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Lost Identity

Diversity in Architecture

A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the School of Buildings Arts in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture in Architecture at Savannah College of Art and Design By Katherine Eton Savannah, Georgia Š May, 2015 Judith Reno, Thesis Chair Matthew Dudzik, Committee Member Gayle Fichtinger, Committee Member


W E L C O M E Dedicated to those with the spirit to look up and see.


List of Images

001

Abstract

011

Preface

013

Chapter 1: Awakening

049

Chapter 2: The Escape

075

Chapter 3: Case Studies

127

Chapter 4: Behind the Design

139

Conclusion

257

Works Cited

259


List of Images PREFACE 0.00 p014

http://proof.nationalgeographic. com/2014/12/17/the-2014-national-geographic-photography-contest-winners/

0.01 p015 0.02 p016 0.03 p019

https://instagram.com/natgeo/

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http://renaissancenow.ca/2011/02/12/ machines-for-working-in/

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http://petapixel.com/2013/04/05/eyepopping-photographs-of-hong-konghigh-rise-apartment-buildings/

http://banksy.co.uk/out.asp http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File:USA_Pavilion_of_Expo_2010_2.jpg

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http://www.archilovers.com/projects/73390/house-in-lumino.html

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http://www.archilovers.com/projects/73390/house-in-lumino.html

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http://www.archilovers.com/projects/73390/house-in-lumino.html

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http://www.cgtextures.com/texview. php?id=11262&PHPSESSID=0lll9d16p8vos42313u4s2mbk0

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http://edificiosenlahistoria.blogspot. com/2006/11/blog-post_16.html

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http://14textures.com/grey-brick-walltexture/

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http://bgfons.com/download/409 http://www.grassclothwallpaper.net/ wallpaper-grey-fence/

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http://soheilekrami.blogfa.com/category/1

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http://photography.nationalgeographic.com/photography/enlarge/lascaux-cave-walls-photography.html

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image by author

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http://banksy.co.uk/out.asp

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http://www.moma.org/?crlt.pid=camp. pW0pLUlkN4q3

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https://www.contexttravel.com/city/ washington/walking-tour-details/ americas-collection-the-national-gallery-of-art

0.25 p034

http://www.nga.gov/collection/ eastarch1.htm

0.26 p034

https://www.google.com/maps/d/viewer?mid=zFpilB54rmRM.kXfuD93Faqi0

http://www.cgtextures.com/texview. php?id=11262&PHPSESSID=0lll9d16p8vos42313u4s2mbk0

http://mom.girlstalkinsmack.com/travel/chicago-s-top-10---the-art-instituteof-chicago.aspx

http://photography.nationalgeographic.com/photography/enlarge/lascaux-cave-walls-photography.html

001


0.27 p034 0.28 p034

http://www.guggenheim.org/

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http://www.dezeen.com/2014/02/26/ qatar-zaha-hadid-stadium/

http://mom.girlstalkinsmack.com/travel/chicago-s-top-10---the-art-instituteof-chicago.aspx

0.40 p045

http://www.dezeen.com/2014/01/02/ santiago-calatrava-city-of-arts-and-sciences/

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http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File:Pavillon_Sully_Louvre_2007_06_23. jpg

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http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/07/ us/07mit.html?_r=0

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http://www.metmuseum.org/visit/planyour-visit/getting-here

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http://www.archdaily.com/259440/reframe-paul-scales-and-atelier-ki/

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http://www.architecturaldigest. com/blogs/architects-eye/2014/02/ steve-holl-kiasma-museum-helsinki-finland-blog

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http://www.contemporist.com/2014/10/13/delirious-frites-by-les-astronautes/

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http://enciclopedia.us.es/index.php/ Archivo:Museo_del_Prado.jpg

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http://www.gagosian.com/exhibitions/ richard-serra---september-04-2011

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http://www2.mcachicago.org/visit

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http://www.cokonrads.de/situ/twilight. html

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image by author

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http://anishkapoor.com/210/CloudGate.html

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http://whc.unesco.org/ pg.cfm?cid=31&l=en&id_site=307&gallery=1&&maxrows=15

1.48 p048

http://www.bitrebels.com/design/infinity-spiral-staircase-goes-nowhere/

1.49 p048

http://www.calder.org/work/by-category/monumental-sculpture

1.50 p048

http://www.archdaily.com/83676/ lincoln-park-zoo-south-pond-studiogang-architects/

0.51 p048

http://www.numen.eu/installations/ tape/paris/

0.37 p039 0.38 p042

http://www.uffizi.org/

http://photography.nationalgeographic. com/photography/photo-of-the-day/ housing-development-mexico/ image by author https://robertoalborghetti. wordpress.com/2013/04/18/ heart-places-bilbao-basque-country-spain-the-spectacular-guggenheim-museum-and-an-unforgettable-cy-twomblys-exhibition/ bilbao-spain-the-guggenheim-museum-13/

002


List of Images 0.52 p048

http://www.billfitzgibbons.com/myportfolio/light-rails/

1.12 p073

image by author

1.13 p074

image by author

1.14 p075

image by author image by author

0.53 p048

http://www.numen.eu/installations/ string/vienna/

0.54 p049

http://untappedcities.com/2014/06/02/ the-secrets-of-chinatowns-cortlandtalley-in-nyc/

1.15 p076

http://www.contemporist.com/2014/10/13/delirious-frites-by-les-astronautes/

2.00 p078

image by author

2.01 p080

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0.55 p050

CHAPTER 01 1.00 p054

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/ article-2552044/Londoners-face-tubestrike-chaos-underground-worker-pictured-sleeping-desk.html

CHAPTER 02

1.01 p056 1.02 p059

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2.37 p126

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2.17 image by author p097-098

