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Pupil Audit Activity Guidance to accompany the Audit in a Box materials. A 2-hour classroom activity designed to find out what pupils think they know about other people & places, and about the Global Literacy themes of poverty, food & fairness. All the documents needed for this activity are included in this package of materials. Warm-up activity (15 mins) “Getting started” Audit 1 – What do you know about Africa? (10 mins) “Mapping Africa” Audit 2 – Where is this? (25 mins) “Picture puzzle” Audit 3 – Why are people in the world hungry? (15 mins) “Thinking about hunger” Audit 4 – What is poverty? (30 mins) “Thinking about being poor” Audit 5 – How can we make a difference to poverty in the world? (15 mins) “Making a difference” Evaluation (10 mins) ”Last words”

Preparation 

Pupils should be organised into groups of 4 (using labels of different fruits) – with a competent reader and a competent writer in each

Display a pupil-friendly activity agenda, on the whiteboard or on a flipchart

A support teacher or other adults should have the form & spare paper to record pupil comments

Remember not to prompt the pupils, or to give the pupils ideas that may influence their answers

Cumbria Development Education Centre, Registered Charity 515020, www.cdec.org.uk 015394 31602, office@cdec.org.uk, Low Nook, Rydal Road, Ambleside, LA22 9BB 1


Warm up activity “Getting started” 15 mins

Resources needed – Warm up activity   

Three A4 laminated cards that state “Yes”, “No”, or “Not sure” Globe Background information on African and European countries

Instructions - Warm up activity 1. Introductions   

The idea of all these activities is to get a snapshot of what you know and think (just now) about other places and what is going on in the world. No need to worry – it’s not a test and all we want is for you to relax and be honest We have 5 activities coming up to get a snapshot of what you know and think, but first, a couple of activities to get us started

2. Ups and downs     

Form a circle, everyone crouches down Tell them that you are going to describe a type of person – and if that description applies to them, they should spring up and stand – stretching arms up if they really fit the description When anyone stands up, everyone else has to clap (every time) Keep a lively pace Example descriptions to use: a birthday in August, a relative who lives in a different country, likes football, likes chocolate, is male, is female

3. Throwing the globe         

Throw the globe for a pupil to catch Ask them to say their name - eg, Liz Ask the group to think of the name of a country with the same letter (or a letter near to that letter if they are stuck!) – eg Liberia or Lithuania The pupil with the globe throws it to the first person who names a country That pupil says their name – eg Milada The other pupils shout out the names of countries – eg Mexico or Malawi Milada throw the globe to the first pupil who calls out an appropriate country name And so on for about 10 turns Put the globe aside

Cumbria Development Education Centre, Registered Charity 515020, www.cdec.org.uk 015394 31602, office@cdec.org.uk, Low Nook, Rydal Road, Ambleside, LA22 9BB 2


4. Q&A  

Ask teachers/helpers to stand in 3 corners of the room/space - each to hold up a laminated card that states either “Yes”, “No”, or “Not sure” (or stick the cards on the walls). Ask the following questions in turn, preferably asking a supporting adult to note the numbers who choose Yes, No or Not Sure for each question, on a record sheet: 1. Did you have breakfast this morning? 2. Was there anything you ate or drank that came from this country? Ask for a volunteer to say what they ate or drank that was from this country. Ask if any of the pupils wish to change their position 3. Was there anything you ate or drank that came from another country? Ask for a volunteer to say what they ate or drank that was from another country. Ask if any of the pupils wish to change their position 4. Has anyone been to another country in Europe? Ask a few volunteers which countries 5. Think about how many different countries there are in Europe. Are there fewer than 10? Are there more than 30? Answer – Yes, one website says 46 6. Has anyone been to Africa? 7. Think about how many countries there are in Africa. Are there fewer than 20? Are there more than 30? Are there more than 50? Answer – Yes, one website says 53 8. Think about the sizes of Africa and Europe. Are they the same size? Is Africa bigger than Europe? Is it more than twice the size? Answer – Yes, about 3x the size

6. Conclusion  

Form a circle again Explain that there is not a definitive answer to how many countries there are in Africa or Europe – some people disagree about where the boundaries are and sometimes there are disputes.

