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Redefining Flow: How has it changed for generation Y?

word count: 8404

Katie Ottewell N0367214 FASH30001

1


fcp3

School of Art & Design ba

Declaration Form 2013/14 Module: Negotiated Project Stage 1 Module Leader: Tim Rundle Ref. no: FASH30001

I confirm that this work has gained ethical approval and that I have faithfully observed the terms of the approval in the conduct of this project. This submission is the result of my own work. All help and advice other than that received from tutors has been acknowledged and primary and secondary sources of information have been properly attributed. Should this statement prove to be untrue I recognise the right and duty of the board of examiners to recommend what action should be taken in line with the University’s regulations on assessment contained in its handbook.

signed .................................................................................................................... date .......................................................................................................................

Declaration 2

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Contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 4

Introduction Methodology What is Flow? Flowing through history generation y What’s Changed?

pg. 6 pg. 12 pg. 18 pg. 24 pg. 34 pg. 42

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Conclusion

pg. 52

8.

Reccomendations

pg. 56

9.

References

pg. 74

10.

Illustrations

pg. 80

11.

Bibliography

pg. 84

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Appendix

pg. 94 5


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early majority late majority

early adopters

laggards

Innovators

2.5%%

13.5%% 34%%

34%%

16%%

Roger’s Curve of Innovation fig. 1.. Roger’s curve of innovation diagram. 2013 *Rodger curve of innovation describes the Innovators and the early adopters as the first 16% of the consumer population to adopt a trend. They are on the edges of society and are the adopters of new technologies and experiences, giving the larger part of the consumer group (the early majority, late majority and laggards) the courage to follow. By the time is happens the Innovators and early adopters have moved on to something new. This is why identifying them and looking at what they are doing will give a good indication of what trends could be about to reach the masses.

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It has become a current preoccupation of the state of the nation to look at how happy its occupants are. Economists write about happiness as an indicator of the condition of our nation, while politicians speak of ‘happy nation pledges’ (Buckingham 2012). Democritus said “happiness does not reside in strength or money” (Csikszentmihalyi 2008:127) but as far as happiness economics is concerned happiness does increase with income to a certain extent, with the suggested tipping point being £22,000 (Elliott 2013: Online). Recently studies show as far as our happiness increasing with our income, for England this is as good as it gets. So without being able to gain happiness from increasing our income perhaps what is needed is a “rethinking of our nation values and reward structure” (Kasser in Csikszentmihalyi 2006:211). “One way or another if human evolution is to go on we shall have to learn to enjoy life more thoroughly” (Csikszentmihalyi 1975:206) and devote effort for rewards of happiness and pleasure, rather than extrinsic incentives.

So, is happiness the new form of wealth? With the rise of the life enrichment trend which has been growing exponentially over the past few years, could we now be valuing happiness higher than the amount in our bank accounts? If not maybe we should be. A consequence of this social trend is that people are experience collecting, learning new skills and wanting to add interest to their routine, with a focus on bettering oneself and expanding one’s knowledge and talents. Local Councils have cashed in on this part of the trend and resulting in an increase in night- classes with people both wanting to learn new skills but also to forget about the recession blues (Shepherd 2010; Online). But these micro trends have reached the masses and now we must to look to the future and the innovators and early adopters*, who have the ability to grow the life enrichment trend over the next few years (Roger 2003). By looking at what is happening on the edges of society it is the experience side of the trend which could still have longevity, especially where brands are concerned. Some brands, especially at the luxury end of the market have already started to explore the experience aspect of the trend, but not just in retail also in unique events. Baileys week-long event Bar Chocolat is an example of this, which provided the consumer with a multi-sensory experience inspired by pleasure (see Appendix 6, pg. 96). This is where more brands could be taking advantage with the paradoxical gap in the market being optimal and unique experience for the mainstream consumer.

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So how do you find out what makes people happy? In the theory of happiness, apart from it being something we desire for its own sake, there is a recurring theme of optimal experience and Csikszentmihalyi’s notion of Flow (Csikszentmihalyi 2008). Flow is the “absolute absorption in an activity” (Norman 1993:31) where everything outside what you are doing doesn’t seem to matter anymore. It has been proved that “there is a significant relationship between life satisfaction and frequency of flow experience” (Csikszentmihalyi and Csikszentmihalyi 1992:144). The concept of Flow is over 38 years old and with dramatic culture changes over this period it is important to investigate how the current Flow experience differs from the ones originally described by Csikszentmihalyi in 1975.

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By looking at how the Flow experience has changed brands can identify how the potential consumer is having an optimal experience through Flow. By exploring what is absorbing and holding their consumers attention it will be possible for brands to identify how their consumers are intrinsically motivated and rewarded with happiness (Csikszentmihalyi 2008: Podcast). Studies have shown that the happier you make your consumer, the stronger the emotional attachment to the brand and “happiness seems to be the emotion that has the largest impact on brand leverage.” (Van den Bergh and Behrer 2011:182). With rational buying being slowly replaced by emotional purchasing if a brand can use the information about how their consumer are experiencing Flow and essentially experiencing happiness, they can use it to their competitive advantage.

fig, 2, flow front cover, 2011

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secondary research When carrying out secondary research it is important to get a variety of sources, both written and visual. Secondary research should contain both overviews of industries and ideas as well as specific examples. This is why case studies on companies were important. Secondary information should then be cross referenced with finding through primary research, comparing and contrasting the information found. Both are vital to understanding industry, ideas and consumers. When researching theories it was important to use reliable information that came directly from the source. For this reason when looking at happiness concepts and the concept of Flow, reading books on these subjects was preferable. However when looking at very current ideas the internet provided recent information. However the source had to be checked and online information can often come from unreliable sources.

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primary research

sampling When conducting research it is important to get a sample that represents the identified population (Berg 2007). The best sampling method to achieve this is random sampling. This is usually accomplished by asking so many people compared to the population. For example once you have identified the sample group asking every fifth person in the location you have chosen. It is also common to repeat this process in different locations to rule out bias due to location. For asking generation Y about Flow and experiences random sampling was used and every fifth person was asked over several locations. However due to the nature of the research for finding out about skills through generations some convenience sampling had to be used. This was because it was difficult to find two or three generation in the same place at the same time without some arrangements being made beforehand. But from the initial convenience sample some snowball sampling could take place forming a chain of subjects with the initial participants passing the questionnaire on to others (Berg 2007).

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What

piloting After deciding to do survey- based research because it is usually quicker to carry out it was important to pilot the questions before using them for final research (Mcneill 2005). After creating an online questionnaire to ask people about the last time they experienced Flow it was piloted to five people. It became apparent that the meaning of Flow wasn’t understood even with an explanation given. The change that needed to be made wasn’t in the question but that it needed to take place face to face so further explanation of the term could be carried out if necessary.

what, who, when why. 16

Interview

Who Ally wolf the events coordinator for Rebel Bingo

when

Why

26.11.13

To get an understanding of the experience industry and what it takes to create a successful, exclusive event. A face to face interview allowed the conversation to flow freely.

Professor Csikszentmihalyi

09.11.13

Bar Chocolat

12.12.13

Skills through the generations

Two or three members of 5 families.

24.12.13 26.12.13 11.1.14

Flow and Experience questionnaire

30 members of Generation Y over three locations.

30.10.13

Teach yourself Complimentary Therapy

One member of Generation y One member of Generation x

24.11.13

Emails to industry

27.11.13

13.11.13 9.01.14

18.11.13

To ask the expert of Flow if in his opinion Flow actives have changed and if Flow needs to be redefined. Unfortunately after several tries there was still no response. To inquire about how to hold a successful experience event with collaboration and that entices the senses. Unfortunately the questions sent were never answered. To see if people are still passing down skills that can be used to experience Flow.

To get a better understand of how Generation Y are experiencing flow and to see if has changed from 1975. To see how Generation Y would define en experience, so this could be taken into account when looking at brand experiences. To see if learning a new skill is enough to put a person in Flow and experience higher pleasure. Flow was explained to them and then they compared how they felt when completing the teach yourself to the parameters Flow.

