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A N A M E R I C A N E X P E R I E N C E By KATHERINE THOMAS


San Francisco San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the leading financial and cultural center of Northern California and the San Francisco Bay Area.

San Francisco (Spanish for “Saint Francis”) was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established a fort at the Golden Gate and a mission named for St. Francis of Assisi a few miles away. The only consolidated city-coun- The California Gold Rush of 1849 ty in California, San Francisco brought rapid growth, making it encompasses a land area of about the largest city on the West Coast 46.9 square miles (121 km2on the at the time. northern end of the San Francisco Peninsula, giving it a density Due to the growth of its populaof about 17,620 people per square tion, San Francisco became a conmile (6,803 people per km2). solidated city-county in 1856. After three-quarters of the city was It is the most densely settled large destroyed by the 1906 earthquake city (population greater than and fire, San Francisco was quickly 200,000) in the state of Califor- rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacifnia and the second-most densely ic International Exposition nine populated major city in the United years later. States after New York City. During World War II, San FranSan Francisco is the fourth most cisco was the port of embarkation populous city in California, after for service members shipping out Los Angeles, San Diego and San to the Pacific Theater.After the Jose, and the 14th most populous war, the confluence of returning city in the United States—with a servicemen, massive immigration, Census-estimated 2012 population liberalizing attitudes, and other of 825,863. factors led to the Summer of Love and the gay rights movement, ceThe city is also the financial and menting San Francisco as a center cultural hub of the larger San Jo- of liberal activism in the United se-San Francisco-Oakland metro- States. politan area, with a population of 8.4 million.


DEATH VALLEY Death Valley is a desert valley located in Eastern California. Situated within the Mojave Desert, it is the lowest, hottest and driest area in North America. Death Valley’s Badwater Basin is the point of the lowest elevation in North America at 282 feet (86 m) below sea level. This point is 84.6 miles (136.2 km) east-southeast of Mount Whitney, the highest point in the contiguous United States with an elevation of 14,505 feet (4,421 m). Death Valley’s Furnace Creek holds the record for the highest reliably re-

ported air temperature in the world, 134 °F (56.7 °C) on July 10, 1913. Located near the border of California and Nevada, in the Great Basin, east of the Sierra Nevada mountains, Death Valley constitutes much of Death Valley National Park and is the principal feature of the Mojave and Colorado Deserts Biosphere Reserve. It is located mostly in Inyo County, California. It runs from north to south between the Amargosa Range on the east and the Panamint Range on the west; the Sylvania Mountains and the

Owlshead Mountains form its northern and southern boundaries, respectively. It has an area of about 3,000 sq mi (7,800 km2). Death Valley is one of the best geological examples of a basin and range configuration. It lies at the southern end of a geological trough known as Walker Lane, which runs north into Oregon. The valley is bisected by a right lateral strike slip fault system, represented by the Death Valley Fault and the Furnace Creek Fault.


G O L D E N G A T E B R I D G E

The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the opening of the San Francisco Bay into the Pacific Ocean. The structure links the U.S. city of San Francisco, on the northern tip of the San Francisco Peninsula, to Marin County. It is one of the most internationally recognized symbols of San Francisco, California, and the United States. It has been declared one of the Wonders of the Modern World by the American Society of Civil Engineers. The Frommers travel guide considers the Golden Gate Bridge “possibly the most beautiful, certainly the most photographed, bridge in the world”. It opened in 1937 and had until 1964 the longest suspension bridge main span in the world, at 4,200 feet (1,280 m). The Frommers travel guide considers the Golden Gate Bridge “possibly the most beautiful, certainly the most photographed, bridge in the world”. It opened in 1937 and had until 1964 the longest suspension bridge main span in the world, at 4,200 feet (1,280 m).

Before the bridge was built, the only practical short route between San Francisco and what is now Marin County was by boat across a section of San Francisco Bay. Ferry service began as early as 1820, with regularly scheduled service beginning in the 1840s for purposes of transporting water to San Francisco. The Sausalito Land and Ferry Company service, launched in 1867, eventually became the Golden Gate Ferry Company, a Southern Pacific Railroad subsidiary, the largest ferry operation in the world by the late 1920s.

Once for railroad passengers and customers only, Southern Pacific’s automobile ferries became very profitable and important to the regional economy. The ferry crossing between the Hyde Street Pier in San Francisco and Sausalito in Marin County took approximately 20 minutes and cost US$1.00 per vehicle, a price later reduced to compete with the new bridge.The trip from the San Francisco Ferry Building took 27 minutes.


Museum of Modern Art New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. New York is the 27th-most extensive, the thirdmost populous, and the seventh-most densely populated of the 50 United States. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east.

the Canadian provinces of Ontario to the west and north, and Quebec to the north. The state of New York is often referred to as New York State, so as to distinguish it from New York City. New York City, with a Census-estimated population of over 8.3 million in 2012, is the most populous city in the United States.

The state has a maritime border with Rhode Island east of Long Island, as well as an international border with

Alone, it makes up over 40 percent of the population of New York state. It is known for its status as a center for fi-

nance and culture and for its status as the largest gateway for immigration to the United States. New York City attracts considerably more foreign visitors than any other US city. Both the state and city were named for the 17th century Duke of York, future King James II of England. River Valley, establishing the colony of New Netherland. The British took over the colony by annexation in 1664.


NEW YORK


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