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UNIVERSIDAD LATINA DE PANAMA

BRANCH OF DAVID

DEVELOPMENT

DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH

BACHELOR DEGREE OF ENGLISH WITH AN EMPHASIS ON TRANSLATION

WRITING COMMUNICATION 2

STUDENT´S NAME:

KATHLEEN MARTÍNEZ

ID: 4-793-416

INSTRUCTOR:

MARIA FERNANDA ESPINOZA

2019-3

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Introduction Written communication has an important role when writing or translating a writing since with it a clear and direct communication is possible; A translator needs to handle written communication in order to communicate with his clients and the correct and successful completion of his work.

The problems that can be presented to a translator are many such as not being able to write a text with the correct steps and punctuation rules, in the way that ideas carry an order and this makes it difficult to understand.

The part of the written communication that a translator has to master best is consistency, punctuation rules, knowing how to identify the type of paragraph or prewriting techniques that help the translator translate a text as it should.

Written Communication Seeking perfection in written expression is a necessity of the new generations which are immersed in today's societies, whose technological advances are constantly changing, so it is required to be very precise and clear when writing any type of document.

The composition: defined as "written in which a student develops a theme, given by the teacher or freely chosen, to exercise their command of language, their ability to exhibit and literary sensitivity."

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Index

Contenido Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 2 1. Pre Writing Techniques .............................................................................................................. 4 

Free Writing ....................................................................................................................... 4

Graphic Organizers ............................................................................................................. 5

Outlining ............................................................................................................................ 6

2.Writing Process ........................................................................................................................... 9 

Definition of a paragraph.................................................................................................... 9

The Topic sentence........................................................................................................... 10

Controlling Idea ................................................................................................................ 11

Homework ................................................................................................................................... 12 3. Body and Supporting sentence ................................................................................................. 19 4. The Concluding Sentences ........................................................................................................ 21 Homework ............................................................................................................................... 22 5. Coherence, Cohesion, Completeness and Unity Space Order .................................................... 24 

Coherence ........................................................................................................................ 24

Cohesion .......................................................................................................................... 26

Completeness and Unity ................................................................................................... 27

6. Punctuation Rules .................................................................................................................... 28 

Semi Colon ....................................................................................................................... 28

Comma............................................................................................................................. 30

Period. ............................................................................................................................. 33

Capital Letter.................................................................................................................... 34

Homework ............................................................................................................................... 36 7. Kings of Paragraph ................................................................................................................... 41 

Process Paragraphs .......................................................................................................... 41

Definition Paragraphs ....................................................................................................... 42

Contrast Paragraph .......................................................................................................... 43

Cause and Effect Paragraph .............................................................................................. 44

Conclution ................................................................................................................................... 45

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Topic N°1.

Pre Writing Techniques Objetive: To review general aspects about writing a paragraph. To apply prewriting techniques to organize ideas before a writing.

 Free Writing Free writing is writing without worrying about correctness or quality. It is writing without worrying about grammar, spelling or punctuation. It is an attempt to release your creativity without interference from the most conscious quality control center in your brain. The purpose is to get your ideas out of your head and place them on the paper or computer screen where they belong. Do not worry about their appearance once they are there. (If you wish, you can clean them later). I like to describe free writing as "brain vomiting." It is not an attractive thought, but it conveys the idea.

There is only one rule in free writing: don't stop. It is not thinking and then writing; He's thinking while you write. Let your thoughts arrive as fast as they can and make your fingers try to keep up. If you are writing with a pen or pencil, keep it moving. If you are using a keyboard, keep the keys by clicking. Free writing is a great way to write when "you can't think of anything to say." In fact, those could be the first words you write. Here is an example: I can't think of anything to say, so I will keep putting these words on paper until my brain starts working and then I can start working on this paper that I am not very excited because it is a paper investigation and I prefer to put toothpicks in my eyeballs that do a research job, especially one about Eskimos, as my teacher said because I don't know much about Eskimos, although I once had an Eskimo cake and I liked it, but I get this photo of Eskimos in parkas and round ice igloos that you always see in cartoons and I wonder if that's really the way they live, maybe that's what I should write about: the kind of houses the Eskimos live in. That would be a good idea and I wonder if I ever eat cakes Eskimos ...

Free writing is a warming up exercise for the skull. It's fun because you can't make mistakes (apart from stopping to think). Then, the next time you have trouble getting started, start with free writing. And don't be surprised if somewhere you discover a good idea or two.

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 Graphic Organizers The group has many names: belts, mental mapping, bubbling, concept map. It is an easy and graphic way to capture your ideas on paper while showing how each idea is related to the others.

The grouping is usually done with pencil and paper or with a chalk or a dry erase board. Start by placing a theme in the center of the page and drawing a circle around it. Then, as you come up with related words, phrases and ideas, write them down, circle them and connect them to the circles that contain related ideas. Continue as long as you want, filling the page with an increasingly complex map of your thoughts. Keep going back to the central idea before getting too far from the original theme.

