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SUSTAINABLE GROUNDS DEVELOPMENT Framingham State University Framingham, Massachusetts Spring 2012

Kate Cholakis | Laura Rissolo Land People Habitat LLC


SUSTAINABLE GROUNDS DEVELOPMENT Framingham State University Framingham, Massachusetts Spring 2012

Kate Cholakis | Laura Rissolo Land People Habitat LLC


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thanks to Nate McCullin and Kristin Desouza of the New England Wildflower Society for offering information about soils and maintenance during a consultation at Garden in the Woods in Framingham, Massachusetts. Their knowledge of plant communities native to New England is impressive and inspiring. The term “Nature-Inspired Associations” (introduced in Proposed Design Strategy) derives from Sue Reed’s Energy-wise Landscape Design (2010). Her text is highly recommended by the authors of this report. Our gratitude also extends to the Department of Capital Asset Management in Boston for continual support and guidance (particularly David Lynch, Altaf Mulla, and Schuyler Larrabee), to project client Warren Fairbanks, and to Bradley Mellen of grounds maintenance.

COPYRIGHT The drawings, images, and specifications in this document, including the ideas, designs, and arrangements represented thereby, are, unless otherwise noted, the property of Land People Habitat LLC. No part thereof shall be copied, disclosed to others or used in connection with any work or project other than the specified project for which they have been prepared without the express written consent of Land People Habitat LLC.


CONTENTS Executive Summary Project Goals and Structure Defining Sustainable Landscaping

2 4 5

Phase 1: Preliminary Design/Project Development Context: Geological Ecological Social Context Summary Current Landscape Management Practices Proposed Design Strategy Design Strategy Applied to Campus

7 8 10 15 16 17 19 20

Phase 2: Landscape Designs and Maintenance Strategies Scheme 1: Adaptation (Application to McCarthy Center Hillside) Scheme 2: Nature-Inspired Associations (Application to Peirce/Athletic Center Lane) Scheme 3: Ecological Edge (Application to Athletic Center Hillside) Scheme 4: Woodland Stewardship

21 22 28 34 42

Future Considerations for Sustainability

44

Conclusion

46

References Appendices Appendix A: Plant Palettes Appendix B: Estimates Appendix C: Specifications

48 50 51 59 62


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY A SHIFT IN APPROACH State universities continue to make strong efforts to bring sustainability to their campuses through capital and curriculumrelated projects. However, these efforts have not yet been paired with strategies for improving the sustainability of the landscape. Framingham State University, an institution noted for its commitment to reducing its carbon footprint, has begun to move in this direction: in January 2012, FSU contracted Land People Habitat LLC to develop a Sustainable Grounds Development Plan for the campus landscape. This document contains the work completed under this contract, and explores the existing conditions of the landscape and the needs and desires of the community in order to propose design and maintenance schemes that will close the loop of sustainability at the university. The New England university campus is a highly manipulated and maintained environment. Lawn grass is mowed at an even height, and mulch is contained within clearly defined plant beds. Although the degree of care represented by this landscape is impressive and can have a pleasing effect, the ways in which it is maintained have less positive implications for the environment and for the university’s budget: maintenance relies on a great amount of fossil fuel consumption, strenuous human labor, and financial resources. Drawing ecology into highly manipulated landscapes holds many benefits, including a long-term reduction in landscape expenses, an increase in the landscape’s ability to support native plants and animals, and an improvement in landscape experience.

Drawing ecology into these formal landscapes demands a thoughtful and informed orchestration of the regeneration of natural plant communities. Although nature has a compelling ability to regenerate in absence of human intervention, completely stopping maintenance within the landscape could result in a messy appearance. Furthermore, the unique geological context of campus (FSU is located atop a glacial drumlin) and long history of soil manipulation (for agriculture and use as an educational institution) underline the need for site-specific design solutions. These solutions must balance the needs of the people with the needs of the greater ecosystem. Four schemes have been developed for application to the campus. These schemes offer varying levels of formality and maintenance, and their application responds to the programming of buildings, circulation patterns, and proximity to the center of the campus. Although these schemes will increase ecological diversity, they do not seek to transition the campus into a large-scale restoration project. Rather, they seek to return ecological function to campus in ways that benefit both people and wildlife. This balance will require continued observation and transformation as changes in climate and university programming take place. The ability to adapt to change is a tenet of sustainability.

Natural regeneration of plant communities is already happening on campus. An unmaintained hillside in the photo above is covered with unmown grasses and shrubs. Small interventions and additions of plant material would transition this space into a visually appealing, culturally acceptable, low-maintenance space.

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College campuses are highly manipulated environments. Grass is mowed at an even height, and mulch is contained around plants. These landscapes are highly visible to students, faculty, administration, staff, visitors, and the public. They demand a high level of formality.

Ecological landscape designers draw ecological functioning into these highly manipulated environments in order to increase diversity, reduce maintenance, and improve appearance.

If highly maintained landscapes are completely abandoned, they can appear messy and uncared for. This illustrates the need to guide change.

Although nature has the ability to regenerate, this process is slow and is interfered with by invasive plants.

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PROJECT GOALS AND STRUCTURE PROJECT GOALS Project goals emerged from discussions with the client (Warren Fairbanks) and grounds maintenance (Bradley Mellen). The goals also respond to conversations held during a meeting in November 2011 with the Massachusetts Department of Capital Asset Management (DCAM) in Boston. As the diagram communicates, both general and more specific goals were created to guide project development. Multi-scaled goals support a safe-to-fail approach, where smaller, low-risk pilot projects serve as experiments working towards the larger goals. As was mentioned at the November DCAM meeting, college campuses can be positioned as venues for experimentation with sustainable strategies.

Introducing ecological function to highly manipulated landscapes concerns the interplay between people (the FSU community) and nature (the land). All of the goals are tethered to the needs of both.

Define Landscape Experience

LAND

Improve Sustainability

FSU Community

Improve Maintenance Efficiency

PROJECT STRUCTURE The project consists of two phases: Phase 1: Preliminary Design/Project Development This phase was presented to Framingham State University faculty and administration on May 3, 2012. The goals of the presentation were to introduce the dynamics and benefits of sustainable landscaping and to initiate a dialogue with the community. Attendees of the presentation included client Warren Fairbanks, university president Timothy Flanagan, Bradley Mellen and the grounds maintenance crew, representatives from Admissions and Campus Police, representatives from the Massachusetts Department of Capital Asset Management (DCAM) and other members of the Framingham State community. This phase included the following: • Researching context • Identifying sites for potential pilot projects on campus • Analyzing existing conditions • Generating design strategies

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Integrate Ecological Function Reinforce Regional Identity Undertake Pilot Projects Foster Landscape Stewardship

Phase 2: Site-Specific Landscape Plans with Maintenance Strategies Incorporating information and feedback from Phase 1, this phase of the project entailed creating planting plans and maintenance strategies for three selected sites on the campus.

SUSTAINABILITY LANDSCAPE?

WHAT DOES LOOK LIKE IN THE

How do we make the FSU campus more

resilient, diverse, & ecologically functional

while fostering a unique sense of place?

Join the Discussion May 3rd | 1:00pm Alumni Room [3rd floor of the McCarthy Center]

Preview FSU’s Sustainable Grounds Maintenance Plan presented by Kate Cholakis & Laura Rissolo

Poster announcing the presentation of Phase 1 to the community.

KATE CHOLAKIS AND LAURA RISSOLO


DEFINING SUSTAINABLE LANDSCAPING ALIGNING LAND USE PRACTICES Sustainable landscape design and management seeks to align land use practices with the continual change and rhythm of natural systems. This alignment requires the following: •

Understanding the environmental conditions within a landscape, including human use patterns and aesthetic expectations, in order to create meaningful places of lasting stewardship

Recognizing the interconnectedness of environmental, social, and economic systems, and making imaginative, sensible, and responsible decisions both locally and globally

Striving towards self-sustaining landscapes that require minimal resource inputs, such as fertilizer, pesticides, and water

Conserving ecologically-functioning areas

Managing for biodiversity to promote resilient landscapes that can recover quickly from disturbance

Expanding design considerations to recognize minute, distant, and future effects; creating a method for how the maintenance of the landscape can change over time to accommodate shifts in peoples’ desires and needs

Fostering a culture of landscape appreciation that permeates the community, inspiring people to consider how their choices impact the environment

At the Erie Art Museum in Pennsylvania, grasses and perennials are allowed to grow tall, stitching together to form a diverse and eye-catching landscape.

At UMass Amherst, a rain garden processes stormwater and activates the landscape with an array of perennials, grasses, shrubs, and small trees.

Sustainable landscape design and management is inherently interdisciplinary, requiring collaboration between professionals from different fields and between groups of people that form the community that occupies and takes care of the landscape.

At the Whitney Water Purification Facility in Connecticut, native grasses reduce mowing, irrigation, and other inputs. Walking paths allow people to experience this dynamic landscape.

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Native grasslands weave through the landscape at the Storm King Fine Arts Center in New Windsor, New York. Maintenance is reduced, and display areas for large-scale sculptures are created using mow lines. Sustainable landscaping can be as artful as it as efficient.

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PHASE 1 Preliminary Design/Project Development

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CONTEXT OVERVIEW Guiding the transition from a high to low-input landscape requires studying the patterns of change in the landscape and the change in the needs and desires of the community. This research serves as not only a source of inspiration and means of connecting people with the landscape, but also a means of revealing the story of the landscape to best guide and predict future change. Understanding the unique set of adaptations of people and place helps to create meaningful places of lasting care.

How has the natural history of the land affected ecological and human land use? What are the implications of this history for present-day land management? Contextual studies use mapping, direct observation, and research to explore these inquires.

