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Katherine Mitchell Stage 3 A c a d e m i c Portfolio B A ( H o n s ) Architecture Newcastle University - 2017 -

‘It is the conquest of site, the transformation of its topographical nature, that manifests the ontological roots of architecture. The process of design is only a secondary and subsequent act, whose purpose is to reconcile and harmonize the consequences of the initial intervention, collision, and negation.’

Raimund Abraham







The 7 stages of e m i c A r c h i t e c t u r a l Transformation

Calcination - the heating of a substance until it is reduced to its component parts Primer explorations - extracting of key ideas from studying typologies and place


Dissolution - dissolving the substance ashes in water to unleash potential Concept and Brief Development, and landing a site



Fermentation - the death of elements and resurrection to a new level of being, and the introduction of new elements to strengthen the outcome



Finalising the design proposal through a deeper application of theory Distillation - Purification of the substance for a deeper understanding of matter Deeper exploration of the potential of cross disciplinary design and its impact on the architecture



Conjunction - the recombination of salvaged elements into a new form developing the design through refinement of initial ideas



Separation - the isolation of components and discarding the unworthy Working through initial design ideas




Coagulation - sublimation of a purified substance to secure its validity Resolving the concepts into succinct technological responses



Studio Introduction The Alchemist Laboratory















137 152

-Part 1 -Part 2


Bibliography and References

N New work A Altered Work R Referenced work/writing


Studio Introduction

Getting Away From It All


Getting away from it all to move towards an experience far removed from the norm. The work undertaken in this studio is focused around the concept of a total design. Theory, influences and design intentions run through each aspect of our design through varying scales; for an experience of architecture is always shaped by far more than the building skeleton. An architecture for a tourist experience is at the heart of our cross disciplinary design practices. The requirements of this studio become an architectural opportunity to provide an escape from everyday life. Architecture has the ability to create an immersive experience for the visitor; within a different place and perhaps within a different time.

Let everyone look at the space around them. What do they see? Do they see time? They live time, after all; they are in time. Yet all anyone sees is movements. In nature, time is apprehended within space - in the very heart of space: the hour of the day, the season, the elevation of the sun above the horizon, the position of the moon and stars in the heavens [...] Time was thus inscribed in space, and natural space was merely the lyrical and tragic script of natural time. The Production of Space, Henri Lefebvre 1991



1| Calcination

The heating of a substance until it is reduced to its component parts


Primer Explorations 8

Lindisfarne; Connection|Disconnection



The primer phase was an exploration of coast, with two distinct areas of interest running in conjunction:

I. a study of people and place; specifically the stretch of coastline from Spittal to Lindisfarne. II. a study of coastal architecture; specifically power stations with a direct relationship to water.



Holy Island of Lindisfarne


Holy Island as a place of pilgrimage rituals transitory connections physical and spiritual transformation

J O U R N E Y S & T R A N S F O R M AT I O N 12

From cross-country rail journeys to short walks across the beach to collect sea glass, these actions can all be viewed as a form of pilgrimage.

The exploration of people and place culminated in a layered collage focussing on the unique identity of the Holy Island of Lindisfarne. Through research I looked at Holy Island as as place of pilgrimage and the different scales of journeys. From cross country rail journeys to short walks across the beach to collect sea glass, these actions can all be viewed as a form of pilgrimage. My research also explored Holy Island as a place of layered and conflicting identities- both religious and secular, and the stark contrast between visitor numbers and islander population.


1200x1200mm mixed media collage on board


Pilgrims and Journeys | Connection and Disconnection



Energy Typologies



Diagrammatic section of Torness Nuclear Power Station: Form defined by interior functions 17















The geometric, ‘stacked’ form of Torness Nuclear Power Station is here abstracted through modelling. By reducing the form to it’s exterior massing, the weight, balance and disconnection of the different blocks is emphasised through the assemblage.




Interior functions creating individual stacked forms whose only purpose is to protect what is inside


Nuclear containment vessel Material density as protection and wrapping 23

Section 1:100 24

Contextual comparisons: Nuclear versus Hydroelectric 25

Torness Nuclear Power Station 26

Contextual comparisons: Nuclear versus Hydroelectric 27

Wasserkraftwerk Keselstrasse Hydroelectric Power Station 28

Interaction with water wasserkraftwerk keselstrasse - hydroelectric power

Section 1:200 29

Section 1:500


Exposing and celebrating process: Cut through section of Sellafield nuclear power plant. 31


Product Design Celebration of transformation

Distilling Ideas: from precedents to product 33

Prototyping a transformation of volume


Product Testing 35


The versatile camping and picnic plate transforming from a flat plate to a bowl and back to flat plate again for easy transportation and cleaning.


2| Dissolution

The disolving of a substance’s ashes in water to unleash it’s potential.


Concept and Brief Development


From Power Stations to Tourist Attractions Key drivers from primer phase: an architecture to celebrate the exposing of process and state transformation curating a pilgrimage of discovery through architecture responding to the historic identities, rituals and cultural heritage of Holy Island creating an architecture that responds to a unique site developing an attraction that is unique to Holy Island

Journey of process.

Journey of time

Journey of transformation.





















Brief Development

Opportunity to further develop an attraction with inextricable links to Holy Island


Direct response to existing visitor attractions on Holy Island: The rebranding of the Lindisfarne Mead company When visiting the island i became extremely interested in the island’s historic and secular identities, and became fascinated by Lindisfarne Mead and its relationship to the island. Mead, the oldest known alcoholic drink, was produced in secret by the monks of the lindisfarne priory. Today, mead is still produced on the island and sold worldwide, and is a key focal point on the island’s tourist route. When arriving to the winery however, I quickly learned that the only public element is the gift shop. There became a real opportunity, then, to develop upon the success of the product with a new architecture and a new contemporary graphic identity. This new architecture will be a celebration of process and a journey of discovery. 42

The medieval forerunner of chemistry, concerned with the transmutation of matter. A seemingly magical process of TRANSFORMATION > CREATION > COMBINATION Alchemy aimed to purify, mature and perfect.

Alchemists sought not only to make gold, but to perfect everything in its own nature - not far from the ideals of modern science today.


in contrast to popular beliefs linking alchemy to occultism, the ultimate aim of the alchemists was in fact spiritual transformation

playing on the secretive nature of both meadmaking and alchemy, the design should be secretive in nature, as the design will deal directly with the issues of situating a large-scale manufacturing scheme within a sanctified space.