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fl

ow

-

-

Anxiety

Boredom

-

Challenge

The term ‘Flow’ was coined by Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi who wrote of it in his book Beyond Boredom and Anxiety: Experiencing Flow in Work and Play in 1975 and continued to write about it for the following three decades. It is defined simply as the sensation people feel when they have “absolute absorption in an activity” (Norman 1993:31). The name he gave this mind-set is what anthropologists call ‘native category’, meaning the word Flow was frequently used by people themselves to describe the experience of total involvement (Csikszentmihalyi 1975). The general concept of flow can be traced back 2,330 years ago to the idea of Chuang Tzu which translated into English means “Flying and Flowing” (Csikszentmihalyi 2008:150). It was Csikszentmihalyi who founded and described the seven parameters for experiencing Flow (Figure 3). Often the one involved in the experience will not be aware of all seven, as many are in the subconscious, but the mind has to be in this state for a person to be in Flow.

fig. 4 Flow diagram, 2013

skill

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fig.3 parameters of flow. 2013

Looking at these parameters more closely there are several which we should take particular note of. The first is how an individual has to have adequate skills to take pleasure in what they are doing. There is a very narrow gap for experiencing Flow, which is created by the amount of challenge presented and how this matches up to the skills you possess. As shown in figure 5 if you have too much skill and not enough challenge then boredom will occur. If you are too challenged and don’t have the skill to cope you will experience anxiety. Having the skills to do something involves time and effort on the part of the individual. Skill is something that takes time to master and the ancient Greeks believed the words of Sophocles; “Wisdom is the supreme part of happiness” (Csikszentmihalyi 1994:243). The philosopher John Stuart Mill said you have to practice something to get higher pleasure and happiness out of it and that “some kinds of pleasure are more desirable than others” (Mill in Gibbs 1986:31 Online). The higher pleasure activities are ones where you are working to try and master a skill. Essentially what Mill was saying is that you can’t experience a higher pleasure without working at something. This is similar to Flow where “without cultivating the necessary skills one cannot expect to take true enjoyment in a pursuit” (Csikszentmihalyi 2008:108)

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The first parameter is that of intrinsic motivation as a significant contributor to being in Flow. Unless the participant is taking part in the activity simply because they find it enjoyable, even if no rewards follow, Flow cannot occur (Csikszentmihalyi and Csikszentmihalyi 1992). One of the main problems with society today is many things we undertake have a monetary reward attached to them but “when money is used as an external reward for some activities, the subjects loose intrinsic interest for the activity” (Deci in Pink 2011:8). Primary research showed that simply the learning of new skills does guarantee that Flow will occur. When set the challenge of a night class they could learn at home the two participants commented on having to force themselves to sit down and do it, showing that intrinsic motivation was not present and the importance of it for experiencing Flow (see Appendix 5 , pg 112). It is important to note that simply telling someone to do something because it will make their life better does not work. People have to take the step to want to be happier to begin the process.

fig. 5. teach yourself package. 2013

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Flow

=

Happiness

Studies have shown that “there is a significant relationship between life satisfaction and frequency of flow experience” (Csikszentmihalyi and Csikszentmihalyi 1992:144). In a study by Csikszentmihalyi subjects were asked to remove all activities that provided them with Flow as well as the little pleasures of their day to day lives. Their moods monitored and results started as predicted with a general down turn in mood. However as the study continued the results were significantly more serious. Participants reported feeling irritable, tense, restless, furtive, worthless, lacking in creativity, sluggish, more accident prone and were having difficulty concentrating (Csikszentmihaly 1975). After only a few days participants were showing early signs of depression and “the general deterioration in mood was so advanced that prolonging the experiment would have been unadvisable” (Pink 2011:129). With the link shown between happiness and Flow it is important to understand how people are experiencing it and how it can be made to happen more frequently especially as “Flow activities happen so infrequently they hardly leave a mark” (Csikszentmihaly 1994:203).

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Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi looked at the parameters for Flow in 1975. It is important therefore, that we look at how Flow experience has changed in those years since it was first written about as concept. But before we look forward at what has changed it is important to first look back to how Flow was experienced not only in 1975 but in the centuries before that.

Even after the industrial revolution, work is source of Flow for many, but mostly people began to turn to their Leisure time to give them an optimal experience. Surviving and working both had intrinsic motivation as well some external. “For hundreds and thousands of years chasing down game was the main productive activity in which humans were involved” (Csikszentmihalyi 2008:152) and many people are still doing this activity as a hobby. It provided Flow in work and now play, showing it is the activity that provides Flow, not whether it is being done as a means of survival or for fun.

fig. 6. evolution of man edited. 2013

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When humans were primal beings “all learned information had to be transmitted from the memory of one person to that of another” (Csikszentmihalyi 2008:121). Father would teach son how to hunt, which berries were safe to eat, the lay of the land and generally how to survive. These were the means of Flow; passing along information about survival, as well as simply surviving, provided optimal experience. The original condition of human beings was a state of inner peace, disturbed only by the tides of hunger, sexuality, pain and danger (Csikszentmihalyi 2008). As our brains grew, especially the frontal cortex, we developed a self-reflective consciousness, and with this the capability for more complex skills. We were no longer simply just trying to survive being in the world, and up until the eighteenth century, pre industrial revolution, we used these complex skills as a means of providing a living by working. Skills such as weaving, carving and farming were perfect for providing Flow as they provided interaction and feedback, goals, motive and engagement (Norman 1993). These skills primarily use to provide a living with the experience of Flow being a happy second, but none the less they were getting higher pleasure from their work. But then the industrial revolution hit and “throughout most of the western world such cosy arrangements for Flow were brutally disrupted with the invention of the first power looms” (Csikszentmihalyi 2008:153) and made previously high pleasure work dull.

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However in our society today there is a much larger focus on working simply for money rather than for pleasure. In the first world there is an irony that society seeks greater income but is little or no happier for it (Layard 2005). But in some societies work is still the main, if not only source of Flow, encompassing the occupants’ entire lives. The progression from Flow mainly being experienced through work to being found through leisure time has taken place in most western cultures, but in some developing countries this is not the case. An example is in the Chinese mountains where the people report working the land and day to day activities bring them joy, and describe the activities as providing them with Flow. The skills required to do these jobs can take years to master and so are providing Flow and higher pleasure. Unlike the workers in the Chinese mountains in western culture there is now no such thing as a job for life and we can shed our occupational identities at will, whereas “in the past a hunter was a hunter until he died� (Csikszentmihalyi 2008:224). It is possible this is why in some parts of the developing world work is still the main way to experience Flow, and it continues to provide them with optimal experiences, because they are mastering the skills for the same profession for the majority of their lives.

fig. 7. smiling bank note, 2012

Fig. 8. Terraced Rice Field, nk

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Leisure

and

skill

It was the “rise of the industrial society that created the idea of leisure” (Thompson in Rojek 2010:2) and in 1883 Lafargue stated that the machine was to be the saviour of humanity and redeem man from working, giving him leisure and liberty (Lafargue in Hatherley 2012: Online). But many are not using this leisure time wisely. The relationship between skill challenge and Flow does not mean that people are constantly motivated to seek out higher challenges, especially when it comes to their leisure time. Leisure is the reward of work and with high demands when at their place of employment people don’t necessarily want to be challenged by their leisure time, but when free to use time at their discretion most people prefer to relax and to find pleasure in low intensity interactions (Csikszentmihalyi and Csikszentmihalyi 1992). The pleasure they are finding in this is not the more desirable higher pleasure John Stuart Mill speaks of but the less desirable lower pleasure. Relaxing by switching off is also not helping people achieve Flow. Studies show that when supposedly enjoying their hard earned leisure, people generally report surprisingly low moods, but keep wishing for more leisure time (Csikszentmihalyi 2008). When Csikszentmihalyi first wrote about Flow he used examples of activities that provide Flow outside the world of work. He describes activities such as rock climbing, chess, tennis and crosswords, showing that it is both physically and intellectually stimulating activities that produce Flow. But now in every culture where TV is accessible, people watch it more than they pursue any other activity in their free time, even though it has been described as the least Flow like activity after maintenance jobs (Csikszentmihalyi 1994). It initially provides a positive experience, but quickly this deteriorates into a low pleasure activity, so once the viewer is hooked no further benefits are provided. But it not just TV, “leisure time does not have the properties of Flow unless individuals establish them for themselves” (Norman 1993:33). It is the initial effort to establish high pleasure from leisure time that people are reluctant to make, mainly because most enjoyable activities are not natural and require this exertion of energy to start (Csikszentmihalyi 2008). There is also a belief in our society that having to put in effort is for those who don’t have the ability and we value natural accomplishments over achievements through effort (Gladwell in Dweck 2008).

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fig. 9. brain edited, 2014

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silent Generation manners social skills carpentry electronics work ethic

baby Boomers manners to be generous tennis good behaviour

generation y fig. 10, generation skills, 2014

silent Generation Respect Family comes first Crochet Darning Second Language

Throughout history many skills that provided Flow were passed from generation to generation, from hunting to sewing. Skills were kept alive this way and by learning from their parents or grandparents the next generation had a source of Flow taught to them. They were learning to master something and therefore getting higher pleasure from it. It was important to recognise that this has been happening for generations but to question if it is still happening now. By asking three generations of the same family it was possible to see the skills they thought were passed down from one generation to another. Examples, shown in figure 10, are typical of the results founds(see Appendix 6 pg. 118). It shows Generation Y (see figure 11) do not seem to be benefitting from Flow being passed through generations as frequently as it has other generations in the past. Although they commented on having been taught manners and social skills they had not been taught as many physical or skill based activities compared to previous generations.

The greatest Generation -Born 1901-1924

generation X The silent Generation Respect Family comes first Second Language manners relationships

generation y

-born 1925-1942

Baby Boomers - Born 1943-1960

Generation X -Born 1960-1980

Generation Y 32

- Born 1980-2000

fig. 11. generation list,

2014

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So who is Generation Y? They are the generation born between 1980 and 1995, the children of the baby boomers and Generation X (Raymond 2013; Lecture). They are said to be the optimistic and positive generation, with a strong focus on finding happiness. Their enthusiastic attitude and passion for life, has been fed by the life enrichment trend. It has been said that the “key to happiness is low expectations” (Schwartz 2006; Podcast), which is something that Generation Y is not associated with. They have high expectations of themselves as well as a fear of failure. When the reality of someone’s life is better than they expected, it makes them happy. However Generation Y’s expectations are notoriously high, being the generation who believes they can have it all and aren’t afraid to ask for it (Asthana 2008; Online). This leaves them falling flat, giving even more reason for Flow to become central in their search for happiness.

