Launch & Promotion E16 Katie Chubb - N0483568
“Artisanship and a nod to the past”
ÂŠ 2014 MyFunStudio.com
Where did e16 come from?
Crossing The Pond
Reports, Contents Magazines, Books, Videos, Websites, Journals
After Year One E16
ÂŠ 2014 MyFunStudio.com
ÂŠ 2014 MyFunStudio.com
Crossing The Pond
ÂŠ 2014 MyFunStudio.com
ÂŠ 2014 MyFunStudio.com
ÂŠ 2014 MyFunStudio.com
Reports, Magazines, Books, Videos, Websites, Journals
The E16 fragrance has been inspired by London’s East End culture. While literally complementing the scent of vintage apparel, it is niche brand that aims to be the perfect accessory for a young woman’s “vintage” lifestyle. A culture rich juxtaposition of modern discovery that alludes to the past in the form of fragrance.
© 2014 MyFunStudio.com
Introduction E16 Where did e16 come from?
“As an industry, we are seeing a return to classics and quality,” explained Richard Hawkins, fragrance expert at Guerlain. The brand as a whole aims to challenge the clichéd, overused and almost misconstrued meaning of the term “vintage”, by putting emphasis on service, experience and product while focusing on proving a quality product with a niche and classy feel.
Now a fragrance comes out and often by the second year it’s either off the shelves, or posting double-digit declines in sales.” (Grant as cited in Lagorce (2006). This indicates the challenging market and emphasises the importance of a well thought out campaign to avoid our product being one of the “four out of five start-ups [that] end in failure.” (Brassington, Frances, Pettitt, Stephen (2013).
create and sustain hype about the product in the media and amongst our target consumers.
campaign is simply not achievable or suitable. It would be totally contradictory of the brand’s underground and alternative ethos and would not be appealing to our target consumer.
E16 is a “Over 60% of new products fail” The origin of the product that (Brassington, brand; London’s Frances, East End is is inspired by Pettitt, imperative to Stephen, (2013). the launch of vintage, but is by As the brand and the initial product is new scent, E16. no means a vintage An elaborate to the saturated fragrance market, and high cost perfume. it is vital that we advertising
Karen Grant, a senior beauty industry analyst in the U.S. for market research firm NPD Group said: “A few years ago, it used to be that a fragrance would come out, slowly build up sales, and perhaps after three or five years you would start seeing some attrition.
I have taken into consideration the primary research that I conducted previously, in order to gain an understanding of the kind of marketing activity that I feel would best captivate the audience, and obtain the appropriate media attention.
The origin of the brand; London’s East End is imperative to the launch of the initial scent, E16. An elaborate and high cost advertising campaign is simply not achievable or suitable. It would be totally contradictory of the brand’s underground and alternative ethos and would not be appealing to our target consumer. I have taken into consideration the primary research that I conducted, in order to gain an understanding of the kind of marketing activity that I feel would best captivate the audience, and obtain the appropriate media attention. I want to ensure exclusivity and the same element of discovery and excitement through my brand, that a customer experiences when thrift shopping. This means it will not be stocked in any drug stores e.g. Boots, any department stores e.g. Selfridges or any regular high-street stores e.g. Urban Outfitters. My focus group research shows that the target consumer is willing to travel to purchase perfume saying: “I like to discover new areas and go on road trips…it’s a more enjoyable experience than just buying from a normal store”
Prior to the official launch and opening of the flagship store on 4th July 2015, popup stores will be erected in various locations around the country including, Salcombe, Portsmouth, Richmond, Mosely and the Northern Quarter, Weatherby and Edinborough. These will run for two weeks each from March 2015. This is long enough to generate interest and hype nationwide, but not so long that customers will lose the sense of anticipation of what is to come. These are ideal locations to promote the product as they feature many other niche brands, boutiques, vintage shops, and have a strong cult following of the vintage lifestyle, therefore the pop up stores will fit in perfectly. The pop-up stores will be on brand; a microcosm of the flagship store. They will be true to our modern interpretation of vintage (not a bird cage or Cath Kidston tea cup in sight) and will be a clear way to see how the fragrance fits into the consumer’s lifestyle “…consumers have become more sophisticated and demanding. There is a rising savvy shopper seeking a unique fragrance that fits with their personality.” (Chen 2013).