For your own information, see the information sheet about countries in Africa and Europe

Cumbria Development Education Centre, Registered Charity 515020, www.cdec.org.uk 015394 31602, office@cdec.org.uk, Low Nook, Rydal Road, Ambleside, LA22 9BB 3


Audit 1: What do you know about Africa? “Mapping Africa” 10 mins

Resources needed - Audit 1    

A3 size blank maps of Africa – one per group of 4 pupils An A4 laminated sheet that states, “Everything you know about people and places in Africa” (or a PowerPoint slide that shows this) Pen for each group Record sheet

Instructions - Audit 1          

Ask the pupils to form into groups of 4 and tell them that they will be working in those groups Supply each group with a blank map of Africa and a pen (per group) Ask them to nominate one person in the group to write or draw everything they know about people and places in Africa on or around the map (they can take turns as scribe, but only one writes at a time) Reinforce this by holding up the A4 laminated sheet that states, “Everything you know about people and places in Africa” (or display the same on a PowerPoint slide) Give them about 5 minutes to do the activity (in their groups of 4) Try to avoid giving them ideas (and politely prevent colleagues from giving them ideas!) Collect in the sheets after about 5 minutes – holding each up for the whole class to see Thank them and say that you will need to take the sheets away to see what they have done – but that you will be able to return them in due course Mention to the pupils that they will be exploring more about Africa in later sessions Note the results on the record sheet – this will take time, so you will have to take the sheets away with you

Cumbria Development Education Centre, Registered Charity 515020, www.cdec.org.uk 015394 31602, office@cdec.org.uk, Low Nook, Rydal Road, Ambleside, LA22 9BB 4


Audit 2: Where is this? “Picture puzzle” 25 mins

Resources needed - Audit 2      

Twelve photos – 6 from Europe, 6 from Africa - including some that do not conform to national stereotypes numbered randomly Each photo blue tacked onto large blank sheets of paper and spaced out on large tables/on the walls/on the floor/on stands around the room (or outside space) Three A4 laminated sheets that state “Europe”, “Africa” and “Somewhere Else” in 3 different colours Sticky dots or pens in those same 3 colours List of the numbered photos that identifies where each was taken for use by facilitator Results record sheet

Instructions - Audit 2 1. Explain to the group   

Explain that they will look at 12 photos from different places and decide, in each case, whether the photo was taken in Europe, Africa or somewhere else Explain that they should mark each sheet (not the photo itself) with a dot (sticky dot or pen mark) to indicate Europe, Africa or somewhere else – tell them which colour is for which To reinforce this, hold up the A4 laminated sheets that state “Europe”, “Africa” and “Somewhere Else” in 3 different colours and then leave them visible (eg stuck on wall or stand)

2. Visiting the photos   

Children visit one photo at a time in groups of 4, spending just 2 minutes at each photo They start by discussing what is in the photo, what might be outside the photo (that can’t be seen) and what might be going on. Each pupil should decide (as an individual) and indicate using the dots or pens whether they think the picture is Europe, Africa or somewhere else.

Cumbria Development Education Centre, Registered Charity 515020, www.cdec.org.uk 015394 31602, office@cdec.org.uk, Low Nook, Rydal Road, Ambleside, LA22 9BB 5


 

Continue until all groups have visited all the photos When they are at the photo where they started, ask them to total the dots in each colour – so you can make your record

3. Review and discussion (for longer version, if time allows)     

Choose one or two pictures for discussion, either a photo with lots of disagreement, or one where the majority got it wrong. Hold up the chosen picture, and ask an open question such as, “I wonder why so many people thought this couldn’t be in Africa”; or “I wonder why there were so many different ideas about this picture”, and support some discussion around the pupils’ ideas in response. Continue with further pictures, as time allows Reveal the place these pictures were taken, by silently placing them into 2 piles, then stating “they are all either Africa or Europe”, and showing which group is which. Ask whether anyone is surprised (and generate further discussion, as time allows)

Cumbria Development Education Centre, Registered Charity 515020, www.cdec.org.uk 015394 31602, office@cdec.org.uk, Low Nook, Rydal Road, Ambleside, LA22 9BB 6


Audit 3: Why are people in the world hungry? “Thinking about hunger” 15 mins

Resources needed - Audit 3  

The question “Why are people in the world hungry?” written large (on a laminate sheet or PowerPoint slide or on white board or blackboard) A4 laminated sheets giving the possible answers to the question:

Reasons (Primary School pupils): A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H.

There are too many people in the world Not enough food grows in hot, poorer countries People in rich countries don’t give enough to charity People in poorer countries are not paid enough for what they grow Food grown in poorer countries is sent to rich countries People in poorer countries can’t grow food because of wars A few people in poorer countries keep all the money to themselves Poor education and skills in poorer countries

Reasons (Secondary School pupils): A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H.