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optimistic Enthusiastic want it all high expectations

fig. 13. generation y technologyaltered, 2013

As shown in the previous chapter Generation Y are not gaining as many skills from previous generations as maybe they would have done in the past. But this isn’t to say that Generation Y are not skilled. In fact employers are saying they are the most skilled and enthusiastic they have had applying for jobs (Jasoria 2013; Online). Could it be that Generation Y are just learning new skills rather than ones passed down through the generations? With the increase in technology new skills have to be learnt at a rapid pace and with Generation Y being the start of the Digital Natives they have the capacity to keep up with the ever increasing rate of technological development. These skills are mainly self-taught and growing up with these developments they have a completely different comfort with them (Rainie in Stone 2010; Online).

37 fig. 12. generation y characterists, 2014


s ll ski

sk

s l il

generation x Baby Boomers

Generation Y

fig. 14, skills reverse diagram, 2014

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But with all this self-taught knowledge Generation Y have a wealth of information to share with previous generations. With the generation gap being exaggerated by technology Generation Y have the upper hand when it comes to skills in this area. Although kids have always taught their parents a thing or two, now they have practical skills to offer. It could be that the new skills being learnt by Generation Y are being passed back up the skills ladder. This is also shown in the government scheme Race online which is encouraging young adults to volunteer to get millions more of the older generation using the internet (Newsbeat 2011; Online). In terms of the working environment, Generation Y are over taking generation X in the job ladder, with better skills in technology and progressing quickly to managerial positions (Economist 2013;online). With this they are becoming mentors to both Generation X and Baby Boomers showing a role reversal in the work place. They have the advanced knowledge of technology skills as well as a detailed understanding of social media to advise companies with an average older employee age. But with this in mind Generation Y characteristics show they care less about salaries than about having more time to travel, with a better work-life balance, rebelling against their parents’ values and are determined “not to lead lives that revolved so heavily around the world of work” (Asthana 2008; Online).

This inconsistency with Generation Y inheriting skills could also be due to an increased generation divide. Generation gaps have always been present, but the rapid culture changes in the late twentieth and twenty first century are accredited with the gap becoming larger. With the rapid development in technology, as well as shifts in attitude, the ever growing gap seems to be present with Generation Y and their parents. It is also possible that this gap is significant because Baby boomers were in charge of when they wanted to have a family, due to wide use of contraceptives (Thompson and Sutherland 2003). The generational divide now between just two generations is “vaster than that between a citizen of the Roman Republic and a farm labourer in 15th-century Britain” (Koschei 2013; Online).

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et rn

in

g n i b

b u cl movies fig. 16 flow results . 2014

univ e

rsit

y

tr

al

t r o sp

on

iti ad

tr

working

te

sho

ppi

ng

ng gami

n-

fIG. 15, Twitter Generation Gap. kn

no

The attributes associated with Generation Y are vital in understanding how they are experiencing Flow. Generation Y are experience seekers and this could account for them wanting their Flow experiences to be different each time (Raymond 2013; Lecture). Along with this they have a fear of missing out. They don’t want to be seen as the one who wasn’t involved so don’t want to be spending their time doing the same thing in case they are missing out on something else, resulting in Generation Y being “only bite-size committed”(Van den Bergh and Behrer 2011: 22). They thrive on social media and the sharing of information (Williams 2013; Online). Social media is often used to try and one up others by sharing what they are doing, invoking the fear of missing out in those who see what they have been up to. This drive for new experiences, combined with a fear of missing out, could be used by brands to target Generation Y, as they are more in touch with the inherent tendency humans have to seek out novelty and challenges (Deci in Pink 2011). Generation Y are more stressed than any other current living generation, especially in Western culture (Castillo 2013; Online). Experiencing happiness and Flow, being able to temporarily forget who they are, can help generation Y forget about their daily stress (Van den Bergh and Behrer 2011)

o i t i ad

So it is clear that Generation Y are learning new skills but if they are not experiencing Flow through the passing down of skills how are they experiencing it?

l a n

back to flow

By asking a random sample of Generation Y it was possible to see how they were experiencing Flow. After explaining the concept they commented on what they were doing the last time they experienced Flow (see Appendix 3, pg. 105). The results showed that less than 50% asked were experiencing Flow through, what Csikszentmihalyi considers the traditional Flow type activities (figure 16). However the others showed they were experiencing Flow through non-conventional Flow activities such as shopping and watching films. This begs the question, are these 57% really experiencing Flow or are they just use to experiencing lower pleasure? The activities they said were providing them with Flow are ones not usually associated with a higher pleasure. What is interesting to note is that the non-traditional activities Generation Y said were allowing them to experience Flow have one characteristic in common; they are different every time they participate in the activity. Shopping and clubbing and many of the other activities are different every time they occur. It isn’t that the non-traditional methods of experiencing Flow do not require skill but they don’t necessarily need mastering. If they are experiencing lower pleasure, Brands could use the addictive nature of higher pleasure to entice Generation Y, making them a more desirable brand as well as increasing the happiness of their consumer.

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the hunter

the gatherer

The rapid evolution of technology has had a major impact on how we think and process information, with the biggest influence being on Generation Y. The lives of most Baby Boomers and Generation X have been split into an analogue youth with the progression to a digital adulthood (Carr 2010). This is in comparison with Generation Y who has grown up with their skills being developed along with the technology, only knowing a world with these advances. These advances have changed how Generation Y spend their leisure time, socialize and learn, but what is the real effect they are having on Generation Y and how they are experiencing Flow? fig. 18. electronic hunter gatherer 2011

fig. 17, camera development, 2013

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Our minds are fast moving, and want to take in information, and with the quickening of the pace of life, both at work and home, we want to take it in faster than ever (Carr 2010). This need for new information has been fed by the development of the internet. The mind is a work in progress, continually developing and the computer and internet could alter what is going on in our heads and how our mind processes information. A major change that is beginning to show is that the internet is “chipping away at the capacity for concentration and contemplation” (Carr 2010:6). Everyone gets distracted but the internet is a medium that can scatter our attention and leads to hurried and distracted thinking, and even seems to promote it (Carr 2010). But what it does do is feed our desire for information and the love of learning we are all born with (Dweck 2008:53). With the vast amount of information out there our retained knowledge is becoming obsolete faster than ever, and if we slow down or stop learning we risk getting left behind. The fascinating thing is that we seem to be willing to give up the loss of concentration in return for the wealth of information the internet can provide us with. These are two things that could help explain why Generation Y are not mastering skills. With access to so much information why would they just want to learn and master one thing when they could be learning a little about anything they wanted? Secondly, the reduced concentration could be preventing them from spending enough time on one thing to really master it, inhibiting higher pleasure. What seems to be happening is we are “evolving from being cultivators of personal knowledge to being hunters and gathers in the electronic data forest” (Carr 2010:138)

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Over years the internet use has increased significantly, but even with this form of technology advancing, one that has been around for decades still remains strong. Even with increased use of internet television viewing has either held steady or increased (Carr 2010). This form of relaxation and use of leisure is not ideal for experiencing Flow but in every culture where TV is accessible, people “watch it more than they pursue any other activity in their free time” (Csikszentmihalyi 1994:135). It initially provides a positive experience but after the viewer is hooked it takes up time without providing any further benefits (Csikszentmihalyi 1994). It is a “mass medium delivered to almost every household, it’s the communal confirmation of experience” (Anthony 2013; Online). And this is the paradox of TV; it brings us all together in our own homes. Although TV has been proved to be an activity that does not produce Flow it is stubbornly unavoidable in most people’s everyday lives. However it has the ability to bring people into social situations where Flow can be attained, for instance talking and sharing what they have watched (Thompson and Sutherland 2003). This is also the case for sharing viewing online, especially on social media where their viewing experience is recognise and appreciated by others. This form of entertainment is not new, with the television being the centre of many living spaces for decades, and is described as thing you point your furniture at. But it is the increased number of Televisions in our homes, and the increase in hours we spend in front of it, that could be having an effect on people experiencing Flow. As well as effecting Flow it has also shown to be effecting happiness by raising our standards of comparison showing lives that are better than average. This has shown to have a “negative effect on our perceived position” (Layard 2006:88) with more people spending time to try and keep up with the standards of life shown on TV, resulting in lower levels of happiness due to their expectation not being met. fig. 19 tv Illustrations, 2010

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fig. 21. edited screen shot of Flow game, 2013 fig. 20. edited screen shot of Flow game, 2013

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However one particular activity which you would not consider a traditional Flow activity has proved to provide hours of Flow for millions around the world. The video game, starting in arcades then encroaching on our homes would initially seem to be another leisure activity where the participant can switch off, at least this is what it appears to onlookers. For the ones playing these games it is another story. Jenova Chen looked at how video games provide Flow in his thesis and how Flow can be used by the designers to help the players have an optimal experience. It was discovered that the highest rated video games had qualities that put the players in flow (Holt in Chen 2006; Online). To be able to put the players in Flow the video games have to be intrinsically rewarding, offer the right amount of challenge for the players’ ability and the player has to have a certain amount of control over the game activity (Chen 2006; Online). Chen looked at how it was possible to make a video game even more engaging and keep the player in Flow for longer. What he discovered was that there has to be a wide spectrum of difficulties and allow players to play at their own pace as well as letting them make choices throughout the game which prevented them getting bored. He then created his own video game called Flow that encompassed these qualities, with the results being that testers found themselves feeling addicted to the game. This shows us that if Flow is easy to access, such as being in our own home, as well as the activity being designed to help us experience Flow, we are willing to spend our precious leisure time doing it and get higher pleasure from it.