What makes grouping so useful is that most of us don't think in a straight line. Our minds may begin in one direction, but one thought leads to another that we might want to record before returning to the original idea. Clustering allows the mind to wander along related lines of thought as long as it wishes. Ideas stimulate the ideas and connections we make prevent us from forgetting the idea we started with. Below is an example of a group based on last week's lesson on the writing process: Storyboard, Fish bone - Ishikawa diagram, Cause and web effect, Graphic and others.

Like free writing, grouping allows the creative side of your brain to go crazy, allowing you to bring to light related ideas where you can start selecting them, eliminating them and organizing them into a plan for your real work. But free exercises like these don't necessarily leave you ready to start your first draft. We recommend an intermediate step: create a scheme.

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 Outlining It is the conceptual analysis of texts; in this sense, it should be remembered that a writing is always organized by paragraphs and these are recognized because they constitute the part of the text between two points and apart. The paragraph can be structured by extensive or short sentences; This depending on the style of the person who writes. Generally the paragraph contains a main idea that is expressly or suggested; In turn, this idea has subordinate others, secondary, which demonstrate, expand, specify or develop the principal. Main idea covers, by itself, the theme of the text. Within a paragraph, the presence of a main idea is preferable. Along these lines, a way of organizing paragraphs is proposed; so that the main idea must be placed on the edge of the margin and marked with Roman numerals (I, II ... etc.). Secondary ideas extend the main idea; because they complement, specify or develop what she means; Within a paragraph, there will always be one or more secondary ideas. To organize them, they must be preceded by capital letters (A, B ... etc.); In addition, they will be placed leaving a margin greater than two or three spaces. On the other hand, the accessory ideas complement the secondary ideas; therefore, it is clear that if there are no secondary ideas, there can be no accessory ideas. In a paragraph there may or may not be ancillary ideas and, when they exist, they will be placed under their respective secondary at the time of drawing up the draft. A margin of three or four more spaces will be respected, with respect to the secondary; in the same way, they will be indicated with Arabic numerals (1,2 ... etc). It is also possible to find fourth-level ideas in a paragraph and, although they are hardly important, they are a complement to the accessory idea. Fourth level ideas are preceded by lowercase letters (a, b ... etc.) and will be placed in a more pronounced margin than that of the accessory idea.

This technique classifies ideas into: main, secondary, accessory and fourth level; In this sense, the outline of the sketch will be as follows: Main Idea ………… ...I Secondary Ideas ………… ...A Accessory Ideas …………………… 1 Fourth Level Ideas ……………………. a THE MAIN IDEA

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The main idea can be located in different ways; Below, you will find some examples that illustrate it, in addition to demonstrating the ways in which secondary ones can be added.

1. Main idea at the beginning of the paragraph We assure our mathematical knowledge through demonstrative reasoning, but we support our conjectures through plausible reasoning. A mathematical proof is demonstrative reasoning, but the inductive evidence of the physicist, the circumstantial evidence of the lawyer, the documentary evidence of the historian and the statistical evidence of the economist belong to the plausible reasoning.

2. Main idea in the middle of the paragraph Heuristic or heretical or ars inveniendi: such was the name of a science quite badly defined and that related as soon to logic, as to philosophy or psychology. The general lines were frequently exposed, but rarely their details. In our days it is practically forgotten. It was intended to study the rules and methods of discovery and invention. Some traces of this study can be found among Euclid's commentators; A paragraph of Pappus is particularly interesting on the subject. The best-known essays on the construction of a heuristic system are due to Descartes and Leibniz, both famous philosophers and mathematicians. We also owe Bernard Bolzano an exhibition on detailed and remarkable heuristics.

3. Main idea at the end of the paragraph When a biologist intends to investigate a general problem, say genetics, it is very important that you choose some particular species of plants or animals that are well presented to the experimental study of your problem. The chemist who wants to investigate a general problem, such as the speed of chemical reactions, must choose some special substances in which the experiments relevant to this problem can be conveniently done. The choice of appropriate material is of great importance in the inductive investigation of any problem.

For Example: Text The primitive man lived like in a theater. He felt surrounded at all times by active and powerful human and non-human characters. His magical sense, which tended to give personality to all forces and all phenomena, made his own situation a kind of 7


religious drama. All that was around him were divine or semi-divine beings. Fire was a powerful and evil being. The lightning was the wrath of a supreme power, the rain and the fountains had a personality capable of being begged and moved by human need. Death was an actor and life was another in the vast drama of the explanation of the world. Outlining I. The man lived like a theater. A. He felt surrounded at all times by active and powerful human and nonhuman characters. B. His magical sense made his own situation a kind of religious drama 1. This sense tended to give personality to all forces and all phenomena. C. All that was around him were divine or semi-divine beings. 1. Fire was a powerful and evil being 2. The lightning was the wrath of a supreme being. 3. The rain and the fountains had a personality capable of being begged and moved by human need. D. Death was an actor and life was another in the vast drama of the explanation of the world.

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Topic N°2.

Writing Process Objectives: To identify the writing process and the parts of a paragraph in English according to its format. To identify and write a good topic sentence.