There are too many people in the world Bad climate and lots of natural disasters in poorer countries People in rich countries don’t give enough in aid or charity The international trading system is unfair to poorer countries Food grown in poorer countries is sent to rich countries Conflicts and wars between and within poorer countries Corruption and poor government in poorer countries Lack of education and skills in poorer countries

Cumbria Development Education Centre, Registered Charity 515020, www.cdec.org.uk 015394 31602, office@cdec.org.uk, Low Nook, Rydal Road, Ambleside, LA22 9BB 7


    

Eight small containers to place the seeds when voting. Arrange these in a circle (on table or on the floor) such that the pupils can circulate around the outside of them Seeds (3 for each pupil) for voting Record sheet Some background information on “myths about hunger” for teachers to read afterwards

Instructions - Audit 3 1. First ideas    

Ask pupils to stand in a big circle. Pose the question, “Why are people in the world hungry?” (which is written large on a laminate sheet or PowerPoint slide or on white board or blackboard) Give the pupils 20 seconds to think about this individually. You can ask them to close their eyes whilst thinking Ask them to discuss their thoughts in pairs for 60 seconds

2. Voting for best answers       

Now tell them that you have provided 8 possible reasons and that they are to consider these carefully and decide (individually) which of the 8 they most agree with Give them 3 seeds each Read out and show them the reasons (on the cards) - one card being next to a container Ask the pupils to vote for the 3 reason(s) that they most agree with – by circulating, reading the reasons, then choosing the 3 reasons Each pupil must place their 3 seeds in 3 different containers Count the seeds in the containers in the presence of the pupils Record the results on the record sheet – you are recording the decisions of individuals in this case. (You will need to finish off the record sheet later, with % etc.)

Cumbria Development Education Centre, Registered Charity 515020, www.cdec.org.uk 015394 31602, office@cdec.org.uk, Low Nook, Rydal Road, Ambleside, LA22 9BB 8


Audit 4: What is poverty? “Thinking about being poor” 30 mins

Resources needed - Audit 4     

The question “What is poverty?” written large (on a laminate sheet or PowerPoint slide or on white board or blackboard) A pair of A4 laminated sheets – “Agree” and “Disagree” A rope (about 5m long) Record sheet for pupil groups to record comments Facilitator record sheet

Instructions - Audit 4 1. Using the concept line   

     

Lay out the rope in a straight line with the “Agree” and “Disagree” cards at each end (propped up if possible, eg on chairs) The pupils gather to the side of the line, about a metre away from the rope Tell the pupils that you are going to explain how to use a “concept line”. Tell them it involves you reading out a statement and them thinking whether they agree or disagree with that statement. Explain that they may agree or disagree wholeheartedly or partially To show what they think, they will select a position to stand on the rope line Demonstrate by asking for 3 volunteers to step forward Read the statement, “Footballers deserve to earn high salaries” and ask your 3 volunteers to stand on the line to show how far they agree or disagree with this statement Now explain that you would like to hear reasons for their choices Don’t pick on the volunteers (unless they want to speak) Ask the whole class, “Why might someone agree that footballers deserve to earn high salaries?” and allow a volunteer to give their reason

Cumbria Development Education Centre, Registered Charity 515020, www.cdec.org.uk 015394 31602, office@cdec.org.uk, Low Nook, Rydal Road, Ambleside, LA22 9BB 9


   

Now ask the whole class why someone might disagree with that opinion and allow a volunteer to give their reason for disagreeing Ask if any of the 3 volunteers wants to change their position on the line – let them do so Then thank them and ask them to rejoin the rest of the pupils Explain that this is how the “concept line” works – we listen and think, and we give and ask for reasons for statements – and then we think some more. We might change our minds

2. Poverty questions     

Pose the question, “What is poverty?” (which is written large on a laminate sheet or PowerPoint slide or on white board or blackboard). If the term seems difficult, perhaps say “being poor” Give the pupils 20 seconds to think about this individually. You can ask them to close their eyes whilst thinking Ask them to discuss their thoughts in pairs for 60 seconds. (This gives everyone the chance to engage with the question and not to leave it to others to think about it.) Now, tell them that the whole class will be involved in using the concept line Use the following statements about poverty in turn, asking pupils to place themselves on a position on the rope line (or as near to it as they can) to indicate how far they agree/disagree, ask volunteers to give reasons for statements and asking volunteers for other ways of looking at things – staying for about 3 minutes on each topic: o Poverty isn’t just about money, it’s about other things too o If you are poor, you are likely to be more unhealthy o There is no real poverty in our country Avoid stating your own views and try not to indicate approval or disapproval (eg by tone of voice) - seek alternatives from volunteers among the pupils, following where they lead, asking for reasons