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The parameters for Flow mean that it cannot be attained while someone is bored( see figure 22). Boredom happens when we are not successfully able to engage with internal or external stimuli required for participating in a satisfying activity, meaning our focus is not directed (Eastwood 2012; Online). The artist Grayson Perry accredits long periods of boredom in childhood to his creativity (Robinson 2012; Online). But when do kids have time to be bored with their leisure time taking up the minority of their day (Thompson and Sutherland 2003)? Now, with technology as an easy option for parents, why should a child ever have to be unentertained. “The problem is we’ve become passive recipients of stimulation,” (Eastwood in Robinson 2012; Online) and even the adults who say ‘I’m bored’s cure to this is putting on the TV. Curiosity and interest actively use your brain as opposed to those who lie in front of the TV and “passively assimilate information” (Peterson in Csikszentmihalyi and Csikszentmihalyi 2006: 42). However Generation Y have said that they are in Flow when they are using technology to combat boredom. But could it just be that they are so used to feeling this way it has become pleasurable? This doesn’t seem likely with an experience seeking generation but these means of avoiding boredom are just the ones they grew up with. What previous generations deem to be boring, because it is different to the means of entertainment they had when younger, doesn’t mean that they don’t bring pleasure (admittedly lower pleasure) to Generation Y. However “boredom itself is a beneficial emotion” (Toohey 2012:26), as it allows people to feel and show true excitement for unique experiences. A break from routine and possibly boredom could be the key to for a brand to create a relationship with Generation Y, either by a unique online or offline experience.

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fig. 22, flow and boredom diagram edited, 2013

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So has Flow changed for Generation Y? It seems that Generation Y is still experiencing Flow, but there is a split in the kind of activities that are bringing them pleasure, those traditionally expressed by Csikszentmihalyi and more non-traditional activities such as shopping and watching films. The same parameters apply for experiencing Flow but maybe what needs redefining is what activities and pursuits bring pleasure to Generation Y. With the changes that have happened in society it is no wonder that the wa in which Generation Y is experiencing pleasure has changed.

fig. 23. tipping point diagram , 2010

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*This refers to Malcolm Gladwell’s theory of the tipping point, which is the time just before an idea or trend crosses the threshold and tips to become an epidemic in society (see figure 23).

“Some aspects of happiness itself may in fact be determined by our culture” (Haidt 2006 :60), a statement affirmed by the research carried out over the past chapters. In the western world we have experienced changes to the way we work, live and play that have affected how we as a society experience Flow. These shifts in culture and attitudes are starting to ripple throughout the rest of the world, but it is yet unknown if they will experience the changes western culture did in terms of Flow. But in the West it would seem that we are at a tipping point in behaviour (Gladwell 2002)*. People don’t want to spend their free time mastering skills but want to be able to switch off. What the research shows is this is apparent in Generation Y, with the ease of entertainment being key to how they spend their leisure time. So if Generation Y were to increase how often they were experiencing Flow it would have to be easy for them to have this optimal experience. In our age and society today we want everything to happen now and with as little effort as possible (Mastercrafts 2010: DVD). As a society we have come to believe “effort is for those who do not have ability” (Dweck 2007:40) and if you have to work at something you must not be that good at it. A shift in belief has occurred in western culture where we are scared of the idea of trying and still failing (Dweck 2007). This may be another reason why people have stopped mastering skills. We have unlimited access to information online, but our constant need to explore this is on a par with the ease at which we can reach it. To become a master in something has been overpowered by how easy it is to attain this status. Although Generation Y is optimistic and strive for a more fulfilling life, it doesn’t mean they won’t take the easiest option to attain this. In order to engage Generation Y you need to help them increase Flow (and therefore their happiness), by providing them with experiences that are easy to access and provide an optimal experience.

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Generation y + experience + flow + happiness = emotional attachment

We have seen that Generation Y like to experience new and different ways to be in Flow. To help achieve this brands can create events and experiences that allow Generation Y to be in Flow, gaining higher pleasure. With this to boost their happiness the Generation Y consumer will feel an emotional attachment to the brand, resulting in future sales and positive brand image. In this economic climate it is important to create brand loyalty and this can be achieved by helping Generation Y experience Flow which submersed in a brand experience. Because a lot of what we do is motivated by pleasure and if brands make the pleasure Generation Y feels higher pleasure, then they can create better brand relationship. The sensation and higher pleasure that Flow provides is perfect to help create an attachment with members of Generation Y, creating a bond through experience. We have seen that Generation Y want to find Flow through new experiences and brands can target this consumer segment using this. As a generation they are target worthy due to their high spending habits, looking to overtake the baby boomers (Raymond 2013: Lecture). But the important thing is that brands understand how to create a successful experience to gain the attention of Generation Y and what kind of experience this should be. By having looked at both Flow and Generation Y in detail it will help to create a clearer understanding of what they are expecting from an experience and how this can be tailored to experience Flow.

fig. 24. attachment equation, 2013

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Experience and Flow

Looking back at the seven parameters of Flow it is possible to look at what it takes for an experience to become an optimal one (page 20). Obviously not all of them apply and as stated earlier all of them don’t have to be experienced for someone to be in Flow. The main ones which will be important to take forward for brands to create experiences based around Flow are the complete involvement in what they are doing, experiencing ecstasy outside everyday reality, that they experience timelessness and have the skills to take part in the experience.

“interaction between an organisation and a customer and is a mix of an organisation’s physical performance, the senses stimulated, and emotions evoked, each intuitively measured against customer expectation” (Shaw 2005:51).

expereince

This covers in-store experiences, the online experience and events, all tools brands are aware of. But the important thing is how to create a successful experience that entices Generation Y and puts them in Flow. To do this is it important to see how Generation Y would define an experience and primary research was carried out to discover this. The results (see Appendix 4, pg. 102) show that they have a varied option but the key points can be seen in figure …. It is important that these are considered by a brand when they come to making an experience aimed at Generation Y.

engaging

memorable not day to day

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fig. 25. word room at selfridges 2013

Experiences are nothing new for brands who have known giving the consumer something extra is essential to having one up on their competitors. Defined by Shaw, a consumer experience is an

One of the most important features to creating a successful experience is that it retains the customers’ complete attention, which is also essential in experiencing Flow (Shaw 2005). If the consumer has achieved higher pleasure from their experience they are likely to remember the event and emotions they felt when there but also the brand associated with their feelings. The timelessness will come hand in hand with engaging the consumer for a longer period of time, allowing them to become completely absorbed in what they are doing. Another key thing is that a brand exceeds the expectation of their consumer. This is obviously made harder by the high expectations of Generation Y, which is why the experience should ideally be an optimal one. Many brands have made the mistake of just making an experience about the theatre and entertainment, but it isn’t as simple as that, especially one that is going to help attain Flow. An example of this was the word room at Selfridges, which provided an initially interesting and interactive experience (see figure 25). It had presence as a display and merchandising tool but did not create the emotional attachment or Flow parameters that can really create a positive experience for the consumer.

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Implementing theatre and entertainment can be effective if combined with something that engages the emotions of the consumer, as emotions account for over half of the customer experience (Shaw 2005). Happiness is the emotion that has the largest impact on brand leverage as well as the strongest emotional tie to a brand (Van den Bergh and Behrer 2011). Rational buying is increasingly replaced by emotional shopping as stressed in the introductory chapter, and for Generation Y it is all about emotions and experiences, with emotional thinking working much faster than rational thinking (Van den Bergh and Behrer 2011). If the brand has made that happy emotional connection they can take benefit from this advantageous brain process. After happiness surprise is the second most effective emotion for attracting Generation Y. There are primary and secondary emotions. Surprise is a primary emotion which is brief and intense but which works up a secondary emotion, such as love or happiness (Evans in Roberts 2005). The initial surprise emotion is attractive to Generation Y, who wants to explore and experience new things to attain Flow. This also links to a brand exceeding expectations, which will be a pleasant surprise to the Generation Y consumers. Surprise can be used in a negative way as a shock tactic. Many examples of shock tactics are in advertising campaigns such as the Red Bull advert (see figure 26 ). A man is loading a crates of Red Bull onto the Titanic, to be stopped by another saying “Wings? Why on Earth would you need wings on a ship? Stupidest thing I’ve ever heard”.

fig. 26. screen shot red bull advert, 2013

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Emotions

fig. 27. fomo, 2013

Emotions do not only appear to be an important element in creating a successful customer experience but also in stimulating word of mouth and creating an online buzz (Van den Bergh and Behrer 2011). With people now “replacing their trust in traditional authorities with trust in each other” (Earls 2007:177), word of mouth is becoming even more important. Although word of mouth is the most tangible and measurable form of peer to peer influence it now mostly take place virtually (Earls 2007). Because the internet, smart phones and social media appeared before most of Generation Y’s 15th birthday, this is considered natural technology to them and they are happily addicted to them (Earls 2007). This is because if Generation Y stop sending messages they risk being out the loop, creating anxiety, especially if they cannot feed their interest in knowing about the lives of their peers (Hausauer in Carr 2012). With the availability of the internet on mobile devices they can see where their friends are and what they are doing in real time. Mix this with their fear of missing out and you create a consumer who wants to know everything about their friends, mainly what they are doing. They compare what they are doing with their peers and are constantly aware of looking like they have an exciting life full of new experiences. This can be used by brands to spread the word about an event or experience, with the fear of missing out factor as a tool to draw in Generation Y.