 Definition of a paragraph It is a communicative unit formed by a set of sequential sentences that deals with the same topic. It is composed of a set of sentences that have a certain thematic unit or that, without having it, are enunciated together. It is a component of the text that in its external aspect begins with a capital letter and ends in a separate point. It includes several related sentences on the same sub-theme; One of them expresses the main idea.

Structure of a paragraph: 1. A main idea One or more secondary ideas The main idea contains the essence of the paragraph; without it you cannot understand the central message that each one contains. 2. Secondary ideas extend, complement or reiterate the main idea. If they are deleted from the paragraph they do not affect the meaning of the paragraph. Rules   

Orthography: Sentence structure Paragraph Organization

Examples: The cell phone is a communication tool that has become indispensable. Being able to be located in the place where we are, send an emergency message, or send a simple greeting or congratulation, are some of the advantages offered by this means of communication. In addition, technical advances allow us to obtain even more: Television, FM Radio, reproduction of audio and video files, calculator, electronic agenda, viewer of text files ... There is no doubt that the cell phone is an instrument that will mark life Daily of this century.

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 The Topic sentence The thematic sentence is the synthesis of the content of a paragraph. It is a sentence that contains the main idea of a paragraph. A thematic sentence should not be deduced or inferred from a text; It must be formulated expressly and formally. If that condition is not met, we are facing a paragraph that lacks thematic prayer.

Guidelines for Composing Topic Sentences "The topic sentence is the most important sentence in your paragraph. Carefully worded and restricted, it helps you generate and control your information. An effective topic sentence also helps readers grasp your main idea quickly. As you draft your paragraphs, pay close attention to the following three guidelines: 1. Make sure you provide a topic sentence. . .. 2. Put your topic sentence first. 3. Be sure your topic sentence is focused. If restricted, a topic sentence discusses only one central idea. A broad or unrestricted topic sentence leads to a shaky, incomplete paragraph for two reasons:  The paragraph will not contain enough information to support the topic sentence.  A broad topic sentence will not summarize or forecast specific information in the paragraph." Examples:  

Topic Sentence: There are many reasons why pollution in ABC Town is the worst in the world. Topic Sentence: There are many possible contributing factors to global warming.

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 Controlling Idea Good thematic sentences contain a generalization and a controlling or defining idea. This idea tells the reader how the paragraph is held together. Indicates the structure of the paragraph to help the reader understand the relationship between the various sentences in the paragraph. This is a keyword or group of words that expresses the basic idea of the sentence. When the dominant idea is clear, the complete sentence will be specific and clear.

Examples: 

Topic Sentence: There are many reasons why pollution in ABC Town is the worst in the world. The topic is "pollution in ABC Town is the worst in the world" and the controlling idea is "many reasons."  Topic Sentence: There are many possible contributing factors to global warming. The topic is "global warming" and the controlling idea is "contributing factors."

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Homework

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TopicN°3.

Body and Supporting sentence Objective: To identify and write good body or supporting sentence. Paragraph body structure The body of the paragraph is the support for the thematic sentence. Supportive sentences are details or examples, or a combination of both, that reinforce, explain or discuss the writer's perspective on the subject. However, not all bodily prayers provide direct support for the controlling idea. Some sentences serve to outline or explain a foothold. Structure: A basic outline for an independent paragraph looks like this: Topic sentence A. Prayer of support Detail Detail B. Support prayer Detail Detail C. Support prayer Detail Detail (etc.) Final Prayer and Final Thought Example: In this scheme, sentences A, B and C provide support for thematic prayer. The details, listed in these support sentences, provide a more detailed explanation of the support points. The following sample paragraph adheres to this general structure: Although I didn't like the idea of being in New York City, I decided to attend graduate school there for several important reasons. First, Columbia University allowed for individualization in programming. Perhaps most 19


importantly, I learned on my first visit to the university that the teacher who would be my advisor would allow me to do much of my work in Rochester and travel to New York only for special meetings. The university also accepted the work I had done previously and applied it to my degree. In addition to the course, I knew and respected the two teachers who would be my advisors. Both people have taught and researched in the field for many years. They have a lot of information to share and I knew I could learn a lot from them. Despite my reservations about spending time in New York City, I discovered that once I became familiar with the part of Manhattan where Columbia is located, I could easily move around. The streets and avenues run perpendicular to each other, so it was difficult to get lost. When I became braver, I learned to take the subway and buses instead of taxis and I saved a lot of money. Although at first I had doubts about studying in New York, it was a good decision.

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TopicN°4.

The Concluding Sentences Objectives: To identify and write good concluding sentences. Definition: It is the last section of your paper and provides a summary of the topic sentence and the body. The paragraph that signals to your readers that the article is coming to an end. Although many people have mastered how to write this paragraph, it is quite challenging for others. The concluding sentence serves a range of purposes as discussed in Purpose of a Concluding Sentence Section. Considering that it is a chance to give your final thoughts on a subject matter, it is pertinent that you get it right. The concluding sentence will: 1. Indicate to your audience that the last paragraph 2. Echo the main idea as depicted in the topic sentence and body It may appear as a simple paragraph, but it is critical that you get it right. Leave your readers both satisfied and impressed. Examples of concluding sentence starters are:         

Therefore Overall In conclusion Thus As a Result For this reason In general Finally Lastly

These are known as transitional phrases, and they help the reader understand that you are reference something from your paragraph or finishing a paragraph. One thing you should never do is announce your concluding sentence. Examples:  As a result of that slogan, millions of Europeans are taking more care of their physical and mental health.  In conclusion, the hypothesis proposed in the first section of this thesis must be rejected. 21


Homework

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Topic Main Idea In this time are a lot of reasons the Italian food is very popular around the world.