Visitors will be encouraged to enjoy entertainment from unsigned bands from each area and experience the complementary smell that that E16’s carefully chosen ingredients offers when spritzed onto vintage garments for sale. The clothes will be provided by the local thrift shops (who will receive the profits from sales). Visitors will also experience E16’s unique scent when applied straight onto skin. There will local independent retailers also provide other fitting items that will be for sale including food, drink and publications. The E16 fragrance will be merchandised clearly and there will be free samples that customers can give to their friends and family and people who are not ready to purchase can try. They will be encased in small brown paper wrappings with maps of East London on them, mirroring the full price product. This acts as a visual aid to the customer when looking for the perfume in the future.
E16 is inspired by vintage, so what better way to endorse this than Polaroid’s. Visitors to the popup store will be able to have their picture taken in the E16 branded photo booth, two copies will be printed in Polaroid form with the brand logo. One of which will be given to the customer as a memento (a reminder of their experience with E16). The other will be attached to one of the wall spaces within the pop up store. This concept will be scaled up into the Flagship stores providing an association between the two. The pop-up store’s photo booth will also be seamlessly linked to Twitter and Instagram giving the customers the option to log in and post the image to their wall or feed, ‘check in’ to where they are and follow the E16 profile. This activity will promote the brand and encourage more of our target market to the flagship store/retailers. In addition the connection can then be used as a link between E16 and the customer, meaning they can be updated with information of the product launch and future events.
E16’s target consumers enjoy shopping. They shop online and go out on shopping trips regularly. Large proportions are extremely enthusiastic about shopping, and see themselves as influencers within their peer groups. The flagship store will have a high focus on service and experience I don’t want to miss opportunities to capture the emotions and minds of the most involved and enthusiastic customers, and so will be engaging all of them in ways that are entertaining, rewarding and unexpected. I hope that this will turn their enthusiasm for the product into evangelism encouraging a word of mouth method of marketing, which is perfect for my underground brand. As the birthplace of the E16 brand, it is inevitably the location of the initial store. The name “Brick Lane” functions as a worldwide ‘brand’ invoking images of a distinctive urban space, which are also a huge part of the brands identity. It has become a favourite location for young fashion designers, retailers and others in the creative industries. “The creative and cultural sectors that are dominant in this neighbourhood are characterised by micro-enterprises and self-employed
entrepreneurs involved in businesses, with quick turnover of product, constant innovation, and risk. Their organisation is better described as networked rather than dominated by firms” (Oakley, Pratt (2010). E16 will be employing knowledgeable individuals who support and portray the brand aesthetic and values. They will deliver outstanding service at every stage of the customers “purchasing journey”. From the moment a customer is welcomed into the E16 store, I want them to feel like they are a part of something authentic and discovering a place in East London they can associate with. The brand will be supporting local creatives, including fashion designers, artists, photographers and musicians. The site, I feel would be perfect for the E16 flagship store and is currently occupied by ‘Traffic People’. It is located at ‘61-63, Brushfield Street, Spitalfields Market’. It is quite a large plot for a new brand and some might question whether it is appropriate for a new niche brand, however I want the flagship store to be more than just a shop. It has a large outside space where events could take place throughout the year.
There will be an area for budding creatives to display and sell their work for a small commission fee, in addition to a performance area where bands and new talent will be performing on a regular bases. The essence of community, which is vital to the East End, and the element of discovery that defines E16, will be channeled into the E16 flagship. There is an emerging trend for the exclusivity of the product being reflected in retailers. “Stores are stocked with niche, high-end perfumes… offering a complete brand story,
limited edition or exclusive product is an important merchandising strategy” (Hughes (2014). Which is why I have decided that during the product’s first year on the market, the fragrance will only be available from the flagship store in Brick Lane and selected retailers around the country. These will include all UK full price, ‘Beyond Retro’ stores (Brighton, Dalston and SOHO) and all ‘Cow’ Stores (Manchester, Nottingham, Sheffield and Birmingham). This means that there are reachable retailers around the country for consumers who are unable to attend the Flagship store.
The area around Brick Lane has been known to re-invent itself many times over the years. In addition to clothing and creative industries; food, tourism, nightlife and leisure economies, are also important industrial sectors within this area. I plan to work with â€œTea & Cake PRâ€? in order to arrange the campaigns for E16. Managing Director and founder, Lucy Finnegan, established the company in 2009. Based in the heart of Shoreditch on Old Street, they are in the perfect location to fulfill the brands PR needs. They have a young team who specialize in consumer PR for fashion, sport and lifestyle brands. Despite the fact they have not worked with a fragrance brand before, they have worked with brands that the E16 consumer interacts with including: Havaiana, Jameson Whisky, Bjorn Borg and Malibu. The companyâ€™s diverse portfolio assures me that they will be a brilliant fit for the promotion and development of the E16 brand.