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collaborations

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Most of these types of events and experiences have proven to engage the consumer. These were mainly individual exclusive events making them enticing for the consumer, especially the early adopter. But maybe they are not reaching the majority of consumers, a large market that brands would want to tap into. The events co-ordinator for Rebel Bingo said that the exclusivity is key for these events but the way to get round it is to move from city to city, making it accessible, but only for a limited time (see Appendix 3, pg. 100). One of the key things was to keep the events small and to make sure that one location didn’t become stale or over saturated. That way if you wanted to return to do another event there would still be demand, especially if word of mouth had spread and Generation Y wanted to be seen to have been to the event. This is important for brands as they can keep up the demand for the event, or even better make it exclusive with people scared they are going to miss out once it has gone.

fig. 28. bar chocolat, 2013

However managing to create one of these emotionally engaging and memorable customer experiences in-stores is challenging. This is why an event would be preferable as it would give wider scope for the brand to create a Flow type experience. As well as this, an event put on by brands tends to be too ego centric or product focused rather than on the experience as a whole. There have been some great examples of brands collaborating to create an experience to engage their consumers. By introducing a third party into the event, alongside the brand and the consumer, there is an additional focus to the event. Collaborations “curate experts who bring a unique level of creativity� (Wallis 2013; Lecture) to an event into an experience. A case study into Bar Chocolat shows a successful collaboration between the liqueur company Baileys, Belgium chocolate experts, artisan chocolatiers, musicians and designers (see Appendix 1, pg. 92). They were successful in their event due to a combination of the sense enticing atmosphere, the concept and execution, with different levels of experience available. The main focus was on the experience and design rather than the product which was subtly incorporated. Brands can use this to their advantage and play on the subconscious mind and use subliminal messaging to reach the consumer. These collaboration events allow the brand to be associated with the experience, and subconsciously associate the experience and feeling of higher pleasure through Flow with the brand.

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Targeting

fig. 29. smirnoff nightlife screenshot. 2011

early adopters

majority majority majority majority majority majority

Most of our behaviour is the result of the influence of other people, so we “do individually what we do largely because of each other” (Earls 2007: 5). Enjoyment will often take place as experience for Generation Y, not only because of the state of Flow but also because experiences are mostly social happenings and this is something that brands should take into account (Van den Bergh and Behrer 2011). Much of modern consumer behaviour is social by nature and experience events could really take advantage of this. Events such as Smirnoff Nightlife Exchange provide a social environment where the consumers can experience Flow. This event involved 50 countries around the world swapping traditional nightlife and creating the illusion you had stepped from one country to another, with the slogan “Don’t wait for an extraordinary night, make one”. They also collaborated with artists and DJs from around the world to help create the experience they envisioned, as well as cater for the senses their product couldn’t engage.

The early majority must be engaged with an idea or experience before it can reach the masses. Reaching this early market is hard as you have to find the early adopters that have the interest towards your brand but “the reward of diffusion of the message to the mainstream market is immeasurable” (Wipperfürth 2006: 205). An idea can be different when targeting early adopters, as they are “people who are just less inhibited than the rest of us” (Earls 2007:136) so are likely to want to try something new, especially if they are Generation Y. The good thing about collaborations is the early adopter doesn’t have to necessarily have to like the brand to start with, just the idea or concept behind the experience. Being the first and finding an event or experience is vital to the early adopters and so to cater for this an event could benefit from starting small and exclusive and if demand grows by the spreading of information to the majority, expand. However it is important to keep the feeling of exclusivity for the majority as this is probably one of the things that attracted them in the first place. It can be the peer to peer communication that can tip an idea into the main market, which means the trend setting early adopters’ work as an advertising agency, dictating what the majority thinks is cool (Wipperfürth 2006). The early adopters are social influencers and have the ability to persuade others with ease to adopt their rationales.

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fig. 30. holister perfume, 2013

Being in the state of Flow during these experiences can be beneficial for consumers purchasing decisions with the brand in the future. The mind has to be in the subconscious to experience flow, which is also the ideal state for taking in information from the five senses, something that is important in consumer experiences. Most of the information we take in and store isn’t consciously processed but we can reference it from our subconscious if needed. For example what the conscious mind thinks it wants can be overridden by our emotional subconscious, determining the purchasing outcome (Graves 2010). “The senses are the fast track to human emotions” (Roberts 2005:105) and are an easy tool brands can use to manipulate the emotions of the consumers. All of the examples given have shown that both the sense and emotions are vital to a successful experience. They also create an indulgent experience that can capture the attention of the consumer, helping Flow to occur.

fig. 31. selfridges window display, 2013

Senses, Subconscious and Sentiment

As you can see from the examples, these experience events have been very successful in the drinks industry. This is possible because the nature of the product enables several of the senses to be enticed. Taking into account how successful these events have been, other industries could mimic what these brand have been doing. Bombas and Parr are a company which many brands have collaborated with to create a memorable experience (see Appendix 2, pg. 94). Their main focus is flavour based experience design as well as installations. They began in the drinks and food industry but through collaboration and projects translated their ideas across all industries including lifestyle and fashion. This shows that these events can be translated across to other industries, in particular fashion. The way to create these successful experiences for a fashion brand is not to focus too much on their product, especially in events. Instead of directly relating it to product they should use their brand characteristics as the main focus and drive for the event. By using collaboration with companies such as Bombas and Parr the fashion industry can create these sense driven experiences. Fashion mainly deals with sight and touch, but it is scent that has the most connection to memory (Gaye 2013: Lecture). Lot of brands successfully use scent in their shop to associate it with their brand, for example Hollister who fill their shop with the smell of their perfume. But with these events you want to create an experience that is new to the senses and exciting. This way you can attach the sensation of Flow and higher pleasure with this scent and make positive associations in the consumers’ brain.

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consumer Decision loop

The use of experience and Flow can also help to create brand loyalty, a rare thing in today’s competitive market. Looking at the consumer decision loop (figure 32) it is after the consumer has bought and enjoyed that they become an advocate and bond with the brand as seen in figure.. (Edelman 2010: 64). Using experiences in the form of events could create the loyalty brands desire before they buy, so when it comes to the choice of where to purchase they already have a relationship the with brand, after experiencing pleasure and enjoyment with the experience the brand has provided. The brand can create this loyalty without the consumer having to buy anything first, which also partially reduces the need for the consumer shopping around. It is the subconscious that stores the emotional attachments and higher pleasure feelings that can sway a consumer to purchase with a brand. The difference between emotion and reason is that while emotion leads to action, a purchase, reason leads to a conclusion, not necessarily a purchase (Calne in Roberts 2005). It allows the consumer loyalty loop to be intercepted by emotion and memories of the experience held in both our conscious and subconscious mind. It can also make the decision easier as the modern consumer has to make “more decisions in a single day than a caveman did in a lifetime� (Sigman in Roberts 2005: 165) and the emotional pull sways them towards the brand. Anything that makes it easier for a consumer to make a decision is favourable to both them and the brand. Consumers are bombarded with so many messages and decisions throughout the day, anything that makes one of these easier, whether it is subconscious or not will be beneficial.

fig. 32 consumer decision loop edited, 2013

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Conclusion

fig. 33. edited apple logo, 2013.

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From the research undertaken the recommendation for a brand, particularly a fashion brand, wanting to use Flow to reach Generation Y are to create a collaborative event. The event should entice the senses and evoke the emotions of the consumer to create a bond with the brand and help create loyalty. It is important that this event isn’t just some outrageous stunt but something that creates authentic consumer opinion, and strengthens the relationship for a longer period of time not just short term by playing on the cool factor (Wipperfürth 2006). By using the idea of providing the consumer with Flow it gives parameters for the experience. And by using the recommendations outlined in the previous section fashion brands can help make the experience event one where the consumer can experience Flow and higher pleasure. Starting this process by finding the illusive early market is hard but once you have identified them and they have been swayed by the experiences the reward of the brand experience diffusing to the mainstream market is immeasurable (Wipperfürth 2006). It is the emotional ties created at the event which will create the loyalty, both from the early and later markets. These are highly relevant points in a society where “human attention has become our principle currency” (Roberts 2005:33). To become the richest brand you need to trade in customer experience and reap the benefits of loyalty and positive brand image. Apple is a company which benefits greatly from the loyalty of their consumers, and still continues to thrive in a struggling economic climate, despite being at a higher price point. If brands are able to fulfil Generation Y desire for new experience, the happiness they feel will help create a bond with the brand. This bond is essential for brands to create a loyal following, which could be the difference between surviving or not in this economic climate. By recognising Generation Y and their relationship with Flow brands can “understand how to cater for their pursuit of happiness will enjoy a better connection with them” (Van den Bergh and Behrer 2011:209).