Major Details 

This food is very consuming.

Minor Details 

Italian food is quite limited: we know little more than pasta and pizza, as general dishes. It is a rich, easy meal that everyone likes, including children.

Major Details 

it is very varied. It reflects the cultural variety of its regions as well as the diversity of its history.

Minor Details 

One of the most popular Dish is the pizza. Also the spaghetti is some others dishes that is very famous between the people.

Major Details 

It is a rich, easy meal that everyone likes, including children.

Minor Details 

It is very varied. It reflects the cultural variety of its regions as well as the diversity of its history.

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Topic N°5.

Coherence, Cohesion, Completeness and Unity Space Order Objective: To write paragraph with coherence, cohesion, completeness and unity. Organizing information by space.

 Coherence Coherence means the connection of ideas at the idea level, and cohesion means the connection of ideas at the sentence level. Basically, coherence refers to the “rhetorical” aspects of your writing, which include developing and supporting your argument (e.g. thesis statement development), synthesizing and integrating readings, organizing and clarifying ideas. Introduction Structure The introduction tells the reader what the essay is about and what it will do   

General statement about the topic Specific statement about the topic Thesis statement (what the essay will do)

Paragraph Structure Each paragraph should have one central idea    

Introduce the central idea Explain the central idea Give an example to illustrate the central idea Conclude the central idea

Conclusion Structure The conclusion restates the thesis and summarizes what the essay did   

Restate thesis Summarize what the essay did Give an opinion/recommendation/prediction

The central idea of each body paragraph should be linked back to the thesis statement in your introduction and should be reiterated in your conclusion.

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Examples: The hotel is famous. It is one of the most well-known hotels in the country. The latest international dancing competition was held at the hotel. The hotel spent a lot of money to advertise the event. Because the hotel wanted to gain international reputation. But not many people attended the event. (The connection of ideas is not very good.) The hotel, which is one of the most well-known hotels in this region, wanted to promote its image around the world by hosting the latest international dancing competition. Although the event was widely advertised, not many people participated in the competition. (The connection of ideas is better than in the first example.) The latest international dancing competition was held at the hotel, which is one of the most well-known hotels in this region. The hotel spent a lot of money on advertising the event since it wanted to enhance its international reputation; however, it failed to attract many people. (The connection of ideas is better than in the first example.)

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 Cohesion Cohesion means flow. This is how well your ideas follow from one to the next with seamless and logical transition. As you develop your paragraph, your ideas must be related to each other and they should be logically linked with referencing and linking words. Referencing words refer to pronouns, like this, these, it, etc. You can use these to link an idea in one sentence to an idea in the previous sentence. Another way to connect ideas is to use linking words. These are words like however, on the other hand, for example, therefore, etc. But be careful! Like salt and pepper, you should use these sparingly. To score above a 7, you should not include more than two of these kinds of words in your paragraph. Overusing them will bring your coherence and cohesion band score down. Structures       

Request for opinion Opinion. Request for explanation. Explanation. Conclusion. More explanation New explanation

Examples:   

It's past five o'clock because children are already heard playing in the playground. Well, we were almost inseparable companions, and we used to spend many weekends together. In high school that is normal, that is, some of your classmates are later your best friends.

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 Completeness and Unity Is a very important characteristic of good paragraph writing. The paragraph unit means that a paragraph deals with ONLY ONE main topic. That is, all the sentences, the topic, the supporting sentences, the detailed sentences and (sometimes) the final sentence, are telling the reader about ONE main topic. If your paragraph contains a sentence or some sentences that are NOT related to the main topic, then we say that the paragraph "lacks unity" or that the sentence is "off topic." Examples: If your paragraph is about your mother´s good cooking, a sentence such as “My sister is also a good cook” is not relevant because the paragraph is about your mother, not your sister. The opposite of relevant is irrelevant. The above sentence is irrelevant.  Space Order: Used to describe a person, place or thing, choose a particular point of view when describing an object to avoid confusing your readers. Describe at one specific point and moves on in a specific direction. Nearest to farthest; bottom to top; top to bottom, left to right; right to left. To indicate position or direction use: form, here, inside, in front of, next to, on, over, under, to and beyond. Example: The best place Compton had been able to find for work on the pile was a squash court under the West Stands of Stag Field, the University of Chicago Stadium. To the west, on Ellis Avenue, the stadium is closed by a tall gray stone structure in the guise of a medieval castle. Through a heavily portal is the entrance to the space beneath the West Stands. The squash court was part of this space. It was 3Oft wide and over 26ft.high.