FSU

Glacial drumlins, running north-south, dot the Framingham landscape.

CONTEXT: GEOLOGICAL Geologic history has the most long-term and ubiquitous influence on how the natural history of the land affects ecological and human land use patterns. The most recent defining geologic event was over 10,000 years ago, when the most recent glaciation caused the formation of glacial drumlins, the present and defining landform of the FSU campus. Drumlins are elongated hills left behind as the glaciers retreated northward. The FSU campus occupies a drumlin in Framingham. Taking a larger perspective reveals that a number of drumlins dot the landscape, running parallel to the direction of the ice flow that once covered the town. Geologic history influenced the distribution of soil throughout Framingham, which in turn guided land use. The least populated areas of the city are hilly and dotted with large rock outcrops and poorly draining soils. Densely populated areas (downtown Framingham and Route 9) are flatter with soils more suited to construction. Occupying one of the drumlins, the FSU campus topography is unique, demanding a closer examination of soil type and structure.

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Framingham Surface Geology

FSU

KEY

Course deposits including gravel Fine deposits including very fine sand, silt, and clay Thin till - thin layer of sand, silt, and a little clay Thick till - thick layer of sand, silt, and a little clay Areas of abundant outcrop or shallow bedrock

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Map Source: The Nature of Framingham

Three types of context are relevant to Framingham State University: • Geological Context: Studying implications for soils, vegetation and ecology, and human land use • Ecological Context: Identifying corridors of human, water, and wildlife movement • Social Context: Researching the cultural history of the site and examining the university’s visions for the future

Map Source: The Nature of Framingham

Context is the study of change that characterizes the land’s natural and cultural histories, considering change on multiple scales and over time.


CONTEXT: GEOLOGICAL DRUMLIN SOILS

DRUMLIN TOPOGRAPHY

Drumlin soil typically has thin topsoil (A Horizon) atop glacial till. The glacial till consists of unsorted materials deposited by the glacier upon retreat. These materials include sand, silt, clay, and boulders that are mixed together.

The three-dimensional dome-like shape of the drumlin creates numerous smaller microclimates: different areas have varying levels of exposure to sunlight (aspect), varying drainage patterns, and varying vegetation suited to these conditions. Therefore, each site must be designed according to the specific microclimate and conditions of the space.

A cross section of the soils created for FSU by GZA Geoenvironmental confirms this soil structure: • The campus landscape contains pockets of deep topsoil that create ideal growing conditions for many plants. • However, in other areas dense glacial till and a silt-clay layer contribute to poor drainage, possibly resulting in excess runoff. The mixed particles in the glacial till limit the types of plants that can grow in these conditions.

>25’

N W

S

Boulder

8”-6’ Topsoil 8”-25’

E

Glacial Till - Dense Sand and Loam, 20% Gravel Glacial Till - Silt and Clay >25’, >50’ Bedrock

Garden Beds

SOIL SAMPLES Obtaining soil samples from the landscape revealed more specific characteristics. Three representative plots (woodlands, garden beds, turf lawn) were chosen and samples were submitted to the UMASS Agricultural Extension. Soil tests suggest how the soil deposited by glaciers thousands of years ago has been and continues to be manipulated. Findings: Woodland Site • Baseline: These areas of young forest are likely the least chemically manipulated sites on campus; their characteristics relate most directly to the nature of soils deposited by glaciers. • pH 5.1 (typical New England soils are between 4.5-5.5) • Adequate organic matter • Good growing conditions for deciduous trees and ericaceous shrubs and groundcovers

Woodland

Findings: Turf Areas • Seasonally fertilized and limed to raise pH to maintain high quality turf (pH 6.7) • High levels of Calcium and Potassium • Adequate organic matter • Weeds controlled by preemergent herbicide • Irrigated • Good growing conditions for turf grass are achieved through continual manipulation of the site conditions. • The soil characteristics relate to inputs applied to the lawn.

SUSTAINABLE GROUNDS DEVELOPMENT

Turf Areas

Findings: Garden Beds • Receive inadvertent fertilization/ lime when adjacent to lawn areas (pH 6.7) • High organic matter, likely from annual bark mulch application • High levels of Calcium and Magnesium • Appropriate growing conditions for many landscape plants • Lead level found to be in the medium range, food production not an option. Limit soil contact. • The soil in these beds is capable of supporting a diversity of plants. However, these beds are planted with a limited range of plants.

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CONTEXT: ECOLOGICAL LAND USE HISTORY The high level of soil manipulation prompted a study of land use history. This revealed that prior to use as a college campus, the FSU landscape was cleared of all vegetation for agricultural purposes. This history, combined with ongoing soil manipulation to serve the needs of an educational institution, has drastically changed the native vegetation that once occupied the site. This manipulation is common for drumlins in New England: clearcutting and cultivating occurred throughout this area of the country. Restoring a plant community that once occupied the drumlin is difficult. Centuries of manipulation have drastically altered the species composition. The Society of American Foresters (SAF) has generated forest zones that offer insight into the types of forests that were present in New England prior to European settlement. These communities are likely to develop in absence of disturbance and human intervention. Maps from the SAF reveal that FSU is located between two zones, the Transition and Central Hardwoods (Zones 3 and 4): • Zone 3: Transition Hardwoods (White Pine-Hemlock): Beech, birch, maple, oaks, hickories, native hardwoods. Hilltops and sandy areas have oak, hickory, white pine, paper birch, aspen. • Zone 4: Central Hardwoods (Hemlock-White Pine): Black oak, red oak, white oak, shagbark and butternut hickories. Hemlock and white pine on sandy sites. Some red maple, chestnut oak, scarlet oak, black birch.

Existing canopy trees lack underplantings that are associated with them in naturally-occurring plant communities.

EXISTING VEGETATION Many of these tree species currently exist on campus either in the form of canopy trees underplanted with lawn or in the form of low-grade woodlands towards the periphery of campus. The canopy trees lack shrub and herbaceous plant associations that would, in a forest setting, support their health. The woodlands are unmanaged, fragmented, and compromised by invasive plants. Mimicking natural plant communities by underplanting the existing canopy trees can help guide the university towards a more selfsustaining, low input landscape.

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The health of unmanaged woodlands along the periphery of campus is compromised by invasive species and erosion.

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CONTEXT: ECOLOGICAL INVASIVE SPECIES

Exotic invasive plants further manipulate the ecological characteristics of the landscape. Exotic invasive plants are non-native, highly competitive plants that cause slow and long-term damage to native ecosystems and cultured landscapes. They aggressively compete for water, nutrients, light, and space, and are currently present in the garden beds, lawns, and woodlands of the campus. Exotic invasive plants can compromise the aesthetics of the campus, and once established become more difficult and costly to control. Management of invasive species across the entire campus is strongly recommended; efforts should focus on controlling the species present on campus and developing an early detection, monitoring and response plan.

Components of a Successful Plan:

Actively monitor campus edges, lawns, and garden area; all sites are susceptible, including those not yet colonized by exotic invasive species. Early detection and control of invasive plant populations will save time and money in the future. Keep accurate records: make notes on the Invasive Plants Maintenance Calendar of control methods used for each species (tools, equipment, chemicals), include dates and times, weather conditions, campus locations, and all personnel involved. This will provide a history for determining future management plans. Use only clean fill for any construction projects. Monitor new plantings for invasives that may have been present in soils. Partner with neighboring landowners: work with neighbors and neighboring organizations to achieve larger-scale invasive plant management success. Use chemical control as only one piece of your management strategy: develop a plan depending on the size and threat of a given species. In many cases, small populations can be removed manually. If chemical use is necessary, hire a licensed herbicide operator for medium to large invasive infestations.

Refer to the Invasive Plants Maintenance Calendar for timely management strategies.

Three Massachusetts-listed invasive species present on campus include (clockwise from top left): Japanese knotweed, Garlic mustard, and Barberry.

Characteristics of Invasive Plants: The following is a list of traits that permit invasive plants to be successful. Many plants display multiple characteristics. Reproductive strategies: Understanding an invasive plant’s reproductive strategy is key to its management. 1. Produce abundant, long-lived viable seeds. Plants such as garlic mustard can create seed banks that are viable for 7 years. 2. Reproduce asexually/vegetatively. Many invasive plants send up shoots after the main stem has been cut or broken, or can root sprout from even the smallest piece of root. 3. Timing of seed germination and leaf loss. Longer growing seasons allow many invasive plants to carry out photosynthesis longer and thus store a greater quantity of carbohydrates in their roots than most native plant species. 4. Seeds and/or roots are dispersed by wind, water, and/or animals. Invasive plants can be transported to new areas by a vector, this can include people and landscape materials. Survival strategies: 5. Have few pests or diseases in their new environment. 6. May produce toxic chemicals that make it difficult for other plants to grow. 7. Invade a range of sites. Most invasive plants are generalists, and can live in a wide variety of soil types, moisture regimes, and light conditions. 8. May form monocultures over large areas of land. This can make it almost impossible for native species to penetrate the site. - Information from the Vermont Landowner’s Guide to Invasive Plant Management (see References)

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CONTEXT: ECOLOGICAL CHANGE ACROSS SCALES Observing how invasive species spread across the landscape underlines the need to zoom out and study context across scales in order to consider how larger-scale factors influence the ecology of the site. Viewing the campus from this perspective revealed FSU’s connectedness with three types of corridors. These corridors facilitate the movement of people, resources, and wildlife throughout the greater region.