Honouring the secretive practices of alchemy performed on Holy Island, as well as the secretive practices of mead making, my architecture will be a celebration of process and the historic identities of Holy Island. The fully-functioning Meadery will continue to produce and bottle mead on a mass scale for international export whilst exposing the production process to provide a visitor experience. The architecture will direct a spatial experience of process and transformation as the visitor is guided through the space. playing on the secretive nature of both mead-making and alchemy, the design should be secretive in nature, as the design will deal directly with the issues of situating a large-scale manufacturing scheme within a sanctified space. the design should react directly to the landscape, avoiding disruption of sight lines and journeys, and assimilate itself within the small-scale nature of Holy Island’s manufacturing and tourism industries. 44

Subjective Cartography: Mapping the Atmosphere, focal points, and terrain of Lindisfarne. 45


Existing location of Lindisfarne Mead

Village Centre

Landing a Site Lindisfarne Priory

Fort remains

Visual links to Lindisfarne Castle along a lin



Site Chosen

Lookout Tower, War Memorial and Communication Tower

Holy Island of Lindisfarne

The site was chosen based on its assimilation into natural journeys along Holy Island. The Peninsular is the most ‘industrial’ area of Holy Island; the jetty being the main links to the import/export world, and the small scale fishing industry being located here. This industrial setting is ideal for the architecture I am creating and the topography and the exposed location will allow for a more dramatic response to coast. The peninsular creates a naturally linear journey from the Priory and look out towers all the way to the fort remains and across the bay to the castle. This is an opportunity then, to create an architecture of journeys.

Lindisfarne Castle

near trajectory

From Above

From Below



The discovery of “Mirrors� on the site has had a significant influence on design decisions and development of form 50

The architecture must react to the topography and the materiality of the site. The architecture must ‘reveal’ the characteristics of the site through it’s density, depth and orientation.


Framing coastal views

Reacting to exposure and materiality on site


“Form, scale, and topography profoundly define the site. These are the sources for the design process; a process which is apathetic to any historical or aesthetic inclination.�




3| Separation

The isolation of components and the discarding of the unworthy


Initial design thinking


Mapping Influences The process of design is, for all disciplines of design, a nonlinear journey of discovery, development and distillation. Influences for my design come from, amongst other sources, the characteristics of site and of Holy Island as a whole, the exploration of power stations, the processes of fermentation, the philosophies of dwelling and the alchemic teachings.




By emphasising mass and a sense of extrabodily scale, architecture exposes the totality of site, not just the ground surface. For this is an architecture that sits very much within, not atop of, the earth.

The first deliberate design decision: to build underground. 59

Initial development through section - responding to the depth of the earth and the changes in topography across the site. The design will maximise the level changes on site to create an architecture that sits very much within, not atop of, the site.


Following on from the design decisions extracted from the primer stage, the form and layout of my design is to be purely dictated by the interior functions. The racking of the fermentation tanks and the siphoning at each of the 5 stages of the process have come to define a stepped spatial configuration of the fermentation process.


The form of the underground production space is defined by the fermentation process, where an increasingly stable temperature is required at each subsequent stage of the process. In response to this, the tanks are stepped, with the process starting at the top and finishing in the depths of the space where the stable temperature of the earth is most effective.


4| Conjunction

The recombination of salvaged elements into a new form


Design development


Design principle: To bury the production space within the earth, the building is not only hidden from sight with minimal disruptions of the site topography and sight-lines, but the earth mass acts as passive temperature regulator for the fermentation process. Like the density of concrete protecting against leaked radiation in a nuclear reactor, the density of the earth acts as a protective wrapping of form.



Within my design, a corporeal understanding of the scale of site is emphasised through the volume of the cavernous underground building. 67



Giants Causeway Visitor Centre, Northern Ireland. Heneghan Peng Architects


“There is no longer a building and landscape but building becomes landscape and the landscape itself remains spectacular and iconic.� 69


Precedent Studies

The Giant’s Causeway Visitor Centre has become a key precedent in this design project, not for it’s occupancy or for it’s internal accommodation, but for it’s reaction to landscape.

Giant’s Causeway Visitor Centre, Antrim, Northern Ireland. by Heneghan Peng Architects.

Two folds became the main concept for the design; one folding up to reveal the partially buried internal spaces, and one folding down to disguise the car park from the cliff side.

The building utilises natural level the building axes draw together all changes across the site, in order to existing man-made interventions already assimilate itself within the earth. on site, and the building becomes part of the journey through the landscape.


b u i l d i n g b e c o m e s landscape


the same way, my design responds to the

landscape by becoming an extension of the peninsular as it slopes away.


an act of reconciliation to counteract the

destruction of underneath, the roof-line mirrors the landscape from which it is borne.

“Through architecture, the site’s form and complexities can be fully revealed. The sloping roof becomes an extension of the landscape; a biocentric response intentionally reflecting the form of the site and acting as a ‘mirror of truth’” R


From Above the building becomes barely noticable in the landscape. In reaction to the Giant’s Causeway precedent, as well as architectural theory and the character of Holy Island, the element of the building above ground, poetically mirrors the landscape as reconciliation for the act of negation below. 73


Gathering a Site. The site was chosen, in part, due to the pre-existing points of interest along the peninsular. Here lies an opportunity to create an architecture that connects a mini-pilgrimage and “gathers” a site. By introducing an architecture to this site, the sites along the peninsular are connected as one linear journey, and this journey connects directly to the castle across the bay. As explored by Heidegger, and investigated in more detail in my Theory into Practice work, a building holds the ability to ‘gather’ a landscape by connecting points and assigning memory and importance to spaces. The scale of my architecture ensures that these points across the peninsular are synthesised into a new ‘pilgrimage’ route.



Wider site context and strategy diagram 77 A


The term geometry stems from the words








suggesting that all geometric interventions stem from meas



surement and refinement of organic characteristics.



Precedent Studies

Bell-lloc Winery, Spain RCR Arquitectes

“The Bell-Lloc Winery takes a programme for a wine producing and wine-tasting facility and rearranges it as a ceremonial sequence which explores the interaction between sky, land and the world underground.� This




conflicts the trend for wineries as marketing strategies. In regions such as the

La Rioja

region, starchitects

come together with wine producers to create dramatic, modern, but out-of-place




marketing strategy for the winery.





almost invisible in the landscape.








architecture, per say, but as a geometric




through which to create a journey of discovery.


mirroring and abstractions

of the natural topography enhance the experience of being with the surrounding




building becomes as much about experiencing the site as it is about experiencing the wine.