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Topic N°6.

Punctuation Rules Objective: To learn about the punctuation rules writers must follow when writing academic English.

 Semi Colon Indicate an audible pause, a little longer than the comma, but below the full point of a point. The semicolons also have other functions. But first, a caveat: avoid the common mistake of using a semicolon to replace the colon (see the "Two points" section). Incorrect: I have one goal; to find her. Correct: I have one goal: to find her. 

Rules: 1. Rule. A semicolon can replace a period if the writer wishes to narrow the gap between two closely linked sentences.

Examples:  

Call me tomorrow; you can give me an answer then. We have paid our dues; we expect all the privileges listed in the contract.

2. Rule. Avoid a semicolon when a dependent clause comes before an independent clause. Examples: Incorrect: Although they tried; they failed. Correct: Although they tried, they failed.

3. Rule. Use a semicolon before such words and terms as namely, however, therefore, that is, i.e., for example, e.g., for instance, etc., when they introduce a complete sentence. It is also preferable to use a comma after these words and terms. Example: Bring any two items; however, sleeping bags and tents are in short supply.

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4. Rule. Use a semicolon to separate units of a series when one or more of the units contain commas. Examples: Incorrect: The conference has people who have come from Moscow, Idaho, Springfield, California, Alamo, Tennessee, and other places as well. Note that with only commas, that sentence is hopeless. Correct: The conference has people who have come from Moscow, Idaho; Springfield, California; Alamo, Tennessee; and other places as well. (Note the final semicolon, rather than a comma, after Tennessee.)

5. Rule. A semicolon may be used between independent clauses joined by a connector, such as and, but, or, nor, etc., when one or more commas appear in the first clause. Example: When I finish here, and I will soon, I'll be glad to help you; and that is a promise I will keep.

6. Rule. Do not capitalize ordinary words after a semicolon. Examples: Incorrect: I am here; You are over there. Correct: I am here; you are over there.

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 Comma Commas customarily indicate a brief pause; they're not as final as periods. Rules: 1. Rule. Use commas to separate words and word groups in a simple series of three or more items. Example: My estate goes to my husband, son, daughter-in-law, and nephew. 2. Rule. Use a comma to separate two adjectives when the order of the adjectives is interchangeable. Example: He is a strong, healthy man. We could also say healthy, strong man. 3. Rule. Many inexperienced writers run two independent clauses together by using a comma instead of a period. This results in the dreaded run-on sentence or, more technically, a comma splice. Incorrect: He walked all the way home, he shut the door. There are several simple remedies: Correct: He walked all the way home. He shut the door. Correct: After he walked all the way home, he shut the door. Correct: He walked all the way home, and he shut the door. 4. Rule. In sentences where two independent clauses are joined by connectors such as and, or, but, etc., put a comma at the end of the first clause. Incorrect: He walked all the way home and he shut the door. Correct: He walked all the way home, and he shut the door. Some writers omit the comma if the clauses are both quite short: Example: I paint and he writes. 5. Rule. If the subject does not appear in front of the second verb, a comma is generally unnecessary. Example: He thought quickly but still did not answer correctly. 30


6. Rule. When starting a sentence with a dependent clause, use a comma after it. Example: If you are not sure about this, let me know now. 7. Rule. A comma is usually unnecessary when the sentence starts with an independent clause followed by a dependent clause. Example: Let me know now if you are not sure about this. 8. Rule. Use commas to set off nonessential words, clauses, and phrases (see Who, That, Which, Rule 2b). Incorrect: Jill who is my sister shut the door. Correct: Jill, who is my sister, shut the door. 9. Rule. If something or someone is sufficiently identified, the description that follows is considered nonessential and should be surrounded by commas. Examples: Freddy, who has a limp, was in an auto accident. If we already know which Freddy is meant, the description is not essential. 10. Rule. Use a comma after certain words that introduce a sentence, such as well, yes, why, hello, hey, etc. Examples: Why, I can't believe this! No, you can't have a dollar. 11. Rule. Use commas to set off expressions that interrupt the sentence flow (nevertheless, after all, by the way, on the other hand, however, etc.). Example: I am, by the way, very nervous about this. 12. Rule. Use commas to set off the name, nickname, term of endearment, or title of a person directly addressed. Examples: Will you, Aisha, do that assignment for me? Yes, old friend, I will. Good day, Captain. 13. Rule. Use a comma to separate the day of the month from the year, and— what most people forget! —always put one after the year, also. 31


Example: It was in the Sun's June 5, 2003, edition. 14. Rule. Use a comma to separate a city from its state, and remember to put one after the state, also. Example: I'm from the Akron, Ohio, area. 15. Rule. Traditionally, if a person's name is followed by Sr. or Jr., a comma follows the last name: Martin Luther King, Jr. This comma is no longer considered mandatory. However, if a comma does precede Sr. or Jr., another comma must follow the entire name when it appears midsentence. Correct: Al Mooney Sr. is here. Correct: Al Mooney, Sr., is here. Incorrect: Al Mooney, Sr. is here. 16. Rule. Similarly, use commas to enclose degrees or titles used with names. Example: Al Mooney, M.D., is here.

