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SEMESTER 1, 2012 THE UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE ABPL30048- ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO: AIR JOURNAL CHUNG SZE MAN STUDENT NO.538128


CONTENTS INTRODUCTION

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PERSONAL ASPIRATIONS & EXPECTATIONS

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WEEKLY JOURNALS PART 1: EXPRESSION OF INTEREST A: CASE FOR INNOVATION

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Week 01 Week 02 Week 03

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B: CUT RESEARCH PROJECT

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Week 04-CUT/DEVELOP Week 05-CUT/DEVELOP Week 06-CUT/DEVELOP Week 07-CUT/FABRICATE Week 08-CUT/FABRICATE

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C: DESIGN NARRATIVE -EXPRESSION OF INTEREST(EOI) DOCUMENT

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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INTRODUCTION Architecture Design Studio:Air was a studio run at the University of Melbourne in 2012, as well as a core subject in the Bachelor of Environments (Architecture) course.

Course Coordinator: Dr. Stanislav Roudavski Tutor: Loren Adams, Paul Loh Tutorial time Slot: Fridays 2.15-5.15pm

Subject Overview The core objective of the undergraduate design is to develop both design thinking and dexterity with tools. This year, Studio Air responds to this challenge by focusing on digital architectural design. Digital architectural design is one of the most affective areas in contemporary architectural discourse and practice; in addition, the influence of digital technology on architectural creativity, professional practices or construction is immense and growing. Because of the above reasons, students are expected to engage a lot with computation. Dr. Stanislav Roudavski p.1


PERSONAL ASPIRATIONS & EXPECTATIONS The main theme of this studio is to explore our designs through computational tools (Grasshopper and Rhino), which is completely new and exciting to me. I myself is not an expert in computational tools, however, after taking this course, I expect myself to get much more familiar with the computational tools and fully understand the associations between them. I would also like to explore as much as I can with the new ideas and concepts of parametric modeling in order to achieve the most favourable outcome.

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PART 1: EXPRESSION OF INTEREST A: CASE FOR INNOVATION

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01

Lecture 01-Understanding the course: Architecture as a Discourse The first lecture has introduced the overall learning objectives, requirements and assessments of the course. The main assessments are weekly tasks, EOI, journal and the final design project. The main theme of this studio is computational designexploring through Grasshopper and Rhino.

The idea of architectural discourse was also introduced. Discourse is about starting a conversation, raising questions and issues, and lead to discussions among people1. An architectural discourse means an architecture opening a conversation among people from different fields and raising awareness, the whole discourse of architecture is about communication2. Readings 01 1. Richard Williams, ‘Architecture and Visual Culture’, in Exploring Visual Culture : Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, ed. by Matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005), pp. 102 - 16. The main idea of this reading is about the importance of Architecture, how it shapes our world through different ways. The questioning of the true meaning of beinf a profession as an architect, and its relationship to other professions of the built environment3. Architectural discourse is about raising awareness of people and opening up conversations among them. Actually, the contemporary idea of digital architectural design is creating new architectural discourses as it is bringing new ideas and concepts to architectural designs. Before, people only use computational tools as ways of documenting architecture. However, nowadays people started exploring architectural designs through computational techniques like parametric modeling. 2. Wyndham City Gateway Project Document It is the most important reading in the whole course. It is the project brief and we are supposed to fulfill the design requirements and consider all aspects in our designs. Tutorial 01 The first tutorial again introduced the course outlines, learning objectives, etc. In addtion, there was a brief introduction of how to model in Rhino. There was also a discussion of the expectations of the course and the final design project. This week was like a warm up of the following semester. 1.Stanislav Roudavski, Understanding the Course: Architecture as a Discourse (University of Melbourne, 2012)[Lecture audio recording on lms]. 2. Roudavski, Understanding the Course: Architecture as a Discourse. 3. Williams, Richard, ‘Architecture and Visual Culture’, in Exploring Visual Culture : Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, ed. by Matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005), pp. 102 - 16.

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Exterior views

MY PERSONAL PROJECT This design project was about learning and getting inspirations from an assigned architect. My assigned architect is called Balkrishna Doshi, who was an Indian. He was interested in the dome shapes, and has his own understanding of the architectural scale and massing, as well as a clear sense of space and community. He believed the spaces can provide stability and warmth to people; most of his works were involved in natural environments as well. In this design project, I tried to obey his design styles and put them into my design of the Architecture Gallery.

ARCHITECTURAL DISCOURSE...

MY DESIGN IDEAS Looking at the past works of architects can always inspires me to learn from their works. Through this project, Doshi’s strong sense of spatiality had inspired my designs. I focused a lot on the fluidity of space in the art gallery, as well as increasing the volume of the exhibition spaces, intending to enhance people’s vision of the space. In addition, I increased the size of windows in order to let natural sunlight to light up the interior spaces, following Doshi’s idea of integrating nature into the design.

DIGITAL MODELLING In this project, I have used a few digital software to help me develop initial design ideas and document the final designs. They are very useful and productive. The digital software include Google sketchup, AutoCAD and 3D Max.

Interior views

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WATER CUBE (BEIJING NATIONAL AQUATICS CENTER), BEIJING,CHINA

Source: (http://www.filmapia.com/published/places/beijing-nationalaquatics-center-water-cube)

AS A SYMBOL/ SIGN

Source:(http://www.filmapia.com/published/places/beijing-nationalaquatics-center-water-cube)

It is a very famous building situates in Beijing, specially built for the Olympic Games in 2008. It has very symbolic meanings and represents Chinese cultures. The cube concept represents typical Chinese way of understanding beauty- the serenity and beauty of calm, untroubled water. Furthermore, it symbolizes the spirit of the Beijing Olympics: ‘the green games, the high-tech games and the people’s games’. It portrays the way in which humanity relates to water and the harmonious coexistence of human and nature, which is life’s ultimate blessing in Chinese culture. The flat ceiling is a symbol of peace and stability as well. The Water Cube greatly expresses the nation’s beauty and pride.

MATERIALITY For the outskirt of the building, the designers chose to use steel and a plastic called ethylene tetrafluoroethylene(EFTE). The EFTE was used to create the translucant pillows for the building’s cladding. It is strong and resistant to degradation from ultraviolet light and air pollution. With this material, the interior acts like an insulated greenhouse, capturing the energy from the sun for heating and lighting.EFTE creates a superb acoustic environment; with its lightweight, the need for a secondary structure to support the skin was eliminated; it can also improves seismic performance, and is self-cleaning and recyclable.

STRUCTURE & CELLULAR SKIN A cellular structure. Such a complex structure consists of 22000 steel members and 12000 nodes, the entire building is modelled in 4 dimensions. The structure of the building is a welded space frame consists of numerous steel tubes connected at spherical nodes. EFTE pillows are encapsulated in the structural frame. The building is the result of all the relevant engineering disciplines.

STATE OF THE ART PROJECTS http://gsdmaterialscollection.blogspot.com.au/2008/09/etfe-bubble-pillows-at-beijing-olympic.