The Inner City Music Festivalappropriatly named â€œJUICEâ€?, will be an event that is spread around the East End locations and will take place on 4th July 2015. The aim is to launch the flagship store and create more excitement about the E16 scent and initiate talk of the upcoming fragrances. The sponsored event will consist of an evening of live music, a silent disco, poem readings, a photo booth and karaoke. The performers in addition to the venues will promote the event maximising exposure. Tickets can be bought or won through an Instagram competition. If the event is successful, it will be held annually.
Fig 20, 21
My product is not packaged in the traditional way. Instead of boxes, which are often discarded, I have decided to opt for a brown paper wrap. On the inside of the wrapping paper, there will be a map printed of the East End. There will be highlighted areas on the map that will not have any explanation, this will increase mystery and ambiguity, encouraging discovery. The highlighted areas will correspond to the following fragrance releases that represent additional East London postcodes. E8 (Dalston), E2 (Shoreditch) and E5 (Clapton). This secret will be “dripped” to consumers and will create a buzz with customers who have purchased E16. They will be anticipating the meaning of the locations and await the arrival of new scents to collect. The map will also feature key points of interest and events taking place in the coming season in the area along with the flagship store location. Each area will have a ‘#’ associated with it and customers can then photograph the locations as they find them and upload them to their Instagram, thus linking it to the brand and generating a regular stream of social media activity. The paper wrapping will be updated and re-printed each season meaning existing customers will have something new to discover while new customers can begin their exploration into London’s East End. Fig 22
In November 2015 I have decided to hold and event at the flagship store, there will be an invite only 18+ event called “Sip & Sniff” hosted by Odette Toilette, who has been running scent related events for over two years. In addition to tickets for bloggers, there will be 70 tickets to be won through Instagram for each session. It will reignite hype about the brand in time for the Christmas period. “Noses, for too long you have been neglected in favour of the other senses. Let the eyes have their art galleries and the ears their music, for we have need for more novel stimulation – that of our sense of smell, and the delights and stimulation that may unfurl from a provocative scent.” (Ostrom (2014) The idea is to pair scents with different drinks (alcoholic and nonalcoholic). The pairing is based on their personalities or how expensive they smell. It is a perfume sampling with a difference. Participants will move between fragrances and wines in a series of themed pairings looking at sensory perception and the dialogue
used to describe scent. In addition to perfume expert (Lizzie Ostrom) Odette Toilette, wine connssure Hilary Howes, will also be there guiding the participants through the evening. E16 aims to educate those previously not that into fragrance, who want an alternative night out to the pub, meeting new people, networking and learning about the delights of the olfactory sense. The experience will take place every Thursday evening throughout August. Tea & Cake PR will ensure gets into both local and national press in addition to arranging for the bloggers to attend. The events described will take place alongside additional guerrilla marketing, which I feel is another appropriate marketing tool for E16’s underground and niche products. Samples and detailed information leaflets featuring ways to find our social media platforms will be distributed at events that are taking place that I feel are brand appropriate e.g. galleries, exhibitions and gigs.
Fig 23, 24
I will not be exploring the store design or operations in isolation. I have considered the whole experience as a matrix. An important aspect to consider when marketing a niche brand is getting the right amount of exposure, to the desired target audience in identifiable ways.
Twitter and Facebook profiles. As Instagram is the epicentre of the selfie revolution I want to use it in conjunction with Twitter in multiple ways.
Digital marketing is going to be the driving force of E16â€™s initial and future campaigns. I feel it is the most prevalent way to interact with the consumers, â€œTwitter users are more likely to be young, with 45% of them between 18 and 29 years of ageâ€? (Koetsier, 2013). The â€˜selfieâ€™ trend has become prominent enough to influence technology and society. The word was added to the Oxford Dictionaries Online in August 2013.
Initially as a platform to create user generated content; our customers will be encouraged to take selfies that encapsulate their style and upload them to the Instagram platform and use the hashtag #E16Face. It will act as a competition for the consumers to become the face of the brand. Each season there will be a winner who is determined by the number of likes their image receives. This person will inevitably become the new â€œfaceâ€? of the brand. The aim is to engage with the customer; by making their votes count it gives them a feeling of power and will encourage future interaction.