CHAPTER 03

2.18 image by author p099-100

3.00 p131

http://www.theinstitutemovie.com/

2.19 image by author p101-102 2.20 image by author p103

3.01 p133

ibid

3.02 p133

ibid

2.21 image by author p105-106

3.03 p134 3.04 p134

ibid

image by author 2.23 p109-110

3.05 p135

http://loopchicago.com/activate/photos

2.24 p111

image by author

3.06 p136

ibid

2.25 p112

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3.07 p136

ibid

2.26 image by author p113-114

3.08 p136

ibid

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image by author

3.09 p136

ibid

2.28 p116

image by author

3.10 p136

ibid

2.29 p117

image by author

3.11 p136

http://loopchicago.com/cla/projects-and-programs/lightscape

2.30 p118

image by author

2.31 p119

image by author

3.12 p137

http://christojeanneclaude.net/projects/ wrapped-reichstag#.VWQR66Z7AZI

2.32 p120

image by author

3.13 p138

http://christojeanneclaude.net/projects/ wrapped-trees#.VWQSEaZ7AZI

2.33 p121

image by author

3.14 p138

http://christojeanneclaude.net/projects/ surrounded-islands#.VWQRrKZ7AZI

2.34 p122

image by author

2.35 p123

image by author

3.15 p138

http://christojeanneclaude.net/projects/ wrapped-coast#.VWQRiKZ7AZI

2.36 p124

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2.22 p108

image by author

ibid

004


List of Images 3.16 p138

http://christojeanneclaude.net/projects/ the-pont-neuf-wrapped#.VWQSNKZ7AZI

3.17 p139

http://www.heatherwick.com/uk-pavilion/

3.18 p139 3.19 p139 3.20 p139

ibid ibid ibid

CHAPTER 04 4.000 p144 4.001 p145 4.002 p148 4.003 p149 4.004 p149 4.005 p149 4.006 p149 4.007 p149 4.008 p149 4.009 p150 4.010 p151 4.011 p153 4.012 p155 4.013 p156

image by author

4.014 p157

http://annabellandau.blogspot. com/2010/04/virtual-enviroment.html

4.015 p157

https://www.flickr.com/photos/26219620@N08/8363484453

4.016 p157

http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/ nustar/multimedia/pia16695.html

4.017 p157

http://annabellandau.blogspot. com/2010/04/virtual-enviroment.html

4.018 p157 4.019 p157 4.020 p159

http://harrypotter.wikia.com/wiki/Limbo

4.021 p159 4.022 p159

image by author

4.023 p159

http://christojeanneclaude.net/projects/ running-fence#.VWQRvKZ7AZI

4.024 p160

http://www.skylighters.org/slimages3/ index.html

4.025 p160 4.026 p161 4.027 p162 4.028 p163 4.029 p164 4.030 p166 4.031 p167

image by author

image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author

005

image by author http://www.fastcodesign.com/1671052/ a-trampoline-bridge-for-bouncingacross-pariss-river-seine

http://www.fastcodesign.com/1671052/ a-trampoline-bridge-for-bouncingacross-pariss-river-seine

image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author


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image by author

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http://harrypotter.wikia.com/wiki/List_ of_spells

4.044 p175

http://skiryuk.deviantart.com/favourites/53670021/Other-Games

4.045 p175 4.046 p175

http://www.mariokart.com/wii/launch/

4.047 p175

http://www.feelguide.com/2013/05/06/ michael-caine-and-jessica-chastainjoin-cast-of-christopher-nolans-sci-fiepic-interstellar/

4.048 p177 4.049 p178 4.050 p179

image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author http://operationrainfall. com/2014/06/06/review-mario-kart-8/

http://harrypotter.wikia.com/wiki/ File:Portkey2.jpg

image by author image by author image by author

4.051 p180 4.052 p182 4.053 p183 4.054 p185 4.055 p185 4.056 p185 4.057 p185 4.058 p185 4.059 p185 4.060 p186 4.061 p187 4.062 p189 4.063 p190 4.064 p191 4.065 p191 4.066 p191

image by author

4.067 p191

http://design-milk.com/five-bestnyc-gallery-shows-of-the-lastyear-2011-2012/

4.068 p191

http://thefw.com/things-you-didntknow-about-spider-man/

4.069 p191

http://www.numen.eu/installations/ tape/paris/

image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author http://imgur.com/gallery/beRA8 ibid http://www.numen.eu/installations/ tape/vienna-odeon/

006


List of Images 4.070 p193 4.071 p193

http://imgur.com/gallery/beRA8

4.072 p193

http://imgur.com/gallery/beRA8

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http://artindoors.altervista.org/sun-kkwak-paints-with-black-tape/

4.074 p194

http://architizer.com/blog/pinterest-picks-temporary-architecture/

4.075 p194 4.076 p194 4.077 p194

image by author

4.078 p195 4.079 p196 4.080 p197 4.081 p197 4.082 p198 4.083 p200 4.084 p201 4.085 p203 4.086 p203 4.087 p203 4.088 p203 4.089 p203

image by author

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image by author

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4.096 p209

http://lateraloffice.com/CLEARING-2008

http://www.dezeen.com/2012/06/29/ wendy-by-hwkn-2/

4.097 p209

http://imgarcade.com/1/perforated-metal-wall/

4.098 p209 4.099 p209

http://flappybird.io/

4.100 p209

http://www.edhv.nl/portfolio/papercave-milaan/

4.101 p211 4.102 p212 4.103 p213 4.104 p214 4.105 p215 4.106 p216 4.107 p218 4.108 p219 4.109 p221

image by author

image by author

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007

image by author image by author image by author image by author http://strategywiki.org/wiki/File:Super_ Lode_Runner_level1.png

http://www.tomassaraceno.com/MET/ Bicocca/gallery.html

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4.110 p221 4.111 p221 4.112 p221 4.113 p221 4.114 p221 4.115 p222 4.116 p223 4.117 p225 4.118 p226 4.119 p227

image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author http://www.harrypotterwallart.com/ hogwarts/hogwarts-great-hall-staircases/mpsfi/f0543c60-aec9-4a66-b4070ac7ff20ebd2

4.129 p233 4.130 p234 4.131 p236 4.132 p237 4.133 p239 4.134 p239 4.135 p239 4.136 p239 4.137 p239 4.138 p239 4.139 p240 4.140 p241 4.141 p243 4.142 p244 4.143 p245

image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author image by author

4.120 p227 4.121 p227 4.122 p227

http://www.big.dk/#projects-maze

4.123 p227

http://player.hu/eletmod/kina-csunyan-lealazta-a-vilagot-jegszobraszatban/

4.144 p245

http://www.summitpost.org/utah-slotcanyons-not-technical/365398

4.124 p227

http://www.earthween.com/ideas/vortex_tunnel.html

4.145 p245

http://www.dezeen.com/2012/06/29/ wendy-by-hwkn-2/

4.125 p229 4.126 p230 4.127 p231 4.128 p232

image by author

4.146 p245

http://www.researchgate.net/profile/ David_Criado/publication/265505236_ Calculs_pseudo-statiques_par_la_mthode_des_blocs/links/541059e50cf2f2b29a40f4db.pdf

http://icecreamwaterpark.weebly.com/ http://www.hoggwarts.estranky.cz/ clanky/fotky-z-pc-her---recenze/fenixuv-rad/fotky/fotky.html

image by author image by author image by author

image by author image by author https://scroggins.wordpress.com/ page/5/

008


List of Images 4.147 p245

http://www.summitpost.org/red-caveslot-canyon/606954

4.148 p245

http://inhabitat.com/hwkn-and-wendymake-their-debut-splash-abroad-inabu-dhabi-photos/