I-90

Retail/ Industrial Area

FSU

Retail/ Industrial Area

VEHICULAR CORRIDORS The campus is located near I-90 and Route 9, two highways that provide transportation for the community. Campus parking lots are an important amenity for the large commuter student population. Local retail centers provide access to goods and services. However, this high percentage of impermeable surfaces affects water quality and fragments valuable habitat. Impervious surfaces, including roads, paths, parking lots, building roofs, and even turf grass, can contribute to non-point-source runoff.

Retail/ Route 9 Industrial Area

The campus is located near major highways and industrial/retail areas. This high percentage of impervious surface drains into nearby surface waters and aquifers.

Non-point source runoff is stormwater containing pollutants, and comes from multiple sources as opposed to a single outfall pipe connected to an industrial plant. Impermeable surfaces accelerate the movement of polluted water into surface waters and aquifers. Runoff may carry oil, antifreeze, fertilizer, pesticides, and debris into valuable water resources.

FSU is part of the Sudbury-Assabet-Concord watershed. Non-point source pollution from landscaping practices can contribute to water quality concerns within this area.

HYDROLOGICAL CORRIDORS

GZA Geoenvironmental

Non-point source runoff from impervious surfaces contributes to water quality problems in Massachusetts waterbodies (SuAsCo Watershed Assessment Report). The Sudbury River and Baiting Brook, located at the base of the FSU drumlin, are part of the larger Sudbury-Assabet-Concord watershed. Many stretches of this watershed routinely fail water quality standards and experience extremes of water flow (flooding and drought as evidenced by summer water bans). All towns, including Framingham, contribute to the health or the degradation of the river. FSU’s location uphill from a degraded water system underscores the need to limit harmful influences on these resources. Although non-point source runoff is largely not regulated, assuming ownership for the impact of landscape management practices on local resources is a critical part of improving sustainability. The campus has an opportunity to serve as a model for all institutions within and beyond the watershed.

Water drains from the FSU campus to the Sudbury River and Baiting Brook. This map also highlights the close proximity of the campus to aquifers, wetlands, and ponds.

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CONTEXT: ECOLOGICAL Mitigating runoff from the campus has the potential to decrease flooding pressures downstream and protect water resources. This may incorporate: • Constructing bioswales, rain gardens, and adequate infiltration devices • Limiting lawn areas for increased uptake • Decreasing fertilizer use and other inputs • Irrigating during times of low rainfall to ensure the soil’s ability to absorb water

The text on FSU storm drains reads “Only Rain in the Drain.” However, fertilizer, lime, oil from vehicles, and debris frequently enter these drains.

Water Movement on Campus: runoff is concentrated on impervious roads and pathways. It is channeled into storm drains that transfer the runoff to an undisclosed location. The map below suggests how the topography of the drumlin and poorly draining soils contribute to the quickly-draining nature of the site.

Storm Drains on Campus Surface Water Movement

NORTH

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CONTEXT: ECOLOGICAL WILDLIFE CORRIDORS Improving the health of waterbodies can improve biodiversity within the watershed. A greenway proposed for the watershed links sites that are valued for habitat. The FSU campus is located just beyond the proposed SuAsCo Watershed Community Greenway; however, constructing ecologically functioning plant communities that support local wildlife can position the campus as a wildlife patch. FSU’s 50 acres can contribute to the health of wildlife in the region. The location of the campus on a drumlin and its proximity to waterways and greenways underline the relevance of mitigating runoff and contributing to biodiversity.

FSU has an opportunity to contribute to a proposed greenway in the watershed.

FSU

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CONTEXT: SOCIAL EMBRACING TRADITION There are two paralleling traditions that contribute to the current landscape character on campus: • Agrarian past: in the 1800s, the land atop the FSU drumlin was maintained for agriculture. A stone wall on Maynard Road reminds of this history. • Traditional New England college campus aesthetic: the college was founded as the nation’s first public university for the education of teachers in 1839. Ivy-clad brick buildings, views of the landscape, and walking paths began to distinguish the sense of place at this and other New England universities. Today, despite the landscape’s proximity to busy roads, people comment on FSU’s feeling of quiet New England. These traditions of public education and pastoral sense of place contribute to the social context and character of the modern landscape. Future changes made to the campus therefore must be infused with these defining characteristics.

U

MOVING INTO THE FUTURE The university has begun to build upon these traditions while embracing sustainability. Recent and current green initiatives include: • Generating Climate Action Plans and signing Governor Deval Patrick’s proposal for state schools to decrease their energy footprint • Becoming 1 of 22 colleges in Massachusetts added to the Princeton Review’s list of 311 green colleges in the U.S. • Taking on a campus-wide energy audit • Converting a 50-year-old power plant from oil to natural gas • Creating a student-led Green Team • Constructing a new LEED certified residential building (North Hall) with geothermal, rainwater collection for irrigation, and native plants The dedication of members of the FSU community, from students to the university president Timothy Flanagan, is remarkable. However, the appearance and maintenance of the landscape have yet to evolve with the changing needs and goals of the FSU community.

2012 climate action plan

“Turn Out the Lights” sign

FSU recycle bin

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CONTEXT SUMMARY IMPACTS OF CHANGE OVER TIME Looking at geological, ecological, and social context reveals how the landscape at FSU has been highly altered over time. • Geological history influenced general soil types and development patterns. FSU’s location on a drumlin has environmental implications related to drainage. • Soils and vegetation have experienced significant change due to the movement of people, water, and invasive plants across the landscape. • University efforts seek to align the university’s commitment to sustainability with large-scale concerns about water quality and ecosystem health. However, they do not address landscape management. The appearance and management strategies for the landscape have yet to evolve with the changing needs and goals of the Framingham State University community.

Erosion damage and weed infiltration in a plant bed on the FSU campus

Key Questions: How can the landscape and the university co-evolve to meet sustainability-driven goals? How can we shift the view of landscape elements from that of decorative around buildings to that of functional with respect to architecture, regional ecology, and university programming? How can this shift translate into less maintenance?

CURRENT MANAGEMENT PRACTICES The Framingham State University campus is meticulously cared for by the grounds crew. This attention to detail has preserved moments of true beauty within the campus. Mature canopy trees enclose the campus quad, and meandering pathways wind gracefully throughout the campus.

The campus is meticulously cared for. The campus quad is free of trash and plant debris.

However, the landscape is maintained with conventional landscape maintenance practices with environmental and budgetary implications: turf grass and ornamental plant beds require frequent inputs and labor. These planted areas do not function ecologically, and do not connect people with native plants evocative of this region of New England. As a result, the community has become disconnected from the rich ecological context and regional identity. Landscape management does not respond to inevitable change; rather, maintenance efforts seek to preserve a quintessential New England college campus aesthetic through the mowing of lawn grasses and planting of ornamental species. Lawn grasses and clover have extended over the shoveled edge.

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CURRENT LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ECOLOGICAL GRADIENT The designers developed an ecological gradient to describe how the FSU campus is maintained. The gradient is a spectrum tracking the amount of maintenance occurring on the landscape and the amount of ecological integrity. Ecological integrity refers to the ability of an ecosystem of plants, animals, and microorganisms to support themselves and one another. ECOLOGICAL GRADIENT At the far left end of the spectrum, landscapes are labor and input intensive. These landscapes tend to be low in ecological integrity due to the presence of monoculture lawn grasses and ornamental plants.

At the far right end of the spectrum, landscapes are minimally manipulated by people, and tend to have greater ecological integrity due to the increased diversity of native plants and layering of plant species.

High Maintenance

Low Maintenance

Maintenance

Ecological Integrity Limited Ecological Integrity

The majority of the campus falls within one location on the gradient. It is highly maintained and low in plant diversity, consisting of limited native species.

Maximized Ecological Integrity

The fragmented woodlands at the periphery of campus fall towards the right end of the spectrum. Although minimally maintained, they are subject to disturbance by erosion and trash disposal.

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CURRENT LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ECOLOGICAL GRADIENT: FSU CAMPUS Applying the gradient analysis to an aerial view of the campus reveals a lack of transition between highly-maintained areas (shown in orange and yellow) and the disturbed woodlands (shown in green). Transitional areas would function ecologically as edge communities and visually as buffers and borders. This map also reveals that much of the campus receives an equal and/or great amount of maintenance. Less visible areas with difficult access are still frequently mowed.

ECOLOGICAL GRADIENT High Maintenance

Low Maintenance

Maintenance

Ecological Integrity Limited Ecological Integrity

Maximized Ecological Integrity

Improving the ecologically integrity of both areas has many potential benefits. Healthy woodlands can mitigate stormwater runoff, uptake excess nutrients and pollutants (such as those in fertilizers), and stabilize steep slopes. More diverse and native landscaped areas would require less maintenance while connecting people with the rich ecological heritage of New England.

KEY

Neighboring Developed Land Unmaintained “Wild� Woodland Frequently Maintained Land Highly Maintained

NORTH

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PROPOSED DESIGN STRATEGY PROPOSED STRATEGY Contextual research demonstrated how there is limited evidence of the original, prior-to-human-settlement plant communities that once inhabited the FSU drumlin. Instead of restoring a community that once existed in this landscape, a more appropriate method for grounds development at the university is to reconstruct appropriate plant communities with regionally native plant associations and appropriate existing plants on campus.

The schemes require different degrees of intervention with the existing landscape. Schemes 3 and 4, although occurring at the periphery of campus, may require a greater degree of intervention with the existing landscape than is suggested below, in order to remove invasive plants that have colonized these areas. Applying these schemes will therefore demand continued observation and adaptation of these strategies.

