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Kathy She Tengdan Liang

Picture Sources (left to right): Axis;

Section: Sara Tepfer

TABLE OF CONTENTS Building Introduction

Week 3

Climate Response Analysis Wall Assembly

Week 4

WWR Analysis Sustainable Strategy

Week 5

Post Occupancy Evaluation

Week 7

Sun Position & Diagram

Week 9

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The Terrence Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research

About the Building Client University of Toronto Architect Behnisch Architekten, Stuttgart architects Alliance, Toronto Competition 2001, 1st Prize Planning and Construction 2001-2005 Completion 2005 Gross Area 20,750 m² / 223,270 sq.ft. Volume 82,000 m³ / 2,895,420 cu.ft. Address 150 College Street Toronto, ON M5T 1R2 Canada Awards 2008 Governor General’s Medal in Architecture created by the Royal Architecture Institute of Canada 2006 Award of Excellence, Ontario Association of Architects 2006 RIBA International Award 2006 Shortlisted for Lubetkin Award 2006 Architectural Record / Business Week Award

Picture Source: (also fact source);

The Basics

The Terrence Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research

Architectural Drawings From Left to Right: Top - Ground Floor Plan This plan highlights the greenery of and within the building structure. The blue shadings represents the surrouding structures. Middle - Typical Lab Floor Plan This floor plan shows the simplicity of the form and its consistency of structure. It also shows that labs are elevated from the ground.

Photo Caption / Diagram Title Citation - 8pt

Bottom - Longitudinal Section This section clearly displays the gridlike (or cell-like) pattern of the spatiality within the building. It also shows the playfulness of the colors. Right - Detailed Cross Section This cross section contains a lot of information of the building. Again it shows the grid pattern and its continuation throughout the building. From this section, we can clearly see the vegetation within the enclosed area which gives off a sense of naturality juxtaposed by the grids. It also shows the transparency of the structure and the relationship with the surrouding buildings.

Photo Caotion / Diagram Title

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Plans and Sections

The Terrence Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research

About the Building Facade and Elevation (left) All elevations look similar but are quite different from each other. Glass surfaces allow a strong day lighting program, with all facades having operable windows and interior sun blinds. Some interior walls are painted with bright colors to create the playfulness. Blurring the line (middle) The line between the interior and exterior is blurred to induce “greenness”. This indoor-outdoor sensibility is accomplished by planting vegetation along the side. Indoor Gardens (right) These gardens not only irrigate and draine as part of the building’s stormwater reclamation system, but also act as lounges for relaxation and informal meetings. From previous sections, we can see that they are spotted around and throughout the buildling. Why is this building important? This building is a high-performance building that incorporates both passive and active sustainable design measures that increase energy efficiency and promote employee quality of life. The innovative design brought many recognition to the building.

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The Features

Climate Analysis - Toronto

The Weather

About the city Toronto The Terrence Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research building is located in Toronto, Canada. It is located in the Southern Ontario and is one of the most biggest cities in Canada.Toronto has a humid continental climate with four very distinct seasons. The city experiences a humid, warm summer and snowy, cold winters. Summer From June to August, the average temperature is around 66 째F during summer, which is not that hot compare to other cities, such as New York or Los angles. However, the temperature varies during day to day. The temperature range diagram shows that even the average temperature of summer is around 66 째F, but the highest temperature can go up to 91째F and the average high temperature is around 75 째F. At the same time, the city receives the most radiation in the summer more than in other seasons. According to the weather data summary, the average global horizontal radiation Toronto receives from June to August is 125 btu/sf and the average relative humidity is 69 percent. The Dry bulb x Relative humidity of summer graph demonstrates that the relative humidity falls when the dry bulb moving up during summer.


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Climate Analysis - Toronto

Autumn The autumn of Toronto is much cooler than its summer. The temperature keeps dropping each month. Based on the weather data, the average temperature of September, October, and November is 48 °F. It receives less radiation than the summer does. The relative humidity is around 78 percent which is higher than summer. Winter Toronto has a very cold and snowy winter. The average temperature drops to 23 °F from December to February, which is below the freezing point. According to the temperature range diagram, the recorded low of each month in winter is less than 10 °F. The “Toronto Yearly Weather Summary” states that “The sun only comes out for two hours a day on average in December, three in January and four in February. The Global Horiz Radiation of winter is only around 52 btu/sft.

The Weather




°F 80 70


60 48



40 30


20 10





Spring The spring of Toronto is getting warmer. The beginning is still cool because the Temperature Range diagram shows that the recorded low of March is still below 10 °F and the mean of March is around 31 °F. But the temperature starts to get higher in April and May. The average temperature of Mar, Apr, and May is 30 °F, 42 °F, and 53 °F. Spring receives more radiation than winter and fall but less than summer. Picture Source:

Climate analysis - Design Strategies respond to the local climate

Design Strategies The local climate of the Terrence Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research building has a cold winter and warm summer. Fall and Spring is also a little bit cold according to the weather data summary. The dry bulb temperature 3d chart demonstrates that most of the time in Toronto is kind of cold. The only time when the temperature is high is the noon of summer. Therefore, heating would be important for this building. The psychrometric chart shows that heating, internal heat gain, passive solar direct gain, and sun shading windows are important strategies that might use for buildings in Toronto. In The Terrence Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research building, architects design some strategies that respond to the climate of Toronto city.