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DIGITAL MODELING The design team employed an innovative digital process to produce such a complex design (the structure consists of numerous steel members and nodes). Numerous new techniques and various software were developed specially for the Water Cube project. The digital software help to solve many technical issues such as generating the geometry, optimizing the structural performance, analyzing acoustics, smoke spread, etc. The building’s structure is the outcome of applying sophisticated analysis and optimization software. In addition, due to the high degree of automation that the parametric process afforded, it allows the design team to produce high quality and accurate work within a short period of time. The highly use of digital modeling in this project has further caused discourse about the importance and effectiveness of using digital techniques in producing and expressing architecture nowadays.

LONDON’S GHERKIN/30 ST. MARY AXE This revolutionary building won the Stirling Prize for architecture in 2004.

http://www.venues-of-distinction.com/ browse/venues/genuinely_unique

MATERIALITY & EXTERIOR SKIN The exterior cladding is covered by flat triangular and diamond shaped glass panels, in which the number of panels vary at each level (exterior skin). The glazing to the light-wells that spiral up the tower consists of openable double-glazed panels with a combined grey-tinted glass and high-performance coating that effectively reduces solar gain. Wise use of glass materials with other technologies can also be seen in the glazing of office areas, which consists of a double-glazed outer layer and a single-glazed inner screen that sandwich a central ventilated cavity which contain solar-control blinds. The cavities act as buffer zones to reduce the need for additional heating and cooling and are ventilated by exhaust air which is drawn from the offices.

STRUCTURE The building has a fully triangulated perimeter structure, which makes the building stiff and strong enough, without any extra reinforcements. The aerodynamic form encourages wind to flow around its face, minimising wind loads on the structure and cladding, enabling the use of a more efficient structure. In addition, gaps in each floor create shafts that serve as a natural ventilation system for the whole building. The shafts allow sunlight to pass through the building, making the work environment more pleasing, and keeping the lighting costs down. The shafts pull warm air out of the building during the summer and warm the building in the winter using passive solar heating. p.7


PERSONAL REFLECTION I started to form my own vision of the course from this week’s introductions. From reflecting on my past design project and looking for some projects with significant architectural discourses, I understand the importance of architecture being meaningful and affective. Also, I need to start looking for some particular areas of discourses to explore in my design of the final project.

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02 Lecture 02-INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTING IN ARCHITECTURE The emergence of new design field and new design practice drived attentions. Examples of architectural works produced by computational techniques were also shown. It is always very hard to break through the concept of design computation as just a tool, but it is essential to overcome this problem and explore the whole new world of parametric designs. Computerization is not the same as computation, they are two completely sets of different ideas. READINGS 02 Yehuda E. Kalay, Architecture’s New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2004), pp. 5 - 25 This week’s reading discusses about architectural designs. The evolution of architectural design, process of design, paradigms of design, etc1. The key part of this reading is the design methods (Search, Constraint Satisfaction, Rule-Based Design, Case-Based Design)2, in which we can apply in our architectural designs. TUTORIAL 02 First part of the class was to discuss the readings and the second part was to discuss our first journal entries and received feedback from the tutors. It is very important to keep a flow and overall theme in the journal. The last part was introduction to some grasshopper components and how it relates to designing in Rhino space. 1. Kalay Yehuda E. Architecture’s New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2004), pp. 5 - 25. 2. Yehuda E. , pp.5-25.

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Major contemporary computational design techniques are greatly transforming industry practices in design and construction within architecture and related fields. Contemporary approaches to architectural design are digitally enabled and digitally driven. One of the core concepts covered in this studio is parametric modeling in designs. There are many unique innovations presented by the contemporary design techniques. Digitally driven processes, characterized by dynamic, open-ended and unpredictable but consistent transformations of three-dimentional structures, are giving rise to new architectonic possibilities as well as opening up new dimensions in architectural design. They allow the production and construction of very complex forms at the same time. More importantly, digital technologies allow us to construct the complex forms within reasonable budgets.

Boeing 777

Air France B777-288ER

KLM B777-206ER

Saudi Arabian B777-200

Varig B777-200

Saudi Arabian B777-268ER

KLM B777-200

(Source: http://www.zap16.com/2008/10/boeing-777-200/)

It is the first 100% digitally designed aircraft. It was entirely designed, developed, analyzed and tested in a digital environment and was then manufactured using digitally-driven technologies. The whole design process was guided by digital technologies, which was really innovative and the first time in human history. The Boeing 777 currently has 6 models altogether. With the aid of digital technologies, the complex curvilinear form of the airplane was produced successfully. p.10


Bird Nest/ Beijing National Stadium, Beijing, China (Architects: Herzog & De Meuron Architekten)

STRUCTURAL SKIN WITH PARAMETRIC MODELLING

The steel structure of the stadium appears random but every element is carefully integrated.

Visual representation of the structure from exterior view

The Beijing National Stadium was a significant building specially built for Beijing Olympics in 2008. It is considered as the world’s largest enclosed space as well as the world’s largest steel structure. The main feature of the structure is the web of twisting steel sections of cantilevered trusses that form the roof. It composed of 2 independent structures: a read concrete seating bowl and the outer steel frame. To achieve the optimum design, parametric design software was heavily relied. Although the surface of the structure is simple, the geometry is complex. Calculations were so numerous and complicated that they could not be solved manually. The structural skin of the building has used a lot of parametric modeling: software was needed to make sure that the web of twisting steel sections fitted together, as they have to twist and bend to follow the surface accurately. Parametrics provide for a powerful conception of architectural form by describing a range of possibilities. Using parametrics, an infinite number of similar objects, in this case, steel sections, can be created. By assigning different values to the parameters, different patterns, objects or configurations can be created. Equations can be used to describe the relationships between objects. (Sources: http://archrecord.construction.com/projects/portfolio/ archives/0807nationalstadium-1.asp & http://enggpedia.com/ civil-engineering-encyclopedia/megastructures/beijing-olympicsstadium)

Visual representation of the structure from interior view

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International Terminal, Waterloo Station, London Architects: Nicholas Grimshaw & Partners

PARAMETRIC MODELLING The terminal is another clear demonstration of how parametric approach is used in design. It has a very spectacular roof structure. The roof structure is made up of a series of 36 dimensionally different but identically configured three-pin bowstring arches1. Each arch is different as the width of the roof varies along the tracks2. A generic parametric model was created based on the underlying rules in the relationship between the size of the span and the curvature of individual arches3. By assigning different values to the span parameter, 36 arches with different dimensions but identical topologies were created4. The parametric model also extended to the entire building form. Hence, a highly complex hierarchy of interdependences could be parametrically modeled. For the first time in history, architects are designing not the specific shape of the building but a set of principles encoded as a sequence of parametric equations by which specific instances of the design can be generated and varied in time as needed. Parametric design calls for the rejection of fixed solutions and for an exploration of infinitely variable potentialities.

36 dimensionally different but identically configured three-pin bowstring arches

1. Branko Kolarevic, Architecture in the Digital Age:Design and Manufacturing(New York; London: Spoon Press, 2003), pp.3-62. 2. Kolarevic, pp.3-62. 3. Kolarevic, pp.3-62. 4. Kolarevic, pp.3-62.