This method is applied to the campus through the development of four design schemes. These schemes fall in different places along the ecological gradient: this serves to balance ecosystem needs with concerns for aesthetics and maintenance, guiding the integration of ecological function within a formal landscape. This process will increase the diversity and resilience of the landscape, while fostering a unique sense of place and memorable landscape experience for people. • Scheme 1: Adaptation - Removing and replacing invasive and non-functional ornamental plants and ground cover • Scheme 2: Nature-Inspired Associations Creating gardens inspired by patterns found in natural plant communities • Scheme 3: Ecological Edge - Creating transitional areas between the more highly maintained core of the campus and the woodlands beyond • Scheme 4: Woodland Stewardship - Practicing active conservation in the forested areas surrounding the campus

Rethinking landscape management and guiding change at Framingham State University is a community effort and a community opportunity to reconnect with ecology and forge bonds between university students, faculty, and staff.

Scheme 1: Adaptation

Degree of Intervention for Installation

Least

Greatest

Scheme 2: NatureScheme 3: Scheme 4: Inspired Ecological Woodland Associations Edge Stewardship

Maintenance

Ecological Integrity

ECOLOGICAL GRADIENT

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DESIGN STRATEGY APPLIED TO CAMPUS SCHEMATIC APPLICATION

COMPOST

Applying the four schemes to the campus responds to: • Site conditions (existing plant material, aspect, drainage) • Programming of specific buildings (proximity to academic buildings, student resources, parking lots) • Pedestrian and vehicular circulation patterns • Priorities set by the grounds maintenance crew

The compost area is centrally located on campus but screened from view by evergreen trees. It is infested with invasive and prolifically spreading Japanese knotweed. Spreading mulch and composted material from this site to plant beds across campus compromises the visual experience and ecological health of the campus. This, combined with the planned addition to Hemenway Hall, supports relocation of the compost area. Keeping this area on campus is critical to the convenience of maintenance and use of existing resources (leaf mulch). The proposed compost site, to the south of the McCarthy center, will fulfill these conditions while creating the possibility of connecting it with the community garden located in this area. Constructing dividers and screens will improve the functioning and appearance of the compost area.

The map below suggests a possible distribution of the schemes across the landscape. The next section introduces the schemes in greater depth, and presents their application to selected sites on campus.

KEY

Scheme 1: Adaptation Scheme 2: Nature-Inspired Associations Scheme 3: Ecological Edge Scheme 4: Woodland Stewardship

WO OD EC LA OL ND OG ST ICA EW LE AR DG DS E H

Current Compost Site

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Compost (above) is contaminated with Japanese knotweed, an invasive plant that can spread to garden beds through mulch application.

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PHASE 2 Landscape Designs and Maintenance Strategies

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SCHEME 1: Adaptation ADAPTATION IS APPLIED TO HIGHLY VISIBLE AREAS ON CAMPUS Adaptation requires the least amount of intervention with the existing landscape while still supporting ecological functioning. Individual plants are replaced with low-maintenance and noninvasive plants. Mulch is replaced with dense groundcovers. Young trees are grown near and underneath existing canopy trees to create the next generation of canopy trees. Areas designated as Scheme 1 are prioritized to receive the highest level of maintenance while still supporting ecological functioning. The theme of adaptation is replacement in order to decrease inputs and labor for maintenance, improve ecological integrity, contribute to a desired and improved aesthetic and campus identity, and create a resilient and sustainable landscape.

Three Methods for Application 1. Replacement of High Maintenance and Invasive Plants: For this intervention, invasive and high-maintenance plants will be matched with alternatives that share ecologically-positive and aesthetic characteristics. In many cases, native plant cultivars will be suggested that maintain a neat and tidy quality in these highly visible zones. High-maintenance plants: • Do not display vigor in the landscape • Require additional inputs; are not suited to site conditions • Require frequent pruning to maintain form Invasive Plants: • Include MA state-listed plants that were commonly planted before being considered invasive • Compromise the ecological integrity of lesser maintained areas of campus and areas surrounding the FSU campus.

Barberry, Berberis vulgaris, located in the landscaped area to the north of the McCarthy Center, is a MA state-listed invasive plant that also receives yearly pruning from the grounds crew to maintain its size and form.

2. Underplantings for Canopy Trees: Woodchip mulch and struggling, shade-intolerant turf grass is replaced with dense groundcover plants for weed suppression. The proposed replacements mimic natural systems’ weed suppression strategy, achieved through plant competition. Mainly highlyaggressive native groundcover plants will be recommended. In some cases plants will be paired to achieve the greatest density. Benefits of using vegetative groundcovers include: • Reduced maintenance (decreased manual weeding and irrigation) • Reduced long-term material and labor expenses associated with woodchip mulch (up-front cost of plants and installation will be recovered) • Improved aesthetics (more verdant, lush appearance) • Increased infiltration of rainwater (maximizes recharge and reduces runoff that could result in erosion and flooding) • Addition of cover for wildlife

3. Canopy Tree Regeneration: In order to preserve the distinctive canopy layer of the campus, maintenance strategies allow for the establishment of oak, hickory, pine, and maple saplings in the understory. These saplings can be interplanted with larger nurserygrown trees; staggering the ages of trees will make the landscape more resilient and provide the next generation of canopy trees on campus.

The case for non-native plants: Suitable non-native plants include those with a long history of cultivation that has proven that the species does not spread beyond the garden or threaten regional ecosystems. These plants are suited to the site conditions, and fill a niche that has no available native substitute (e.g., salt and pollution tolerance). The plants also display complementary textures, colors, and sequences with indigenous flora. Geranium maculatum, Big root geranium, a non-native groundcover.

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SCHEME 1 APPLICATION: McCarthy Center Hillside SITE CHALLENGES • • • • • •

Multiple, isolated shrubs require frequent hedging Large quantities of mulch are required to fill the areas between shrubs The number of hedged shrubs and steep slopes make maintenance difficult High-input turf grass surrounds the plant bed The site contains barberry, a state-listed invasive plant Limited sun exposure

Shrubs, including invasive barberry, require frequent hedging on this steep slope.

SITE OPPORTUNITIES • • •

Reinforcing campus identity with a pronounced entry to the campus Relating the space to the Campus Quad and central pedestrian spine Building upon landscape history by integrating/repairing the existing stone wall (opportunity to reflect on the agrarian past)

Undesirable weeds have taken root in the exposed mulched area between shrubs.

CAMPUS SPINE

CAMPUS GATEWAY

VISITOR T PARKING LO

(C) 2012 Microsoft Corporation Pictrometry Bird’s Eye (C) 2010 MDA Geospatial Services Inc.

CAMPUS QUAD QUAD

Design Components Replacing Mulch with Groundcover Plants • Groundcovers and perennials (e.g., Solomon’s Seal Polygonatum multiflorum, Barren strawberry Waldsteinia ternata, and Creeping phlox Phlox stolonifera) stitch together to fill in the space between trees and shrubs Re-Use of Existing Plant Material • Existing arborvitae are relocated within the garden with the foresight that they will outgrow their current configuration. • The repeated pruning of additional plant material makes it difficult to reuse them in a naturalistic garden Replacement of Invasive Plants • Barberry is replaced with native shrub cultivars - oak-leaf hydrangea (Hydrangea quercifolia) and dwarf mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) - shrubs that provide fall color and structure Low-mow fine fescue lawn • Requires mowing only 2-3 times annually Gateway • A rebuilt stone wall at the base of the hill announces arrival to the campus, and may include an inscription commemorating the year of the school’s founding. • Flowering trees repeat throughout the landscape into the Campus Quad, creating rhythm • Plants are chosen for seasonal interest that corresponds with the University’s calendar (early spring, spring, late summer, fall, winter) • Plant massing and diversity creates a layered effect Overall Reduction in Maintenance • Selected plants do not require hedging • Mulch is applied less frequently due to the presence of groundcover plants • Mowing is reduced • Plants are selected to minimize fall and spring cleanup

Local Context: the site connects the visitor parking lot and commuter lot with the pedestrian spine of the campus and the Quad.

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SCHEME 1 APPLICATION: McCarthy Center Hillside RENDERINGS Existing Conditions: Shrubs on this steep slope are hedged and randomly scattered in the plant bed. A significant amount of mulch is required to achieve a “neat� garden appearance, but conversely highlights weeds that have taken root. The shrubs provide limited detail, and cannot be perceived by the pedestrian as a mass. Turf grass, which requires frequent mowing, is the unifying landscape cover and grows right up to the base of the mature spruce trees. A disintegrated stone wall at the base of the hill harbors many weeds.

Multi-seasonal Gateway: Perennials and shrubs replace high maintenance or invasive shrubs and mulch, and stabilize the sloped hill. Plants offer spring blooms, fall color, and winter structure, announcing arrival to the heart of the campus year-round.

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McCarthy Center Hillside PROPOSED DESIGN Framingham State University 100 State Street Framingham, MA 01701 May 2012 SUSTAINABLE GROUNDS DEVELOPMENT Laura Rissolo 53 Hipp Road | New Milford, CT 06776 wild.rooted@gmail.com | (860) 671-8088

STATE STREET

Kate Cholakis 116 Nonotuck Street | Florence, MA cholakis11@csld.edu | (508) 265-1114

Plant Associations Help to Achieve Landscape Resilience: The garden beds along State Street and underneath the digital sign combine three plants that grow together to form an effective ground cover. The plants are to be randomly clustered and spaced. The trio offers a variety of root and shoot forms and habits to successfully colonize the space.

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A number of aggressive and invasive species were identified along the fence. Watch and maintain for garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata), burning bush (Euonymus alatus), black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), boxelder maple (Acer negundo), and winter creeper (Euonymus fortunei). The leaves of Heuchera ‘Frosted Violet’, protect the crown of the plant through the winter and therefore should be trimmed back in the spring.