Unconsciously generation Y, seek validation from others, comparing themselves to those around them through social media. Posting a â€˜selfieâ€™ to gauge reactions from peers while ever striving to get more â€œlikesâ€? is a trend that is prevalent in the USA and is seems to have emerged in the UK in more recent years. E16 will use the social photo site Instagram, which shares userâ€™s pictures on their profile as well as seamlessly sharing them on their
The process will also mean that there are real people representing the brand as opposed to celebrities, who, from my research I found to put off our customer from buying products. One of our focus group members said: â€œI donâ€™t really like celebrity perfumes as I donâ€™t think there is any quality in the product. The focus is just on the bottle and the box, which end up in the bin anyway. They never last, [celebrity endorsements] are more likely to dissuade me from purchasing a productâ€?
This diagram is correct as off 3/6/14 accoding to http://deals.ebay.com/blog/the-selfie-revolution/
Once the brand has a more established Instagram following, it will be used in conjunction with other PR events. British heritage fashion brand, Jack Wills used Instagram to run a competition. To participate, one had to submit onto Instagram an image or ‘Instavid’ that fit a specific brief each day e.g. “Favourite British Icon”. This activity created a buzz over a two-week period, generating over 21,300 likes (accurate as of 29 May 2014). The downside to this is that it is only for a limited time however once following the brands page, participants will receive future images and promotions from the brand thus subtly keeping the brand at the forefront of a potential consumers mind. This is a technique that would work well with E16 as a brand and with the tech savvy target market. I plan to use this technique to promote the
Launch event- winners will receive free V.I.P tickets, and the first 100 participants each day get into the event free. In conjunction with the social media campaigns, I will ensure that the E16 fragrance (in addition to any subsequent fragrances) is included in the archives on the fragrance recommendation app, which was developed by Givaudan called iPerfumer. It was “listed in The Sunday Times as one of the top 500 apps in the world for 2012” (Isles, 2012). It acts as a guide to consumers when buying perfume and can be used to shortlist the perfumes that are best suited to a consumer’s lifestyle and personal preferences. In addition, there is a social element as it enables users to discover new fragrances, which are rated by other buyers. I feel that this is an interesting and relevant way to raise awareness of E16, while promoting the element of discovery, which is a key part of our brands message.
Fig 25,26,27, 28
Bloggers are currently very ifluential with â€œ61% of consumers have made a purchese based on a blog postâ€? (ignitespot as cited by McGrail, 2013).As previously discussed bloggers will play a key role in E16â€™s marketing plan. â€œItâ€™s a good idea to establish strong mutually beneficial relationships with local and national bloggers as part of a creative and inexpensive marketing strategyâ€? (Dillon, 2012). E16 will interact
with lifestyle and fashion Bloggers from Rookie, Zoella, V.E, In The Frow,to perfume bloggers from Bois De Jasmine, Yesterdayâ€™s Perfume and Perfume Shrine. They will be invited to the events and provided with samples to review on their sites. My market research indicated that reading blogs is a keen interest of the target audience. Working with bloggers is relatively inexpensive therefore I feel it is an important focus of the strategy.
E16 will not be advertised in mainstream magazines such as Vogue, Elle and Company. Instead I will be placing advertisements in independant magazines, as they are brand appropriate and my research found our target consumer reads them on a regular basis. Christine Haughney for The Times wrote â€œâ€Śas readers increasingly turn to the Internet for news and information, niche magazines continue to retain and attract loyal followings, making them a bright spot in an otherwise dim outlook for print periodicals.â€? (Haughney, as cited by Schwartzwald 2014). Lula, a quirky British publication with focus on underground fashion and art. Contributor Magazine, uses a different generation and eras in each edition. Another magazine I would like to advertise in is 10 magazine which is based on London and has separate male and female editions. I feel this small scale print advertising approach would be a great way to introduce potential consumers to the E16 brand.
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After Year One E16 Crossing The Pond Following the initial launch and events during the first year, I plan to expand the brand into America in a similar fashion. I believe that the English and American “vintage scene” has similarities and there is a gap for E16 in the USA. I intend to develop and build a rapport with American writer, magazine editor, actress and singer, Tavi Gevenson, who came to public attention at the age of twelve. She is the editor of fashion blog Style Rookie. She will be one of my key links when introducing the E16 brand to the USA. She is very influential on the target market and will act as a brand ambassador when launching in America.