International Terminal, Waterloo Station (1993), London, UK Parametric definition of the scaling factor for the truss geometry: hx=((2915^2+(B+C)^2)^(1/2), where B is the minor truss span and C is the major truss span. p.12


PERSONAL REFLECTION The lecture of computational designs was really inspiring. Before, I was not sure how the outcomes of parametric modeling look like, but the examples shown in the lecture look amazing and interested me a lot. It is essential to distinguish computerization and computation as well. In this week, I started exercising with some grasshopper definitions. I found it quite hard to relate back to the designs sometimes and difficult to memorize all the components and use them correctly. Hope that as the semester goes by, I can overcome this problem by more practising.

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03 Lecture 03-INTRODUCTION TO PARAMETRIC MODELLING The lecture gave an introduction to parametric modelling. Parametric modelling is about connecting different parts/ components together, if one of the variable changes, the whole design model will change consequently. It is also about building up dependency between all the components and testing out different effects by changing different variables. The new concept is that using computers as driving tools for designs. READINGS 03 -Burry, Mark (2011). Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming (Chichester: Wiley) pp.8-71. Scripting cultures is the main theme of this week. Scripting refers to computer programming at a lower level, it is also the capability offered by almost all design packages that allow the user to adapt, customize or completely reconfigure software around their own predilactions and modes of working1. Similar to parametric modeling, scripting can offer a much greater possibilities in the design field. It is also considered as an important driving force for the 21st century architectural thinking. TUTORIAL 03 Discussion of the Kalay’s reading of week 2. Project groups were formed in week 3 as well. Discussion of initial conceptual themes of the design project among group members. 1. Mark Burry, Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming (Chichester: Wiley, 2011) pp.8-71.

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Scripting Cultures Airspace Tokyo

Architect: Hajime Masubuchi

The outer skin/facade of the building acts like a dense tree canopy of the street, providing some shelter for the pedestrians walking by.

Collapsed elevation of the interior and exterior layers of the screen. It is a four-storey, mixed use residential and commercial building located in Tokyo, Japan; it was designed to accommodate different programs and clients1. Its outer structural shell/skin is the most significant feature of the whole architecture, using scripting as the design process. The outer shell also has special structural performance. 1. Ben Pell, ‘Airspace Tokyo’, in The Articulate Surface: Ornament and Technology in Contemporary Architecture (Basel, London: Birkhauser; Springer distributor,2010), pp.86-89.

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Performance- cellular(VORONOI) skin- functional The screen acts to protect the building from the street. The voids of the double-layered screen become more scarce adjacent to upper level bathrooms and bedrooms; at night, the screen also modulates views in and out of the building, and casts shadows of the geometric voids onto the street below1. Other than providing shelter to the interior spaces, the structural skin also affect the aesthetics of the exterior spaces by creating patterns of shadows with its voids. The cellular design and double layering of the screen resembles the biomorphic density of the vegetation, and is compressed into a 20cm-thick skin, the skin is made of rigid panels of aluminium composite materials, which have good sound insulation2. The skin acts as a visually dynamic threshold between public and private, framing and fragmenting views as one moves around and through the building3. There are different density and porosity distributed across the field to allow different privacies of different spaces4. The screen facade acts to buffer the inhabitants from the street and veils the disparate functions of the building behind an extensive and unifying enclosure system5. 1. Pell, pp.86-89. 2. Pell, pp.86-89.

3.. Pell, pp.86-89. 4. Pell, pp.86-89. 5. Pell, pp.86-89.

Design process The designers developed a series of digitally-generated geometric patterns which were then overlaid and projected as voids which puncture the 2 layers of the facade.

Design Philosophy The design philosophy behind this building is strongly emphasize on the design and function of the structural skin, in order to create a very different working and living experience of the inhabitants of the building. The designs are definitely very innovative and inspiring, showing the different possibilities of the outer skin, instead of just protecting and enclosing the interiors. This project has provoked my design thoughts of the final design project of the gateway in Wyndham City, I can emphasize more on the structural skin of the architecture and explore different possibilities of that.

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Bathroom of the interior

View of the building at night

PERSONAL REFLECTION The building that I focused on studying this week is Airspace Tokyo. It is a very interesting building, with double layers of structural voronoi skins. This case study, together with the previous ones, provoked me to start thinking in the direction of structural skin for the one of the major direction of the design for this project. For example, the ways of using double layers for special lighting effects or creating shadows effects. Since the design project in this semester is about a motorway sculpture welcoming cars and people, the main focus of the design should be the exterior effects rather than interior effects. Because of that, I would like to study the geometry of Airspace Tokyo further and try to develop my ideas from all the cases for innovation in the past few weeks.

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B: CUT RESEARCH PROJECT

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04 LECTURE 04- INTRODUCTION TO THE DESIGN PROJECT: PUBLIC ART AND MOTORWAYS A lot of guidelines were provided for the project. It talks about the brief, its criterias and things need to beware of. It is very important to consider all of them. My design work should be a welcoming gateway to Werribee, Wyndham and the broader Metropolitan Melbourne. It should not only enhance the drivers’ experience, it also should represent Wyndham or even Melbourne. In addition, something for everyone. For example, something being iconic or symbolic. Another theme of the lecture was a brief discussion of the EOI- the Expression of Interest document.

TUTORIAL 04 The discussion of this week’s tutorial was about scripting cultures, which is slightly different from parametric modelling, but also one of the computational techniques used to produce designs. Similarly, both parametric modelling and scripting can offer a much broader opportunities for architectural designs. Ways to combine different definitions in Grasshopper were also introduced and demonstrated during the tutorial. Using different Grasshopper combinations can create many different designs and ideas, which can be highly adopted

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matrix of combinations Inputs Arbitrary points

Boolean Patterning

Attractor Point A

B

A1

B1

Curve Attractor

Associations

Image Sampler

A2

B2

A3

B3

A4

B4

A5

B5

A6

B6

Maths Functions

To start exploring the grasshopper definitions, firstly I mixed the inputs and associations to produce new outputs, as shown in Table 1. In Table 2, I further mixed the outputs from Table 1 with the outputs provided on lms.

Multiple Maths Functions

Streaming Text Files

Using Sets

Table 1

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Outputs Data Driven Extrusion

Data Driven Rotation

A

A1

Outputs from Table 1

A2

A3

A4

A5

A6

Table 2

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Outputs Data Driven Extrusion

Data Driven Rotation

B

Outputs from Table 1

B1

B2

B3

B4

B5

B6

Table 2

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FURTHER EXPLORATIONS OF THE MATRIX Explorations of cellular structures... Hexagonal Grid structure (Using Image Sampler assocation)

Input section- This section has been modified by using the “HexGrid” component to replace the original “Surface Divide” component in the mixed combination. Association section- Based on the original “image sampler” component. The height of the hexagonal grids depend on the image pattern. However, since it is a cell skin on a surface, the height variation is minimized by adjusting the data in the image sampler’s setting. Output section- This portion has been amended, the “Scale “ component is used to create smaller hexagons inside the bigger ones. With “Planar component”, the wall of the hexagons has been created (between the bigger ones and the smaller ones); then the “Extrude component” is used to give some thickness to the walls, but the extrusion data is set to be very small.