Low-Mow Lawn (TYP)

Low-Mow Lawn (TYP)

Low-Mow Lawn (TYP)

Low-Mow Lawn (TYP)

Many of the groundcover plants used in the design, such as Antennaria plantaginifolia, Phlox stolonifera, and Waldsteinia ternata, are evergreen and require no maintenance beyond weeding and removing fallen leaves from nearby trees in the fall. Before installing the new stone wall, be sure to remove all of the creeping buttercup (Ranunculus repens) from the area. Monitor for garlic mustard. The garden areas under the digital sign and along State Street exhibit an increased mingling of plants. The grounds crew may chose to cut back the foliage of the ferns in the fall to maintain an neater aesthetic and the Heuchera ‘Frosted Violet’ in the spring. The decision for cutting back areas designated as ‘Spring or Fall Cut Back’ is made solely on the discretion to maintain a desirable aesthetic through the winter. Leaving plants, such as goldenrod, standing through the winter can provide insect habitat.

Cut Back in Spring

Cut back in Spring or Fall

Cut back in Fall

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SUSTAINABLE GROUNDS DEVELOPMENT Laura Rissolo 53 Hipp Road | New Milford, CT 06776 wild.rooted@gmail.com | (860) 671-8088

North Creek Nurseries

LowMow Lawn (TYP)

0

McCarthy Center Hillside MAINTENANCE Framingham State University 100 State Street Framingham, MA 01701 May 2012

Kate Cholakis 116 Nonotuck Street | Florence, MA cholakis11@csld.edu | (508) 265-1114

SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS

Installation • Mulch is required during establishment. • Refer to Appendix C: Specifications for general installation guidelines. Maintenance • Many of the plants utilized in the design spread by underground rhizomes. This quality allows them to colonize available ground space at a disadvantage to weed plants and reduces the need for mulch in the future. Subsequently, the garden plants will also compete with one another for ground space, causing the form and layout of the garden bed to shift over time. While this stitching together of plants is encouraged, maintenance may include the occasional digging back of perennial garden plants for aesthetic reasons. • Equisetum arvense, field horsetail, is an aggressive, native, fern-type plant that emerges in late May. It reproduces by spores and deep underground rhizomes and is resistant to most herbicides. Once established it is very difficult to remove. Currently a colony of field horsetail is established in the garden area north of the McCarthy Center, and it is almost definite that it will persist in that garden. Maintenance strategies for controlling it include weed-whacking it when it grows over the top of desirable plants and hand weeding in May. The foliage of the plant rarely returns after being removed until the following season. • Foliage of the spring bulbs can be cut back in mid-June if desired, though this should not be necessary as the foliage should recede into the plant beds. • Trees and shrubs should be left to grow in their natural forms; occasional pruning may be necessary for the health of the plant or safety. • Steel edging eliminates the need for shovel edging in the spring and separates the turf areas from the low-mow lawn. • Refer to Appendix C: Specifications for general maintenance guidelines.

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McCarthy Center Hillside DRAINAGE Framingham State University 100 State Street Framingham, MA 01701 May 2012 SUSTAINABLE GROUNDS DEVELOPMENT Laura Rissolo 53 Hipp Road | New Milford, CT 06776 wild.rooted@gmail.com | (860) 671-8088 Kate Cholakis 116 Nonotuck Street | Florence, MA cholakis11@csld.edu | (508) 265-1114

SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS

Grading • Minimal grading is proposed surrounding the stone wall. Verify grading in field. Drainage • Greater infiltration of stormwater is achieved through increased vegetative cover. Erosion • Plant roots reduce erosion on the steep slopes of the garden bed.

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SCHEME 2: Nature-Inspired Associations GARDENS BASED ON PATTERNS FOUND IN NATURE Scheme 2 requires greater intervention with the landscape. Landscaped areas are redesigned based on aesthetic and biological patterns found in nature. Plant selection is guided by existing site conditions and by groups of plants that naturally grow together. These groups are known as associations or polycultures. Natural distribution patterns guide the arrangement of these plants within the garden. Examples of patterns might include dense groups of one species, interwoven drifts of different species, or a more uniform sprinkling of species (Reed, 2010). The layers that characterize natural ecosystems guide the vertical structure of gardens. For example, a deciduous forest has many layers from the herbaceous ground layer to the canopy, whereas a tundra has only a low groundcover layer.

2. Rain Garden: Rain gardens mimic wetlands, riverbanks, and other riparian plant communities. They adopt the abilities of these plant communities to stabilize slopes (controlling erosion) and absorb water. The form of the rain garden association follows the parabolic shape of a natural swale. Plants tolerant of higher levels of moisture are located along the lower area of the swale, and plants tolerant of drier conditions stabilize the slopes. Rain gardens slow the movement of water and process stormwater pollutants, encouraging infiltration into the soil.

Three Methods for Application

In terms of visual experience, meadows offer year-round beauty that dynamically transforms throughout the seasons. Meadows can be appreciated by people traveling by car and by foot: they are perceived as a mass that sways in the wind, but contain detailed and unique seed heads and blooms. Meadows can also create continuity across the larger landscape, connecting buildings and improving wayfinding.

Mow lines through meadows create walking paths and edges, demonstrating that the landscape is cared for (“cue to care”).

3. Woodland Garden: The woodland garden mimics the layers and functioning of the New England deciduous woodland. The garden includes an herbaceous, shrub, small tree, and canopy tree layer. These layers contribute to a ground layer of decomposing leaf litter below; the layers utilize natural cycles of decomposition to support plant health and vigor. This association utilizes existing vegetation: underplantings protect the campus’s canopy trees while creating pockets for new seedlings to develop.

Ahron Lerman

1. Native Meadow: This nature-inspired garden mimics a native meadow’s ability to absorb the sun’s energy, recycle nutrients, process rainfall, and support birds, insects, and other wildlife. At FSU, the native meadow would replace existing lawn. Grasses and forbs suited to the site conditions would decrease the need for fertilizer, lime application, and mowing. Additionally, drought-tolerant species eliminate the need for supplemental irrigation.

Experiencing the landscape: Filling the landscape with plants and installing walking paths through them allows people to reconnect with the natural world and observe the textures and seasonal changes in plants up close. This is an opportunity to foster stewardship of these and other spaces on campus, raising awareness of the ecological needs of plants (seed dispersal, habitat building, adaptation to site conditions, etc.)

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SCHEME 2: Nature-Inspired Associations Rain Garden Design Designing a rain garden is not as simple as selecting plants that tolerate moisture. Individual plant species tolerate different levels of water inundation. Each plant species is associated with a “wetland indicator status.” This status describes the suitability of plants to these differing levels. A rain garden may contain plants that fall within multiple indicator designations. See References for definitions of the indicator statuses.

This diagram was inspired by an image included in the 2011-2012 North Creek Nurseries catalog.

Water level after extreme rain events Water level after rain events

Water level between rain events

Zone 1 OBL/FACW

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Zone 3 FACU/UPL

Wetland Indicator Status

Ahron Lerman

Layers of the Woodland Garden Canopy Trees (Quercus spp., Carya spp., Fagus spp.) • Existing mature trees on campus are underplanted with vegetation that will support their health. Small Trees (Hamamelis virginiana, Cornus spp., Carpinus caroliniana, Ostrya virginiana, Ilex opaca, Cercis canadensis, Acer pensylvanicum, etc.) • Smaller, shade-tolerant trees lower the scale of the forest and offer finer details (bark patterns, intricate blooms, architectural branching). Large Shrubs (Kalmia latifolia, Rhododendron carolinianum, Calycanthus floridus, etc.) • Shade-tolerant 3-12’ shrubs that contribute to higher species diversity, add horizontal dimension (multi-stemmed), and occasionally blend into the small tree layer. Evergreen shrubs add structure throughout the winter and provide cover for birds. Herbaceous (Polystichum acrostichoides, Viola spp., Tiarella spp., Heuchera spp., Osmunda spp., Anenome spp., Polygonatum commutatum, etc.) • Ferns, perennials, and groundcovers stitch together to form a living mulch that stabilizes soils and temperature extremes, and retains moisture. Ground • Leaf litter and plant debris from the layers above accumulate and decompose. Decaying material is recycled into the soil. Oak leaves from canopy trees on campus increase the acidity of soil, and form an organic mulch.

Zone 2 FAC

Herbaceous plants, such as the cinnamon fern (Osmunda cinnamonea) above, contribute to the many layers of the deciduous woodland. These layers add to the carpet of leaves and plant matter below.

KATE CHOLAKIS AND LAURA RISSOLO


SCHEME 2 APPLICATION: Peirce and Athletic Center Lane SITE CHALLENGES • • •

An existing juniper bed relies on frequent hand-weeding and has been infiltrated with undesirable plants A steep slope results in drainage concerns (erosion damage) towards the base of the slope The site has limited diversity, consisting only of cherry trees, juniper, and turf grass. The turf requires frequent mowing, and the roots of the cherry trees are vulnerable to mechanical damage.

Thistle, toadflax, and other undesirable plants have taken root in the patchy juniper. Competitive lawn grass has also invaded this plant bed.

SITE OPPORTUNITIES

• • • •

Transforming an alley that connects the Campus Quad with an administrative/faculty parking lot into a lush woodland garden Creating an inviting gateway and transition to center campus Using the lines of plant beds to respond to the meandering movement of the existing brick path Repeating plants and using focal points to create patterns that draw people through the space Incorporating plants that flower in fall and spring, enhancing visibility to students, faculty, and visitors

CAMPUS QUAD

WOODLAND GARDEN GATEWAY

ATIVE DMINISTR FACULTY/A G LOT PARKIN

(C) 2012 Microsoft Corporation Pictrometry Bird’s Eye (C) 2010 MDA Geospatial Services Inc.