“Finally you re-emerge, blinking in the daylight, somehow transformed by this journey down into the underworld�


Journey down into the Underworld.... Like the Bell-Lloc Winery, my concept dictates a journey of immersion, adjustment and re-emergence. Being removed from the coastal site, the visitor descends into the dark underground space. A corporeal understanding of the site is accented through the scale of the fermentation equipment in relation to the human bodies travelling through. This exploration of extra-bodily scale is emphasised through the modelling materials I have used. By using ‘industrial’ objects that are recognisably small, such as screws, to represent large scale industrial objects in scale, awareness of the proportions of the human body is magnified against the cavernous space. This modelling technique has been used throughout the project development to explore this notion of extra-bodily scale.





5| Fermentation

The death of the elements and the subsequent resurrection to a new level of being, and the introduction of new elements to further strengthen the outcome.


Refining the proposal


Experiencing the production space as a linear journey N



‘The Underworld’ From Above 91

‘The Underworld’ From Below


Technical section through production space Scale: 1:200 93


Subterranean level Scale at 1:500 95



Subterranean level details at 1:200 97 A


Ground level plan Scale at 1:500 99




Ground level details at 1:200



Being on site you can dwell in the natural landscape above the industrial building. But through the site there is a narrow glimpse into the underworld below, proving a shaft of light below and allowing those above to glimpse the act of transformation below. This is a synthesis of the industrial and the organic. N



Surf-side view - the building on the exposed coastline N



The visitor experience


The Meadery has the potential to become an international tourist attraction. 600,000 people visit Holy Island each year, and the existing Meadery is already a popular destination stop along the tourist route of the Island. However, I can’t help but think of it as a bit of an anticlimactic experience, not just for myself but for many visitors to the Island. By creating an architecture that exposes the process of production to visitors of Holy Island, the experience of the product will be of a memorable journey of discovery. This should retain long-term customer interest in the product, and the product will become more than a onetime souvenir and a ‘Christmas market’ novelty.

Home of Quintus Vitae Discover the heritage and craft behind the historic process of Mead-making on Holy Island; an island steeped in history and mythology. Uncover the legends of the Lindisfarne Monks on their alchemic pursuit of spiritual transformation and eternal life. Alcohol, discovered by the alchemists was believed to be this ‘aether’ spirit, the fifth classical element responsible for the natural phenomena of creation, transformation and healing. This vitae - the life force - and the process of transformation is honoured here today on Holy Island. Experience this story as a journey of discovery, revealed through the architecture which is borne out of the heugh on which it sits. Descend into the cavernous production space and experience the magnitude of the production process, whilst the Mead weaves its way around you on your journey. Experience the biochemists concocting new variations of mead, beforere-encountering the dramatic coastal environment. Finally, enjoy the varities of mead in our tasting room, whilst gathered round the legendary ‘mead taps’ and taking in the dramatic panoramas of the island. Savour the taste of mead in all its varieties and take a bottle with you as you continue your pilgrimage of discovery along Holy Island.


Kairological investigation into the visitor experience. Mapping the visitor journey through the production space against expected journey time and journey distance of 94m. Time constraints of the experience are key in the design as Holy Island is typically a destination for those coming for only one day. Tidal times dictate visitor time on the Island, and in some tides the visiting hours will be limited to only 4 or 5 hours. Creating a relatively short visitor experience, therefore, is key for this to be a successful attraction. N



Re-emerging from the production space Moments of state change and experiencing transformation through architectural interventions

Re-exposure to coast


A suspended steel mesh staircase continues from the hanging walkway in the production space and takes a sharp 90deg. angle, where the visitor is jolted from their linear journey to be reintroduced to the coast once more. The staircase that reaches up to the ground-level floor is suspended over the double-height bottling production-line and the laboratory. Like the journey of the Mead, the visitor takes the same trajectory and travels up from production through process and finally to the bar. 112

Photographs from 1:50 key moment model 113

Shelves of bottled Mead line the bar space adjacent to the staircase. The glass wall behind the shelving means that the rows of bottles come into view as the visitor ascends the stairs . because of the building orientation the bottle-wall should emit a soft golden glow over the stairs in the transition period from dark to light. 114







Materiality and design intentions running through each model at different scales


6| Distillation

Purification of a substance for a deeper understanding of matter


Branding and Narrative through scales


Branding Precedents Four by Two Design Agency. After visiting the office of Four by Two in Edinburgh, I have been increasingly interested in the cross-over between architecture, interiors and branding.

The brand identity here is subtle.

Branding through different scales of architectural interventions can have a big impact on the experience of a space; something particularly important for a tourist destination. Chop House - a restaurant underneath their Edinburgh office - is a prime example of brand concept that has been successfully brought through multiple aspects of the interior, and applied in smaller scale to their menus and graphic identity.

There is no definitive ‘logos’ everywhere; nor is there pictorial imagery. What there is, however, is a constrained materials palette and a distinctive pattern running through different pieces of furniture, selected walls, and menus. What makes this design sophisticated and successful, in my opinion, is this limited range of aesthetic deviation, but maximised across a range of scales so as to not be overpowering. Branding should influence but not fully dictate the interior design.

Branding should influence - but not fully dictate - the interior design. 119


Macrocosm Reflecting Microcosm Earth reflecting Air.

‘Tis true without lying, certain and most true. That which is below is like that which is above ---------------------------------and that which is above is like that which is below.’ – Isaac Newton (trans.)


A key theme that has dictated a lot of my design principles is the writing of the alchemists. The writing implores that everything in the macrocosm is a mirror of everything in the microcosm, and that everything should be created as a mirror of another. Not only has this work informed my building form, but it’s influence is felt holistically throughout the programme.


The triangle form is featured within the ground floor tasting room area, utilising different floor finishes in order to demarcate different areas, and to direct sight-lines to both the castle (with the mirroring fort silhouette in front) and, on the south facade, to the coastal panorama.



Branding, narrative and journey of discovery through material manipulation. Part of the architectural experience and the visual identity of the scheme incorporates large scale imagery embedded into concrete relief tiles through the production space. This will run parallel to the linear journey of the visitor experience, and the imagery and narrative will be reflected in other elements of the design.