It is known as a cool ‘hangout’ for stylish women. “Mill Crest Vintage” in New Jersey has one of the largest collections in the U.S. of vintage pieces from the last 100 years and so I feel would be another great place to stock the E16 range. Molly Spaulding owns “Narnia” New York. She has a passion for travel allowing her to source apparel from the world over. It is a perfect stockist for E16 as it has a focus on discovery, which is a strong part of the brands DNA. I hope that it’s expansion into the USA will encourage people who follow a “vintage lifestyle” to visit and discover this this culture rich, diverse and thriving area of East London.
There is a strong arts & culture trend I am looking to stock in stores such as “Shareen’s” which is in Los Angeles. It is a “no boys allowed space” which has a carefully curated collection of fashion forward vintage apparel.
Overall, these techniques will help establish a core brand identity and customer base, whilst continuously increasing recognition and attention for every released perfume, to ensure every fragrance is a profitable venture.
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Appendix E16 Supporting Work
Chart detailing planned PR & marketing activity for E16 brand during 20152016. Created 28.5.14
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References E16 Citations
BRASSINGTON, FRANCES, PETTITT, STEPHEN, 2013. Essentials of Markering. 3rd edn. Harlow: Pearson. CHEN, W., 2013. Men’s and Women’s Fragrances - China - July 2013 . MINTEL DIRECTORY: Mintel Group Ltd. DILLON, S., 2012. 6.5 Innovative marketing and promotion. The Funamentals of Fashion Management. Switzerland: AVA Publishing, pp. 152-155. HUGHES, A., 2014. Niche fragrance stores: New York retail trend. March 2014. WGSN REPORTS: WGSN. ISLES, J., January 25, 2012-last update, GIVAUDAN’S IPERFUMER APP CONTINUES TO DEVELOP IN 2012 [Homepage of Wolfstar], [Online]. Available: http://www. wolfstarconsultancy.com/givaudans-iperfumer-app-continues-to-develop-in-2012/ [26 May, 2014]. KOETSIER, J., November 4, 2013-last update, Only 16% of U.S. adults use Twitter (but they’re smart, young, and rich) [Homepage of VB News], [Online]. Available: http://venturebeat.com/2013/11/04/only-16-of-u-s-adults-use-twitterbut-theyre-smart-young-and-rich/ [May 24, 2014]. LAGORCE, A., December 21, 2006-last update, Fleeting fragrance life cycle nothing to sniff at Cosmetics giants see mounting R&D, promotion costs hitting bottom line [Homepage of Market Watch], [Online]. Available: http://www.marketwatch.com/ story/fleeting-perfume-life-cycle-nothing-to-sniff-at-for-beauty-giants [May 27, 2014]. MCGRAIL, M., 2013. The Blogconomy: Blogging Stats [INFOGRAPHIC]. http:// socialmediatoday.com/mikevelocity/1698201/blogging-stats-2013-infographic: Social Media Today. OAKLEY, K. AND A. C. PRATT, 2010. Brick Lane: community-driven innovation. http://www.kcl.ac.uk/artshums/depts/cmci/people/papers/pratt/ BrickLanecommunitydriveninnovation.pdf: NESTA. OSTROM, L., 2014-last update, Odette Toilette [Homepage of Odette Toilette], [Online]. Available: http://www.odettetoilette.com/ [May 30, 2014]. SCHWARTZWALD, A., January 14, 2014-last update, The Power of Niche [Homepage of Knowledge Marketing, LLC.], [Online]. Available: http://www.knowledgemarketing. com/index.php/power-niche/ [May 28, 2014].
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References E16 Images
Fig.1. Tower Hamlets borough map [map print] At:https://www.etsy.com/uk/listing/81692209/tower-hamlets-borough-48-x-33cm?ref=related-0(Accessed 2.6.14) Fig.2.