Local Context: the site connects an administrative parking lot with the Campus Quad, creating an opportunity to craft a gateway to the heart of campus.

Design Components Low-mow fine fescue lawn • Diverse, textured groundcover • Species prefer poor soils and are drought-tolerant (reduced need for irrigation and fertilizer) • Reduces mowing • A perennial added to the grass mix offers visual interest • Signs inform the community Leaf mulch and composted organic matter • Leaves are collected from the ground, shredded, and applied directly to plant beds as mulch, saving resources spent on importing mulch by using existing resources. Rain garden • Deeply rooting grasses and perennials are tolerant of differing moisture conditions, and have erosion-control properties. • Dead stems can be left for winter interest and wildlife value. • Requires yearly cutting-back, leaf mulching, occasional removal of sediment; needs irrigation only during drought. Woodland understory • A semi-aggressive perennial is interplanted with existing juniper to replace weeds and create a more dynamic garden effect. The perennial, Coreopsis, blooms in early fall. • Juniper moves into a multi-textured herbaceous layer of ferns and perennials. These plants stitch together to form a weed barrier. • Requires yearly pruning, leaf mulching, and occasional weeding Shrub and tree layer • Chokeberries (Aronia spp.) tolerate a range of sun and soil conditions, and their fruit and foliage offer four season interest. These shrubs bloom in the spring, complementing the cherry trees. • Witchhazel (Hamamelis virginiana) has a unique branching habit that creates a focal point against the brick wall. Intricate flowers that emerge in November add detail, and the smaller stature of the tree lowers the scale of the space, creating a pedestrian-friendly gateway.

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SCHEME 2 APPLICATION: Peirce and Athletic Center Lane RENDERINGS Existing Conditions: The lack of groundcovers underneath the trees makes the cherries vulnerable to damage by lawn mowing equipment (cherry trees are typically shallow-rooting). The shallow rooting turf fails to allow water to infiltrate into the ground; this, combined with the steep pitch of the space, contributes to erosion. These conditions do not create a welcoming gateway to the Campus Quad.

Erosion-Control Rain Garden, Lush Woodland Understory: Plants tolerant of varying moisture levels occupy the existing swale, increasing the infiltration of water into the ground. Grasses, perennials, and shrubs noted for erosion control stabilize the slope. The arrangement of plants responds to the sweeping movement of the pathway. Across the path, ferns and perennials carpet the understory of the cherry trees, creating a lush woodland garden.

Existing Conditions: The juniper bed to the left of the path is patchy and infiltrated with undesirable plants. Planters are used only for annuals. The mown turf does not encourage water infiltration. This patch of turf requires frequent care, but does not offer significant ecological or aesthetic benefits.

Activating the Space and Educating the Community: Semi-aggressive perennials fill in patches within the juniper bed, offering color and preventing weeds from taking root. Evergreen and perennial plants add visual interest to the planter year-round. A lawn conversion project serves as an example of sustainable landscaping to the community. In the background, a multi-stemmed witchhazel contrasts with the brick wall, and the rain garden wraps around the base of the slope.

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Peirce and Athletic Center Lane PROPOSED DESIGN Framingham State University 100 State Street Framingham, MA 01701 May 2012

ATHLETIC CENTER

SUSTAINABLE GROUNDS DEVELOPMENT Laura Rissolo 53 Hipp Road | New Milford, CT 06776 wild.rooted@gmail.com | (860) 671-8088 Kate Cholakis 116 Nonotuck Street | Florence, MA cholakis11@csld.edu | (508) 265-1114

PEIRCE HALL

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Supporting native pollinators: The cherry trees (Prunus spp.), chokeberries (Aronia spp.), marsh marigold (Caltha palustris), wild onion (Allium spp.), Aster, and Beebalm (Monarda spp.) provide blooms that attract and support insects. The bunch grasses and sedges suggested for the site (three species of Carex) provide food for beneficial insects and nesting sites/cover for native species.

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Peirce and Athletic Center Lane MAINTENANCE Framingham State University 100 State Street Framingham, MA 01701 May 2012

Weed-whack allium seed heads shortly after blooming to maintain a tidy appearance in the garden and limit seeding. In the fall, take care to remove leaf debris from the Phlox stolonifera to promote a dense groundcover.

SUSTAINABLE GROUNDS DEVELOPMENT Laura Rissolo 53 Hipp Road | New Milford, CT 06776 wild.rooted@gmail.com | (860) 671-8088

Remove weeds from Carex pennsylvanica and Deschampsia flexuosa areas. Avoid letting weeds set seed; if hand weeding is too time consuming, weed-whack weeds when in flower. Mowing is not necessary in these areas.

Kate Cholakis 116 Nonotuck Street | Florence, MA cholakis11@csld.edu | (508) 265-1114

SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS

Installation • Juniper bed: Remove areas of the juniper infested with undesirable weeds. Replenish lost soil with clean fill. Plug perennial plants into these areas (Coreopsis in the sunnier, northern part of the juniper bed, and Phlox in the shadier, southern part of the juniper bed). • Grading - Juniper bed: Slightly flatten hill at southern corner of juniper bed to reduce the pitch from the bed to the cherry tree understory. • Grading - Swale: It is recommended that the grading for this site be reconsidered by a civil engineer. One strategy could involve creating a more consistent pitch from the corner of Peirce to the storm drain. Water percolation tests and analysis of water movement through this space is highly recommended. It might be necessary to regrade the swale and/or install a percolation pipe with crushed stone underneath the existing swale. This swale should slope continuously in the direction of the storm drain at the base of the hill. Pebbles may be applied to the swale surface. • Before applying mulch during site preparation in the rain garden, install an erosion control blanket. If necessary, cut away erosion material to install plants. Refer to Appendix C: Specifications for general installation guidelines.

Attractive seed heads, such as those of Porteranthus (Gillenia) trifoliatus and Iris versicolor can persist throughout the winter. Allowing them to stand until the following spring also provides important cover and forage. Trim back Carex crinita and Carex laxiculmus ‘HOBB’ Bunny Blue only if desired in the spring.

Low-Mow Lawn (TYP)

Low-Mow Lawn (TYP)

Chasmanthium latifolium, Northern sea oats grass, is a prolific seeder. While seed heads can remain attractive into the winter and provide forage for winter birds, the plants may need to be cut back in fall if they prove to increase spring weeding. Cut Back in Spring

wikimedia.org

Cut back in Spring or Fall

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The common weed Linaria vulgaris, or toadflax, has taken root in the juniper bed. The plant reproduces by seed and advantageous roots. Hand weeding will be required to eliminate the plant; however, if the plant persists, trim it back when in flower to discourage seed set.

North Creek Nurseries

The leaves of Tiarella ‘Iron Butterfly’ and fronds of Polystichum acrostichoides protect the crown of the plants from winter extremes and therefore should be trimmed back in the spring.

Maintenance • To increase efficiency, many plants like Carex crinita, Chasmanthium latifolium, Deschampia flexuosa, Monarda didyma ‘Fireball’, and Smilacina racemosa, can be trimmed back using a weedwhacker, • Plants are encouraged to mingle. Overly dominant plants may need occasional weeding if they are compromising the garden aesthetic. • Carefully remove sediment (soil buildup) from the bottom of the swale as needed. • Apply leaf mulch as specified in Appendix C.

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SCHEME 3: Ecological Edge EDGE PLANT COMMUNITIES FORM A VISUAL AND ECOLOGICAL BUFFER This scheme offers a low-maintenance landscape with increased ecological diversity. Semi-wild, lightly-managed plant communities form a visual and ecological transition between lawn/landscaped areas and the woodland occupying the periphery of the campus. The edge merges the more tended landscape with the less tended landscape, decreasing visual contrast while linking ecosystems and improving diversity. Many plants and wildlife are adapted to edge conditions, and rely on these communities. The edge is applied to less active parts of the campus, and therefore receives less maintenance. Management of this scheme involves invasive plant management and occasional cutting/mowing. These edges may already exist on campus in the form of tree groves or hedgerows between buildings. However, this scheme may require greater intervention at first due to the presence of invasive species.

Two Methods for Application 1. Woodland Edge: Existing groves of trees are monitored and treated for invasive plants, and supplemented through the planting of shade tolerant understory shrubs and groundcovers. Timed, selective thinning of the understory may be utilized to encourage forest diversity. The perimeter surrounding the groves of trees is widened with an understory of perennial and shrub species. Strengthening the diversity of these edges will create linkages for wildlife.

2. Pasture Grass Meadow: Pasture grasses are typical lawn and/or European grasses. These foreign species first adapted to regular grazing by livestock, and are now kept low for the American lawn through regular mowing. In this scheme, these grasses are maintained at greater heights than a typical lawn. Wildflowers are interplanted within these meadows to garner cultural acceptance. Benefits of allowing pasture grasses to grow tall: • Reduced maintenance (mowing/weed trimming is required only 1-3 times per season; invasive plants require monitoring and treatment) • Higher root to shoot ratio (the growth of deeper roots has the potential to reduce erosion and help mitigate stormwater runoff) • Improved aesthetics (more textured and dynamic; wildflowers and grasses sway in the wind and catch light) • Improved diversity (wildflowers attract pollinators, and taller grasses provide habitat for many birds and mammals)

Understory plants may include: • Mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) • Black huckleberry (Gaylussacia baccata) • Oak sedge (Carex pensylvanica)

A grove of oak trees on campus can be underplanted and extended with acid-loving shrubs and perennials such as those listed above. This would form a visual and ecological buffer between the regularly mown lawn and unmanaged area beyond.

Allowing grasses to grow tall permits a higher root to shoot ratio.