Using an image’s data to create special aesthstic effects on a brick wall (Further exploration of the Image Sampler component) This is a further exploration of how different effects can be achieved when combining different components with the ‘image sampler’. This time I projected the data of the image on the ratation of the bricks on a brick wall. The outcome is interesting.

In this definition, I applied the knowledge I have learnt so far, and tried as much as I can to experience with the ‘image sampler’ component.

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REVERSE ENGINEER CASE STUDY- AIRSPACE TOKYO

Logical steps for recreating Airspace Tokyo facade using Grasshopper: Grasshopper Definitions for building the Voronoi patterns:

Steps 1-8

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Step 11

1.Form grids points(regular) 2.Make the above grids at random 3.Generate circles from the above grid points 4.Using Voronoi component to compress the above circles to bubbles 5.Explode the above bubbles 6.After explosion, form closed circles (by changing the “p” of the Circle component from “false” to “true”) 7.Form perimeter of the façade and form a surface plan 8.Using “Trim-copy trim” component to copy the data from one surface to another. 9.After forming the required façade surface, cut the façade into 2 surfaces and turn one of them to 90 degree in Rhino(get 2 facades at the same time). 10.Mirror the above facades to get 4 facades totally(in Rhino). 11. Repeat the above steps to get the inner layers(the facade consists of 2 layers). 12. Build a plane and place on top of the facades to act as the roof 13.Build a box in Rhino and reference it into grasshopper and move it to the appropriate position(under the facade).


Personal Reflections This week is the first week of the Research Cut project, I think that this week was a key development point of the whole project. We started to explore the relationships between inputs, associations and outputs through doing the matrix exercise. Although it took me a long time to figure out the different meanings between them, I think it will be very useful for my later designs in this project. For the reverse-engineer project, it is very difficult to recreate the geometry of Airspace Tokyo. However, as working on the grasshopper definitions and trying different components, I understand the importance of grasshopper in parametric modeling much better. Overally, I found this week’s tasks very important and useful in my understanding of the relationship between the software and designs. It is certainly a breakthrough of my limits and I wish to achieve more with this software in the coming weeks.

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05 LECTURE 05-WHY COMPUTING? PERFORMANCE-DRIVEN DESIGN The idea of Performance Driven Design is about using the digital tools to start analyzing and designing at an earlier stage, and using the digital tools to create different performances which drive the designing process. The traditional way of design process is to design first, then evaluate the design, and lastly generate it1. Parametric modelling softwares allow a group of related design options to be explored and evaluated2. Digital tools include design tools, generative tools and evaluative tools. Grasshopper is considered as a design tool3. TUTORIAL 05 The major discussions of the tutorial was the matrix of different combination of definitions from different groups. In addition, our group have discussed the site context, and started to relate the design with the site. Our group will be focusing on 3 themes-lighting, local fabrication and cellular skin, and trying to combine them together and produce something meaningful. It was good and inspiring to have such discussions. 1. Stanislav Roudavski, Why Computing? Performance-Driven Design (University of Melbourne, 2012)[Lecture audio recording on lms]. 2. Stanislav Roudavski, Why Computing? Performance-Driven Design 3. Stanislav Roudavski, Why Computing? Performance-Driven Design

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Continued explorations with the Case Study Project- Airspace Tokyo In the week 4 journal, the geometry of the Airspace Tokyo was recreated, using grasshopper definitions. The texture of the double layering of the facade was produced as well. This week, I want to use this case study as an example to demonstrate how lighting(sunlight) can create different effects on the building over time, by the aid of computational programmes. The below are the results.

Effects of sunlight on the facade of the building over time(Explore of shadows) Since the design project required us to deign a motorway sculpture in Wyndham City, the emphasis of my design should be on the exterior rather than the interior. Because of that, for the beginning of this test, I would like to test the effect of sunlight on only the facade of the building first, in order to see the how the sunlight affect the shadows of the vonoroi patterns over time.

6am...

9am...

12pm...

3pm...

6pm...

9pm...

Although the computational programme may not be very accurate, it does show the overall locations and patterns of shadows of the facade over different time slots. Since the volume of the building is quite big, the shadows created are quite big as well. This can provide shelters to pedestrians. The patterns of the shadows can be meaningful over different times. The size and the shape of the architecture is very important in determining the shadows formed. The shape of this building is rectangle, the shadows of the vonoroi patterns look most clear in the morning at 6am. The layering of the facade can definitely change the shadows produced as well. It is an area that can be explored deeper and incorporate into my design. As mentioned before, this building has a double-layered facade.

Explorations... Experimentations...

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In the following, I tried to create a free-standing wall with cellular facades, and it is double-layered. With this structure, I want to test the effect of sunlight on it again, like the previous case study. And see the differences in the outcomes of the shadows created.

Free-standing structure with double layers In this example, I tried to construct a free-standing skin made up of 2 layers overlapping each other. One layer is made of holes with hexagonal shapes while the other layer is made of circular holes.

A free-standing, double-layered structure created for sunlight testing

6am...

3pm...

9am...

6pm...

12pm...

9pm...

I have tested the effect of sunlight on this structure, setting the location as the site of this design project. The shadows of the structure overlaps with the 2 geometric patterns. There are many different kinds of lighting such as cut light, diffuse light. By experimenting with different materials, shapes and forms, different shadows can be made. In week 6, our group is going to explore further in this direction with a voronoi pattern. p.28


RUBY SPHERE WITH DOUBLE LAYERS After testing sunlight and shadow effect with the free standing sculpture, I produced a Ruby sphere with double layers of circular holes to test for the shadow effect with a different shape, instead of rectangles. Below are the results.

Ruby sphere created in Rhino with grasshopper

6am...

9am...

12pm...

3pm...

6pm...

9pm...

A different shape definitely can create a more interesting shadow. The ruby sphere show the clearest effect of sunlight and shadow between 9am and 3pm, same as the previous result of the free standing sculpture. Note that both testing are based on the location of site B in this project. p.29


Personal Reflections This week’s journal was about producing an intended architectural effect (light and shadows in my case) with reference to the case study of Airspace Tokyo. Through testing the sunlighting effect on the Airspace Tokyo and my own built simple free-standing sculpture in computational tool, I started to have an idea how shadows look like with double layering of skins. Note that using computational tool to test the sunlighting effect may not produce the most accurate results, in week 6, my group is going to construct models and test for the idea of lighting with real objects.