3. Writing main ideas     

To assist in recording the pupils’ ideas, ask pupils to form again into groups of 4 Give each group a copy of the pupil record sheet Tell them that you’d like their thoughts about the 3 statements in writing They can select one person to do the writing on behalf of the group – we won’t be marking them on spelling or grammar! Give them 6 minutes (about 2 minutes per statement) to agree and then write down their main thoughts under each statement

4. Conclusion  

Collect in the sheets (and use them later to complete the facilitator record sheet) Tell the pupils that we will be exploring more about poverty in future activities and that the next activity today looks at what we can do to make a difference to poverty in the world

Cumbria Development Education Centre, Registered Charity 515020, www.cdec.org.uk 015394 31602, office@cdec.org.uk, Low Nook, Rydal Road, Ambleside, LA22 9BB 10


Audit 5: How can we make a difference to poverty in the world? “Making a difference” 15 mins

Resources needed - Audit 5   

The question “How can we make a difference to poverty in the world?” written large (on a laminate sheet or PowerPoint slide or on white board or blackboard) A pair of A5 laminated cards for each group – one states “most difference to poverty”, one reads “least difference to poverty” Sufficient sets (for groups of 4) of 10 x A5 laminated sheets giving possible answers to the question, plus one blank laminated sheet: o o o o o o o o o o o

   

Sign a petition on a website that campaigns against poverty – “petition” Persuade family and friends to buy Fairtrade items – “Fairtrade” Write to supermarkets to ask them to make sure that all producers get a fair price for their goods – “supermarkets” Find out about the reasons for poverty (in this country and in other countries) – “find out” Invite our MP and other local people to an assembly about poverty – “assembly, MP” Get to know pupils who live in a poorer country – “pupil links” Tell important people, like the Prime Minister, to change trading rules – “PM” Give old computers to schools in poorer countries – “old computers” Give money to charity – “charity” Do a sponsored walk to raise money – “walk” A blank sheet - “our extra ideas”

A pen for each group - water soluble, to use on the blank laminated sheet – or use Post-its to place on that sheet instead Pupil record sheet and ordinary pen for each group. Tables for groups to lay the cards out on (or they can use the floor) Facilitator record sheet

Cumbria Development Education Centre, Registered Charity 515020, www.cdec.org.uk 015394 31602, office@cdec.org.uk, Low Nook, Rydal Road, Ambleside, LA22 9BB 11


Instructions - Audit 5 1. First ideas   

Pose the question, “How can we make a difference to poverty in the world?” (which is written large on a laminate sheet or PowerPoint slide or on white board or blackboard) Give the pupils 20 seconds to think about this individually. You can ask them to close their eyes whilst thinking Ask them to discuss their thoughts in pairs for 60 seconds

2. Group ranking activity  Pupils to work in groups of 4  Explain that you have provided 10 possible ways to make a difference to poverty in the world and that these are written on a set of A5 cards – with one extra card and a pen in case they wish to add their own extra ideas  Read out and show them the 10 cards and ask them to agree, as a group, how to rank the ideas  Explain they should rank them in a line with the one that they think will make most difference on the right, and the one they think will make least difference on the left (or top to bottom)  Place the “most difference” and “least difference” cards in position (at top/bottom or right/left)  Demonstrate (with the 10 ideas cards turned over so you don’t influence their choices)  Give out a set of cards to each group, reminding them that they can add ideas on the blank card with the water soluble pen  Give them 5 minutes to rank the cards  Make sure that they rank the 10 cards in order. They can add their own ideas separately, using the blank sheet, using Post-its 3. Groups record their ideas  Give each group the pupil record sheet and ordinary pen. They can use the shortened versions of the ideas, eg “Fairtrade” to fill in their results. If they have added their own ideas, this does not form part of the ranking but these ideas are added on the other side of the pupil record sheet  Collect these pupil record sheets in from each group – you will need these to collate the class record  After the session, record the results on the facilitator record sheet – you are recording the decisions of groups in this case, using the sheets that you collected from each group: o Note the number and % of groups that said “Yes” to “Do you think you can make a difference to poverty in the world?” o For each idea in the table, note the group’s rankings in column 2, then average the ranking for each idea in column 3 o When you have recorded this for all 10 ideas, rank those ideas from 1 to 10 for the whole class (with 1 being the idea that was felt to be most effective, 10 the least effective)  Write in the pupils’ own extra ideas separately in the last part of the table