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SCHEME 3 APPLICATION: Athletic Center Hillside SITE CHALLENGES • • • • • •

Lawn grass on steep slopes requires frequent and strenuous maintenance The site is limited in plant diversity, consisting only of a lawn grass monoculture Erosion damage results from drainage outflow from the administrative parking lot above Japanese knotweed and garlic mustard, two state-listed invasive plants, are colonizing the bank across the road from the site The site is viewed only by people traveling in vehicles (low visibility) The amount of maintenance does not match the low visibility of the site on campus

SITE OPPORTUNITIES

• •

Mowing of the strip of turf behind the Athletic Center can be reduced to 1-2 times per season to match its location in a less active zone of campus Encouraging deep root growth of plants on the hillside can reduce erosion Larger masses of plants can be interpreted by people traveling in vehicles

ADMINIST RATIVE PARKING LOT

QUAD

TURF

SERVICE

ROAD

INVASIVE PLANT PATCH

(C) 2012 Microsoft Corporation Pictrometry Bird’s Eye (C) 2010 MDA Geospatial Services Inc.

Local Context: A large, steep expanse of turf is mown frequently by the maintenance crew. Invasive plants are colonizing the woodland across the street, and threaten to invade the hillside.

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Monoculture lawn grass is viewed by people traveling in vehicles.

Design Components Lawn-to-Meadow Conversion Project • Lawn grasses are allowed to grow tall, weeds are removed as needed Interplanting Forbs • Flowering perennials are added to enhance aesthetics and species diversity, and stabilize slopes Micro-grading • Small alterations in grading create swales and berms that slow water and serve as maintenance terraces

Micro-grading: A swale is cut into the hillside. The cut soil and sod is flipped, pinned, and stabilized with a flowering plant and erosion control mat (refer to Appendix C). The exposed soil forming the swale is seeded with clover, a fast-growing and nitrogen-fixing plant that can tolerate occasional foot traffic. The existing 50% slope of the hillside is reduced to a more comfortable and safe 4% slope for maintenance crews.

KATE CHOLAKIS AND LAURA RISSOLO


SCHEME 3 APPLICATION: Athletic Center Hillside RENDERINGS Existing Conditions: Frequently mown turf is shallow rooting and lacks biodiversity. Shallow roots, combined with the runoff drainage onto the site from the parking lot above, contribute to erosion. The land is steep and mowing is strenuous.

Multi-textured meadow: Drought-tolerant perennials are interplanted within the tall lawn grasses to increase visual and ecological diversity. Together with berms and swales, these types of plants reduce erosion and support various pollinators.

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Athletic Center Hillside & Courtyard MASTER PLAN Framingham State University 100 State Street Framingham, MA 01701 May 2012 SUSTAINABLE GROUNDS DEVELOPMENT Laura Rissolo 53 Hipp Road | New Milford, CT 06776 wild.rooted@gmail.com | (860) 671-8088 Kate Cholakis 116 Nonotuck Street | Florence, MA cholakis11@csld.edu | (508) 265-1114

SUMMARY

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Turf areas along the road are converted to a pasture grass meadow and accented with native flowering plants. The courtyard between the Athletic Center and Dwight Hall, a turf area only accessible by stairs, is planted with aggressive, flowering groundcovers that require only one annual mowing.

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Supporting native pollinators: Tall grasses provide nesting habitat for native insects. Forbs, including Aster, mountain mint (Pycnanthemum spp.), Bee balm (Monarda bradburiana) and wild indigo (Baptisia spp.) attract and support pollinators. Non-native clover (Trifolium repens) is also utilized by bees for nectar.

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Athletic Center Hillside PROPOSED DESIGN Framingham State University 100 State Street Framingham, MA 01701 May 2012 SUSTAINABLE GROUNDS DEVELOPMENT Laura Rissolo 53 Hipp Road | New Milford, CT 06776 wild.rooted@gmail.com | (860) 671-8088 Kate Cholakis 116 Nonotuck Street | Florence, MA cholakis11@csld.edu | (508) 265-1114

Aster cordifolius ‘Avondale’ Baptisia australis Camassia quamash Eupatorium dubium ‘Little Joe’ Monarda bradburiana Onoclea sensibilis Pycnanthemum muticum Rudbeckia triloba Sorghastrum nutans/Chasmanthium latifolium

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Athletic Center Hillside PROPOSED DESIGN Framingham State University 100 State Street Framingham, MA 01701 May 2012 SUSTAINABLE GROUNDS DEVELOPMENT Laura Rissolo 53 Hipp Road | New Milford, CT 06776 wild.rooted@gmail.com | (860) 671-8088 Kate Cholakis 116 Nonotuck Street | Florence, MA cholakis11@csld.edu | (508) 265-1114

DWIGHT HALL

ATHLETIC CENTER

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Aster cordifolius ‘Avondale’ Baptisia australis Camassia quamash Eupatorium dubium ‘Little Joe’ Monarda bradburiana Onoclea sensibilis Pycnanthemum muticum Rudbeckia triloba Sorghastrum nutans/Chasmanthium latifolium

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Installation • Sheet mulching: If plantings are outside the area disturbed in berm and swale construction use sheet mulching technique defined in Appendix C. Refer to Appendix C: Specifications for general installation guidelines. Maintenance • Mown edge: A 1-2 foot wide mown edge along the length of the road communticates the intentionality of the meadow. Refer to Maintenance Calendar guidelines.

A stand of Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum) across the road is cause for concern: the roots of the plant can spread 50 feet and penetrate pavement. Manage the knotweed using the Maintenance Calendar.

wikimedia.com

SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS

Athletic Center Hillside MAINTENANCE Framingham State University 100 State Street Framingham, MA 01701 May 2012 SUSTAINABLE GROUNDS DEVELOPMENT Laura Rissolo 53 Hipp Road | New Milford, CT 06776 wild.rooted@gmail.com | (860) 671-8088 Kate Cholakis 116 Nonotuck Street | Florence, MA cholakis11@csld.edu | (508) 265-1114

Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) and narrowleaf bittercress (Cardamine impatiens) are present on the far side of the street. Weedwhack the plants in mid-May and mid-June to prevent flowering and seeding into the meadow area. Mow or weed-whack once in late June and once in either late October or mid-March. Mow to a height greater than 3”. Remove existing vegetation. Sheet mulch if possible (refer to Appendix C). Plant perennial plugs through mulch. Existing fern patch to remain; interplant specified Geranium. Manually remove Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata), Oriental bittersweet vine (Celastrus orbiculatus), and any other undesirable plants from existing fern patch. Control existing bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare) by not allowing it to flower and set seed. The plant flowers June through October.

Japanese knotweed

Cut back twice per season

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Cut back in Fall

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Athletic Center Hillside DRAINAGE Framingham State University 100 State Street Framingham, MA 01701 May 2012 SUSTAINABLE GROUNDS DEVELOPMENT Laura Rissolo 53 Hipp Road | New Milford, CT 06776 wild.rooted@gmail.com | (860) 671-8088 Kate Cholakis 116 Nonotuck Street | Florence, MA cholakis11@csld.edu | (508) 265-1114

SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS

Grading • Micro-grading is used to create swales and berms that switchback across the hillside, slowing water and providing a 2 foot wide path for maintenance crews. • The turf is cut, flipped, pinned, and stabilized with an erosion control mat, a landscape pin, and a perennial plant. • Depressions are formed underneath drain outfalls for the parking lot above. Drainage • While swales and small depressions underneath drainage outlets along the administrative parking lot slow water, they are not adequate to meeting the volume demands of runoff flowing from the infrastructure. Further study with an engineer should be conducted to manage stormwater flowing from the site. Erosion • Protect soil disturbed during grading with a biodegradeable jute erosion control mat. • Plant roots reduce erosion on the steep slopes of the garden bed.

Undisturbed turf Cut Swale Cut Turned Over Cut Covered with Erosion Mat, Planted, and Pinned

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SCHEME 4: Woodland Stewardship CULTIVATING WILDLANDS This scheme emerges at the far right end of the ecological gradient, where low maintenance coincides with greatest ecological integrity. The campus’s location in an urban environment and the landscape’s history of land use has resulted in habitat degradation. The woodland areas surrounding the campus are low in diversity and threatened by colonizing invasive species. Making interventions within these woodlands can support the health and vigor of the environment: • Reduce the spread of invasive plants: monitoring and controlling invasive plants within these woodlands will reduce the spread of these species into the more highly maintained areas of campus. • Managing stormwater: reducing runoff from the campus and increasing the absorptive capacity of the woodlands will decrease erosion that compromises the stability of the steep slopes surrounding the campus core. • Creating habitat: Achieving Certified Wildlife Habitat certification from the National Wildlife Federation is an opportunity to foster stewardship and engage students. This process may involve selective thinning, seedling planting, and habitat building (creating cover with dead trees and brush piles). The Biology and Environmental Science departments could conduct student-led woodland inventories. • Contributing to larger ecological corridors: improving the health of the wildlands will connect these areas with larger wildlife corridors, posing the university as a wildlife patch.

Robert Purcell/Higgins Brothers, NRCS

Dead snags (above) provide valuable habitat and food for birds and insects. Upon falling to the forest floor, (below) trunks decompose and support new plant life.

Brush piles provide habitat and cover for wildlife.

