaled and reform to properly respond to any demand on size or form restriction. Recursive tectonics using foldable triangles to increate the structure stability and strength and adding on its self to achieve different forms. Although this is an unbuilt work, but is can be achieved by any 3D digital programs which supports recursion and take height and space requirement as the input and the program will automatically gives the result whether need increase the structural strength or reforming the outcome, and also gives the simplification in construction and material chosen processes to achieve the structure of adaptability.

https://lakareacts.com/winners/recursive-tectonics/

https://lakareacts.com/winners/recursive-tectonics/

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PART B2A L-SYSTEMS Written Analysis

L - System History L-System (Lindenmayer-systems), which is named after Aristid Lindenmayer(1925-1989) is consisted of an axiom and a set of rules. The L-system was generated from biology and allows to generate various iterations using complex shapes and keep repeating. The basic rule of L-System is the parallel string rewriting system, and the result of each generation will become the basic for the next generation. In 1968, Astrid Lindenmayer introduced the string rewriting mechanism which is named “L-Systems”. The system had the unique grammar which the production is applied in parallel and simultaneously to replace letters in a ‘given word’. Each generation, several transformations are applied to the string based on the list of rules. Each rule consists of “input” and “output”, and the input is the search substring and the output is the substring to be replaced. Empty strings are legal as input and output, if they are at the input, they will match at each location, and if at the output, the search and replace will be equal to delete.

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Original L-system for modelling the growth. variable: A B axiom: A rules: (A = AB), (B = A) n=0:A n = 1 : AB n = 2 : ABA n = 3 : ABAAB n = 4 : ABAABABA n = 5 : ABAABABAABAAB n = 6 : ABAABABAABAABABAABABA n=7: ABAABABAABAABABAABABAABAABABAABAAB

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PART B2A L-SYSTEMS Matrix of Iterations FUZZY