Cumbria Development Education Centre, Registered Charity 515020, www.cdec.org.uk 015394 31602, office@cdec.org.uk, Low Nook, Rydal Road, Ambleside, LA22 9BB 12


Evaluation “Last words” 10 mins

Resources needed for pupil end of day evaluation – shorter version  

Rope line (concept line) Prompt cards for either end: Agree – Disagree

Instructions – shorter version   

 

Lay out a concept line, with prompt cards at either end (Agree and Disagree) and ask the pupils to stand to one side Explain that you want to have some feedback from them about the activities Use statements; ask them to stand on the line in an appropriate place o I enjoyed the activities o I found some difficult o I was surprised o I learned a lot o I want to find out more Seek reasons (as appropriate and on a voluntary basis) Record comments made (or ask a supporting adult to do this)

Resources needed for this activity – longer version 

Three large (A1 size) sheets of paper for pupil comments, with the following written in the centre (if it is a large class, have 2 of each sheet). o Things that surprised me/I learned o Things I want to find out more about o I enjoyed ... I found difficult Pens

Cumbria Development Education Centre, Registered Charity 515020, www.cdec.org.uk 015394 31602, office@cdec.org.uk, Low Nook, Rydal Road, Ambleside, LA22 9BB 13


Instructions – longer version   

     

Just before we finish today, can you please tell me what you thought about today’s activities There are 3 sheets and some pens around the room Read out what the sheets say o Things that surprised me/I learned o Things I want to find out more about o I enjoyed ... I found difficult Ask them to get into their groups – get each group to sit/stand near one of the sheets (there may be 2 - 3 groups to one sheet – add duplicate sheets if you need to) They will have 2 minutes at each sheet to write their main thoughts – they can do this individually or as a group After every 2 minutes – wait until I tell you, then move to the next sheet (indicate clockwise) At the second sheet, read what the others said before you. If you agree, just add a tick. If you disagree, add a cross. Add any other comment that you wish, too And so on Let them return to their original sheets and to read the comments made

Next steps for teachers 

Get the pupils to complete the follow-on questionnaire (individually), either independently or by reading out the questions to younger children.

Compare your results with the Pupil Audit Report, drawn from multiple classes of children in England, Poland, the Czech Republic and Ghana in 2012. See CDEC website at www.cdec.org.uk.

Think about borrowing further resources from CDEC, to extend the children’s understanding of the diversity and richness of life in African countries, and stimulus for philosophical enquiry on themes related to fairness, poverty and development.

Cumbria Development Education Centre, Registered Charity 515020, www.cdec.org.uk 015394 31602, office@cdec.org.uk, Low Nook, Rydal Road, Ambleside, LA22 9BB 14


Yes Pupil Audit activity - ice breaker

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No Pupil Audit activity - ice breaker

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Not sure Pupil Audit activity - ice breaker

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Global Literacy for a Fairer World! Background information for teachers (relating to the ice breakers for pupil audit activities) How many countries are there in the continents of Africa and Europe? www.worldatlas.com/aatlas/infopage/contnent.htm lists 53 countries in Africa and 46 in Europe http://listofafricancountries.com lists 61 states for Africa. Other sites give different numbers. http://countries-of-europe.com/?p=877 states that on the political map of Europe there are 50 independent states but that the count depends on: 

the definition of the borders of Europe, and

the criteria for the inclusion of unrecognized and partially recognized states, and

whether you count dependent territories

Members of the European Union (27) Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherland, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, UK Relative sizes of Europe and Africa See Oxfam’s website for an interactive activity for pupils about the relative sizes of countries using different projections for maps www.oxfam.org.uk/education/resources/mapping_our_world/mapping_our_world/07-Howmanytimes/howmanytimes.htm The cartoon character will tell your pupils that Britain fits into Africa 36 times on a map that uses the Mercator projection (which is more accurate when it comes to shape) but 80 times on a map using the Peters projection (which is more accurate when it comes to land mass). Using measurement by km2 (Britain – 229,955 km2, Africa -30,065,000 km2) Britain fits 130 times into Africa. www.worldatlas.com/aatlas/infopage/contnent.htm gives 30,065,000 km2 as the size of Africa and 9,938,000 km2 as the size of Europe, which would mean that Europe “fits into” Africa about 3 times (as along as you agree on the borders they are using for Europe!) www.informationisbeautiful.net/2010/the-true-size-of-africa/ this graphic shows how large Africa is – by fitting lots of other countries into it 18