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06 LECTURE 06- PROJECT CONCEPTUALIZATION: MATERIALITY/ PERFORMANCE/ ORNAMENT This lecture focused on the meaning of ornament. The idea of ornament has been defined differently over the past, it is actually in all cases a historically specific definition1. Ornament is closely related to materials, material transmit affects through ornament. The arrangement of form and color is very important in our architectural designs as well. We need to think carefully about how to ornament our designs in this project. READING 06 -Moussavi, Farshid and Michael Kubo, eds (2006). The Function of Ornament (Barcelona: Actar), pp. 5-14 Architecture needs mechanisms that allow it to become connected to culture2. The writer focuses on facades and skins. The role of architect is becoming increasingly specialized in the design of the exterior. She also emphasized the importance of engaging architecture with the urban setting. When applying this to our design project, we need to design a piece of architecture that can represent the Wyndham City and engage with the sites beside the highway. I agree with the writer that the gradual shifting of role of architects to the exterior designs. It is because there are professions such as interior designers to assist designing the interior spaces. As a result, architects can focus more on the exterior skins. It is essential to ornament the exterior skins of architecture decently, because the exterior is very important in attracting people’s attentions in the first place. For this design project, we are supposed to design a motorway architecture that welcomes people to Wyndham City. Because of that, the exterior is extremely important. 1. Stanislav Roudavski,Project Conceptualization:Materiality/Performance/Ornament (University of Melbourne,2012)[Lecture audio recording on lms]. 2. Farshid Moussavi, and Michael Kubo, eds. The Function of Ornament (Barcelona: Actar, 2006), pp. 5-14

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physical Models- CONCEPTS AND DEVELOPMENTS The case study of our group is Airspace Tokyo and the main feature of this building is its exterior voronoi double layer pattern. Based on this, we want to explore lighting, layering and site context with the voronoi pattern.

EXPLORE WITH LIGHTING AND LAYERING We are interested in 2 types of lighting- cut light and diffuse light. Firstly, we construct a voronoi pattern with Grasshopper in Rhino. For the cut light, we overlap 2 layers of voronoi pattern together to explore the layering and cut light effect. For the diffuse light, we want to stick 8-10 pieces of the same voronoi pattern together, to create thickness of the voronoi pattern. So that the light can bounce inside the walls of voronoi and create diffuse light. Other than that, we also insert a butter paper between the voronoi patterns to see the difference in resulting lighting effects.

2 simple voronoi patterns built by Grasshopper for double layering

EXPLORE SITE CONTEXT WITH VORONOI PATTERN (BASED ON GRIDS) After exploring with light, we tried to create and explore the voronoi pattern based on the traffic movement of the highway in the site. In Grasshopper, we built a voronoi pattern based on grids and then add some attractor points (circle points as shown below) on the highway, representing the traffic flow along the sites (red lines as shown below).

Voronoi pattern resulted from the attractor points (circle points) on the highway-representing traffic flow.

From the above pattern, we observed that the size of voronoi increases as they get closer to the attractor points (where the traffic highways are). p.32


EXPLORE SITE CONTEXT WITH VORONOI PATTERN (BASED ON RANDOM VORONOI) We also want to test the effect of attractor points on a a voronoi pattern built randomly, to compare the difference between the previous voronoi pattern.

Voronoi pattern resulted from the attractor points on the highway (representing traffic flow)

PERSONAL REFLECTION The process of constructing a model is challenging. It is difficult but interesting to transfer from concepts and ideas into actual physical models.

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07 LECTURE 07- PROJECT THEME: AIR IN ARCHITECTURE This lecture focused on the theme of air. Weather can affect the performance of architecture at a certain extent, for example, heavy rain can create some very random patterns on the walls of the architecture; strong winds can make the movable parts of the architecture to move, following the wind direction1. Weathering can also change the appearances of materials, chemically, physically, biologically or a combination of them2. This is directly related to air, which affect the weathering process. Other examples of changes related to air include erosion and deposition3. READING 07 -Hill, Jonathan (2006). ‘Drawing Forth Immaterial Architecture’, Architectural Research Quarterly, 10, 1, pp. 51-55 It is essential to note that the central theme of this studio is not just about buildings but also many other things such as user and weather4. The importance of drawing and text is an emerging architectural discourse, they are important in educations as they help to show architectural theories and ideas5. Reading architectural books are always very enjoyable. all the texts and images can give a lot of inspirations to me.

TUTORIAL 07-ORNAMENTATION The idea of ornamentation is quite diverse over the past. In modern architecture, the excessive use of ornamentation and covering the original material purposes are strongly not recommended. Modern architecture pursues simple forms and ornamentations. Ornament is not the same as decoration, decoration is considered to be excessive. Through parametric modelling, ornament can be achieved through form, structure, screen and surface. 1. Stanislav Roudavski, Project theme: Air in Architecture (University of Melbourne, 2012)[Lecture audio recording on lms]. 2. Stanislav Roudavski, Project theme: Air in Architecture 3. Stanislav Roudavski, Project theme: Air in Architecture 4. Jonathan Hill. ‘Drawing Forth Immaterial Architecture’, Architectural Research Quarterly, 10, 1, pp. 51-55 5. Hill, pp.51-55.

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PHYSICAL MODELS-PHOTOGRAPHS

Testing with light and shadows...

Model 1: Double layer of voronoi patterns

Overlapping shadows on the wall, cut light

Overlapping shadows on the ground, cut light Overlapping shadows on the ground (looking from the top), cut light

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Testing with light and shadows...

Model 2: Voronoi pattern with thickness, diffuse light

Voronoi pattern with thickness, diffuse light, thick shadows

Model 3: Voronoi pattern with butter paper, diffuse light

Voronoi pattern with butter paper, diffuse light

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Model 4: Voronoi pattern with site context (traffic flow)-grids

Model 5: Voronoi pattern with site context (traffic flow)- random Personal Reflection: Through experimenting lighting with the voronoi patterns in different states, our group understand that the knowledge of lighting is far more than this, we should indeed explore much deeper into different aspects of lighting. Also, the relationship between the first 3 models and last 2 models need to be developed in a deeper sense in the coming few weeks. p.37


08 LECTURE 08- PROJECT INTERPRETATION: KINETIC STRUCTURES AND MOTION The concept of dynamism can be applied into the design project as the sites are quite windy, lots of design possibilities can be made. Since the public artwork will be located along the highway, it should look dynamic since there are frequent motions of vehicles along the highway. As people drive pass the highway, a dynamic form can interest them more than a static form does. Expressive dynamism means that the form looks like there is an implied motion and it looks like there is some motion going on1; the motions can include stretching, twisting, compressing, etc. Using parametric modelling, we can test out relationships between different elements and the forms.

TUTORIAL 08- MID-SEMESTER REVIEW Lots of feedback about our Expression of Interest presentation are received. The feedbacks were extremely useful in our final weeks of design. Our group need to be more active and build up close relationships between our models explore them in much deeper way. Lighting is one of the three themes in our group, there are many more in this area yet to be explored. In our final design, many more variations of the cellular skin of voronoi pattern can be made by parametric modelling. Looking at works of other groups is very inspiring and it is good to learn from each other. 1. Stanislav Roudavski, Project interpretation: Kinetic Structures and Motion (University of Melbourne, 2012)[Lecture audio recording on lms].

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Direction for design proposal- Design voronoi pattern as the surface of the public artwork structure, with lighting effects and engage with site context (highway, vegetations, etc). Single technique derived from individual research and provided definitions that support the proposal- Manipulating voronoi pattern using grasshopper, by parametric modelling. Reverse-Engineer Case Study: recreating voronoi patterns with grasshopper Model making in week 6: manipulate voronoi patterns with various combinations of components in grasshopper, adjusting variables, adding attractor points, etc.

This technique can be extended to produce a structure incorporating a complex tectonic system: A complex tectonic system- structural backbone/frame system with voronoi pattern (different shapes and forms

should have different structures)

How to fabricate a surface with voronoi pattern?