17. Rule. Use a comma to separate contrasting parts of a sentence. Example: That is my money, not yours. 18. Rule. Use a comma before and after certain introductory words or terms, such as namely, that is, i.e., e.g., and for instance, when they are followed by a series of items. Example: You may be required to bring many items, e.g., sleeping bags, pans, and warm clothing. 19. Rule. A comma should precede the term etc. Many authorities also recommend a comma after etc. when it is placed midsentence. Example: Sleeping bags, pans, warm clothing, etc., are in the tent.

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 Period. A period is a small dot-shaped punctuation mark that is used at the end of any sentence that is intended to make a statement. As with other punctuation marks that end sentences, the period should be placed directly behind the last letter of the last word of the sentence. Rules: 1. Use periods in sentences that make statements. Examples:  My dog retrieves the paper for me each morning.  Gloria wants to be a nurse after she finishes high school. 2. You should also use periods at the end of sentences that are intended to instruct or command. Examples:  Rinse the dishes before putting them in the dishwasher.  Lock the door behind you. 3. Periods can also be used at the end of a sentence that contains an indirect question. Examples:  The coach asked Jared why he was late for practice.  My mother used to wonder why my brother’s room was cluttered. 4. Periods are also used with abbreviations. Examples:  Washington, D.C.  5 p.m. In the event that the abbreviation ends a statement, a command, or an indirect question, the period that ends that abbreviation is also used to complete the sentence. Examples:  

If you want to visit the Smithsonian Institute’s National Museum of American History, you will need to travel to Washington, D.C. Arrive at 5:30 p.m. to get a seat for the concert; it begins at 6 p.m.

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 Capital Letter Aletter of the alphabet that usually differs from its corresponding lowercase letter in form and height, as A, B, Q, and R as distinguished from a, b, q, and r: used as the initial letter of a proper name, the first word of a sentence, etc. Rules 1. Use a capital letter for the personal pronoun 'I': 

What can I say?

2. Use a capital letter to begin a sentence or to begin speech: 

The man arrived. He sat down.

Suddenly Mary asked, "Do you love me?"

3. Use capital letters for many abbreviations and acronyms: 

G.M.T. or GMT (Greenwich Mean Time)

N.A.T.O. or NATO or Nato (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)

4. Use a capital letter for days of the week, months of the year, holidays: 

Monday, Tuesday

January, February

Christmas

Armistice Day

5. Use a capital letter for countries, languages & nationalities, religions: 

China, France

Japanese, English

Christianity, Buddhism

6. Use a capital letter for people's names and titles: 

Anthony, Ram, William Shakespeare

Professor Jones, Dr Smith

Captain Kirk, King Henry VIII

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Pepsi Cola, Walkman

Microsoft Corporation, Toyota

the United Nations, the Red Cross

8. Use a capital letter for places and monuments: 

London, Paris, the Latin Quarter

the Eiffel Tower, St Paul's Cathedral

Buckingham Palace, the White House

Oxford Street, Fifth Avenue

Jupiter, Mars, Sirius

Asia, the Middle East, the North Pole

9. Use a capital letter for names of vehicles like ships, trains and spacecraft: 

the Titanic

the Orient Express, the Flying Scotsman

Challenger 2, the Enterprise

10. Use a capital letter for titles of books, poems, songs, plays, films etc: 

War And Peace

If, Futility

Like a Virgin

The Taming of the Shrew

The Lion King, Gone With The Wind

11. Use capital letters (sometimes!) for headings, titles of articles, books etc, and newspaper headlines: 

HOW TO WIN AT POKER

Chapter 2: CLINTON'S EARLY LIFE

LIFE FOUND ON MARS!

MAN BITES DOG

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Homework

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Investigation of The Punctuation Rules Used To Write Sentences, Paragraphs, Essays.

Use of paragraphs The use of paragraphs is one of the most ignored rules of good writing, especially by students who write dissertations or essays. 

Paragraphs divide a block or long text into manageable units. There is no strict rule about when to start a new paragraph; But there are some conventions to follow.

Avoid having more than five sentences in a single paragraph. The three sentence paragraphs are fine.

Start a new paragraph when you move on to a new idea or a new topic.

A paragraph can contain only one sentence. This is usually the case in the journalistic style, when writers try to express ideas simply and forcefully.

The complete stop or period The end point (GB) or point (US) is used to separate sentences. In this case, it must be followed by an uppercase letter. It is also traditionally used at the end of abbreviated titles, such as Capt. , Prof. Lt. (Lieutenant), Cllr. (Counselor) etc. but it is often omitted in British English with Mr (or Mr.) (never write Mister in its entirety) or Mrs (or Mrs.). , and never used after miss. It is used at the end of common abbreviations, such as Monday. (for Monday) or etc. (for etc.) It is not necessary, although occasionally uses, by initials or writing initials, such as NATO, UNESCO, the United Kingdom, the FBI, Examples: 

Peter arrived in Singapore in January 1996, on his twenty-second birthday. Less than a year later, he had married the boss's daughter, Yi Ling.