Pupil Audit activity 1

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20

Map from www.worldatlas.com – for facilitator’s information


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www.informationisbeautiful.net/2010/the-true-size-of-africa/


Pupil Audit activity 1a

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Map from www.worldatlas.com – for facilitator’s information


Africa Pupil Audit activity 2

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Europe Pupil Audit activity 2

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Somewhere else Pupil Audit activity 2

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A

B

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C

D

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E

F

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G

H

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J

I

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K

L

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Global Literacy for a Fairer World! – Pupil Audits

List of photos used for Activity 2 of the pupil baseline audit

Tag

Details

A

Africa or Europe? E

B

A

Cameroon – cityscape

C

A

Kenya – boys playing football

D

A

Kenya – road near Nairobi

E

E

England – Barrow-in-Furness, Cumbria – town street

F

E

Italy – view of Florence

G

A

Kenya – Nairobi – well heeled neighbourhood

H

A

Kenya – Nairobi – different grades of housing, satellite dish

I

E

England – Dunstaburgh Castle in the mist

J

E

Czech Republic – near a mine

K

A

Uganda – Kampala – man at computer desk

L

E

England – Cumbria

Czech Republic – slum with dog

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Pupil Audit activity 3

Why are people in the world hungry?

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Pupil Audit activity 3 – primary & secondary

There are too many people in the world

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Not enough food grows in hot, poor countries Pupil Audit activity 3 - primary

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Bad climate & lots of natural disasters in poorer countries Pupil Audit activity 3 - secondary

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People in rich countries don’t give enough to charity Pupil Audit activity 3 - primary

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People in rich countries don’t give enough in aid or charity Pupil Audit activity 3 - secondary

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People in poorer countries are not given enough for what they grow Pupil Audit activity 3 - primary

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The international trading system is unfair to poorer countries Pupil Audit activity 3 - secondary

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Food grown in poor countries is sent to rich countries Pupil Audit activity 3 – primary & secondary

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Pupil Audit activity 3 - primary

People in poorer countries can’t grow food because of wars 43


Pupil Audit activity 3 - secondary

Conflicts within and between poorer countries 44


A few people in poorer countries keep all the money to themselves Pupil Audit activity 3 – primary

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Corruption and poor government in poorer countries Pupil Audit activity 3 – secondary

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Poor education & skills in poorer countries Pupil Audit activity 3 – primary

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Lack of education & skills in poorer countries Pupil Audit activity 3 – secondary

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Teachers – for your information. World Hunger. Below is a shortened extract from the below website. Please see the website for the full version, and for all the references and acknowledgements. http://www.worldhunger.org/articles/Learn/world%20hunger%20facts%202002.htm Does the world produce enough food to feed everyone? The world produces enough food to feed everyone. World agriculture produces 17 percent more calories per person today than it did 30 years ago, despite a 70 percent population increase. This is enough to provide everyone in the world with at least 2,720 kilocalori es (kcal) per person per day (FAO 2002, p.9). The principal problem is that many people in the world do not have sufficient land to grow, or income to purchase, enough food. What are the causes of hunger? What are the causes of hunger is a fundamental question, with varied answers. Poverty is the principal cause of hunger. The causes of poverty include poor people's lack of resources, an extremely unequal income distribution in the world and within specific countries, conflict, and hunger itself. As of 2008 (2005 statistics), the World Bank has estimated that there were an estimated 1,345 million poor people in developing countries who live on $1.25 a day or less. Progress in poverty reduction has been concentrated in Asia, and especially, East Asia, with the major improvement occurring in China. In SubSaharan Africa, the number of people in extreme poverty has increased. The statement that 'poverty is the principal cause of hunger' is, though correct, unsatisfying. Why then are (so many) people poor? The next section summarizes Hunger Notes answer. Harmful economic systems are the principal cause of poverty and hunger. Hunger Notes believes that the principal underlying cause of poverty and hunger is the ordinary operation of the economic and political systems in the world. Essentially control over resources and income is based on military, political and economic power that typically ends up in the hands of a minority, who live well, while those at the bottom barely survive. Liz note – see www.wto.org/ for what the international “establishment” has to say and www.tjm.org.uk/trade-issues.html for what the Trade Justice Movement has to say about how world trade works. Conflict as a cause of hunger and poverty. By the end of 2008, the total number of refugees under UNHCR’s mandate exceeded 10 million. The number of conflict-induced internally displaced persons (IDPs) reached some 26 million worldwide at the end of the year. Providing exact figures on the number of stateless people is extremely difficult But, important, (relatively) visible though it is, and anguishing for those involved conflict is less important as poverty (and its causes) as a cause of hunger. (Using the statistics above 1.02 billion people suffer from chronic hunger while 36 million people are displaced [UNHCR 2008]) 49