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Figure 1 – Unknown, 2013, Rodgers curve of innovation diagram altered [illustration]

Figure 2 - Unknown, 2013, Flow front cover [Digital Image]Available at: http://pbcrolley.wordpress. com/2013/05/01/books-about-flow/ Figure 3 – Own creation, 2013, Parameters of Flow Figure 4 – Own creation, 2013, Flow diagram

Figure 5 – Own Photograph, 2014, Teach Yourself Package Figure 6 – Own creation, 2013, Evolution of Man

Figure 7 – Unknown, 2012, Smiling Bank Note, [Digital Image], Available at: http://theprbrownreport.blogspot. co.uk/2013/06/money-doesn-buy-happiness.html

Figure 8 – National Geographic, 2011, Rice Paddy Fields, [Digital image] Available at: http://www.cmybacon.com/ Figure 9 – Own creation, 2014, Brain

Figure 10 – Own creation, 2014, Generation Results Figure 11 – Own Creation, 2014, list of generations

Figure 12 – Own Creation, 2014, Generation Y characteristics

Figure 13 – Pajot, T., 2013, Generation y technology edited [Digital Image] Available at: http://de.fotolia.com/id/393 09576 Figure 14 – Own creation, 2014, Generation Skill Reverse

Figure 15 – unknown, 2013, Twitter birds [Digital Image] Available at: http://generationupdate.wordpress.com/2 013/09/19/twitter-observes-smaller-generation-gap-in-modern-twitosphere/ Figure 16 – Own Creation, 2014, Flow Results

Figure 17 –Fitzgerald III, J., 2013, Camera Development [Digital Image] Available at: http://www.kinfolk.com/

Figure 18 – Murphy, T., 2011. Electronic hunter gatherer. [Digital Image] Available at: http://www.stargroup1 .com/ blog/hunters-and-gatherers-how-put-your-finger-evolution-mobile-users Figure 19 – Humphries, G., 2010, TV illustration. [Digital Image] Available at: http://gracie-illustration.blogspot. co.uk/

Figure 20 – Unknown, 2013, Edited Screen Shot of Flow Game [Digital Image] Available at: http://interactive.usc. edu/projects/cloud/flowing/ Figure 21 - Unknown, 2013, Edited Screen Shot of Flow Game [Digital Image] Available at: http://interactive.usc. edu/projects/cloud/flowing/ Figure 22 – Unknown, 2011, Boredom and Skill. [Digital Image] Available at: http://hardtomotivate. blogspot. co.uk/2011/02/mihaly-csikszentmihalyi.html

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Figure 23 – Unknown, 2010, Tipping Point Diagram. [Digital Image] Available at: http ://acrazychicken.blogspot.co.uk/2010_09_01_archive.html Figure 24 –Own Creation, 2014, Attachment Equation

Figure 25 –Unknown, 2012, Word Room at Selfridges [Digital Image] Available at: http://lovedesignetc. wordpress.com/2012/01/14/selfridges-words-words-words-extravaganza/

Figure 26 – Unknown, 2013, Red Bull Titanic advert [Digital Image] Available at: http://www.marketingmagazine .co.uk/article/1211947/red-bull-hits-iceberg-titanic-ad-draws-79-complaints Figure 27 – Unknown, 2013, Fomo. [Digital Image] Available at: http://www.thesilverpen.com/inspired-livingcelebrating-life/a-case-of-fomo-fear-of-missing-out/ Figure 28 – Lowe, J., 2013, Bar Chocolat [Digital Image] Available at: http://www.londonlife. uk.com/2013/09/09/bar-chocolat-bringing-the-multi-sensory-pleasure-of-chocolate-to-life/

Figure 29 – Unknown, 2011, Smirnoff Nightlife screenshot [Digital Image] Avaliable at: http://www.smirnoff. com/ en-gb/main/the-mix.aspx#axzz2rB5Vlmqm Figure 30 –Unknown, 2013, Holister Perfume Bottle, [Digital Image] Available at: http://www.skyperf ume. co.uk/hollister-jake-eau-de-cologne-30ml Figure 31 –Unknown, 2013, Selfridges window display, [Digital Image] Available at: http://bompasandparr. com/proj ects/view/lost-london Figure 32 – Own creation using Consumer decision loop, 2014

Figure 33 – Unknown, 2014, Edited Apple Logo, [Digital Image] Available at: http://rippleit.com/partners/ Figure 34 – Lowe, J., 2013, Bar Chocolat [Digital Image] Available at: http://www.londonlife. uk.com/2013/09/09/bar-chocolat-bringing-the-multi-sensory-pleasure-of-chocolate-to-life/ Figure 35 - Lowe, J., 2013, Bar Chocolat [Digital Image] Available at: http://www.londonlife. uk.com/2013/09/09/bar-chocolat-bringing-the-multi-sensory-pleasure-of-chocolate-to-life/

Figure 36 – Unknown, 2013, Multisensory fireworks, [Digital Image] Available at: http://bompasandparr.com / projects/view/flavour-fireworksFigure 37 – Unknown, 2013, Multisensory fireworks, [Digital Image] Available at: http://bompasandparr.com /projects/view/flavour-fireworksFigure 38 – Guinness Store House Photography, 2013, Guinness tasting rooms, [Digital Image] Available at: http://bompasandparr.com/projects/view/the-guinness-tasting-rooms Figure 39 – Guinness Store House Photography, 2013, Guinness tasting rooms, [Digital Image] Available at: http://bompasandparr.com/projects/view/the-guinness-tasting-rooms

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Csikszentmihalyi, M., 1975. Beyond Boredom and anxiety: the experience of play in work and games. California: Josseybass Inc. Publishers. Csikszentmihalyi, M., 2008. Flow: The Phycology of Optimal Experience. New York: Harper Collins Publishers

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Norman, D., 1993. Things that make us smart: defending human attributes in the age of the machine. USA: Perseus Books Pink, D. H., 2011. Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us. Edinburgh: Canongate Books Ltd. Riewoldt, O., 2002. Brandscaping: Worlds of Experience in Retail Design. Germany: Birkhäuser Roberts, K., 2005. Lovemarks: The Future Beyond Brands. 2nd Ed. US: Power House Books Rogers, E., 2003. Diffusion of innovation. 5th ed, New York: Free Press

Rojek, C., 2010. The labour of Leisure: the culture of free time. London: SAGE publication

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Stutzer, A. and Frey, B., 2002. Happiness and Economics: How the Economy and Institutions Affects Human Well-Being. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Taleb, N., 2010. The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable. 2nd ed. London: Penguin Books Ltd

Gilbert, D., 2007. Stumbling on Happiness. London: Harper press

Thompson, B. and Sutherland, A., 2003. Kidfluence: The Marketer’s Guide to Understanding and Reaching Generation Y - Kids, Tweens and Teens. USA: McGraw-Hill Contemporary.

Graves, P., 2010. Consumerology: The Market Research Myth, the Truth about Consumer Behaviour and the Psychology of Shopping. London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing

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Gladwell, M., 2002. The Tipping Point: How Little Things can Make a Big Difference. New York: Back Bay Books.

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Toohey, P., 2012. Boredom: A Lively History. U.S: Yale University Press Publication.

Wipperfürth, A., 2006. Brand Hijack: Marketing without Marketing. England: Penguin Books Ltd

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online Anthony, A., 2013. A History of Television, the Technology That Seduced the World. The Guardian [Online] 7th September. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/tv-and-radio/2013/sep/07/history-television-seduced-theworld [Accessed on 27.12.2013] Astnana, A., 2008. They Don’t Live for Work… They Work to Live. The Guardian [Online] 25th May. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/money/2008/may/25/workandcareers.worklifebalance [Accessed on 20.12.2013] Bar Chocolat [Online] Available at: http://barchocolatlondon.com/ [Accessed on 12.12.2013]

Blattman, C. Everything you ever wanted to know about the Industrial Revolution in 15 pages [Online] Available at: http://chrisblattman.com/2012/04/06/everything-you-ever-wanted-to-know-about-the-industrial-revolution-in15-pages/[ Accessed on: 14.12.2013] Castillo, m., 2013. Millennials are the most stressed generation, survey finds [Online] 11th February. Available at: http://www.cbsnews.com/news/millennials-are-the-most-stressed-generation-survey-finds/ [Accessed on 24.12.2013]

Chen, J. Flow in Games [Online] Avaliable at: http://jenovachen.com/flowingames/introduction.htm [Accessed on 27.1..2013]

Csikszentmihalyi, M., 2002. Motivating People to Learn. [Online] 4th November. Available at: http://www.edutopia .org/mihaly-csikszentmihalyi-motivating-people-learn [Accessed on 16.01.2014] Elliot, L. 2013. Happiness Study Finds that UK is Passing Point of Peak Life Satisfaction. The Guardian. 27th November. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/27/happiness-study-uk-life-satisfaction [Accessed on 28.11.2013] “Fashion Junkie” by Sisely [Online] Available at: http://blogs.longwood.edu/advertising3/2012/09/21/fashionjunkie-by-sisely/ [Accessed on 06.01.2014] Financial crisis hits happiness levels [Online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-24822394 [Accessed on: 11.11.2013]