GENERATION=6

GENERATION=6

GENERATION=6

GENERATION=6

GENERATION=6

G

AXIOM=A

AXIOM=C

AXIOM=C

AXIOM=AB

AXIOM=BD

A

A=AC

A=AD

A=AC

A=AB

A=AB

A

B=CD

B=CD

B=BCD

B=BCD

B=BCD

B

C=ACBD

C=ABCD

C=ACD

C=AD

C=AD

C

D=DB

D=BC

D=BC

D=BC

D=BC

D

GENERATION=9

GENERATION=19

GENERATION=8

GENERATION=9

GENERATION=7

G

AXIOM=ABCD

AXIOM=ABCD

AXIOM=ABCD

AXIOM=ABCD

AXIOM=ABCD

A

A=ABCD

A=AB

A=B

A=ABCD

A=AC

A

B=BCD

B=AB

B=AB

B=BCD

B=BD

B

C=CD

C=D

C=BC

C=CD

C=CD

C

D=D

D=C

D=CD

D=D

D=CD

D

GENERATION=8

GENERATION=8

GENERATION=10

GENERATION=9

GENERATION=11

G

AXIOM=ABCD

AXIOM=ABCD

AXIOM=ABCD

AXIOM=ABCD

AXIOM=ABCD

A=ABC

A=AB

A=BCD

A=AB

A=ACD

B=BC

B=BC

B=ACD

B=AB

B=BC

C=D

C=CD

C=B

C=CD

C=ACD

D=A

D=AD

D=AD

D=CD

D=BA

A A B C D

SPIRAL

BUSHY

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GENERATION=6

GENERATION=6

GENERATION=6

GENERATION=6

GENERATION=6

AXIOM=D

AXIOM=B

AXIOM=D

AXIOM=BD

AXIOM=B

A=AB

A=AB

A=AB

A=AB

A=ABC

B=ABC

B=ABC

B=ABC

B=BCD

B=BC

C=AC

C=AC

C=AC

C=AD

C=BCD

D=BCD

D=BCD

D=BCD

D=BC

D=AD

GENERATION=8

GENERATION=20

GENERATION=7

GENERATION=7

GENERATION=8

AXIOM=ABD

AXIOM=ABCD

AXIOM=ADF

AXIOM=ABCD

AXIOM=ABCD

A=ABC

A=AC

A=AC

A=AD

A=AC

B=AD

B=BD

B=BE

B=BC

B=ABC

C=CD

C=D

C=AC

C=BC

C=BC

D=BCD

D=C

D=DF

D=AD

D=CD

GENERATION=7

GENERATION=9

GENERATION=9

AXIOM=ABCD

AXIOM=ABCD

AXIOM=ABCD

A=AB

A=A

A=ABC

B=AB

B=AB

B=ABC

C=CD

C=ABC

C=AB

D=CD

D=ABCD

D=A

GENERATION=8

AXIOM=ABD A=ABC B=AD C=CD D=BCD

E=BE F=DF

GENERATION=7 AXIOM=ABCD A=AD B=BD C=BCD D=C

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PART B2A L-SYSTEMS Matrix of Iterations

GRADIENT

GENERATION=9

GENERATION=7

GENERATION=6

GENERATION=7

GENERATION=4

AXIOM=ABCD

AXIOM=ABCD

AXIOM=ABCDEF

AXIOM=ABCD

AXIOM=ABCDEF

A=ABCD

A=AB

A=AB

A=AB

A=ABC

B=BCD

B=AB

B=AB

B=BC

B=ABC

C=CD

C=CD

C=CD

C=CD

C=ABC

D=D

D=CD

D=CD

D=AD

D=ABC

GEOMETRY

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E=EF

E=ABC

F=EF

F=ABC

GENERATION=5

GENERATION=7

GENERATION=10

GENERATION=7

GENERATION=4

AXIOM=ABCD

AXIOM=ABCD

AXIOM=ABCD

AXIOM=ABCD

AXIOM=ABCD

A=ABC

A=ABC

A=BC

A=ABD

A=AB

B=ABC

B=A

B=BCD

B=CD

B=AB

C=BCD

C=BCD

C=AC

C=BCD

C=CD

D=BCD

D=CD

D=AD

D=BD

D=CD

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GENERATION=8

GENERATION=17

GENERATION=10

GENERATION=10

GENERATION=7

AXIOM=ABD

AXIOM=A

AXIOM=AD

AXIOM=ABCD

AXIOM=ABCD

A=ABC

A=CD

A=ABC

A=ACD

A=AD

B=AD

B=B

B=ABC

B=BC

B=BC

C=CD

C=CD

C=AC

C=CD

C=BC

D=BCD

D=BD

D=BD

D=BCD

D=AD

GENERATION=7

GENERATION=10

GENERATION=8

GENERATION=7

GENERATION=8

AXIOM=ABCD

AXIOM=ABC

AXIOM=ABCD

AXIOM=ABCD

AXIOM=ABCD

A=AB

A=CD

A=ABC

A=AD

A=AC

B=AB

B=BC

B=BC

B=BC

B=AC

C=CD

C=ACD

C=D

C=BC

C=BD

D=CD

D=BCCD

D=A

D=AD

D=BD

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PART B2B WRITTEN ANALYSIS (BLOOM PROJECT)

https://www.plethora-project.com/bloom/

The bloom project by Alisa Sndrasek and Jose Sanchez was an great example of recursive aggregation. â€œBloomâ€? is an interactive design project and commissioned by the City of London for the 2012 Olympic Games. This project has become the start of research project which connects the architecture and the gaming culture. The unique quality of the bloom project is that this structure was formed and can be changed by the people, which emphasis the importance of public into the architecture. Bloom project was designed as a toy version which allows the children and the public

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to find out the ideas within the project. This produced the strong connection between the architecture and the environment. And the component itself is complex enough to achieve different structures. The recursive aggregation was almost organically which might avoid adjusting to the site. Overall the design objective of the bloom project was to increase the connection between the environment, public and the architecture, and really shows that the public and nature are the important factors which influence the structure.