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Design Strategies

Climate analysis - the design

Facades South façade is the main façade of the building. This façade use the double – glazed to provide solar control and textured transparency. The exterior is single-glazed skin; the interior is double-glazed skin. The exterior skin is able to reduce heat loss and heat gain.The east façade uses ceramic – fritted glass, which contains a dot – matrix pattern that manages the solar gains. The glass surface of each façade has a strong day lighting program and it also has operable windows and sunblind that control the solar gains. Sustainable design – two energy zones This building is a sustainable building that incorporates passive and active sustainable design that contribute to energy efficiency. The building is divided into two zones. The gardens, lounges, and corridors are under the mechanically – assisted natural ventilation system while the lab and offices are separated from the common area and are operated by energy – efficient mechanical system. It allows these areas to have higher mean temperature and use less energy. Garden There is a double and triple height garden on the top floor that filter air and provide oxygen and moisture to the common areas.

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The Terrence Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research

Double-Wall/Skin Analysis

Section of a Typical Wall (Double-Skin Facade Picture Right)

- The south faรงade has been constructed as a double faรงade with an extra layer of single glazing outboard of the typical curtain wall.

A - Monolithic Tempered Glass B - Stainless Steel Patch Fitting C - Mechanical Ventilation Damper D - Laminated Tempered Glass Floor E - Steel Outrigger F - Automated Blinds G - Insulating Glass in Extruded Aluminum Unit Frame H - Aluminum Spandrel with Insulation I - Finished Floor over Cantilevered Concrete Slab J - Suspended Ceiling

Above - Intersection of Atrium and double-skin

- The south faรงade has been designed to use passive solar heating to reduce the heating load and to operate by natural ventilation, meaning no mechanical help is applied to assist the operation. - The double skin faรงade system is essentially a pair of glass skins separated by an air corridor, located in the Southside only. - The main layer of glass is usually insulating and is very similar to a standard curtain wall. (G-Insulating Glass)

Material Analysis - a glazed curtain wall as the primary exterior cladding connected with structural steel framing - outer glazing is constructed of a single sheet of 12 mm thick clear tempered glass - inner curtain wall is comprised of insulating glass units in an aluminum frame - low-e (grey ceramic) coating has been applied to the outer surface of inner wall - metal spacers used in the interstitial space to reduce heat transfer - all of the seals are silicone - vents at the exterior and interior skins

Wall Assembly

Above - View from inside the Cavity

- There is an extra layer of glass that is added to the system. (A-Tempered Glass) - The air space between the two layers acts as an insulating barrier against temperature extremes, noise,and wind. - Sun shading devices are often located between the two skins. (F-Blinds)

Detailed Double-Wall Section (Murray)

Above - base of the double-skin facade

- According to data (Rowe), the DoubleWall system does not perform as well as expected; room for improvement

Picture Source: Contemporary curtain wall architecture (pg 137)/ Scott Murray; The Tectonic of Double-Skin (pg 62, 66)/Terri Meyer Boake; Review of the Terrence Donnelly Centre Double Facade (pg 7)/J. Duncan Rowe

The Terrence Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research

The Terrence Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research building is a sustainable building that increases the energy efficiency and ensures the life quality of employee. The building’s typical façade design is based on the climate of Toronto and responses to the weather of the city. The wall assembly of this building is mainly consists of glazing wall on each façade. These glazing walls not only contribute to the aesthetics of the building, but also make it as an efficient envelope design.

reduce the heat gain during summer. There also are aluminum louvers located between skins that is able to reduce the heat gain. It has 4 - inch concave slat that is tilted according to the sun’s angle, blocking direct sunlight

Winter Season Day Light Diagram

Window construction

How does the design response to climate Winter - As we discussed in the climate analysis, there is not that much radiation during the winter in Toronto. The city only get 4 to 5 hours sunlight in the winter. By using the glazed skin on the entire facade of the building, it maximizes the sunlight and heat gain duiring the winter.

Wall Assembly

Summer Season Day Light Diagram

Summer -There is sunblind on the interior single glazed that can block the sunlight and

Glaze skin - As diagram of the window construction shows, the outer glazing is constructed of a 12mm thick tempered glass. Each piece is 1330 mm wide and 4000 mm high. This single glass is low – e, high – performance and limits the solar gains. The exterior glass is placed in the aluminum extrusions, which have superior insulating properties that reduce unwanted heat loss in the winter and heat gain during summer to achieve the energy efficiency. Temperature -The temperature diagram shows the outside temperature and inside temperature vs Time in Feb and March. According to the diagram, the outside temperature is much cooler than the inside temperature, which demostrates that the envelope design of the building does work to control the heat gain in winter and keep the room temperature in a comfortable zone.