Flow, Meaning and the State of Grace [Online] Available at: http://simonandfinn.com/2012/06/05/flow-meaningand-a-state-of-grace/ [Accessed on: 13.12.2013] flOw Overview [Online] Available at: http://us.playstation.com/games/flow-ps3.html [Accessed on 29.11.2013]

Gibbs, B., Higher and Lower Pleasures [Online] Available at:http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3750539?ui d=3738032&uid=2&uid=4&sid=21103338849233[Accessed on 13.12.2013] Giang, V., 2013. Why Gen Y Workers Have No Idea What Their Managers Expect From Them [Online] Available at: http://www.businessinsider.com/study-reveals-expectation-gap-between-managers-and-their-workers-2013-9 [Accessed on 22.12.2013]

Glink, I. These two young artists quit their jobs to build this glass house for $500[Online] Available at: http://homes. yahoo.com/blogs/spaces/young-couple-quit-jobs-build-glass-house-500-204553074.html [Accessed on 24.10.2013]

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Harter, P., 2013. Can We Make Ourselves Happier? [Online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/ magazine-23097143 [Accessed on 16.12.2013]

Hatherley, O.,2012. It’s The 21st Century – Why Are We Working So Much? The Guardian [Online] 1st July. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2012/jul/01/why-are-we-working-so-hard [Accessed on: 15.12.2013] How Stressed are you? [Online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-24756311 [Accessed on 28.11.2013]

Jamieson, N., 2013. Why Online Companies are Moving Into TV. [Online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/ news beat/21369059 [Accessed on 17.12.2013] Jasoria, S., 2013. Why Employers Worry About Recruiting Generation Y. The Guardian [Online] 25th October. Available at: http://careers.theguardian.com/why-employers-worry-recruiting-generation-y [Accessed on 20.12.2013]

Koschei, J., 2013. The Growing Technological Generation Gap. [Online] 12th February. Available at: http://theindustry .cc/2013/02/12/the-growing-technological-generation-gap/ [Accessed on 22.12.2013] Linguistic Retail Campaigns [Online] Available at: http://www.trendhunter.com/trends/selfridges-wordswords-words [Accessed on 03.01.2014]

Newsbeat. 2011. Meet the Teen Teaching an 88-year-old Wow to Use The Web. [Online] Available at: http:// www.bbc.co.uk/ newsbeat/13357347 [Accessed on 24.12.2013] No Job for life. 2007. The economist [Online] 10th October. Available at: http://www.economist.com/ node/9934771 Accessed on 15.12.2013]

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Popova, M. How Should We Live: History’s Forgotten Wisdom on Love, Time, Family, Empathy, and Other Aspects of the Art of Living [Online] Available at: http://www.brainpickings.org/index.php/2013/12/02/howshould-we-live-roman-krznaric/ [Accessed on 20.10.2013] Popova, M. What George Eliot Teaches Us about the Life-Cycle of Happiness and the Science of Why We’re Happier When We’re Older [Online] Available at: http://www.brainpickings.org/index.php/2013/09/23/ george-eliot-happiness/ [Accessed on 20.10.2013] Rebel Bingo [Online] Available at: http://www.rebelbingo.com/about.aspx [Accessed on: 11.11.2013]

Robinson, A., 2012. Is Boredom Bad for Your Health? The Guardian [Online] 14th October. Available at: http:// www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2012/oct/14/boredom-is-bad-for-health [Accessed on 30.12.2013]

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Shepherd, J. 2010. Skills Minister Says Dance Away the Recession Blues. The Guardian [Online] 16th June. Available at http://www.theguardian.com/education/2010/jun/16/adult-night-classes-john-hayes [Accessed on 30.11.2013] Smirnoff Blog Roll. Available at: http://www.smirnoff.com/en-gb/main/the-mix.aspx#axzz2qbT3w0RZ [Accessed on 12.04.2014]

Stone, B., 2010. The Children Of Cyberspace: Old Fogies by Their 20s. The New York Times [Online] 9th January. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/10/weekinreview/10stone.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 {Accessed on 22.20.2013] That Game company [Online] Available at: http://thatgamecompany.com/games/flow/ [Accessed on 27.11.2013]

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Winning The Generation Game. 2013. The Economist [Online]. 26th September. Available at: http://www.economi st.com/news /business/21586831-businesses-are-worrying-about-how-manage-different-age-groups-widely-different [Accessed on 20.12.2013] 10 controversial ad campaigns of 2013. Available at : http://www.creativebloq.com/advertising/10-controversial-ad-campaigns-2013-12135346 [Accessed on: 06.01.2014]

dvd Cherry Healey: How to Get a Life, Work and Play, 2012. [DVD]. United Kingdom: Renegade Pictures, 2012. Genius of Invention, 2013. [DVD]. United Kingdon: BBC Two, 2013 [ Episode 4, 60 Minutes].

Mastercrafts, 2010. [DVD]. United Kingdom: BBC Two, Ricchet Productions, 2010 [Episode 5, 60 minutes]. The Brain: a secret history, 2011. [DVD]. United Kingdom: BBC Four, 2011. [Episode 2].

podcasts TED, 2009. Barry Schwartz: Our loss of wisdom [Podcast ] February 2009. Available at: http://www.ted.com/ talks/barry_schwartz_on_our_loss_of_wisdom.html [Accessed on 07.12.2013] TED, 2006. Barry Schwartz: The paradox of choice [Podcast] September 2006. Available at: http://www.ted. com/talks/barry_schwartz_on_the_paradox_of_choice.html [Accessed on 10.11.2013]

TED, 2006. Dan Gilbert: The surprising Science of Happiness [Podcast]. September 2006. Available at: http:// www.ted.com/talks/dan_gilbert_asks_why_are_we_happy.html [Accessed 10.11.2013]

TED, 2006. Malcolm Gladwell: Choice, Happiness and Spaghetti Sauce [Podcast]. September 2006. Available at: http://www.ted.com/talks/malcolm_gladwell_on_spaghetti_sauce.html [Accessed on 10.11.2013]

TED, 2012. Matt Killingsworth: Want to be happier? Stay in the moment [Podcast] November 2012. Available at: http://www.ted.com/talks/matt_killingsworth_want_to_be_happier_stay_in_the_moment.html [Accessed on 10.11.2013] TED, 2012. Michael Norton: How to buy happiness[Podcast] April 2012. Available at: http://www.ted.com/ talks/michael_norton_how_to_buy_happiness.html [Accessed on 10.11.2013] TED, 2008. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi: Flow, the secret to happiness [Podcast] October 2008. Available at: http://www.ted.com/talks/mihaly_csikszentmihalyi_on_flow.html [Accessed on 10.11.2013]

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TED, 2011. Paul Bloom: The origins of pleasure[Podcast] July 2011. Available at: http://www.ted.com/talks/ paul_bloom_the_origins_of_pleasure.html [Accessed on 20.10.2013

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personal communications Ally Wolf, 2013. Event Manager of Flames and Fortune: Interview with Katie Ottewell, Rock City Nottingham, 26 November.

Bar Chocolat, Ottewell, K. (katieottewell@hotmail.co.uk) 2013. Research Project Enquiry. 12 December. Email to: (barchocolat@hellounity.com) Gaye, M., 2013. Food Futurologist [Lecture to Fashion Communication and Promotion Level 2, Nottingham Trent University]. 25 April. Professor Csikszentmihalyi, Ottewell, K. (katieottewell@hotmail.co.uk), 2013 Views on Redefining Flow. 27 November. Email to: (flow@csikszentmihalyi.com). Professor Csikszentmihalyi, Ottewell, K. (katieottewell@hotmail.co.uk), 2013 Email Interview Inquiry. 27 November. Email to: (Misk@cgu.edu).

Raymond, M., 2013. LSN Global Trend Briefing. [Lecture to students at Broadway Cinema, Nottingham]. 23 October.

Wallis, S., 2014. Billion Taste [Lecture to Fashion Communication and Promotion Level 3, Nottingham Trent University]. 10 January.

journals Eastwood, J., 2012 The unengaged Mind, Defining Boredom in Terms of Attention. Perspectives on Psychological Sciences, 7 (5), pg. 482. Edelman, D., 2010. Branding in The Digital Age, You’re Spending Your Money In All the Wrong Places. Harvard Review, pg 64. [Online]. Available at: http://www.iei.liu.se/fek/frist/fek1hel/mafo/artikelarkiv/1.309575/ Artikeltilluppgift1.pdf

Harvard review 2010 Branding in The Digital Age You’re Spending Your Money In All the Wrong Places by David C. Edelman Poston. B, 2009. An Exercise in Personal Exploration: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. The Surgical Technologist [Online]. Pg. 348 Available at: http://www.astd2007.ast.org/publications/journals%20archive/2009/8_august _2009/CE.Pdf

Wearden, J., 2012. Time warped: Unlocking the Mysteries of Time Perceptions. The psychologist, 25 (8), pg. 608 -608.