4.149 p247

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CONCLUSION 5.1 p251 5.2 p252

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009


010


Lost Identity: Diversity in Architecture Katherine Eton Š May, 2015

It is 2084 and commercialization has

How did the masses allow their environ-

engulfed the planet. Language, culture,

ments to arrive to this condition? It can

and the built environment were once

be argued that technology is to blame.

representations of distinct populations

The rapid decline of social interaction

that have morphed into the uniform

and expression in the physical world

world we live in today.

combined with the immediate rise of the virtual world in the early 2000s was the

The economical efficiency of unifor-

recipe for the extinction of human ex-

mity fueled the extinction of the costly

pression in the physical reality. In other

construction and maintenance of di-

words, one reality became less and less

versity in architecture. As a result, we

interesting while the other captured the

live in a homogeneous environment that

attention of the masses.

does not encourage or support expression and in turn has hindered individual

To better understand the decline in di-

identity within society. What remains of

versity, let’s travel back to the begin-

human expression is contained within

ning of it all...YEAR 2015

one or, if you’re lucky, two medium to large buildings per metropolis. However, the experience is not only constrained within the walls of the limited space but also within the various range of admission fees. 011


WHILE LIFE IS MOSTLY VIRTUAL IS THERE A NEED FOR HUMAN EXPRESSION IN THE PHYSICAL WORLD?

012


Preface 00

013


is the real world not interesting enough?

National Geographic 2014 Annual Photograph Winner “A Node Glows in the Dark,� by Brian Yen image 0.00 014


why do people express themselves more online

INSTAGRAM VIRTUAL WORLD ACCEPTABLE FREEDOM

015

image 0.01


than in the physical world? banksy

STREET ART PHYSICAL WORLD NOT ACCEPTABLE CONSTRAINT

image 0.02

016


CULTURE = ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENT = CULTURE

017


but... what happens when culture no longer influences the built environment? and instead the environment becomes the sole dictator of culture within the physical world.

018


does this seem

image 0.03

image 0.04

are these buildings for humans?

019


human to you?

image 0.05

image 0.06

or robots?

020


this is what we

image 0.09

image 0.10

image 0.11

image 0.12

image 0.13

image 0.14

surround ourselves with

1. U.S. Department of Energy, “Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.� (2008): 4 2. The World Factbook, https://www.cia.gov/Library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2085.html.

021


in the U.S.A there are

2,674,825

1

paved miles

4.7 million

2

commercial buildings

that are... image 0.15

022


023


B

L A

N K


that’s a whole lot of

and not enough of

nothing

something

image 0.17

image 0.18

025


no wonder we find the virtual world...

23

hours / week

more interesting.

14%

of the week

are spent online by the average person

3

3. David Mielach, Americans Spend 23 Hours Per Week Online, Texting (BusinessNewsDaily.com, 2013)

image 0.19

026


we live in a physical world

where self expression is confined to

image 0.20

and charges admission

027


outside of these constraints expression, diversity, identity is a...

image 0.21

CRIME 028


where did the arts go? the original form of: communication, self expression, influence, and diversity

029

image 0.22


courses in the arts are not required in more than 40% of secondary schools 4

WHILE COURSES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE ARE ON THE RISE

are we being trained to be the same? to not think for ourselves? to not be expressive? 4. Cameron Brenchley, ED Releases New Report on Arts Education in U.S. Public Schools (EDgov Blog, 2012)

030


should art be confined to museums?

031


image 0.23

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032


if 5

40%-50% of learners are visual and if we are visual people

then...

5. Abbas Gilakjani, Visual, Auditory, Kinaesthetic Learning Styles and Their Impacts on English Language and Teaching (Journal of Studies in Education 2, no. 1 2012)

033

image 0.35


why are all our surfaces blank when we are not ? 034


so...

why do people express themselves more online than in the physical world? maybe because...

035


our environment doesn’t support diversity

image 0.36

036


why do we need diversity?

A HEALTHY BRAIN REQUIRES

CONSTANT

NEW

STIMULI

image 0.37

037


stimulus is a detectable change in the internal or external environment 6 Without constant stimuli, the brain becomes bored and eventually depressed.

6. Biology-Online Dictionary, Stimulus, (2014)

038


thousands displaced for construction of star architecture. brazil spends millions on iconic buildings while poverty inclines dramatically. qatar funds million dollar stadium that kills thousands. calatrava conference center collapses in oviedo. city accepts star architect’s design at three times over budget. why seek iconic buildings to put a city on the map when the city itself can be iconic? star architecture lacks sense of place and is a symbol of ego in cities of little confidence. thousands displaced for construction of star architecture. brazil spends millions on iconic buildings while poverty inclines dramatically. qatar funds million dollar stadium that kills thousands. calatrava conference center collapses in oviedo. city accepts star architect’s design at three times over budget. why seek iconic buildings to put a city on the map when the city itself can be iconic? star architecture lacks sense of place and is a symbol of ego in cities of little confidence. thousands displaced for construction of star architecture. brazil spends millions on iconic buildings while poverty inclines dramatically. qatar funds million dollar stadium that kills thousands. calatrava conference center collapses in oviedo. city accepts star architect’s design at three times over budget. why seek iconic buildings to put a city on the map when the city itself can be iconic? star architecture lacks sense of place and is a symbol of ego in cities of little confidence. thousands displaced for construction of star architecture. brazil spends millions THE CURRENT SOLUTION FOR DIVERSITY on iconic buildings while poverty inclines dramatically. qatar funds million dollar stadium that kills thousands. calatrava conference center collapses in oviedo. city accepts star architect’s design at three times over budget. why seek iconic buildings to put a city on the map when the city itself can be iconic? star architecture lacks sense of place and is a symbol of ego in cities of little confidence. thousands displaced for construction of star architecture. brazil spends millions on iconic buildings while poverty inclines dramatically. qatar funds million dollar stadium that kills thousands. calatrava conference center collapses in oviedo. city accepts star architect’s design at three times over budget. why seek iconic buildings to put a city on the map when the city itself can be iconic? star architecture lacks sense of place and is a symbol of ego in cities of little confidence. thousands displaced for construction of star architecture. brazil spends millions on iconic buildings while poverty inclines dramatically. qatar funds million dollar stadium that kills thousands. calatrava conference center collapses in oviedo. city accepts star architect’s design at three times over budget. why seek iconic 039 buildings to put a city on the map when the city itself can be iconic? star archi-

ICONIC BUILDINGS


image 0.38

040


are iconic bu

ildin

gs or w th lives?