Adore and Endure [digital photograph] Primary Image (Taken 20.12.13)
Fig.3. Shorditch Grand [digital photograph] Primary image (Taken 20.12.13) Fig.4. Flower Stall [digital photograph] Primary image (Taken 13.7.13) Fig.5. Street Art [digital photograph] Primary image (Taken 3.3.14) Fig.6. CCTV Brick Lane [digital photograph] Primary image (Taken 3.3.14) Fig.7. Blitz Scarfs [digital photograph] Primary image (Taken 3.3.14) Fig.8. Blitz Jackets [digital photograph] Primary image (Taken 3.3.14) Fig.9. Photobooth image [digital image] At: http://www.titanicfandalism.co.uk/ (Accessed 31.5.14) Then edited in Photoshop Fig.10. Photobooth image [digital image] At: http://caitlinscountry.blogspot. co.uk/ (Accessed 31.5.14) Then edited in Photoshop Fig.11. Traffic People Shop [digital image] At: http://www.trafficpeople.co.uk/ shop/pages/Our-Boutiques.html (Accessed 3.6.14) Fig.12. Beyond Retro Logo [digital image] At: http://izemo.be/ (Accessed 3.6.14) Fig.13. We Are Cow Logo [digital image] At: http://wearecow.blogspot.co.uk/ (Accessed 3.6.14) Fig.14. Beyond Retro Brighton [digital image] AT: http://www.queensofvintage. com/uncovering-brightons-retro-scene/ (Accessed: 3.6.14) Fig.15. Beyond Retro Dalston [digital image] AT: http://dalstonist.co.uk/ (Accessed: 3.6.14) AT: Fig.16. Beyond Retro SOHO [digital image] http://www.beyondretro.com/en/ help/stores (Accessed: 3.6.14)
AT: Fig.17. Cow Sheffield [digital image] AT: http://shopfrontsofsheffield.com/2013/09/05/cow-156-160-west-street/(Accessed: 3.6.14) Fig.18. Cow Nottingham [digital photograph] Primary image (Taken 19.5.14) Fig.19. Juice Logo [digital image] AT: http://www.northernprint.org.uk/ (Accessed: 3.6.14) Fig 20: Tea & Cake PR [digital print screen] AT: http://www.teaandcakepr.com/ (Taken 3.6.14) Fig.21. Cow Sheffield [digital image] AT: http://shopfrontsofsheffield.com/2013/09/05/cow-156-160-west-street/(Accessed: 3.6.14) Fig.22. Chateau Mouton Rothschild [digital image] At: http://freeflavour.com/ chateau-mouton-rothschild/ (Accessed 1.6.14) Fig.23. ODETTE TOILETTE Logo [digital image] At: http://now-here this.timeout. com/2011/11/18/vintagescratch-n-sniff/ (Accessed 1.6.14) Fig.24. ODETTE TOILETTE [digital image] At: http://community. nationaltheatrewales.org (Accessed 1.6.14) Fig.25. Twitter Logo [digital image] At: https://about.twitter.com/press/brandassets (Accessed 1.6.14) Fig.26. Instagram Logo [digital image] At: http://scottkleinberg.com/instagramscience-032514/ (Accessed 1.6.14) Fig.27. E16 Instagram [digital print screen] AT: http://www.teaandcakepr.com/ (Taken 2.6.14) Fig.28. Jack Wills Instagram [digital print screen] AT: http://instagram.com/ jackwillsuk (Taken 2.6.14) Fig.29. Model Against Brick [digital photograph] Primary image (Taken 21.3.14) Fig.30. Model Against Brick 2 [digital photograph] Primary image (Taken 21.3.14) Fig.31: Perfume Shrine blog logo [digital print screen] AT: http:// perfumeshrine.blogspot.co.uk/ (Taken 2.6.14) Fig.32: Zoella blog logo [digital print screen] AT: http://www.zoella.co.uk/ (Taken 2.6.14)
Fig.33. In the Frow blog logo [digital print screen] AT: http://www.inthefrow. com/ (Taken 2.6.14) Fig.34. V.E blog logo [digital print screen] AT: http://www.violet-ell.com/ (Taken 2.6.14) Fig.35. Lula Magazine Cover[digital image] AT: http://www.fashiongonerogue.com/ magazine/lula/ (Taken 2.6.14) Fig.36. Contributor Magazine [digital image] AT: http://www.fashiongonerogue. com/hilary-rhoda-chloe-moretz-emmanuelle-seigner-cover-contributor-magazine/ (Taken 2.6.14) Fig.37. 10 Magazine [digital image] AT: http://ftape.com/media/?p=45269 (Taken 2.6.14) Fig.38. Tavi Gevenson [digital image] AT: http://www.vanityfair.com/online/ oscars/2012/11/tavi-gevinson (Accessed 3.6.14) Fig.39. Shareenâ€™s Vintage Shop Front [digital image] AT: http://retrothreadz. blogspot.co.uk/2011/04/vintage-maven-shareen-mitchells-run-on.html (Accessed 1.6.14) Fig.40. Millcrest Vintage Logo [digital image] AT: https://plus.google. com/+Millcrestvintage/posts (Accessed 1.6.14) Fig.41. Narnia Vintage Logo [digital image] AT: http://www.nbcnewyork.com/blogs/threadny/THREAD-Narnia-Vintage--100982529.html (Accessed 1.6.14)
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Bibliography E16 Reports, Magazines, Books, Videos, Websites, Journals
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