Perforated corten steel covers a glass wall to the south facade of the building as it starts to appear above ground level. Cut within the steel is the words of the ‘emerald tablet’; a legendary text said to hold the secrets of alchemy and the key to eternal life. These words will be lit up by the sun streaming in through the south facade, and illuminate the texts for the visitors inside. This revelation of secrets will form the final element of the production space experience. R


The tasting room is orientated as to face the fort and castle to the east side, and the furniture and floor finishes are designed around directing these views. Small tables and stools are arranged on a raised level, designed for 6 people to sit and drink the original mead from the tap at the table. These tables and chairs have been designed to subtly reflect the branding of the building, and as a continuation of the materiality taken from the production space. A few steps down takes you to a lowered area, in eye line with the fort seen through of the fully-glazed east facade. This area is where the mead is showcased by the bartenders in all it’s varieties and cocktail combinations. This lowered area is designed to be communal, with groups of strangers gathered around the one large table.

Branding through furniture design 125

From symbol to furniture 126


1:10 Model of bar table and chair. The triangle form, as well as being expressed within the materials in the table, forms the supportive base for the folded mesh chair. The copper foot-rest cuts through the triangle in a simple and practical way, and reflects the form of the classical symbol.


The classical symbol for earth was carried through to the bottle branding, along with alchemy imagery which is visible through the cut out triangle in the label. A green band picks up the name and subtly acts as the cut-through line from the classical symbol.



Quintus Vitae is a vatted blend of local honey, locally drawn water, fermented grape juice and a concotion of herbs. The legacy of Mead is synonymous with the identity of Holy Island, where it was produced in secret by the monks of Lindisfarne Priory. This legacy is continually upheld through every stage of production at our headquarters The Alchemist’s Laboratory. Produced by Quintus Vitae Ltd. exclusively at The Alchemist Laboratory, The Holy Island of Lindisfarne, Northumberland, UK.

Quintus Vitae Visit us:

CONTAINS SULPHITES UK Units: 1.8 per 125ml


The bottle is designed to emphasise the secrecy of Alchemic behaviours in a unique way. The image, printed on the inner side of the label, is slightly distorted by the glass and the liquid, shrouding the alchemists, still, in mystery and secrecy.


The Architectural Pursuit

Ground Plane

Ultimately, my design rejects the formal speculations of architecture, such as aesthetic trends and historic discourse. Instead the architecture is borne directly out of the site; as an attempt to reconcile and reveal a quintessence of the site through modification, measurement, and transformation of the landscape12. Like the Alchemists on a pursuit of understanding, the ‘architectural pursuit implies a responsibility to find and draw out a site’s formal characteristics, along with its cultural traditions, climate and natural environmental features’13.

My own pursuit is ultimately a synthesis between architecture and nature; art and technology; negation and reconciliation.

12 Gregotti, V. (1985) Territory and Architecture. In: Nesbitt, K. (ed.) (1996) Theorizing a New Agenda for Architecture: An Anthology of Architectural Theory 1965-1995. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. Pp.388-344. 13 Ando, T. (1991) Towards New Horizons in Architecture. In: Nesbitt, K. (ed.) (1996) Theorizing a New Agenda for Architecture: An Anthology of Architectural Theory 1965-1995. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. Pp.461

The graphic layout for the Theory into Practice essay, of which some of the principles have been pulled through for portfolio, is centred around the principles of an axis that represents the ground plane. As the majority of the building is underground, the page is divided, as a reaction to the building proportions, to ‘above’ and ‘below’. the main body of text is justified below this axis, with only key segments and titles above this line.

The heart of the text, like the heart of the architecture, remains ‘below ground’, Graphic layout informed by design principles 133

Architecture, then, has been used to assign importance to spaces since man first laid a stone on the ground to ascribe memory to a place. It becomes man’s primary way of making sense of an unknown world, and asserting a position within it.

Significant text So, with this understanding, a place is not named, altered and then reconciled…

Most significant text

It is altered, reconciled, and then understood as place.

Act I: Negation Architecture is a play comprising of two acts. The first primal act, is destruction of the site; negation of the topography and altering the fundamental characteristics of the site. This, according to Raimund Abraham is the fundamental act of architecture. What happens in act two; the building - this is purely an architect’s attempt at reconciliation1.

On pages without an obvious ‘ground plane’ images and text bodies are still justified to this axis

Building upon Holy Island, Northumberland, I am acutely aware of my presence within the landscape, particularly given the industrial characteristics of this intervention; a large scale Meadery. The nature of this scheme exposes the implications of architectural invasion within a sanctified place, and as the designer I must work to reconcile this act of architecture by using architecture, for as explored later, architecture can be the means to purifying and ‘revealing’ nature.

Fig.1: Landing the Site

1 Abraham, R. (1982) Negation and Reconciliation. In: Nesbitt, K. (ed.) (1996) Theorizing a New Agenda for Architecture: An Anthology of Architectural Theory 1965-1995. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. Pp.464


7| Coagulation

Sublimation of a purified substance to secure its validity


Integrated Technology 136


Integrated Technology Part I

Integrated Technology Building Structure

Site Factors that will dictate construction techniques and building structure: Soil/Rock Type: Bedrock is Limestone, Superficial deposits are Alluvium and Till. Pile Foundations may be required if superficial soil type is too unstable. “For medium to heavy structures of small plan area, piled footings may not be too expensive, but for the single storey store or warehouse-type of structure covering large areas, the cost of piling works can be a substantial percentage of the total development costs.� Accessibility for machinery and deliveries - tidal causeway is narrow, may not support extremely large/heavy loads. Main roads through Holy Island are still classed as Minor Roads - important to prioritise minimal disruption to the local population and to the tourism industry there. Exposed coastal site - desigining for wind exposure? But also maximising location and resources for energy production.


-Building structure should be designed to maximise solar gains in the relatively cold, exposed climate - south-facing fenestration to maximise solar gains and sea-views. -Building form and materials should protect against wind loads due to the exposed location and from prevailing winds. -On-site construction should be prioritised over off-site construction, due to transport limitations and the relative isolation of the site.

Structure and building form will be ultimately determined by function and accommodation schedule / hierarchy. The manufacturing element of the building will be divided into three functional units: the vat room with huge steel tanks for the boiling and initial fermentation process, the cellar where the mead matures in oak vats for two-three months, and the storeroom where the mead is bottled, packed in cases, and stored until it is sold. The building will also contain a bar and tasting room, rooms interconnecting the manufacturing rooms which form the narrative journey, and auxiliary rooms. The buildinging will therefore be compsed of three distinct volumes with a visitor and operations core. The sizing of each room will be determined by the equipment sizing and scale of production.