Tessellation: A digital fabrication method, with the help of grasshopper definitions, the surface will be broken down into 2D smaller parts. The collection of pieces then fit together without gaps to form a surface.

Some surface patterns that can be fabricated by tessellation p.39


EXAMPLE 1: Construction process of a surface by Tessellation

Fabricated small component

Surface pattern created for fabrication

Joining pieces together

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EXAMPLE 2: Construction process of a surface by Tessellation

Firstly build the surface with grasshopper

Break down the surface into smaller compoenets by grasshopper components, later for fabrication (Tessellation).

Real surface object constructed p.41


EXAMPLE 3: A Ruby Sphere structure with voronoi pattern as the surface

Double layer of voronoi pattern- Ruby Sphere

Structural frame- Ruby Sphere

Grasshopper definition of the Ruby Sphere (Surface and structural frame)

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Break down the voronoi surface into smaller components (Tessellaion process)

Grasshopper components used to break down the surface

PERSONAL REFLECTION The mid-semester review gave me a very good opportunity to review my progress of what I have done so far in this semester. It requires a lot of passion and engagement in order to achieve a favourable design. In the last 4 weeks of this semester, I need to try as much as I can to come up with a design proposal that suits the requirements of Wyndham City Council and all 3 themes of my group.

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C: DESIGN NARRATIVE EXPRESSION OF INTEREST(EOI) DOCUMENT


coNTENT WESTERN GATEWAY PROJECT

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- Introduction - Project Background

SITE ANALYSIS - The Wyndham City

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A: CASE FOR INNOVATION - 3 Themes: Cellular Skin, Lighting, Ecology

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B: CUT RESEARCH PROJECT - Matrix Combinations

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C: COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

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- Sites A, B, C

- Reverse Engineer Case Study - Physical Models

D: LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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WESTERN GATEWAY DESIGN PROJECT INTRODUCTION: This project is issued by the Wyndham City Council, inviting submissions for the Western Gateway Design Project to create a Gateway into Wyndham City along the Princes Highway. The project aims to echo the ‘Seeds of Change’ Gateway located at the Eastern interchange. The proposed 3 sites for the Western Gateway provide extremely high exposure to those entering the Wyndham City, as well as those travelling along the freeway. The Wyndham City Council is looking for an exciting, eye catching installiation at Wyndham’s Western Gateway. At the same time, they expect the Gateway can inspire and enrich the municipal-

PROJECT BACKGROUND: Being the fastest growing municipality in Victoria, the Wyndham City is situated around the suburbs of Werribee, Hoppers Crossing, Point Cook, Wyndham Vale, Trugania and Tarneit. The city is currently holding a population of 148000 and the current growing rate is at 8000 to 10000 residents per year. It is expected that ultimately there will be more than 430000 people live in the city. Recently, the Wyndham City Council has been trying to upgrade the image of the city by launching different significant works in the aesthetic conditions of the streetscapes, open spaces and parks. The Gateway Project is considered to be part of this program. This project follows on from the success of the previous works of ‘Seeds of Change’ and ‘House in the Sky’, located at the Eastern Interchange and the interchange with the Western Ring Road respectively.

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SITE ANALYSIS

Site Diagram- Site A,B,C

The Wyndham City: The Wyndham City has a very rich and wide range of unique and distinctive features – natural, cultural, social and historical, the following are some examples: Natural features- the Werribee River and K Road Cliffs Wildlife sanctuaries- Point Cook Coastal Park and Heathdale Wetlands Historical attractions- Werribee Park Mansion and the Victoria State Rose Garden Historical sites and museums-The RAAF Museum and Cobbledicks Ford

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Sites A,B,C: The sites for the Western Gateway installation are located near the edge of the Wyndham urban growth boundary where future residential and commercial developments will meet the undeveloped plains of the west. The western installation will be viewed by drivers travelling at high speed and provide the first indication of arrival into metropolitan Melbourne. The Princes Freeway provides excellent exposure onto the sites. The topography of all 3 sites are flatland. In addition, the location of the sites are windy. Site A is bounded by the traffic along the Princes Freeway, it is a 90 metre wide road reserve, measuring approximately 50,000 metres square. Site B is located immediately in front of a service station, the verge between north‐bound traffic along the Princes Freeway and the freeway off‐ramp onto the Princes Highway, measuring 22,000 metres square. Site C is a narrow band measuring approximately 18 metres wide, located to the west of the freeway off‐ramp onto the Princes Highway. This site measures approximately 4000 metres square.

Main features/ attractions surrounding the sites: Notable attractions surrounding the proposed Gateway include the Werribee Open Range Zoo, Werribee Park Mansion and the National Equestrian Centre. The Werribee River labels the backbone of Werribee. The Melbourne Water Western Treatment Plant, located immediately south of the proposed Gateway, is one of the world’s most significant wetlands. Wetlands forming part of the treatment facility have been declared to be of international significance under the Ramsar Convention, and provide a haven for tens of thousands of birds. The plants maintain vast ecology of the Werribee River and its surrounds.

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Case for Innovation

Cellular Skin... WATER CUBE (BEIJING NATIONAL AQUATICS CENTER), BEIJING,CHINA

Source: (http://www.filmapia.com/published/places/beijing-nationalaquatics-center-water-cube)

AS A SYMBOL/ SIGN

Source:(http://www.filmapia.com/published/places/beijing-nationalaquatics-center-water-cube)

It is a very famous building situates in Beijing, specially built for the Olympic Games in 2008. It has very symbolic meanings and represents Chinese cultures. The cube concept represents typical Chinese way of understanding beauty- the serenity and beauty of calm, untroubled water. Furthermore, it symbolizes the spirit of the Beijing Olympics: ‘the green games, the high-tech games and the people’s games’. It portrays the way in which humanity relates to water and the harmonious coexistence of human and nature, which is life’s ultimate blessing in Chinese culture. The flat ceiling is a symbol of peace and stability as well. The Water Cube greatly expresses the nation’s beauty and pride.

MATERIALITY- FUNCTIONAL CELLULAR SKIN For the outskirt of the building, the designers chose to use steel and a plastic called ethylene tetrafluoroethylene(EFTE). The EFTE was used to create the translucant pillows for the building’s cladding. It is strong and resistant to degradation from ultraviolet light and air pollution. With this material, the interior acts like an insulated greenhouse, capturing the energy from the sun for heating and lighting.EFTE creates a superb acoustic environment; with its lightweight, the need for a secondary structure to support the skin was eliminated; it can also improves seismic performance, and is self-cleaning and recyclable.

STRUCTURE & CELLULAR SKIN A cellular structure. Such a complex structure consists of 22000 steel members and 12000 nodes, the entire building is modelled in 4 dimensions. The structure of the building is a welded space frame consists of numerous steel tubes connected at spherical nodes. EFTE pillows are encapsulated in the structural frame. The building is the result of all the relevant engineering disciplines. p.49


Airspace Tokyo

Architect: Hajime Masubuchi

The outer skin/facade of the building acts like a dense tree canopy of the street, providing some shelter for the pedestrians walking by.

Collapsed elevation of the interior and exterior layers of the screen.