Hunger is also a cause of poverty, and thus of hunger. By causing poor health, low levels of energy, and even mental impairment, hunger can lead to even greater poverty by reducing people's ability to work and learn, thus leading to even greater hunger. Climate change Climate change is increasingly viewed as a current and future cause of hunger and poverty. Increasing drought, flooding, and changing climatic patterns requiring a shift in crops and farming practices that may not be easily accomplished are three key issues. Global warming causes 300,000 deaths a year, study says and Could food shortages bring down civilization?

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Agree Pupil Audit activity 4

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Disagree Pupil Audit activity 4

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How can we make a difference to poverty in the world? Pupil Audit activity 5

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Most difference to poverty

Pupil Audit activity 5

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Least difference to poverty

Pupil Audit activity 5

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Sign a petition on a website that campaigns against poverty

Petition Pupil Audit activity 5

Pupil Audit activity 5

Persuade family and friends to buy Fairtrade items

Fairtrade 56


Write to supermarkets to ask them to make sure that all producers get a fair price for their goods

Supermarkets Pupil Audit activity 5

Find out about the reasons for poverty (in this country and in other countries)

Find out Pupil Audit activity 5

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Find out about the reasons for poverty (in this country and in other countries)

Find out Pupil Audit activity 5

Invite our MP and other local people to an assembly about poverty

Assembly, MP Pupil Audit activity 5

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Get to know pupils who live in a poorer country Pupil links Pupil Audit activity 5

Tell important people, like the Prime Minister, to change trading rules

PM Pupil Audit activity 5

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Give old computers to schools in poorer countries

Old computers Pupil Audit activity 5

Give money to charity

Charity Pupil Audit activity 5

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Do a sponsored walk to raise money Walk Pupil Audit activity 5

Our extra ideas

Pupil Audit activity 5

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Things that surprised me or

I learned Pupil Audit evaluation

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Things I want to find out more about Pupil Audit evaluation

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I enjoyed

I found difficult Pupil Audit evaluation

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Record sheet for Audit Activity 1 What do you know about Africa?

Date of audit:

Name of school:

Class:

Number of groups in the class (on the day): Category

Teacher(s): Average age of pupils:

Country:

Examples of items written in that category

Numbers of items in that category

% of total of items written

Examples of items written in that category

Numbers of items in that category

% of total of items written

Natural Environment eg climate, animals and plants

Built environment eg houses and schools

People & Society eg colour of skin, daily lives

Countries and features eg names of countries and landmarks Category

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Culture and history eg traditions, music, etc

Energy, transport and communication

Economic activity eg jobs and production

Total number of items written =

100%

Please record any incidental comments made by pupils‌..

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Record sheet for Audit Activity 2 Where is this?

Date of audit:

Name of school:

Class:

Number of pupils in the class (on the day): Photo Description number

Where actually taken

A

Slum and dog

Europe – Czech Rep

B

Cityscape

Africa - Cameroon

C

Boys playing football

Africa - Kenya

D

Road

Africa - Kenya

E

Town street

Europe - England

Teacher(s): Average age of pupils: Pupils thought EU Number, %

Country: Pupils thought Africa Number, %

Pupils thought elsewhere Number, %

How many correct? Number, %

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Photo Description number

Where actually taken

F

View over city

Europe - Italy

G

Well-heeled neighbourhood

Africa - Kenya

H

Different grades of housing

Africa - Kenya

I

Castle in mist

Europe - England

J

Dried earth

Europe – Czech Rep

K

Man at computer desk

Africa - Uganda

L

Countryside

Europe - England

Pupils thought EU Number, %

Pupils thought Africa Number, %

Pupils thought elsewhere Number, %

Correct? Number, %

In total, how many pupils were correct in their allocation to EU or Africa or elsewhere? Where possible, please record comments made by pupils