Form Dictated by Function: Faustino Winery, Foster + Partners

The wings which house the barrels and bottle cellar are partly sunken below ground, providing the most favourable conditions for ageing the wine, while the fermentation wing is exposed, allowing carbon dioxide to be released. Embedding the building in this way helps to create the most favourable conditions for the ageing process and is an essential part of a passive environmental strategy, which allows the building to exploit the thermal properties of the earth, in conjunction with the thermal mass of the concrete structure to regulate the internal climate. Lined with slats from recycled wine barrels, the public areas evoke the rich tradition of winemaking in the region.


Integrated Technology Construction & Materiality

Construction Strategies and Considerations: -Construction and final building structure will have to allow for the late-installation of machinery / distilling equipment, when the site transfer takes place - Large openings for the installation of equipment and also for delivery transactions. Materiality around site: Locally sourced wood Stone Clays Lime

-Rooms for fermentation would need to be above ground, to release heat and CO2. Rooms for maturing process, bottling and storing could be potentially submerged, or partially submerged. - Subterranean elements could allow for grass roof for permaculture / cultivating ingredients for process.

Taking Lessons from Art: James Turrell, Cat Cairns, Kielder Park. Unassuming from the outside, appearing to rise out of the natural ground. Interior is very different finish - striking and modern, with no sense of materiality and texture. The sky is the sole focus on the interior.

Interior Materiality and Sculpture Reflecting the cycling process of creation, consumption and reuse of glass for mead bottles. Using recycled / found glass to make: - elements of walls. - terrazzo flooring - sculptural pieces.


Rock Prosthetic - BrightBlue Studio Sandstone rock; waste stream glass; letraset; UV glue 2004 - 2009 Layers of waste stream float glass are used to rebuild the missing part of the sandstone rock. The glass traps letters in the absent part of the stone, alluding to its previous ‘complete’ form.

Case Study: Dynamic Druridge and Hauxley Visitor Centre, by BrightBlue Architects. - building uses: -gabions (filled with local stone) for foundations. -straw bale insulation (from neighbouring farms). -clay floor (reclaimed from site when digging for foundations). -douglas fir beams (locally sourced). -lime plaster render (locally sourced). -green roof to encourage bird nesting and wildlife (with periscopes for unobtrustive views of the wildlife on the roof)

The architects BrightBlue Studio aimed for this building to be the most eco-friendly in the North East. - using ONLY locally sourced materials. - no concrete used in the entire building. the building is designed to rise up out of the ground, and, at the end of its life, melt seamlessly back into the earth from which it came. Can I utilise natural materials to hide the manufacturing process/identity within a building that fits seamlessly into the natural surroundings? Load-bearing straw bale walls, Gabion foundations, and loadbearing natural columns from local tree trunks. 142

Case study: dominus winery, herzog and demeuron measurements: 136m x 8m x 24m. Tilt-up concrete* structure with gabion exterior cladding. Gabions filled with basalt rocks from nearby sourceGabions provide insulation from heat and cold and allow natural light to filter into Interior spaces. * Tilt-up is form of construction in which the wall is precast horizontally on the ground adjacent to its permanent location and then lifted up into the vertical plane. It is then fixed to an already constructed edge beam or foundation slab. Connections are made between adjacent units to ensure stability and the joints sealed to make them weathertight. The major advantage of the process is that it avoids the need for wall formwork and the associated supports. In addition most of the construction operations are carried out at ground level. The technique is widely used for one-and two-storey buildings, but can be used for 3 or 4 storey. The size of panel that can be cast and lifted will be controlled by the capacity of the available crane or other handling equipment, unlike standard precast panels for which maximum dimensions may be controlled by transport requirements.


Structural Strategy: TarraWarra Vineyard Subterranean Tasting Room.

Playing on my desire for concealing scales of production and initially hiding elements of the process.

Many winery precedents have subterranean elements - mainly the store rooms and aging cellars - which is a strategy I could implement both to conceal the scale of production.

Incorportating elements of subterranean design would allow for the reuse of excavated materials. It would reduce overall energy cost (as temperature regulation is assisted by the consistent ground temperature), particualrly as the site would otherwise be exposed, and ensures a low aesthetic impact.

Built into a hillside, the structure maximises the natural resources to regulate temperature in the barrel room.

Subterranean Tasting Room

Subterranean elements would allow me to hide scale of mass manufacture in a relatively unassuming, natural build. Subterranean scheme also adding to the secretive nature of the alchemist-inspired scheme


Integrated Technology Environmental Strategies and services

Environmental Benefits of Subterranean Building Strategy? Mecanoo’s w i n n i n g proposal for museum in Warsaw.


Mecanoo have designed the museum as subterranean to create a passive, energy efficient building that melts into the landscape. The green space above the building is used for both recreation, water harvesting and solar collection. Below ground is a heat recovery system, ground sourced heat pump, and rainwater tank which is used for toilets and as a coolant for the CCHP unit.

What energy harvesting strategies can I employ? Heat recovery from fermentation process / Interior Spaces Vertical Ground Source Heat Pump on site adjacent to building. Tidal energy? Green Roof for vegetation and insulation Rain Water Harvesting Passive Ventilation Systems in nonmanufacturing spacesw


The intention within my scheme is to utilise a number of different energy strategies, on a variety of scales, throughout the site. Some will be hidden, some will be visible. These strategies will play on the idea of process made visible; a key theme driven through multiple areas of the design considerations. Small-Scale Wind Farm

Energy Production for Space Heating: Ground Sourced Heat Pump. Utilising exposure to high winds to create smallscale wind energy harvesting. - high initial cost but reduced electricity costs in long run Example of a 6kW pole mounted wind turbine (approx 9m high)

Future potential for tidal power - utilising the natural ebb and flow of the tide that characterises the island.

Hydroelectricity not possible even considering the close proximity to water source.

Biomass fuelled CHP - even if wood is used, rather than waste products, the scheme is carbon neutral (through carbon sequestering) and fuel can be locally sourced. As long as this does not affect natural habitats or lead to excessive deforestation of the local area. Utilising a biomass CHP would dictate accommodation schedule for the overall design, as space would have to be factored in for the CHP and for the safe storage / delivery of biomass. - scheme would need to be a series of interconnected buildings - see Bombay Sapphire precedent (next page)


Key resource to exploit is the expelled heat from the fermentation process. MHRV (Mechanical Heat Recovery Ventilation) collecting expelled heat in fermentation room. Or channelling the heat and CO2 directly into greenhouses for botanical production (Bombay Sapphire Distillery Precedent as a cycle of production. See next page)

Brooklyn Botanic Visitor Centre


The building’s design utilises natural topography and specialised plantings to reduce rainwater runoff and erosion; the captured water is used for irrigation. Twenty-eight geothermal wells will heat and cool the building; they will be supplemented by the utility grid only as needed. The building is also nestled into the surrounding hillside, which helps provide insulation.