All Temperature Sensors vs Time

Picture Source: Details in Process (pg 58,61)/ Christine Killory and Rene Davids; The Tectonic of Double-Skin (pg 58, 61)/Terri Meyer Boake; Review of the Terrence Donnelly Centre Double Facade (pg 19)/J. Duncan Rowe

The Terrence Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research

Energy efficiency: - Different zones. In order to minimize the energy use, the building is divided into two different zones. The labs and offices are mechanically separated from the common reas because common areas always have air temperatures than other areas. The gardens, lounges, and corridors are operated by a mechanically – assisted natural ventilation system while lab and offices are operated by energy – efficient mechanical system. Passive heating and cooling: -Perimeter heating increasing comfort levels for workstations at facades -Fixed louvers control the solar gain -Retractable internal sunscreen control solar gain

Ventilation: -Gardens. The double and triple height gardens can filter air and provide oxygen to the common areas. -Ventilation opening -the inner skin of the façade contains opening lights for ventilation

Picture Source: (also fact source);

Sustainable strategy diagram

San Francisco Federal Building (and TDCCBR)

POE Data Analysis

Initial Understanding of the building:

POE Data Analysis:

Energy- Related Design:

- According to the survey, (and the graphs on the left), people are not as satisfied as the designers initially planned

- a lot of incorporation of sustainable design principles - the shape and orientation maximize natural airflow for cooling and ventilation - takes advantage of natural daylight for the majority of the office interior (hence the two dominant facades). - combines with a number of other energy-saving elements - reported to help significantly reduce overall energy consumption compared to conventional commercial office buildings in the United States -- the building received numerous design award for sustainability

Acoustic Quality: 26% Satisfied; -1.03 Mean

- For the acoustic quality, the design strategies did not particularly address this issue with any active measures Air Quality: 50% Satisfied; 0.34 Mean

Aesthetic-Related Desgin: - A four-story building annex adjoins the tower at the western edge of the site - the facility includes a number of resources: including a cafĂŠ, a childcare center, and a conference center - lobbies and stairs, in addition to a sky garden and a 90-foot high entry lobby at street level, provide a comfortable setting for informal meetings and social interaction - the building received numerous design award for sustainability

- Among the several important categories, acoustic quality and thermal comfort are the two that the occupants are the least satisfied

Lighting: 56% Satisfied; 0.48 Mean

- Since one of the design strategies is to utilize the natural air ventilation, most people are satisfied with the air quality; however, this also jeopardizes occupants’ thermal comfort - as for lighting, since there are a lot of glass in the building, the main dissatisfaction of lighting is related to glare, reflection, and too much light - In terms of work performance, people mostly claim that they can work well in the building

Thermal Comfort: 36% Satisfied; -0.34 Mean

Post-Occupancy Survey Result

- Overall, the best categories reaches on average 56% of satisfication, still not very high compare to all the awards and public attention this building has been receiving

Comparison with TDCCBR: - Judging from the two building design, the two POE data might be very similar due to their similar design focuses and enery-saving goal: both has glassdominated facades and sustainability strategies - However, since TDCCBR is located in a much more extreme weather, the thermal comfort level might end up even lower than the SF Federal Building - The facade of TDCCBR uses operable windows, while SF Building maximizes its ventilation, the air quality of TDCCBR might also be lower than that of SFFB - On the other hand, the indoor envionment of TDCCBR appears more nature friendly, thus the work performances and work comfort may be higher. The TDCCBR uses indoor garden to be more human-scaped

Picture Source: New San Francisco Federal Building Occupant Survey Report/ CBE;;

The Terrence Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research

The Terrence Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research building is located on 43 degree north and 79 degree west. The plan view shows that the building is sited between two buildings. The lower level of east and west side of TDCCBR building will not receive direction sunlight because it is blocked by the surrounding buildings.


Winter Season Day Light Diagram

According to the sun path diagram of and west side of this location can get direction sunlight. The south side of the building will get the most amount of sunlight because there is no building in front of its south faรงade. TDCCB building is has glazed wall on all faรงade, there are sunblinds behind the windows on the south side. These sunblinds are operable and can be controlled by individual users. Users can decide when to block the sunlight and when to


Summer Season Day Light Diagram

on the climate analysis, Toronto has a cold winter and do not receive that much sunlight during winter. By using the glazed wall and placing will get the maximum amount of sunlight in the winter. During the summer, users can operate the sunblinds to control the solar heat and reduce the sunlight.


Picture Sources: Google Maps; The Tectonics of Double Skin/ Terri Meyer Boake


Day Lighting

Case study booklet