I would like you to meet Mr. Mark Porter, Miss Elizabeth Taylor, the captain. Eliot Saunders and his wife, Mrs. Saunders.

I started teaching at UCLA on Monday. August 29, 2018, after five years with UNICEF.

The colon

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The colon is used to separate (a) two main clauses, or (b) a main clause and a phrase, when the second clause or phrase provides an example or an illustration of what is said in the first clause. Examples: 

I told him what to do: I should tell him immediately that he had lost his job.

I only like three types of fruits: apples, pears and bananas.

Semicolons The semicolon is used to separate two long main clauses, when both have the same theme and / or are part of a single theme or idea; they are used particularly when the second clause begins with a conjunction. The semicolon is also used as a kind of "supercoma", in sentences that have several commas, and where one or two jumps need more emphasis than others. Examples: 

I had seen lions and rhinos at the zoo, most recently at Whipsnade Zoo, which is near London; but he had never seen them before in nature in their natural environment.

The students, who had been there for three days, slept in tents; As for the medical staff, they had a bungalow to sleep on.

I had been to England, Scotland and Wales, which I especially enjoyed; and also to France, Spain and Portugal.

The Commas Commas are mainly used to separate clauses, highlight words in a sentence or to separate elements in a list. Often, the use of commas can be a matter of personal taste or style; However, some commas are essential: Commas with relative non-defining clauses are required (but not with relative defining clauses). Commas (or semicolon) are needed to separate the contrasting parts of a sentence, including two short main clauses. Commas are recommended in all lists except the very short ones; Sometimes they are essential, as in Example 3b below, which is incomprehensible without them. Commas are required at the end of the aforementioned direct speech, when this is followed by words as he said, they told us or told the President.

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Examples: 

1st. Elton John, who is a great pain, is a defender of gay rights.

1 B. Scotch whiskey, which must be imported, is popular in Brazil

2. Peter had just gotten out of bed, but his wife Mary was already dressed and in the car.

3rd. Could you bring me three apples, two bananas, a pear and a carrot?

3b You can choose different color schemes, including black and white, pink and purple, bright orange and yellow and green.

4th. "I am one hundred and one years old," said the old man.

4b "I don't know what you're talking about," Jennifer replied.

Capital letters Uppercase letters are required in several different situations: All proper names (names) and adjectives formed from proper names must be written in capital letters, unless the semantic connection between the adjective and the name has been lost (as in French fries, which are generally not French) Capital letters should also be used for titles, whether they are human titles (such as General, Prince, etc.), or the titles of books, movies, etc. Capital letters should be used when writing days of the week, months of the year, but not for the names of the seasons. Capital letters must be used along the initials or acronyms And finally, of course, each new sentence should start with a capital letter

Examples: 

My Dutch friend from Amsterdam speaks good English and loves Italian pasta and German beer; but he never eats potatoes, not even french fries.

General Eisenhower became president of the United States; One of his favorite books was a Connecticut Yankee at King Arthur's Court.

The campsite is open in the summer months of July and August, and in autumn until the last Sunday of October.

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The United Nations has several subsidiary organizations, including UNICEF and UNESCO.

Each new sentence should start with a capital letter. There are no exceptions to this rule.

Other punctuation marks Quotation marks Quotation marks are required at the beginning and at the end of any direct speech, even after a brief interruption by a dialogue label as he said. Question marks Question marks are required at the end of all direct questions, but are not necessary, and are often considered incorrect, at the end of indirect questions. Exclamation marks Exclamation marks can replace the full points at the end of a sentence, to express surprise. Do not use them in excess, since this is a bad style. Other punctuation marks Long hyphens can be used, rather as square brackets, to put part of a sentence in parentheses, especially if alternative forms of punctuation can create ambiguity. Hyphens are used to form compound nouns or common adjectives, or to clarify the relationship between words in a group of nouns. While some common compound words are always separated by hyphens, in many cases it will be a matter of personal choice. For more details, see Using scripts in English. Examples: 

"I was in the garden," he said, "but I saw nothing."

"Are you sure?" the policeman asked.

The policeman asked if he was sure.

"Help !"

Never before has anything so exciting been done!

There are three big strange animals, no one knows exactly what they are, which are sometimes seen in the moor at night.

It was a heartbreaking story about a used car salesman and his daughter-inlaw. 40


Topic N°7.

Kings of Paragraph Objective: - Work on the different types of paragraphs.