It is a four-storey, mixed use residential and commercial building located in Tokyo, Japan; it was designed to accommodate different programs and clients1. Its outer structural shell/skin is the most significant feature of the whole architecture, using scripting as the design process. The outer shell also has special structural performance. 1. Ben Pell, ‘Airspace Tokyo’, in The Articulate Surface: Ornament and Technology in Contemporary Architecture (Basel, London: Birkhauser; Springer distributor,2010), pp.86-89.

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Bathroom of the interior

View of the building at night

Performance- cellular(VORONOI) skin- functional The screen acts to protect the building from the street. The voids of the double-layered screen become more scarce adjacent to upper level bathrooms and bedrooms; at night, the screen also modulates views in and out of the building, and casts shadows of the geometric voids onto the street below1. Other than providing shelter to the interior spaces, the structural skin also affect the aesthetics of the exterior spaces by creating patterns of shadows with its voids. The cellular design and double layering of the screen resembles the biomorphic density of the vegetation, and is compressed into a 20cm-thick skin, the skin is made of rigid panels of aluminium composite materials, which have good sound insulation2. The skin acts as a visually dynamic threshold between public and private, framing and fragmenting views as one moves around and through the building3. There are different density and porosity distributed across the field to allow different privacies of different spaces4. The screen facade acts to buffer the inhabitants from the street and veils the disparate functions of the building behind an extensive and unifying enclosure system5. 1. Pell, pp.86-89. 2. Pell, pp.86-89.

3.. Pell, pp.86-89. 4. Pell, pp.86-89. 5. Pell, pp.86-89.

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Church of Light

Lighting...

Locaton: Ibaraki, Japan Architect: Tadao Ando

The Church of Light is located in a residential suburb of Osaka. Its orientation is so much related to the sun. There is a freestanding concrete wall which divides the entrance from the chapel. This kind of separation creates a doorsill between the exterior and interior sacred spaces. To emphasize the modest character of the space, the floor is made up of rough scafolding planks.

Tadao Ando applied the theory of phenomenology to his architecture. This theory focuses on materiality and nature like light. He used materials with substance for the details of buildings, which is a palpable experience enhances the perception of the architecture, and is very much reflected to his own theory of phenomenology. The space of the chapel is defined by light, the strong contrast between light and solid. Strong light penetrates the darkness of box the cross cut, which Tadao Ando intended to express the purity that exists in the relationship between humans and nature. Profound emptiness is one feature of the interior. His idea of emptiness means something different, which is transferring someone into the realm of the spiritual. The emptiness is meant to occupy the occupant so that there is room for the spiritual to fill them. The building is famous for its cut technique with light.

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Kiasma Museum of Contemporary Art Locaton: Helsinki, Finland Architect: Steven Holl

The Kiasma Museum of Contemporary Art is located in the heart of Helsinki at the foot of the Parliament building to the west, with Eliel Saarinen’s Helsinki Station to the wast and Finlandia Hall to the north. Kiasma’s concept involves the intertwining of the building’s mass with the geometry of the city and landscape. Each are reflected in the shape of the building. The design of the Kiasma provides a variety of spatial experiences. The galleries must house the most expressice artists, to those whose works depend on a quiet atmosphere to bring out their full power.

The horizontal light of northern latitudes is improved by a waterscape that acts as an ‘urban mirror’. A language of silence is created by getting rid of the intermediate scale in the building’s architecture, so that the artwork is able to occupy the intermediate scale in contrast with the neutral mass of the walls. Rather than articulating columns, moldings, window openings and so on, the architecture is expressed through details such as the twist of a door handle and the edge of a stair. Slight difference in room shapes and sizes are due to gently curving section of the building which allows the natural light to penetrate in several different ways. There rooms are meant to be silent, but not still. The building is famous for its diffuse technique with light.

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Suites Avenue faรงade, Barcelona

Ecology...

Architect: Toyo Ito

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TOD’S Omotesando Building, Tokyo Architect: Toyo Ito

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Cut/develop

Cut Research Project

The Cut Research Project aims to further develop the previous cases for innovation, based on the themes of cellular skin, lighting and ecology, with parametric modelling. The Research Project is divided into 2 phases: develop ment and fabrication. The first stage of development is to explore different matrix combinations of grasshopper components.

Matrix of Combinations Inputs Arbitrary points

Boolean Patterning

Attractor Point A

B

Curve Attractor

Associations

A1

B1

Image Sampler A2

B2

Maths Functions A3

B3

Multiple Maths Functions A4

B4

A5

B5

A6

B6

Streaming Text Files

Using Sets

Table 1

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Inputs Curve Intersection

Explicid Grids

Attractor Point

Associations

Curve Attractor

Image Sampler

Maths Functions

Multiple Maths Functions

Using Sets

Table 2 p.57


Explore Layering...

Explore Grid Patterns...

Our chosen case study for the research project is the Airspace Tokyo in Japan. The main characteristic of the building is its functional cellular skin of double voronoi layers. The voronoi patterns are very interesting, even the way they overlay has special functions and meanings. As we are exploring different patterns produced from the matrix, we found the above results most interesting and very special. Layering and grid patterns were explored.

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Reverse Engineer Case Study- Airspace Tokyo

Logical steps for recreating Airspace Tokyo facade using Grasshopper: Grasshopper Definitions for building the Voronoi patterns:

Steps 1-8

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Step 11

1.Form grids points(regular) 2.Make the above grids at random 3.Generate circles from the above grid points 4.Using Voronoi component to compress the above circles to bubbles 5.Explode the above bubbles 6.After explosion, form closed circles (by changing the “p” of the Circle component from “false” to “true”) 7.Form perimeter of the façade and form a surface plan 8.Using “Trim-copy trim” component to copy the data from one surface to another. 9.After forming the required façade surface, cut the façade into 2 surfaces and turn one of them to 90 degree in Rhino(get 2 facades at the same time). 10.Mirror the above facades to get 4 facades totally(in Rhino). 11. Repeat the above steps to get the inner layers(the facade consists of 2 layers). 12. Build a plane and place on top of the facades to act as the roof 13.Build a box in Rhino and reference it into grasshopper and move it to the appropriate position(under the facade).


Physical Models- Explore with voronoi patterns Development Process... The case study of our group is Airspace Tokyo and the main feature of this building is its exterior voronoi double layer pattern. Based on this, we want to explore lighting, layering and site context with the voronoi pattern.

EXPLORE WITH LIGHTING AND LAYERING We are interested in 2 types of lighting- cut light and diffuse light. Firstly, we construct a voronoi pattern with Grasshopper in Rhino. For the cut light, we overlap 2 layers of voronoi pattern together to explore the layering and cut light effect.

For the diffuse light, we want to stick 8-10 pieces of the same voronoi pattern together, to create thickness of the voronoi pattern. So that the light can bounce inside the walls of voronoi and create diffuse light. Other than that, we also insert a butter paper between the voronoi patterns to see the difference in resulting lighting effects.

2 simple voronoi patterns built by Grasshopper for double layering

EXPLORE SITE CONTEXT WITH VORONOI PATTERN (BASED ON GRIDS) After exploring with light, we tried to create and explore the voronoi pattern based on the traffic movement of the highway in the site. In Grasshopper, we built a voronoi pattern based on grids and then add some attractor points (circle points as shown below) on the highway, representing the traffic flow along the sites (red lines as shown below).