041

image 0.39


ZAHA HADID’S STADIUM 7 COSTS LIVES The construction of the al - Wakrah stadium has resulted in over 882 perished workers. “I have nothing to do with the workers.”

Cities will pay any price for a trademark building, even human lives.

7. Vanessa Quirk, Zaha Hadid on Worker Deaths in Qatar (ArchDaily 2014)

042


CALATRAVA BLEEDS 8 VALENCIA DRY

“Valencia sues star architect for crumbling opera house at the city of arts. The architect has been sued tens of millions of dollars over the course of his projects which often see construction delays and exorbitant expenses.” 8. Deezen, Architect Santiago Calatrava Accused of Bleeding Valencia Dry (2012)

043

image 0.40


MIT SUES GEHRY 9

The $300 million Stata Center in Cambridge, has caused leaks to spring, masonry to crack, mold to grow, and drainage to back up. MIT paid an additional $1.5 million to hire another firm to rebuild the amphitheater that was destroyed by damages from drainage. 9. Robin Pogrebin, MIT Sues Frank Gehry (The New York Times, 2007)

image 0.41

044


can human expression become the

physical environment?

045


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046


which space would image 0.54

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you rather use? image 0.55

048


Chapter 01: Awakening

While a resurgence of diversity

Visualize your physical environment,

as a thriving species of architecture is

the

buildings,

landmarks,

colors,

unlikely, it is possible to alter the per-

smells, sounds you’re familiar with.

ception of the familiar to unfamiliar. A

What would your perception be like if

new perception generates a new envi-

this familiar environment became the

ronment and in turn, diversity thrives.

platform for a plot you might find in a

How can the built environment encour-

video game and the mind set and per-

age this transition? How can design

ceptions of the virtual world were ap-

encourage the ability to perceive the

plied to the physical world.

environment as an experience and expression of choice?

Suddenly ordinary activities such as your commute to work are no longer

Alternate reality Gaming (ARG)

just that. It is an experience in which

is an interactive networked narrative

you perceive your environment as a

that uses the physical world as a plat-

catalyst for your imagination and en-

form and uses transmedia storytelling

tertainment.

to deliver a story that may be altered by players’ ideas or actions. It is a pro-

A change in perception can

cess, or game, that trains the mind to

transform a surface into a map of

perceive the environment in an unfa-

clues. A sidewalk becomes a trail. A

miliar way, thus experiencing an alter-

vacant lot becomes the center of a

nate reality.

complex network of human exchange, interaction, and creativity.

049


050


“

ONE MORNING,

you are on your way to work, class, or whatever your duty your routine life has determined for you. Nearly everyday is the same. You get up at the same time and attend to your responsibility within a man made society that was initially created for your comfort distant from the natural world.

051

�


image 1.00

052


You wonder if you have any plans scheduled for later and you filter through your options. Gym, dinner, movie, bar, or, if you’re feeling daring, possibly all four? Unfortunately, the breaks you take in your routine don’t venture far from it. In fact your spontaneous decisions, are quite... well...predictable.

Yesterday, during the commercial break of your favorite Thursday night show, you saw a preview for the latest blockbuster movie and the opening of a new bar near by.

These options were determined for you so you can lead a comfortable life. You may, without question very easily continue your entire life span never seeking out options for yourself.

053


Cowboys vs Aliens Prequal Part II or something like that

In Theaters Everywhere Go see it

image 1.01

054


“SUDDENLY, you realize you completely FORGOT to send that very important e-mail that demanded your immediate attention!!! Do you remember to do anything these days?�

055


BUT in the moment you reach for your cellular phone, you spot a highly peculiar poster.�

056


057

image 1.02


forgot that email...what the... alternate reality? #icoulduseone

Forgot my lunch again...

conference call at 9, board meeting at 11...

is the proposal due tomorrow or wednesday?

ugh... is the bus late again?

image 1.03

did I forget my phone?

058


image 1.04

“For a mere instant, the poster makes you almost but not quite, stop in your tracks.�

059


image 1.05

However, you still continue to think about it for the rest of the day.�

060


A SINGLE TRANSITION

LASTS A LIFETIME

Join your local alternate reality 061

image 1.06


“

The more you think about it, the more you realize just how repetitive your life has become.

�

062


CURIOSITY TO EXPLORE THIS UNFAMILIAR TERRITORY COMPELS YOU TO DOWNLOAD THE APP VIA THE QR CODE

REGISTER LOGIN

063


SCAN

0

STATUS .01

level 3 / 5

20% complete

ptember

.01

.01

nlock

EMAIL EMAIL PASSWORD PASSWORD

37 days remaining

level 1 / 5

0% complete

Day 54 10.23.15

now

0 meters

STATUS

.01

LOCATOR LOCATOR

KEY KEY

SCANNER SCANNER

ALERTS ALERTS

RADAR RADAR

STATUS STATUS

RADIO RADIO

MESSENGER MESSENGER

CAMERA CAMERA

7PM Tune into radio channel “EdgeWalker”

x

!!