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fid. 35. bar chocolat , 2013

Bar Chocolat case study The event was held as part of the launch of Baileys Chocolat Luxe but was really a large collaboration of innovators from around Europe. These included Bompas & Parr, Tabitha Denholm, Petra Storrs, Amelia Rope, Lou Hayter and Blanch & Shock. Collaborators were a mixture of taste experts, food designers, fashion designers, film directors, musicians and artisan chocolatiers. It was the collaboration of all these creative that made the event successful.

fid. 34. bar chocolat , 2013

The almost weeklong event held in Covent Garden from the 11th – 16th September was part exhibition, part restaurant and part immersive experience. The main focus was the experience and not the product, although it was incorporated as one of the sensory stimuli. It was an all immersive experience with a real focus on pleasing all the senses from the music, to the sculptures, to the individual food served. There was a real focus of the sensory experience as the drink was described as a multi-sensory experience in a glass so it only made sense for the pop up event to reflect that.

There were three ways to experience the event. The experience with limit free entry with pre booked tickets, the experience with lunch and experience with dinner. Prices increase with the experience level. This gave the customer choice of they wanted to experience the event, with different levels of commitment.

“Bar Chocolat is an immersive, multisensory experience inspired by the pleasure of chocolate, showcasing some of Europe’s most innovative creative” 96

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Bombas and parr case study Bombas and Parr are a flavour and experience lead company who focus on bringing multi-sensory installations. Their strong feeling that architecture can be crossed with food lead them to start with jelly as a means of accomplishing this. It was this expertise in jelly making that brought the company to the forefront of its unique sector. Since then it has gone on to create flavour and multi-sensory experiences for a number of highly respectable companies ranging from Mercedes-Benz to the Museum of Modern Art.

In august 2013 Bombas and Parr worked with Guinness to create The Tasting Rooms, the best place in the world to taste Guinness. It is located at the Brewery in Dublin, the original site of production. The taste of Guinness was at the centre of every design decision and what language was used. The velvet chamber room is where the visitors can learn to drink Guinness correctly, whereas the fountain of truth produces vapours smelling of the four main tastes of Guinness. By working with Bombas and Parr Guinness were able to take their experience to a new level and make it an adventure for visitors.

2.

Even though a lot of the work done by Bombas and Parr if focussed around the product of a company they are innovative in world first and making an experience something that won’t be forgotten in a hurry. By a brand collaborating with a company such as this they will be able to look beyond the obvious and entice its consumers with an amazing multi-sensory experience that will evoke emotion and that Generation Y would be afraid to miss out on.

fig. 38 and fig. 39. guinness tasting rooms, 2013

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One of its most recent projects has been to work in partnership with Vodafone and the Mayor of London to create the world’s first multi-sensory firework display. This took place on New Year’s Eve 2013/2014 between Westminster Bridge and Hungerford Bridge. The colours of the pyrotechnics were matched with a flavour cloud that engulfed the crowd. For example as a red firework was set off a strawberry flavoured cloud was released to correspond with the explosion. Not only were their clouds of flavoured smoke but also scented bubbles released and banana flavoured confetti released into the crowd.

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I explained the concept of my project and that the next stage was to look in individual experiences and what they do provide this. I explained that I would be writing up a transcript of the interview and that any information he gave me would be kept in accordance with the data protection act and will be destroyed when the project is finished.

rebel bingo interview

Me: For formal purposes I just need to check that you agree to me using this information in my report and that you know that it will be destroyed once my project is over. Ally: That’s all fine.

Me: Okay, so could you please just state your name and you job role and how you got involved with rebel bingo?

Ally: My name is Ally Wolf and I am the events manager for flames and fortune and they are the company that run rebel bingo. Me: Fantastic. I just wanted to know what you think it is about rebel bingo that attracts people?

Ally: its simply the fact that it is a great idea and a great concept and it is executed very well. And the reason why people love it is because it is different from anything else and that’s quite unique in the clubbing world I think. Me: Who you target it at? What do you think your target age is?

Ally: Anyone who likes to go out and have fun. Obviously it tends to be a younger audience as they tend to want to go out in night clubs but it is not purely about the 18-22 year olds its about anyone who wants to come and party. Me: How long has it been running? Ally: Five Years

Me: Was it as bigger success in the beginning as it is now?

Ally: It started off in a church hall in somewhere in East London and it was only like 80 people and that was all you could fit in the room. It moved up from there, people talked about it and people wanted to come. The venues got bigger, the shows got bigger and now it tours the world.

Me: so you are an events manager for the company that runs rebel bingo. Does the company run anything else?

Ally: we do two other club nights. One is called The End of the World Party and is themed around enjoying your night as if it was your last night on earth, but in like a happy way but not as in a oh my god we are going to die kind of way. The other party we do is called Catface which is purely based around having whiskers on your face and that gets you cheaper entry into the night and you end up with a whole club full of people with cat faces on. Me: I’m really looking forward to tonight.

Ally: Have you never been before? If you have never seen it before it should be a nice surprise. Everyone who comes to these events really happy because they are really excited about it, which means the atmosphere is really great and everyone has a really good time.

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Me: Can I quickly ask about advertising? Do you advertise anywhere or is it simply through word of mouth?

3.

Ally: The majority of it is word of mouth , you have to join our mailing list to find out about the shows and when tickets are on sale. People tell their friends they went to a good show and so their friends join the mailing list. People talk about it, it’s the kind of night people talk about because it is a bit different and people talk about things that are different. We do do a little bit of advertising if we need to just a few posters really, but predominantly it is word of mouth Me: would you want the event to just keep getting bigger? Do you think it could work n a large commercial scale?

Ally: Ideally what we would want would be to is both excusive and commercial and I think the way to that is….. well the shows can’t really get any bigger than they are because to enjoy the game you have to think you have a realistic chance of winning. When you have a bingo line you have to run and get up on stage so the shows can’t become too big because then people at the back are just going to think they cant win. But ideal what we would like to do is instead of doing one show you do two or three shows but keep the shows quite small so everyone still feels like they are involved. And the reason we go to other cities is because you are not always relying on the same city to do your events in. so you can go and do two shows in London and then disappear and go and do a few shows somewhere else and nowhere is getting bored of you. Me: so people are waiting for it to come.

Ally: Yeh they are waiting and they know you are only going to be there maybe one or two shows and so they have to get a ticket. And then you disappear and come back maybe a year or six months later so then people dot get bored of it. So they key is to keep it moving and keep it exclusive. Obviously you want more and ore people to come and enjoy it but you don’t want to saturate your market. Me: do you know if people seem to come over and over again.

Ally: If people have been to the show they will generally go again the following year. I think it is because it the type of night….It’s like your Christmas dinner; it is great once a year but you wouldn’t want it every week. It’s a big special thing but if you went every week it would stop being like that. Me: that’s fantastic and thanks for giving me a rare 10 minutes of your time.

Ally: No worries, if you have any more questions don’t worry about emailing me and I will get back to you as soon as I can.

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4.

flow questionnaire

After Piloting this online questionnaire the comments I got back showed that people didn’t fully understand the concept of Flow and that put them off filling it in. Another person piloted felt like it would be better if it was explained face to face.

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non- traditional flow answers Youtube Pc gaming Shopping i-player shopping watching a film shopping shopping night out cinema night out holiday shopping pc gaming x-box going for cocktails on tumbler

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results for flow traditional flow answers University group work Drawing Working Doing research In a seminar Playing rugby Sewing Painting Group work Directing theatre Playing football Horse riding Altering clothes 105


results for expereince

consent forms

Event which significant meaning to the recipient Something where you gain a skill or aspect of new knowledge Moments that brings you loads of things in mind A period of time in which the circumstances are different to the usual An event of importance that is remembered for a long time Something that is not a day to day occurrence and has meaning A length of time which positively impacts you or holds significance A moment, positive that impacts you and that you remember for a length of time Something that makes you feel happy When you lose yourself in something When you go through something and it becomes a memory Something memorable good or bad that is something new Something that happens to you that you take a lesson away from Something that is memorable to you Something that you learn from and is memorable Something that you learn a lesson from A stimulating activity which is memorable Something which stimulates your senses and you remember Something memorable you have done, good or bad Something you remember for a specific reason Something that exceeds you expectations Something which puts you out your comfort zone Something you remember for a long amount of time When something isn’t day to day When something is different to normal and you remember it Something significant When an event makes you feel emotions Something that you gain a skill from When you are positively influenced Something that stands out in your memory

106

107


108

109


110

111


emails recieved 29.11.13

5.

bar chocolat emails

recieved 29.11.13

112

113


Csikszentmihalyi emails

114

115


teach yourself consent

116

117


6.

silent Generation

skills through generation silent Generation manners social skills carpentry electronics work ethic

baby Boomers manners to be generous tennis good behaviour

generation y

118

silent Generation Respect Family comes first Crochet Darning Second Language

generation X Respect Family comes first Second Language manners relationships

generation y

electrical skills plumbing respect love of travel wood work cooking work ethic

silent Generation

baby Boomers values sporting interests humour respect manners

garndening cooking sense of humour independance money management parenting skills

generation X generation y silent Generation creativity sewing quilting how to budget love of outdoors ironing

baby Boomers

money management sense of humour manners

generation y

sewing manners work ethic basic housework

generation y

119


consent forms

120

121


tutorial record sheets

122

123


124

125


126

127


128

129


citical path

130

131


ethics form

132

133


Redefining Flow