Integrated Technology Studio Specific Technology

Closed Systems of Production: Bombay Sapphire Distillery, Hampshire. Mill restoration by GWP Architects. Botanical Houses by Heatherwick. Awarded BREEAM ‘outstanding’ rating - achieving the second highest score of any industrial building, the first distillery, and the first conservation scheme to be awarded this rating. The development includes a range of on site generated renewable energy strategies including biomass, photovoltaics and the restatement of an industrial water wheel to provide hydropower.

Used air expelled into atmosphere

Hot air in from Still House

PRODUCING THE BOTANICALS: Heat Recovery from still houses and distillation process feeds into the glasshouses, using the waste heat to create perfect living environments for the botanicals. This meant the tropical botanicals could be grown on site, without the need to globally import them. The two glasshouses embed themselves into the newly-widened riverbed. The ten exotic botanical plant types grow in the two structures alongside over a hundred additional plant and herb species that were introduced into the riverbanks, that provide the accompanying ecosystem required to maintain them. The forms of the glasshouses were designed, as an umbilical link, specifically with this heat recycling system in mind - the dynamic forms were driven by the physics of air movement. Mead requires the addition of tropical spices and botanicals, which are imported to create Lindisfarne Mead. Could my design utilise a similar heat recovery system to grow the required botanicals in Lindisfarne, creating more of a self-sustaining, and eco-friendly system? 149

MY key Design Intentions: -Hiding and revealing of industrial processes and the scale of manufacture. -Exploring a range of energy harvesting strategies. -Closed system / locally sourced production system. -Building accomodation dictated by manufacturing process.

- Renewable and low carbon energy provided by photovoltaic array & hydro-electric turbine in the River Test giving carbon savings of 38%. -A Biomass boiler provides heat and hot water using botanical byproducts of the distillation process as a fuel source. -Excess biomass required used will be local, sustainably sourced wood chip. -Ash produced by the biomass boiler is used to fertilise the soil on local farms. -Throughout construction key building materials, including bricks & roof tiles were recycled and reused from demolished buildings. -Rainwater harvesting and flow restricted water devices specified throughout the site. 150


Integrated Technology Part II Semester II - May 2017



Integrated Technology Building Structure

In the initial design phase, I was studying Gabion walling as a form of protective coastal defence, implemented in many architectural typologies to create natural but robust structures that are both aesthetically and structurally borne out of nature.




3 7 1



Figure 1: Dominus Winery, Herzog and DeMeuron

The Dominus Winery by Herzog and de Meuron became an initial source of inspiration for both structure and layout for my design. A desire to create a building that was physically borne out of the landscape lead to this investigation into gabion walling as a structural strategy; a solution with strong coastal heritage and an undeniable tactile presence.


Form dictated by fermentation process: Foster + Partners’ Faustino Winery, Spain, was a key precedent in the initial stages of the design process, and was referenced within the Arc3001 Integrated Technology Part 1. Fig.3: Wings

Figure 2: Gabion Walls; density and translucency.

A move away from implementing Gabion Walling as a structural solution came after further research and understanding of the technological and environmental requirements of fermentation, which eventually lead to the design decision to bury the main building within the earth. A subterranean strategy comes with its own set of structural requirements which were to become the main drivers for the evolution of the structural strategy. 153

The building is spilt into three wings which each house a part of the production process. These wings are individually designed depending on the f e r m e n tat ion requirements.

The building layout is directed by the wine fermentation process, which automatically dictates the structural solution. The yeast acting in the fermentation stages of the process require







Primary Structure: 1 Secant piles (reinforced concrete, 1000mm diameter) acting as both foundations and retaining walls. The piles are capped by a reinforced concrete ringbeam. 2 Concrete reinforced retaining walls on pile foundations 3 Slab foundations supporting floor plane 4 Castellated beams at 6m centres supporting above floor plane and bracing retaining walls 5 Steel 203x203mm universal columns supporting castellated beams

Primary Structure: 7 Concrete hollowcore floor slabs supported on castellated beams 8 Castellated beams at 6m centres supporting roof plane and supported by 203X203mm steel universal columns. Secondary Structure: 9 Non-loadbearing plasterboard internal walls 10 Argon-filled double glazing attached to steel frame 11 Exterior wall composition Exterior 100mm concrete relief panels Steel framework for hanging concrete panels DPM layer Concrete blockwork wall 100mm rigid insulation Internal plasterboard Exposed Steel Universal Columns (part of primary structure)

Secondary Structure: 6 Exterior Wall composition: Secant piling (primary structure) 200mm cavity to prevent water ingress Concrete blockwork Steel framework for hanging concrete panels 100mm concrete panels with relief pattern

Roof Structure 12 Vegetation and grass layer 250mm substrate EPDM sealing layer 100mm rigid insulation Waterproof membrane Concrete hollowcore slabs (primary structure) 13 Concrete coping 14 Glazing for traversable rooflight

Fig.4: Exploded Axonometric detailing the over all construction types. - Diagram taken from Arc3013 Part 2 -


Stage 1: closest to ground surface with good circulation

1 2 oxygen input to ferment the wine. C02 is expelled during this process, so an exposed building is preferable to passively aid fermentation. In contrast to this, the ageing process requires no air exchange but requires a stable temperature. Buried within the ground, the structure can passively utilise the stability of the earth’s temperature, which, in conjunction with the concrete thermal mass of the structure, means no active temperature regulation is needed. This influence of fermentation process on building form, and so influencing the structural strategy, is read through many winery and distillery precedents. These fermentation requirements have been a major driver for the outcome of my design strategy and thus my structural solution.

3 Stage 5: most stable temperature with less ventilation best suited for the aging process.

4 5 29m below ground surface

Fig.5: Fermentation Process through the building depth.


Fig.6: 1:200 Section - Taken from ARC3013 Part 2 155

Fig. 7: Dense, concrete, protective wall structure

The subterranean nature of the design requires a retaining wall structure and foundation strategy to anchor the building within the earth and prevent against flotation. The nature of my industrial design means the structure is exposed and celebrated from within the interior spaces. Concrete secant piles at 1m diameter act as both retaining walls and pile foundations, boring deep into the earth.