‘A never finished structure in constant fluctuation, finding moments of stability and moments of failure.’ - Plethora Project

https://www.plethora-project.com/bloom/ CRITERIA DESIGN

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PART B2C COMPONENT DESIGN & AGGREGATION Component Design

FAIRSHAPED

STRING LIKE

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WOODEN C

IN BU

CROSSED

UD

LOTUS ROOT

HORN

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PART B2C COMPONENT DESIGN & AGGREGATIONS Aggregation 1 TILE

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AXIOM BRANCHS: ABCD A= AC B= BD C= AB D= BCD Generation = 8 CONDITIONAL RULES: IF A INTERSECTS B, KEEPA IF B INTERSECTS C, KEEP B IF C INTERSECTS D, KEEP C

Generation 3 Generation 2 Generation 1 A B C D

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PART B2C COMPONENT DESIGN & AGGREGATIONS Aggregation 2 SPREAD

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AXIOM BRANCHS: ABCD A= AC B= BC C= BD D= BCD Generation = 14 CONDITIONAL RULES: IF A INTERSECTS B, KEEPA IF B INTERSECTS C, KEEP B IF C INTERSECTS D, KEEP C

Generation 3 Generation 2 Generation 1 A B C D

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PART B2C COMPONENT DESIGN & AGGREGATIONS Aggregation 3 INVIDE

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AXIOM BRANCHS: ABCD A= ABD B= BC C= AC D= BCD Generation = 14 CONDITIONAL RULES: IF A INTERSECTS B, KEEPA IF B INTERSECTS C, KEEP B IF C INTERSECTS D, KEEP C

Generation 3 Generation 2 Generation 1 A B C D

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PART B2C COMPONENT DESIGN & AGGREGATIONS Aggregation 4 COMPRISE

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AXIOM BRANCHS: ABCD A= AC B= BC C= BD D= BCD Generation = 14 CONDITIONAL RULES: IF A INTERSECTS B, KEEPA IF B INTERSECTS C, KEEP B IF C INTERSECTS D, KEEP C

Generation 3 Generation 2 Generation 1 A B C D

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PART B3 CASE STUDY 2.0 AGGY-ATTACK COMPONENT AGGREGATION RECEIPT A. Draw polylines which have two segments to standardize the length and direction of components.

B.

Set dummy axiom branch and the dummy branches in grasshopper in A,B,C,D order to create further branches.

C. The polylines was exploded into two pieces. The first segment aimed to standardize the length of branch, and the second segment was used to place the plane of each dummy branch.

D. The second segment needed to be redrawn and create handle for each branch. The plane was created according the second segment of each branch which is perpendicular with the first segment.

E. Set one brep to reference the component and prepare for further generations.

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f.

Adjust the orientation of component by adjusting the branch polylines to make sure each component in the next generation was intersected with the primary component, and there are no intersection between each component in the same generation.

g. Set rule sets and axiom and increase the generations. The plane will set at the end of each branch for next generation.

h. Read the information of privious generation and select the branches for growing next generation.

i. Orient branches if needed to gereate more interesting outcome which did the same thing with commandâ€™orient 3Ptâ€™ in Rhino.

g. Analysis the site environments and set obstacles to situmulate the surrounds. The generations which touches the obstacles will not grow anymore.