AGEAGE

from from BlackBlack HoleHo to

toWorm Worm HoleH

90 days remaining

Day 1 9.05.15

7PM Tune into radio channel “EdgeWalker”

GENDER GENDER

text

BEGIN BEGIN code 2D

3D

video

REGISTER REGISTER WITH WITH FACEBOOK FACEBOOK

Today

List Day Month

DANGER DANGER INList 50 IN METERS 50 Today DayMETERS Month

90 DAYS / 12 WEEKS / 3 MONTHS / ONE SEASON SEPTEMBER - NOVEMBER 2015

7 min 7 min (.2 (.2 mile) mile)

image 1.07

064


WHO TO KNOW 065

image 1.08


image 1.09

066


067

image 1.10


DIGITS In your current reality, you

awoken from within.

are just a number. A small

It can be argued that the individual is an inherent qual-

pawn part of a larger game,

What is the best distraction

ity to human kind, but such

controlled by an endless

to begin with? An object

a theory can only be proven

hierarchy that has become

Digits have at all times as an

by awakening this quality in

lost in its own power. Your

extension of what they iron-

Millenials, who were born

freedoms are determined

ically perceive as their iden-

without the opportunity to

for you. Your desires, deci-

tity. The cellular phone. Or

perceive their environment

sions, and behavior are all

better yet, the smart phone.

for themselves.

influenced by the hierar-

Ipad or computer for others.

chy. You are predicable and caught in your own routine, distracted by various pre-

IN ANOTHER REALITY

determined responsibilities

In another reality, Digits are

and trivial pastimes that

a target audience. Millenni-

allow you to be easily con-

al. These Digits are native

trolled.

to a society that suppresses individuality through media

The primary step to awaken

and technology. Born into

the individual within the dig-

a new world defined by the

it, is by attempting contact

capabilities of the latest

within the distractions that

machine and the limited

subdue their individuality.

imagination of the most re-

The individual will then be

cent television show.

068


069

image 1.11


EDGEWALKERS This is you. Whatever re- IN ANOTHER REALITY

INDIVIDUALS

mains of the individual in-

In another reality, Edgewalk- These are the Edgewalk-

side you, has desperately

ers are understood to be ers that have successfully

compelled you to transition

players of a game that trains completed

to an “expression-free” re-

the mind’s eye through a se- into their own alternate re-

ality. You are currently walk-

ries of tasks to perceive the alities.

ing on the edge between

familiar environment in an their environment is forever

two realities. The current

unfamiliar way.

the

transition

The perception of

altered. Individuals control

reality you know all too well,

what they believe to see,

determines

feel, smell, hear or imagine.

your

behav-

ior, decisions, and lifestyle. You must complete a rigorous journey to successfully transition into your alternate reality where you will be free to express your individuality.

070


KEEPERS The keepers are on a As long as they have conhunt for individuality. Get trol over the perception caught and you might be of your environment, they reset. They profit off of a control your lifestyle. A commercialized and con- life free to choose is a trolled society and suffer life worth escaping for, from the mind of the in- no matter how many atdividual. They hunt those tempts are necessary to who attempt to escape succeed. their grip on the masses.

071

image 1.12


in another reality... The keepers maintain the game through surveillance, assuring that it is running smoothly. In other words, this is the game security disguised as a character within the game.

image 1.13

072


from Black Hole

Awakening

.01

to

Worm Hole

mobile

LOCATOR

KEY

SCANNER

ALERTS

RADAR

STATUS

RADIO

MESSENGER

CAMERA

!

DANGER IN 50 METERS Decline Answer

073

7 min (.2 mile)

image 1.14


While familiarizing yourself with the app, your phone alarms you with an incoming call. An automatic male voice greets you,

“Welcome .01. The remaining human inside you has followed our signals and has brought you to us. We are happy to have found you. We are your guide to the local alternate reality. However, you must know your escape is not possible alone. Your partner .02 has what you need to escape. Only together, can you cross the realities. You must locate and retrieve .02, who has fallen into the hands of the keepers. We are waiting for you at the Spire to commence your journey. Remember your fate depends on .02. The longer you wait the greater the risk of your partner becoming reset.�

image 1.15

074


Chapter 02: The Escape The following series of events pertains

rely on teamwork to escape together.

to level one of five in the escape. The

The goal of this partnership is to cre-

narrative follows the Edgewalker’s ac-

ate a build up towards meeting this un-

tions throughout the first level. The

known .02, and hopefully spawning a

game takes place over the course of

lasting human interaction that would

three months, September through Oc-

have never occurred otherwise.

tober 2015. Players have 90 days total, 18 days to complete each level.

The events of the escape revolve around five vacant lots and one alley in

The escape is a multi-sensory, interac-

the downtown loop of Chicago Illinois.

tive, and social endeavor. Each player

Each lot has an integral role within the

is identified as .01 and has a partner

escape. The role of each lot and archi-

.02, who they must find to complete the

tectural intervention, was determined

escape with. However, both players in

by the site context and history, as well

the partnership believe to be .01 and

as the relationship to the game itself.

are unaware that they are perceived

as .02 by their partner. In other words both players in the pair are on a quest to save one another. By saving another, they save themselves. .01 and .02 do not meet until the last step of the last level, level five. They are trapped in the Keepers’ nest and 075


CHICAGO 2015

image 2.00

076


“

Welcome to the spire.

�

This is where one reality terminates and another begins. To prepare for this transition, you must enter the blackhole and allow the vortex to purge everything you believe to be real into the void. While you are here, clean your perceptions, transport your mind to a place purged of all characteristics. Take your thoughts to a place of nothingness. Once you leave the spire, you will be prepared to fill your mind with perceptions of your own. However, do not leave empty handed, receive the token that awaits you.

077


image 2.01

078


You follow the curves of the vortex until you arrive at the void. And you discover you’re not alone...

079

image 2.02


Surprisingly, you don’t hesitate before taking the plunge.

You must have really needed it...

image 2.03

080


081

image 2.04


“Purge everything you believe to be real into the void�

image 2.05

082


In the nucleus of the vortex you discover a countless amount of these soft objects. As advised, you retrieve one and scan it.

083

image 2.06


SCAN

1 30

STATUS level 3 / 5

20% complete

37 days remaining

Wednesday 2 September Day 54 10.23.15

Your Alternate Reality now danger aproaching at 50 meters

7PM Tune into radio channel “EdgeWalker�

x

lide to view

text

slide to unlock

code

2D

3D

video

Today

List Day Month

The scanner, reveals this is the die that will help you find your way.

image 2.07

084


BUT BEFORE YOU CAN USE IT, YOUR PHONE BEGINS TO SIREN! .01

LOCATOR

KEY

SCANNER

ALERTS

RADAR

STATUS

RADIO

MESSENGER

CAMERA

!

DANGER IN 50 METERS

085

7 min

image 2.08


image 2.09

086


follow the directed route to ESCAPE! from Black Hole to

Alternate Reality Radi

Worm Hole

.01 EdgeWalkers 2:38

ER IN 50 METERS

7 min (.2 mile)

087

image 2.10


image 2.11

088


and you escape through your neighborhood wormhole...

089

image 2.12


image 2.13

090


Turns out you’ll live to see another day.