Fig. 8: Hauxley Visitor Centre, BrightBlue Architects

From Straw Bales to Concrete Piles... Dynamic Druridge and Hauxley visitor centre, northumberland (BrightBlue Architects) was an initial precedent for construction tecnniques. Looking back at the one storey building, constructed with gabions and straw bales, shows the dramatic development of my design ambition over the course of the year.

This construction method, in contrast to the original construction methods I was exploring in the Integrated Technology part 1. A dramatic increase in scale of design means initial explorations into natural building techniques are inadequate.

Fig.9: The building mass sits firmly within the earth 156

Integrated Technology Construction & Materiality

1 grass and vegetation layer 160mm substrate EPDM sealing layer 250mm rigid insulation waterproof membrane concrete hollowcore slabs 2 steel castellated beams steel I-beams with cables hanging a suspended walkway 3 stainless-steel grating 100mm gutter waterproof membrane rigid insulation 4 skylight, withstands foot traffic, anti-slip coating: 2 x 12mm laminated safety glass 16mm cavity 10 + 12 + 10mm laminated safety glass

Fig.10: Sectional detail of roof-light construction with suspended walkway -Taken from Arc3013 Part 2 157

Fig. 11: Rooflight, cast light patterns and Suspended walkway as experienced from the interior of the production space Key Precedent: Giants Causeway Visitor Centre, Heneghan Peng Architects Giants Causeway Visitor Centre, a precedent I discovered fairly late into the design process, was a big influence in terms of creating interactive moments between the interior and the exterior experiences. The sloping green roof contains a traversable roof-light which encourages discovery and interaction between the people inside and outside the space, whilst also creating changing light patterns throughout the dark interior space.

Figs.12 and 13: Interior and Exterior views of the roof-light moment

Fig.14: Outside looking in. Elongated window detail providing visual connectivity into the production space.


The dense concrete retaining walls of the production space, of 1900mm depth in total, automatically creates a dark and raw industrial experience of the production space. The ring beam, providing critical structural support for the secant piles, also acts as a shelf for the fermentation tanks, that are stepped down into the depth of the space. The production space is essentially a large plant room, where services are exposed and celebrated as a matrix of pipes and activity both overhead and above the visitor as they travel through the space.

The production space is solely designed for optimum functioning for the mead production. Incidentally, the scale of the equipment and the depth of the space dictate an extra-bodily experience of the space, in which depth of the space and magnitude of the production scale dwarfs the visitor passing through.


Fig.15: Sectional model showing scale of humans against equipment and the depth of the space

Fig. 11 (repeat): Interior experience of production space

Roof Structure 1 Vegetation and grass layer 250mm substrate EPDM sealing layer 100mm rigid insulation Waterproof membrane Concrete hollowcore slabs 538x190mm castellated I-beams at 6m centres Ceiling finish 2 Stainless steel coping Insulation wedge Exterior Wall 3 Inset glazing; 8mm glazing + 12mm argon filled cavity + 8mm glazing 203x203mm Universal Column supporting roof beams 4 100mm diameter steel-mesh reinforced concrete retaining wall Steel wall ties 200mm cavity Concrete blockwork wall Interior wall finish Intermediate Floor 5 Polished concrete floor finish 50mm mesh-reinforced concrete top 190mm hollowcore concrete slabs supported on beams and retaining wall structures 538x190mm castellated I-beams at 6m centres Ground Floor and Foundations 6 100mm in-situ cast concrete 100mm rigid insulation DPM Mesh reinforced concrete raft foundation Crushed hardcore 7 Steel reinforced ring-beam 100mm diameter pile foundations with steel reinforcement

Fig. 16: External Wall section 1:50 - Taken from Arc 3013 160

Integrated Technology Environmental Strategies and services

Utilising the earth’s thermal mass is pivotal for thermal regulation of the fermentation process. This passive strategey will be combined with mechanical and purge ventilation when needed.

Winter Strategies Passive strategies: 1 Using the stable temperature of the earth to regulate the interior space. 2 Solar gain from south-facing glazing 3 Natural daylighting from glazing assisted by electrical lighting. Mechanical Strategies: 4 Mechanically assisted ventilation system within deep production space 5 HVAC units within the above-ground building in case of temperature extremes.

Summer Strategies Passive strategies: 1 Using the stable temperature of the earth to regulate the interior space. 2 Purge ventilation utilising cool coastal winds for both ventilation and interior cooling - pressure differences will ensure cross ventilation through the inhabited spaces. 3 Natural daylighting from south-facing glazing -building will not be used at night Mechanical Strategies: 4 Mechanically assisted ventilation system within deep production space 5 HVAC units within the above-ground building in case of temperature extremes.

Fig.17: Winter and summer passive temperature regulation strategies 161

Mecanoo have designed a subterranean museum proposal in Russia; to create a passive, energy efficient building that melts into the landscape. The green space above the building is used for both recreation, water harvesting and solar collection.

Precedents for subterranean energy harvesting: Garden of the 21st Century with Underground Exhibition Pavilion Warsaw, Poland

Below ground is a heat recovery system, ground sourced heat pump, and rainwater tank which is used for toilets and as a coolant for the CCHP unit.

Figs. 18, 19 & 20: Underground pavilion inhabitation and environmental strategies, mecanoo.

There is an opportunity through the production process to harvest heat and CO2 from the first three stages of fermentation. This could either be put through a MHRV system, or utilised directly for the cultivation of crops in the laboratory space.

Input: Honey & water Process: Mixing 1 Output: Base mix

Input: Base mix, yeast and oxygen. Process: Initial ‘open’ fermentation 2 Output: Partially-fermented Mead, CO2 and heat

CO2 and Heat




3 Input: Partially-fermented mead Process: Secondary ‘closed’ fermentation (no oxygen) 3 Output: Fully fermented Mead


5 Input: Fully-fermented mead Process: Closed aging and clarification 4 Output: Fermented drinkable Mead

Input: Pure mead Process: Further aging and storage for bottling 5 Output: Drinkable Mead

Fig. 21: Heat and C02 recovery strategies


Integrated Technology Studio Specific Technology

Creating a narrative journey through material enhancements. There is an opportunity to utilise multiple aspects of the architecture to convey the narrative journey of my visitor attraction. The experience, as a journey through history and time, encounteringthelegacyofalchemyandmeadmakingontheisland, can be enhanced by a narrative running through scales of design. There is an opportunity here, then, to utilise technology in order to express the dual purposes of the building - technology for production, and technology for visitor experience. Concrete relief tiles will be hung on the wall of the production space, to be viewed from the suspended walkway through the space.