 Process Paragraphs A process paragraph is a series of steps that explain how something happens. Or it explains how to make something. It can explain anything from the growth of a malignancy to parallel parking to baking sourdough bread. It gives tips for conquering insomnia or for removing nose hair. Because such explanations must be clear, the process paragraph must be written in chronological order, and it must include a topic sentence that clearly states the paragraph’s purpose. It must also include transition words and phrases— “first,” “next,” “finally,” for example— that connect each of the steps. There are two kinds of process paragraphs: a process explanation and a set of instructions. A process explanation explains a process without assuming that the reader will afterwards know how to carry out that process. A set of instructions gives the reader step-by-step guidance. The following is an example of a process explanation paragraph: The grapes for winemaking are usually squeezed and destemmed before fermenting them in oak, except when they will be processed by Carbonic Maceration then they go directly to the fermentation tank. After this the paste that results from this (pulp, skins and nuggets), is poured into a fermentation tank after having added a small amount of sulfur dioxide, in order to prevent biological contamination. During the covering up of the must, the alcoholic fermentation is triggered at the same time as the maceration of the leaflets and the seeds, which can last between five and seven days. Then the maceration serves to give the wine its color and its preservation capacity. And frequently it pumps the must to the surface by spraying the entire layer of "skin" that the grapes form, ensuring the maximum possible color extraction. Then the remainder is pressed and then elaborate a mixture or "coupage" in different proportions with both and go to a state of aging before being bottled and matured. Then the red wines of superior quality, destined for long-term consumption, usually remain in relatively new oak barrels, this process can last between 18 months and two years, before being bottled. 41


 Definition Paragraphs When writing a definition paragraph, you take a thing or an idea and explain what it is. Example: Write a paragraph giving the definition of a pest. The following words can help you to write a good definition paragraph: 1. "is defined as" Example: A pest is defined as any animal or plant that damages crops, forests, or property. 2. "is a kind of" Example: A pest is a kind of animal or plant that damages crops, forests, or property. 

A simple definition has three parts: item, category and features. 1. Item

2. Category

3. Features

A forsythia

is a flowering shrub

with yellow bell-shaped blossoms.

Herbivores

are animals

which feed on plants.

Change

is a type process

of

which involves passing from one state or phase to another.

Example: What is meant by protein quality? The term protein quality refers to the ratio of essential amino acids (eaa) in a protein in comparison with the ratio required by the body. A high quality protein contains eaa in a ratio that matches human requirements. A protein which is lacking or low in one or more eaa is termed a low quality protein. The eaa which is in the shortest supply is called the ‘limiting’ amino acid. In general, animal proteins tend to be high quality while vegetable proteins tend to be low quality. The exception is soy protein which is quite high quality.

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 Contrast Paragraph A contrast paragraph labels the differences between two persons, places, or things. Once all of the information for the paragraph is obtained one must organize it in one of these two ways: 

Option One: First present all of the points of one subject, and then contrast the points with all of the information about the other subject. This is a good way to organize the information of a short paragraph because the reader can readily recall the first points that are stated.

Option Two: Make a point about the first subject and then contrast it with a point from the other subject. Alternating between points. This is a good option for longer paragraphs because the reader does not have to search for the contrasted point.

The following words can help you to write a good contrast paragraph: Differences

Example

on the other hand On the other hand, winter is much colder in Halifax. however but in contrast to differs from while unlike

However, winter is much colder in Halifax. Vancouver has a mild winter, but Halifax has a cold one. In contrast to Vancouver, Halifax has a cold winter. Halifax differs from Vancouver by having a cold winter. While Vancouver has a mild winter, Halifax has a cold winter. Unlike Halifax, Vancouver doesn't get much snow.

Example: Singers and Sisters Jessica Simpson and Ashley Simpson are both same in a sense that they are both famous singers and even sisters, yet they are quite different in many ways. Jessica was always sure what she wanted to do with her life and worked very hard whereas Ashley enjoyed what life had to offer her at the moment. Jessica was in voice lessons and started to sing Gospel music during her high school career. On the other hand, Ashley took dance classes and learned how to perform to Hip-hop music. Jessica is more well known as the air head sister. 43


 Cause and Effect Paragraph In composition, cause and effect is a method of paragraph or essay development in which a writer analyzes the reasons for—and/or the consequences of—an action, event, or decision. A cause-and-effect paragraph or essay can be organized in various ways. For instance, causes and/or effects can be arranged in either chronological order or reverse chronological order. Alternatively, points can be presented in terms of emphasis, from least important to most important, or vice versa. Example: Causes of Child Obesity "Many of today's kids are engaged in sedentary pursuits made possible by a level of technology unthinkable as recently as 25 to 30 years ago. Computer, video, and other virtual games, the ready availability of feature films and games on DVD, plus high-tech advancements in music-listening technology have come down into the range of affordability for parents and even for the kids themselves. These passive pursuits have produced a downside of reduced physical activity for the kids, often with the explicit or implicit consent of the parents. . .. "Other fairly recent developments have also contributed to the alarming rise in child obesity rates. Fast food outlets offering consumables that are both low in price and low in nutritional content have exploded all over the American landscape since the 1960s, especially in suburban areas close to major highway interchanges. Kids on their lunch breaks or after school often congregate in these fast food outlets, consuming food and soft drinks that are high in sugar, carbohydrates, and fat. Many parents, themselves, frequently take their children to these fast food places, thus setting an example the kids can find justification to emulate."

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Conclution The part of written communication that helps translators in writing as they can summarize topics, expand texts or explain topic and translate. Written communication specifically the wording makes it easier for the translator to do his job in an objective, rational and objective way to understand ideas as they are.

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