091

image 2.14


“Congratulations .01, you have completed the first step of your escape.� After the exciting events, you decide to continue the escape another day.

092


Later that weekend...

093

image 2.15


To deteremine your next step, you are advised to roll the:

you received at the spire... It falls on red, and you are directed to the Keepers’ nest to steal their paint to use for your own defense. For safety percaution, you wear all red for camoflauge.

image 2.16

094


095

image 2.17


While taking as many paint bombs as you can carry, you notice the keepers have returned with a captured Edgewalker The only way you can escape is to...

096


ATTACK!

097

image 2.18


In the process of escaping, you freed a fellow Edgewalker! Your new friend informs you where to go to next. 098


099

image 2.19


You arrive at the division between both worlds. As an Edgewalker, you walk along this enlarging gap between human and commercial life.

100


101

image 2.20


When identity and the built environment divided, a new path emerged. A path to an alternate reality. Experiencing a space defined by separation, a space that represents the growing divide between yourself and your environment stimulates your awareness of your surroundings.

102


The conflict between culuture and the built environment unravels before your eyes. 103

image 2.21


104


eager to escape to an alternate reality, you decide to roll the die 105


image 2.22

106


E

D

D B F

A

C

107

A A

B C

B E

C B

D

C

F C

E B

A F

B

A

C

E A

B A E

C

image 2.23


“Find a friend or foe at the other end.” See where your luck will take you.

108


109

image 2.24


before you can find a friend,

the keepers find you.

image 2.25

110


111

image 2.26


But your luck hasn’t run out yet! Another Edgewalker helps you escape

112


113

image 2.27


image 2.28

114


1 30

Saturday 12 September Your Alternate Reality now listen for a message on the radio at 4pm slide to view

slide to unlock

115

image 2.29


4:00 Alternate Reality Radio

.01 EdgeWalkers 2:38

-1:16

“Congratulations .01, you’ve made it to the completion of level 1. You’ll find in your maps, how to ascend to the next level.”

image 2.30

116


117

image 2.31


0.01 28

posts

213

followers

following

Edit Your Profile

45 likes 0.01 On my way to level 2. #arg #mychicagopix

image 2.32

118


moving onto level two,

is a clue, about you 119

image 2.33


image 2.34

120


Is this the real life?

no escape from reality

is this just fantasy?

Open your eyes,

caught in the landslide,

look up to the skies

121

image 2.35


image 2.36

122


and see

123


THE MAKING OF

125


126


Chapter 03: Case Studies

127


128


129

image 3.00


The Jejune Institute was an art project that involved 10,000 partic11

ipants in San Fransisco from 2009 to 2011. The project began as a medium for locals to interact with the built environment and each other. It quickly grew from a simple scavenger hunt into a large scale fantasy / reality adventure known as alternate reality gaming.

By using the city as a platform for this game, architecture assumed a new role in the lives of the participants. As the game and the built environment became increasingly interwoven, the lines between reality and fantasy were blurred. Architecture began to foster a new found human identity.

Hundreds of artists participated in the development of the Jejune Institute. It was a mega collaborative project ranging from street art to performance art. Complex characters were brought to life with professional actors making the game increasingly convincing.

What was fiction became non-fiction through the actions of the participants. The game was a rare opportunity for people to live a story rather than passively watch or read a story that they would never have a chance to be a part of. For some it was an escape from a routine and predictable life. 11. Reyhan Harmanci, Interested in the Jejune Institute? (The New York Times 2011)

130


Alternate Reality Trans-media story telling

Antagonist Octavio Colman Esquire 131

image 3.01

image 3.02


Performance Art Players Protest Octavio’s Accomplices

image 3.03

Street Art Clues About The Protagonist: Eva

image 3.04

132


CHICAGO LOOP ALLIANCE 133

image 3.05


image 3.06

image 3.07

image 3.08

image 3.09

image 3.10

image 3.11

The CLA develops public spaces in Downtown Chicago to foster community and culture through identity. “Make way for People Down12

town.� The organization promotes place-making and revitalizing underused spaces for community use. Their designs are a collaborative effort to revitalize human identity in a sterile built environment. The Pop - Up Art Loop program transforms vacant storefronts into temporary art galleries open to the public until a permanent tenant is found. Pop-Up Art Loop improves the aesthetic quality of the loop as well as the character and livability of the space while promoting local artists. Spaces the CLA has revitalized range from underused parks, alleys, sidewalks, and vacant stores. The mission of the organization is to transform the city center from a commercial zone into a community where one can live, work, play, and foster small businesses. 12. Aj Latrace, Chicago Loop Alliance Summer Placemaking Series Returning (Curbed Chicago 2015)

134


CHRISTO & JEAN CLAUDE

image 3.12


Christo and Jean Claude’s simple but powerful installations, transform ordinary, familiar environments into the unfamiliar. This transformation creates diversity and a refreshing break in the sterile built environment. Such image 3.13

stimulus is an exciting surprise for spectators. These installations alter the environment from reality to living 13

fantasy. Architecture is transformed into a living illustration.

image 3.14

image 3.15

image 3.16 13. Life and Work, Christo and Jeanne-Claude. http://christojeanneclaude.net/life-and-work.

136


image 3.17

image 3.18

137

image 3.19

image 3.20


Heatherwick Studio’s Seed Cathedral for the Shanghai Expo represents an architecture that extends beyond four walls, a floor, and a roof. It is a direct manifestation of its materiality that creates an entirely unique spacial 14

quality. The design address space and architecture as an experience rather than an enclosure.

14. Sebastian Jordana, UK Pavilion for Shanghai World Expo 2010 (ArchDaily 2010)

138


Chapter 04: Behind the Design While many vacant lots and other un-

The history and site conditions of each

der used spaces are prime candidates

lot were primary influences of the de-

for an alternate reality game, the clus-

sign outcome and the philosophy be-

ter within Lakeshore East, just east of

hind the game itself.

Michigan Avenue and north of Millennium Park, is an ideal target area.

Downtown Chicago consists of multiple circulatory levels. One minute you

Each lot is only minutes away from

are at ground level and the next minute

each other by foot. Additionally the lots

you are suddenly three stories above

remain within eye sight of each other.

ground.

Lakeshore East is a quieter portion of

there are consistently three layers of

the downtown loop consisting of res-

vehicular and pedestrian roads. Ac-

idential and commercial skyscrapers.

cess points to these layers are located

The immediate surroundings include

a nearly every intersection. Skyscrap-

chain restaurants and stores. Overall,

ers benefit from these layers for ser-

the area does not have the entertain-

vice accessibility and parking.