The concrete relief tiles will, on a large scale, form a narrative of symbolic imagery, texts and alchemic teachings to be experienced in parallel to the production process.

Key precedent: Narrative imagery as symbolic story-telling through tactile wall panels. Walls are more than just structural

Fig. 22: detail of steel hangers

The concrete tiles, 750x1500mm in dimension, are hung on steel hangers attached to the inner blockwork leaf.

Curno Library, Italy Archea Associati.


Figs. 24 & 25: Curno Library relief wall patterns.

Fig. 23: detail of steel hangers

Perforated Corten Steel and Copper precedents - utilising natural light to reveal a new understanding of the space.

Fig. 26: Copper facade casting light patterns DeYoung Museum - Herzog and De Meuron

Figs 27-29: 3NDY Architects - Corten Apartments, Venice

Because of the orientation of my building, there is an opportunity to create narrative light patterns within the production space that are only revealed at the end of the spatial journey. Like the Corten Apartments precedents, natural light can reveal the secrets hidden in the walls. Towards the end of the journey, after a revelation of process and symbolism, the ‘secrets of alchemy’ are revealed by the natural sunlight through the perforated south-facing facade.

Figs 30 & 31: Interior narrative experience through production space

Fig. 32: From the outside, the perforations in the facade are almost undetectable. And even when visible, the writing is back to front, meaning the ‘secret’s are only revealed from the inside. 164

In summary... My design, being primarily an industrial architecture of production, has technology at the heart of its design principles. The requirements for optimum production of mead have been a fundamental design influence throughout the design process, and this exploration off mass scales and production ambition has, in turn, has produced a dramatic spatial experience for visitors. Reflecting back on the differences between part 1 and part 2 of the integrated technology reports, I can see a significant rise in ambition and scale throughout the design project. In the end, the transition has moved from precedents of strawbale visitor centres to a dense structure that reaches 29m underground and is made predominantly of reinforced concrete. Whilst I can look at these differences in design ambition and see a complete move away from my original thoughts on technology and structural strategy, I can still recognise a lot of themes from the initial thinking in the part 1 integrated report that have continued through to the final design. The utilisation of the earth’s stable temperature, for example, has been a technological priority from the very beginning; a design driver that has grown in magnitude and dominance, and come to define my design. Celebration of process and state transformation appears throughout the design at different scales but ultimately these design concepts all result from a deep recognition of the importance of technological processes within architecture. The primer phase of the project, in which I was studying power stations as a coastal typology, is no doubt the biggest influence on this deeper respect for technological processes and how they can be expressed architecturally. The design concepts are running through this architecture are driven very much by theoretical and philosophical thoughts and, in some ways, I think my technological resolution could have been much more ambitious and detailed, given the buildings potential as an industrial typology. However, when reflecting on the technological development from Staging to Realisation, there is a clear set of defining technological principles that have emerged as vital to the design development and have remained key drivers for the entirety of the project.


Image Credits: Figures 1 & 2: Dominus Winery, Herzog and De Meuron. Source:

Figure 3: Wings. Foster + Partners Winery. Source:

Figure 4: Exploded Axo. Source: Author’s own, 2017 - taken from Arc3013 Part 2

Figure 5: Fermentation Process in Spatial terms

Figures 18, 19 & 20: Mecanoo Warsaw Pavilion Source:

Figure 21: Heat and C02 recovery Source: Author’s own, 2017 - taken from Arc3013 Part 2

Figure 2 `7 23: Detail of Steel hangers Source: Author’s own, 2017 - taken from Arc3013 Part 2

Figure 24 & 25: Curno Library, Archea Associati

Source: Author’s own, 2017 - taken from Arc3013 Part 2


Figure 6: 1:200 Section

Figure 26: Herzog and DeMeuron DeYoung museum

Source: Author’s own, 2017 - taken from ARC3013 Part 2

Figure 7: Concrete retaining Wall Source: Author’s own, 2017 - taken from Arc3013 Part 2

Figure 8: Hauxley Visitor Centre Source:

Figure 9: Earth Carving Model


Figures 27-29: Corten Apartments, Venice - 3NDY Architects Source:

Figure 30 & 31: From Inside the secrets are revealed Source: Author’s own, 2017. Made for Arc3001

Source: Author’s own, 2017. Made for Arc3001

Figure 32: From outside all is concealed

Figure 10: Rooflight section

Source: Author’s own, 2017. Made for Arc3001

Source: Author’s own, 2017 - taken from Arc3013 part 2

Figure 11: Interior perspective Source: Author’s own, 2017. Made for Arc3001

Figure 12 and 13: Giant’s Causeway Visitor Centre, Heneghan Peng Architects Source:

Figure 14: Key moment collage; rooflight. Source: Author’s own, 2017. Made for Arc3001

Figure 15: Sectional Model Source: Author’s own, 2017. Made for Arc3001

Figure 16: External Wall Detail Source: Author’s own, 2017 - taken from Arc3013 Part 2

Figure 17: Temperature regulation strategies Source: Author’s own, 2017 - taken from Arc3013 Part 2


Portfolio References Title chapter pages| alchemy images taken from: Roob, A. (2016) Alchemy and Mysticism. Germany: Taschen Page 1| Raimund Abraham Quote taken from Nesbitt, K. (ed.) (1996) Theorizing a New Agenda for Architecture: An Anthology of Architectural Theory 1965-1995. New York: Princeton Architectural Press Page 6| Henri Lefebvre, The Production of Space 1991 Page 53| Quote taken from Arc3015 Theory into Practice essay Page 69-71| Giant’s Causeway Visitor Centre. Photos and quotes taken from Page 72| Mirroring Site Quote and drawing featuring in Arc3015 Theory into Practice essay Page 79| Ge-Metron Quote taken from Arc3015 Theory into Practice Page 81| Bell-Loc Winery Quote taken from Images from: Page 117| Four by Two Chop House Images: author’s own, 2016



Architecture Part 1 Portfolio 2017  

Collection of design work completed in fulfillment of the BA Architecture degree at Newcastle University.

Architecture Part 1 Portfolio 2017  

Collection of design work completed in fulfillment of the BA Architecture degree at Newcastle University.