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Record sheet for Audit Activity 3 Why are people in the World Hungry? Name of school:

Date of audit: Class:

Number of pupils in the class (on the day):

Teacher(s): Average age of pupils:

Reason

Number of votes cast

Country: % of total votes cast

Ranking – most important = 1, least = 8

A. There are too many people in the world B. Not enough food grows in hot, poorer countries (P) B. Bad climate and lots of natural disasters in poorer countries (S) C. People in rich countries don’t give enough to charity (P) C. People in rich countries don’t give enough in aid or charity (S) D. People in poorer countries are not paid enough for what they grow (P) D. The international trading system is unfair to poorer countries (S) E. Food grown in poorer countries is sent to rich countries 69


F. People in poorer countries can’t grow food because of wars (P) F. Conflicts and wars between and within poorer countries (S)

G. A few people in poorer countries keep all the money to themselves (P) G. Corruption and poor government in poorer countries (S)

H. Poor education and skills in poorer countries (P) H. Lack of education and skills in poorer countries (S) Please record any incidental comments made by pupils.

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Pupil record sheet – Audit Activity 4 School: What is poverty?

Class:

Date:

Please fill in this sheet as a group Please put your group’s main thoughts and ideas about each statement

Poverty isn’t just about money, it’s about other things too

If you are poor, you are likely to be more unhealthy

There is no real poverty in our country

Thank you

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Record sheet for Audit Activity 4 What is poverty?

Date of audit:

Name of school: Number of pupils in the class (on the day):

Class:

Teacher(s): Average age of pupils:

Country:

For column 3 – analysis, please review the pupils’ comments, considering things like:  Breadth of knowledge/understanding  Awareness of the need to find out more  Depth of knowledge/understanding  Awareness of interdependence/interconnectedness  Tendency to stereotype or to be open minded  Mentioning when the comments were typical or unique

Poverty isn’t just about money, it’s about other things too Comments from pupil group sheets

Pupil comments recorded by helper

Analysis of pupil comments

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If you are poor, you are likely to be more unhealthy

Comments from pupil group sheets

Pupil comments recorded by helper

Analysis of pupil comments

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There is no real poverty in our country

Comments from pupil group sheets

Pupil comments recorded by helper

Analysis of pupil comments

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Pupil Record sheet for Audit Activity 5 School:

Class:

Date:

Do you think you can make a difference to poverty in the world?

Yes

No

Please circle Yes or No Now, please record how you ranked the 10 cards: Put the best idea as number 1, the next best idea as number 2 and so on … You can write the short version of the idea – shown in red on the cards The idea 1

Best idea

2

next best idea

3

and so on …

4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Least

If you added some extra ideas of your own, please write them here ......

Thank you 75


Record sheet for Audit Activity 5 How can we make a difference to poverty in the world? Name of school:

Class:

Number of groups of pupils in the class (on the day): Average age of pupils:

Date of audit: Teacher(s): Country:

The number of groups that said “Yes” to “Do you think you can make a difference to poverty in the world? : Ideas for making a difference to poverty in the world Example idea 1

Rankings given by pupil groups to this idea (1 being most effective 10 being least) 1, 5, 8, 2, 9

Average ranking for this idea (on the scale of 10) 5

= % of whole: Overall ranking given by this class for this idea 2

Sign a petition on a website that campaigns against poverty – “petition” Persuade family and friends to buy Fairtrade items – “Fairtrade” Write to supermarkets to ask them to make sure that all producers get a fair price for their goods – “supermarkets” Find out about the reasons for poverty (in this country and in other countries) – “find out” 76


Invite our MP and other local people to an assembly about poverty – “assembly, MP” Get to know pupils who live in a poorer country – “pupil links” Tell important people, like the Prime Minister, to change trading rules – “PM” Give old computers to schools in poorer countries – “old computers” Give money to charity – “charity”

Do a sponsored walk to raise money – “walk”

Pupils’ own ideas …

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This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The contents of this document are the sole responsibility of Cumbria Development Education Centre (CDEC) and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the European Union

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Pupil Audit Handbook  

Global Literacy - pupil audit handbook for teachers

Pupil Audit Handbook  

Global Literacy - pupil audit handbook for teachers

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