Throughout the city fabric,

ment, attraction or diversity of other downtown zones.

This complex network of circulatory pathways has an essential role in the

The function, materiality, and form,

game. Vacant lots provide a rare exter-

of the installations were derived from

nal view of the layered city fabric. The

common elements found in game

installations link accessibility from one

structure as well as in science fiction.

layer to another.

139


140


01 In early 2007 the inescapable global economy was at full growth, consumption at its peak, and was due for a massive release that would ripple to all corners of the globe and generate a new era.

141


image 4.000

142


“A black hole came along to swallow Calatrava’s creation...and an alternate reality was born.”

144


Site 01 bares a scar of the Great Recession, a 100’ diameter hole remains of what would have been the second tallest building in the world, Calatrava’s Spire.

145


image 4.002

146


147

image 4.003


148


149

image 4.010


The remains of the Spire and the history behind its demise, translate into a black hole, serving as a point of ending and beginning within the game.

Just as the economy has its capacity and fluctuations, so does a black hole. Surges of compressed energy release from the black hole and form new galaxies.

Within the game, the black hole serves as a portal between the realities. It purges the perceptions of one reality so that the perceptions of another can be adopted.

150


151


isolated < open < vacant < unrestricted views circulation < multiple entry / exit < central / radial base < foundation < start < finish < restart

152


“Enter the blackhole and allow the vortex to purge everything you believe to be real.”

E NORTH WATER AVE

RE

E V I

R

D

O

CHICAGO RIVER

E

K A L

SH

VACANT LOT


entry / exit

views from

views to 154


PRECEDENTS reflection light

white

image 4.014

image 4.017

bright

serene

image 4.015

image 4.018

vortex searchlight

155

image 4.016

image 4.019


great recession < unavoidable global collapse < rock bottom < game over / try again black hole < inescapable vortex / vacuum < absorption < turns what has collapsed into new galaxies rebirth < resurrect < replenish < rejuvenate < restart < / start / pause < home base / limbo < rejuvenate < blank slate restart < quiet < calm / serene < pure / bright / light / white < cool / breezy < solitary / empty < eerie / mysterious 156


CONCEPT

The trampoline allows the players to enter the void and the process of jumping develops the experience of the mental cleanse.

image 4.020

image 4.021

image 4.022 157

image 4.023


image 4.025

The searchlight acts as a memorial to what could have been. Additionally it represents the energy emitted from a image 4.024

black hole. 158


159

image 4.026


image 4.027

160


161

image 4.028


image 4.029

162


02

Wrapped with highways on two sides, wormhole is an extension of the surrounding velocity.

163


image 4.030

164


Every game has a shortcut.

166


167

image 4.032


168


169

image 4.039


highway < intersection < transportation < accessibility

170


The clock is ticking, time to accelerate.

WATERSIDE DR

N

HORE WEST S

W

DR

AC

CHICAGO RIVER

K

ER

E

SH E K LA

O

IV R D RE


entry / exit

context

views from

views to

UP

vertical circulation image 4.041

172


PRECEDENTS signage neon colors

image 4.042

image 4.045

bright light wind

image 4.043

image 4.046

wormhole

slide

173

image 4.044

image 4.047


highway < speed < accelerate < velocity short cut < jump ahead < skip level < time warp speed < loud < windy < neon lights < warm

174


175

image 4.048


177

image 4.050


image 4.051

178


179


180


03

Hidden in a jungle of skyscrapers, the nest is a trap. Players only have minutes to escape before they are reset.

181


image 4.052

182


“Escape to your local alternate reality. Don’t get caught.”

184


185


image 4.060

186


187

image 4.061


hidden < obscure < secret < trap

188


Get out before its too late.

LAKE MICHIGAN

DR

SH

W

AC K

FI EL

D

BL VD

ER

CHICAGO RIVER

N

KE LA

E OR


entry / exit

views from

image 4.063

views to

190


PRECEDENTS

image 4.064

image 4.065

191

image 4.066

image 4.067

enclosure

image 4.068

image 4.069


trap < obstacle < stuck < danger web < flexible < strechy < net < soft maze < confused < nervous < anxious < searching < exploring < escape

192


CONCEPT

image 4.070

image 4.071

image 4.072 193

image 4.073


image 4.074

image 4.075

image 4.076

image 4.077 194


195

image 4.078


image 4.079

196


image 4.080

197

image 4.081


199


200


04

Surpass each level and complete your transition into your local alternate reality.

201


image 4.083

202


â&#x20AC;&#x153;A single transition. Last a lifetime.â&#x20AC;?

204


205


image 4.091

206


207

image 4.092


levels < aqua tower < multiple horizontal planes < vertical & horizontal circulation

208


1 Season, 5 Levels

N COLUMBUS DR

R

N

D RK

PA

CHICAGO RIVER

E ON NT

BE PL


entry / exit

views from

image 4.094

views to

210


PRECEDENTS

211

image 4.095

image 4.098

image 4.096

image 4.099

image 4.097

image 4.100


levels < filter < vertical < horizontal < climb light < perforated < reflection

212


CONCEPT

213

image 4.101


215

image 4.103


image 4.104

216


217

image 4.105


image 4.106

218


219


220


05

Put your luck to the test. Find a friend or foe at the other end.

221


image 4.107

222


“Where are you? Who are you?”

224


225


image 4.115

226


227

image 4.116


circulation < multi-level < pedestrian < vehicular

228


Find your path.

N STETSON AVE

CHICAGO RIVER

AK EL T

ES


entry / exit

views from

image 4.118

views to

230


PRECEDENTS moving stairs

image 4.119

image 4.122

lighting design

image 4.120

image 4.123

spinning lights intersecting

231

image 4.121

image 4.124


mutli-level circulation < orientation < transportation < maze maze < perplexed < lost < disoriented disoriented < spinning < intersecting paths < repetition < enclosed

232


CONCEPT

233

image 4.125


image 4.126

234


235

image 4.127


image 4.128

236


image 4.129


image 4.130

238


239


240


06

Culture on one side, commercialization on the other. Which side are you on?

241


image 4.131

242


CONFLICT “The fault at Benton Place.”

244


245


image 4.139

246


247

image 4.140


opposition < theater vs chain pharmacy < culture vs commercial < mental vs physical health < separation

248


Survive the divide.