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PART B4 TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT Component design

STUMPY

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RIBB

BONY

BILATERAL

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PART B4 TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT Localised Differentiation

SECONDARY COMPONENT

AXIOM C

AXIOM D

AXIOM B

AXIOM A

PRIMARY COMPONENT

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STUMPY AGGREGATION 1

RULESET#1 AXIOM BRANCHS: ABCD A= ABC B= BCD C= BCD D= BD Generation = 8 CONDITIONAL RULES: IF A INTERSECTS B, KEEPA IF B INTERSECTS C, KEEP B IF C INTERSECTS D, KEEP C

Generation 3 Generation 2 Generation 1 A B C D

This secondary component was added at the middle of the primary component and impale the unit. The design of secondary component is aimed to create contrast with primary structure. This aggregation will seem friendly at the top but with the increase of secondary component, the sense of dangerous will increase to enhance the contract of the structure.

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STUMBY AGGREGATION 2 RULESET#2 AXIOM BRANCHS: ABCD A= ABC B= BC C= CD D= BCD Generation = 7 CONDITIONAL RULES: IF A INTERSECTS B, KEEPA IF B INTERSECTS C, KEEP B IF C INTERSECTS D, KEEP C Generation 3 Generation 2 Generation 1 A B C D

This rule set gives the twisting apparence oto shows the inside entanglement of aggregasive and gentle of the structure.

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PART B4 TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT Localised Differentiation

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AXIOM D AXIOM E

AXIOM F

AXIOM C

AXIOM B

AXIOM A

SECONDARY COMPONENT

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BILATERIAL AGGREGATION 1

RULESET#1 AXIOM BRANCHS: ABCDEF A= ABC B= ABC C= ABC D= DEF E= DEF F= DEF Generation = 13 CONDITIONAL RULES: IF A INTERSECTS B, KEEPA IF B INTERSECTS C, KEEP B IF C INTERSECTS D, KEEP C IF D INTERSECTS E, KEEP D IF E INTERSECTS F, KEEP F

Generation 3 Generation 2 Generation 1 A B C D E F

The secondary component I added to the primary was in the different direction with axioms. It will increase length if the component is far away from the middle of the structure to show more connections within the whole aggregation and direction of the secondary component gives structure a sense of infinite boundaries to increase the interactions between environment and the structure.

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BILATERIAL AGGREGATION2

This rule set generate the spiral form of the primary component, and the enclosed directions of secondary component. Differ from the first one, this aggregation produces more separate secondary components which likes the stamen of corpse flower. It has the sense of aggressive but also elegant at the same time.

RULESET#2 AXIOM BRANCHS: ABCDEF A= BC B= BC C= ABC D= DEF E= BEF F= CDE Generation = 12 CONDITIONAL RULES: IF A INTERSECTS B, KEEPA IF B INTERSECTS C, KEEP B IF C INTERSECTS D, KEEP C IF D INTERSECTS E, KEEP D IF E INTERSECTS F, KEEP F Generation 3 Generation 2 Generation 1 A B C D E F

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PART B6 TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL

The site I have chosen for the aggregation is on side of hanging studio and stairs. The structure will form the sense of flowing and infinite boundary by hanging over the atrium. I think the most suitable digital fabrication method for this aggregation is 3d print due to it will be light weight to hang over for safety reason and more convenient to fabricate.

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PART B7 LEARNING OVJECTIVES & OUTCOMES

Through part B classes these weeks, the digital design techniques mentioned in part A are not just words for me anymore. They become one of my skills right now. These weeks I really improved my understanding towards parametric design and the use of algorithmic modeling skills. Compared with the manual modeling, the parametric enables more fast and efficient design process. I can feel this by using the aggy attack grasshopper aggregator which Moyshie sent to us when I have already spending lots of times on the manual recursion. The use of secondary component which can be changed according to our own performance makes me felt the benefits of algorithmic design. It not only gives the faster way for designers, it can also achieve the outcomes which is hard to do before and still can add the designerâ€™s selections. When I designing for my aggregations, I can always found some interesting structures which is impossible for me to create before. The use of parametric design really makes my more confident on my further studies and makes me more interested in designing.

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PART B8 APPENDIX : ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES Gradient Descent (basic flow simulation)

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L-System / Basic Looping (Recursion)

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