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Voronoi pattern resulted from the attractor points (circle points) on the highway-representing traffic flow.

From the above pattern, we observed that the size of voronoi increases as they get closer to the attractor points (where the traffic highways are).

EXPLORE SITE CONTEXT WITH VORONOI PATTERN (BASED ON RANDOM VORONOI) We also want to test the effect of attractor points on a a voronoi pattern built randomly, to compare the difference between the previous voronoi pattern.

Voronoi pattern resulted from the attractor points on the highway (representing traffic flow)

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model Photos...

Cut/fabricate Testing with light and shadows...

Model 1: Double layer of voronoi patterns

Overlapping shadows on the wall, cut light

Overlapping shadows on the ground, cut light Overlapping shadows on the ground (looking from the top), cut light

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Model 2: Voronoi pattern with thickness, diffuse light

Voronoi pattern with thickness, diffuse light, thick shadows

Model 3: Voronoi pattern with butter paper, diffuse light

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Voronoi pattern with butter paper, diffuse light


Model 4: Voronoi pattern with site context (traffic flow)-grids

Model 5: Voronoi pattern with site context (traffic flow)- random p.64


competitive advantage Conceptual/Technical achievements of our research/ design work: Our group composed of 3 members and each of us has chosen a theme to develop in this project. Our themes are cellular skin, lighting and ecology respectively. Each of the themes are derived from our own case studies (part A). Based on our chosen case study for the Cut research project, which is the Airspace Tokyo, we want to develop our design using voronoi patterns. We applied the concept of voronoi in our themes and tried to explore their relationships. Our ultimate goal is to come up with a design that represent a combination of our themes, and satisfy the requirements of the design project at the same time. Parametric modelling is a contemporary architectural discourse of the 20th century that raise a lot of attentions in the architectural world. Before the invention of parametric modelling, people usually just treat computational tools as ways of documenting. In this way, lots of design possibilities are hindered. Digital-driven design process can create so much more design possibilities. The idea is that as one component or variable is changed in the program, the whole design outcome will change as well. The traditional way of designing is to first design, then document with computational tools. The design stage only depends on the designer’s ability, instead, with the aid of digital tools, the designer can test out his ideas and create many more possibilities. In addition, one can avoid design errors by testing with digital tools. Because of the above reasons, our group want to achieve our design in this project by parametric modelling. The Wyndham City Council is asking for an exciting and eye-catching installation at the Western Gateway. Parametric modelling can undoubtedly achieve this with innovative ideas. Through parametric modelling, our group has shown our capability of manipulating the voronoi pattern successfully with grasshopper and rhino. This can be supported by the Reverse Engineer case study and model making process. Other skills related to parametric modelling can also be shown with the matrix and other weekly tasks. We strongly believe that voronoi pattern can only be mastered through parametric modelling and we are capable of doing so. A voronoi pattern is about subdivision of points, and it is almost impossible to be done manually. Parametric modelling can help us accurately produce different voronoi patterns with different grasshopper definitions. A single definition can already create voronoi pattern with different shapes and forms.

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Why should the Wyndham City’s competition panel choose us to develop a completed design proposal? Our group has successfully made significant progress over the past weeks, with research work and manipulating different operations in grasshopper. The idea of voronoi pattern is very complex , and there is so much more possibilities that yet to be discovered with voronoi pattern. It would be very exciting if an public art is created with voronoi pattern by parametric modelling at the Western Gateway. As mentioned before, parametric modelling is an increasing architectural discourse nowadays, it is a very innovative and new technology which increasingly affect the modern architecture. Our final design will be based on the following: the site context- the ecology of the site; how lighting techniques can help enhancing aesthetic performance of the public art; both are to be done with the voronoi pattern (cellular skin). A favourable outcome is foreseeable.

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LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES The following are the learning objectives specified in the course outline: 1) “interrogat[ing] a brief” by considering the process of brief formation in the age of optioneering enabled by digital technologies; 2) developing “an ability to generate a variety of design possibilities for a given situation” by introducing parametric modelling with its intrinsic capacities for versioning; 3) developing “skills in various three-dimensional media” and specifically in dynamic 3D modelling, digital fabrication, dynamic diagramming and so on; 4) developing “an understanding of relationships between architecture and air” through interrogation of design proposal as physical models; 5) developing “the ability to make a case for proposals” by engaging students in the controversies and contradiction of contemporary architectural discourse on digital architectural design. 6) begin developing a personalised repertoire of computational techniques substantiated by the understanding of their advantages, disadvantages and areas of application; 7) develop the foundational understanding of computational principles behind digital geometry, data structures and programming; 8) develop capabilities for conceptual, technical and design analysis capable of positioning students’ creative work in comparison with the flagship professional projects. According to the above learning objectives, our group has made the following progress: 1) We have studied the design brief in detail and started analyzing the design requirememts and put them into our consideration with the final design. 2) We are learning gradually and gaining more experience with handling design with grasshopper. 3) We are stil learning different types of digital fabrication for our design, it is under investigation at the moment; dynamic 3D modelling and dynamic diagramming are will be developed in the next few weeks. 4) The relationship between air and architecture is understood, physical models regarding this still need to be explored. 5) This is achieved through EOI. 6) This is achieved partially through the Cut research project, and need further development in the next few weeks. 7) This is achieved through video learning of grasshopper over the past weeks. 8) Our group has developed a foundamental concept for the final design, but more digital techniques and analysis need to be used to develop our final design, in order to make it creative and successful.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Ben Pell, ‘Airspace Tokyo’, in The Articulate Surface: Ornament and Technology in Contemporary Architecture (Basel, London: Birkhauser; Springer distributor,2010), pp.86-89. Branko Kolarevic, Architecture in the Digital Age:Design and Manufacturing(New York; London: Spoon Press, 2003), pp.3-62. Farshid Moussavi, and Michael Kubo, eds. The Function of Ornament (Barcelona: Actar, 2006), pp. 5-14. Jonathan Hill. ‘Drawing Forth Immaterial Architecture’, Architectural Research Quarterly, 10, 1, pp. 51-55. Kalay Yehuda E. Architecture’s New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2004), pp. 5 - 25. Mark Burry, Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming (Chichester: Wiley, 2011) pp.8-71. Stanislav Roudavski, Understanding the Course: Architecture as a Discourse (University of Melbourne, 2012)[Lecture audio recording on lms]. Stanislav Roudavski, Why Computing? Performance-Driven Design (University of Melbourne, 2012)[Lecture audio recording on lms]. Stanislav Roudavski,Project Conceptualization:Materiality/Performance/Ornament (University of Melbourne,2012)[Lecture audio recording on lms]. Stanislav Roudavski, Project theme: Air in Architecture (University of Melbourne, 2012)[Lecture audio recording on lms]. Stanislav Roudavski, Project interpretation: Kinetic Structures and Motion (University of Melbourne, 2012)[Lecture audio recording on lms]. Williams, Richard, ‘Architecture and Visual Culture’, in Exploring Visual Culture : Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, ed. by Matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005), pp. 102 - 16.

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testing