E RANDOLPH ST

T

ES

AK EL S

TE TA

ST


entry / exit

views from

image 4.142

views to

250


PRECEDENTS

image 4.143

image 4.144

image 4.146

image 4.147

transparency scaffold

image 4.145 251

image 4.148


conflict < division < separate < break break < earthquake < split < cave

252


253

image 4.149


image 4.150

254


255

image 4.151


image 4.152

256


Conclusion

Although the built environment and

LOST IDENTITY

culture remain on a steady course to-

KATHERINE ETON PROFESSOR RENO SPRING 2015

wards globalization, it can be certain Why do people express themselves more online than in the physical world?

that human identity will inevitably find

Maybe because our environment does not support diversity. In the U.S.A alone, we surround ourselves with

a way to thrive. One question remains;

2,674,825

B

paved miles

commercial buildings

How can identity return as a primary

i

influence of the physical environment?

L A

4.7 million

N K

that are...

IS THE PHYSICAL WORLD NOT INTERESTING ENOUGH?

ALTERNATE REALITY GAMING [ARG] An interactive networked narrative that uses the physical world as a platform and uses transmedia storytelling to deliver a story that may be altered by playerʼs ideas or actions. A process, or game, that trains the mind to perceive the environment in an unfamiliar way, thus experiencing an alternate reality.

THE KEEPERS

EDGEWALKERS

The keepers are on a hunt for individuality. Get caught and you might be reset. They profit off of a commercialized and controlled society and suffer from the mind of the individual.

This is you. Whatever remains of the individual inside you, has desperately compelled you to transition to an “expression-free” reality. You are currently walking on the edge between the two realities.

In another reality, They are the game security disguised as a character within the game.

In another reality, Edgewalkers are the players of the game.

CHICAGO 2015 THREE MONTHS

257

SIX VACANT LOTS FIVE LEVELS

image 5.1


“To commence your transition, you must under-go a reality cleanse. To help you with this process, enter the nucleus of the blackhole and release all that you believe to exist into the vacuum.”

“Are the keepers onto you? Experience the thrill of escape through your neighborhood wormhole. Just donʼt take the wrong turn.”

“Found yourself in the keeperʼs hive? Find your way out before youʼre trapped. ”

“Youʼre ready to excel to the next level of your journey. Pass this multi sensory climb and youʼll be on your way to the top.”

Is this the real life, Is this just fantasy...

E

D

D B F

A

C

A A

B C

B E

DC

C

F C

E B

A F

B

A

C

E A

B A E

C B

“You wonʼt always need to know where you are headed in an alternate reality or what awaits you at the other end.”

WHAT YOUʼLL NEED WHAT YOUʼLL NEED

“A path emerged from within the division between commercial and human life. Follow this route to discover the balance between the two worlds.”

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SCANNER

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7PM Tune into radio channel “EdgeWalker”

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Works Cited Abel, Chris. Architecture and Identity. New York:

Gilakjani, Abbas Pourhossein. “Visual, Auditory,

Kinaesthetic Learning Styles and Their

Impacts on English Language Teaching.”

Journal of Studies in Education, 2012,

Routledge, 2000.

Adam, Robert. Globalisation and Architecture.

1332 ed. Vol. 223. London: Architectural

Review, 2008.

107. Hall, Edward. Beyond Culture. Garden City. N.Y.:

“Architect Santiago Calatrava Accused of Bleed

ing Valencia Dry” - Guardian - Dezeen.”

Dezeen. May 9, 2012. Accessed May

26, 2015. http://www.dezeen.com/2012/

05/09/architect-santiago-calatrava-ac cused-of-bleeding-valencia-dry-guard ian/.

Anchor Books, 1981.

Harmanci, Reyhan. “Interested in the Jejune In

stitute? It’s Not Too Late.” The New York

Times. April 21, 2011. Accessed May

26, 2015. http://www.nytimes.

com/2011/04/22/us/22bcculture.html. Latrace, Aj. “Chicago Loop Alliance Summer

“Articles with Images Get 94% More Views than

Placemaking Series Returning.”

Those without.” B2B Marketing. August

Curbed Chicago. April 15, 2015. Ac

23, 2013. Accessed May 26, 2015.

cessed May 26, 2015. http://chica

http://www.b2bmarketing.net/news/

go.curbed.com/archives/2015/04/15/

archive/research-news-articles-images-

activate-placemaking-series.php.

get-94-more-views-those-without. Mielach, David. “Americans Spend 23 Hours Per Brenchley, Cameron. “ED Releases New Report

Week Online, Texting.” BusinessNews

on Arts Education in U.S. Public

Daily.com. July 2, 2013. Accessed

Schools.” EDgov Blog. April 3, 2012.

May 26, 2015. http://www.business

Accessed May 26, 2015. http://www.

newsdaily.com/4718-weekly-online-so

ed.gov/blog/2012/04/ed-releases-new report-on-arts-education-in-u-s-public schools/. Burt, Chernow. Christo and Jeanne-Claude: A

259

Biography. New York: St. Martin’s, 2002.

cial-media-time.html.


Pogrebin, Robin, and Katie Zezima. “M.I.T.

Sues Frank Gehry, Citing Flaws in

Center He Designed.” The New York

Times. November 6, 2007. Acessed

May 26, 2015. http://www.nytimes.

com/2007/11/07/us/07mit.html?_r=0. Qian, Yin. When Culture Meets Architecture.

Profession Design Press Co, 2012.

“Stimulus.” - Biology-Online Dictionary. Ac

cessed May 26, 2015. http://www.biolo

gy-online.org/dictionary/Stimulus. “The World Factbook.” Central Intelligence

Agency. 2012. Accessed September 20,

2014. https://www.cia.gov/Library/publi

cations/the-world-factbook/fields/2085.

html. U.S. Department of Energy, “Energy Efficiency

and Renewable Energy.” (2008): 4. Ac

cessed September 20, 2014. http://

apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/publi cations/pdfs/corporate/bt_stateindustry. pdf

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Lost Identity: Diversity In Architecture / Katherine Eton Architecture Thesis  

While life is mostly virtual, is there a need for human expression in the physical world? Architecture Thesis, Chicago, Virtual vs Physical,...

Lost Identity: Diversity In Architecture / Katherine Eton Architecture Thesis  

While life is mostly virtual, is there a need for human expression in the physical world? Architecture Thesis, Chicago, Virtual vs Physical,...

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