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A nesting box at the woodland edge at Cape Cod Community College

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FUTURE CONSIDERATIONS For Sustainability

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FUTURE CONSIDERATIONS WEBSITE DEVELOPMENT A website should be created in order to showcase sustainability initiatives to prospective students and faculty, and to communicate the development of the sustainable landscape to the university community. The website might include photographs documenting pilot projects, renderings from the Sustainable Grounds Development document, and examples of related student projects. • Website Example: Onondaga Community College <http:// www.sunyocc.edu/index.aspx?id=21268>

INVASIVE SPECIES PROGRAM Invasive plant species threaten the ecological functioning and aesthetics of landscaped areas in New England and throughout the United States. Managing invasive plants at the university will require continued monitoring and experimentation with treatments. This is an opportunity to create a collaborative system between the grounds maintenance crew and student body. College students in biology and environmental science classes might collaborate with the crew on the following projects: • Identifying the types and locations of Massachusetts state-listed invasive species and mapping these types and locations using GIS or other programs. This map would be updated every 1-3 years, and would guide the treatment of these plants by the grounds crew. • The students could adapt the invasive species maintenance calendar based on research, first-hand observation, and information from the grounds crew. • Research could be conducted regarding how native species might be effective competitors against invasive plants and how they should be reintroduced. Monitoring and managing invasive plants is an opportunity to bridge the staff and student/faculty communities at the university.

SALT ALTERNATIVES The university has already decreased the use of salt on pedestrian pathways. Further reducing the use of salt will benefit landscape plantings and lawns. Alternatives to generic salt treatment include: • Sugar beet juice and natural brine to reduce salt use • Hydronic and electric snow melt systems installed under sidewalks

hedge trimmers, and edgers are commercially available. Batteries can be recharged with photovoltaic panels installed in a visible location on campus. Landscaping equipment can also be run on biofuels.

POLLINATOR HABITAT Pollinators are an important part of the ecosystem and support crops grown by people for food. In New England, crops such as blueberries, cranberries, apples, pears, cherries, squash, and pumpkins rely on pollinators. From butterflies to bees to bats to hummingbirds, pollinators rely on specific plants and habitat conditions to carry out this ecological task. The loss of habitat has threatened many native species: these insects require a diversity of native plants in addition to sites to nest and lay eggs. Launching a campus-wide pollinator habitat project would engage university departments in an effort to increase the ecological integrity of the site through attracting and supporting insects. This project might include: • Identifying pollinators currently present on campus • Researching threatened pollinator populations in New England • Protecting and strengthening existing pollinator habitat (adding forbs to native plantings that bloom at important times of the year for pollinators) • Creating new pollinator habitat (planting host plants, leaving dead snags when trees die, planting tall bunch grasses and bushes, creating piles of twigs and leaves, installing nest blocks) • Shifting grounds maintenance practices (reducing mowing and chemical use) • Monitoring populations of pollinators over time The native plants proposed in the site designs will help to link the campus with native plants growing elsewhere in the region, creating a corridor for pollinators.

ELECTRIC GROUNDS EQUIPMENT Using electric grounds equipment will reduce emissions, noise, and pollution. Cordless string trimmers, mowers, blowers/vacs,

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CONCLUSION Moving Forward

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CONCLUSION COMMUNITY AND ECOSYSTEM NEEDS Scheme 2 (Nature-Inspired Associations) is located where ecological integrity and maintenance are balanced along the gradient. However, Schemes 1, 3, and 4 are all indispensable elements of the landscape: they serve different functions, filling niches within the campus in order to adapt management to the needs and desires of the community and the ecosystem.

Scheme 1: Adaptation

Maintenance

Ecological Integrity

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Large scale ecological influences (e.g., water quality, climate change) and local community changes (e.g., increasing student residential population) are inevitable. The programming and ecological functioning of spaces on campus may demand a shift in approach over time. For example, an area currently receiving less maintenance may become more visible to students upon construction of a new building; a space previously maintained using Scheme 3 may transition into Scheme 1 or 2, requiring more formal land management. Additionally, natural succession may transition Scheme 3 areas into Scheme 4 areas (ecological edge to woodland).

Scheme 2: NatureScheme 3: Scheme 4: Inspired Ecological Woodland Associations Edge Stewardship

Embracing change through the development of flexible systems for land management is a tenet of sustainability. Resilience depends on the ability to adapt. Applying this approach to the Framingham State University campus will increase its resilience in face of global and local ecological, economic, and social change.

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ica og ol

Ahron Lerman

Adapting to change will require the involvement of students, faculty, staff, and administration in the cultivation of a sustainable landscape. Ideas for encouraging involvement include: • Incorporating the identification of invasive species into the curriculum • Creating a dialogue between the grounds maintenance crew and students by mapping invasive species • Developing interpretive signs for the landscape • Encouraging the creation of artwork that responds to the ecological processes of the FSU landscape • Directing donor funding from sponsors and alumni to improve the vitality of the landscape (e.g., offering a price per square yard for a wildflower meadow conversion project) • Creating a system for receiving feedback from students, faculty, staff, and administration about changes happening in the landscape These ideas seek to encourage stewardship of the landscape by connecting community members to one another and to the land.

Ec

COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT

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REFERENCES

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REFERENCES BOOKS Del Tredici, Peter. Wild Urban Plants of the Northeast: A Field Guide Cornell University Press, 2010. Reed, Sue. Energy-Wise Landscape Design: A New Approach for Your Home and Garden New Society Publishers. 2010.

ARTICLES AND ONLINE RESOURCES Holton, T. and Plumb, S. “Vermont Landowner’s Guide to Invasive Plant Management.” Vermont Chapter of The Nature Conservancy April 2010. Massachusetts Executive Office of Environmental Affairs. “Sudbury-Assabet-Concord River Watershed Assessment Report.” Ambient Engineering 2005. NRCS, Xerces Society, and University of Maine Cooperative Extension. “Pollinator Biology and Habitat.” NRCS April 2009. ftp://ftp-fc.sc.egov.usda.gov/NH/WWW/Technical/New_ England_NRCS_Pollinator_Tech_Note_FINAL.pdf Viewed May 2012. Prairie Nursery Inc.“‘No-Mow’ Turf Seeding Instructions.” Prairie Nursery Inc. 2003. http://www.prairienursery.com/store/index.php?main_ page=product_no_mow_info&cPath=11&products_id=303. Viewed June 2011. Simpson, Derek. “Geotechnical Engineering Report: Proposed Hemenway Hall Addition, Framingham State University, Framingham, Massachusetts.” GZA GeoEnvironmental, Inc. March 2011. Weaner, Larry. “Native Wildflower Meadow Manual.” New Directions in the American Landscape; Larry Weaner Landscape Associates 2010.

SOURCES USED FOR CALENDARS Massachusetts Prohibited Plant List. Effective January 1, 2009. Department of Agricultural Resources. http://www.mass.gov/ agr/farmproducts/prohibitedplantlist.htm Viewed February-May 2012. Invasive Plants of the Eastern United States: Identification and Control. The University of Georgia, USDA APHIS PPQ and USDA Forest Service. 2003-2008. http://www.invasive.org/ eastern/ Viewed May 2012. Invasive Plant Management Guide (updated January 2001), http://www.hort.uconn.edu/cipwg/art_pubs/GUIDE/guideframe. htm Viewed May 2012. Plant Conservation Alliance’s Alien Plant Working Group Least Wanted: Alien Plant Invaders of Natural Areas. Fact Sheets. http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/factmain.htm Viewed May 2012.

WETLAND INDICATOR STATUS KEY Information replicated from the USDA Plant Database: • OBL: Obligate Wetland (Occurs almost always [99%] under natural conditions in wetlands) • FACW: Facultative Wetland (Usually occurs in wetlands [67%-99%], but occasionally found in non-wetlands) • FAC: Facultative (Equally likely to occur in wetlands or nonwetlands [34%-66%]) • FACU: Facultative Upland (Usually occurs in non-wetlands [67%-99%], but occasionally found on wetlands [1%-33%]. • UPL: Obligate Upland (Occurs almost always [99%] under natural conditions in non-wetlands)

Wenning, Bruce. “Controlling Small-scale Infestations of Exotic Invasive Plant Species: Ecological and IPM Information for Landscapers and Homeowners, Part I, II, and III.” Invasive Plants Sept. 14 - Nov. 14, 2011. http://www.ecolandscaping.org Viewed May 6, 2012.

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APPENDICES

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APPENDIX A Plant Palettes MCCARTHY HILLSIDE A mix of evergreen and deciduous shrubs and trees provides structure in the winter and fall color. Spring bulbs and perennials will stitch together around the shrubs, filling in existing mulched areas.

Photo courtesy of Missouri Botanical Garden

Trees and Shrubs

Inkberry holly, Ilex glabra ‘Shamrock’, 3-4’HW, full sun to part shade, average to moist soils, evergreen shrub, leggy with age, prune every 3 years, z4-9.

Photo courtesy of Weston Nurseries, Hopkinton, MA

Fringe tree, Chionanthus virginicus, 12-20’ Sweetshrub, Calycanthus x ‘Hartlage Wine’, HW, deciduous tree, full sun to par t shade, 8-12’HW, deciduous shrub, part sun, average average soils, white blooms May to June, z3-9. soil, wine-red flowers in late spring and early summer.

Oakleaf hydrangea, Hydrangea quercifolia ‘Sike’s Dwarf ’, 4’HW, deciduous shrub, full sun to par t shade, average soils, white blooms June to July, z5-9.

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Mountain laurel, Kalmia latifolia ‘Sarah’, 6’H, 5’W, evergreen shrub, full sun to shade, average to dry soils, red blooms May-June, z5-9.

SUSTAINABLE GROUNDS DEVELOPMENT

Dwarf large-leaf rhododendron, Rhododendron ‘Yaku Princess’, 3’HW, low mounding evergreen shrub, par t to full shade, average soils, white with pink blooms in mid-May, z5-9.

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APPENDIX A Plant Palettes

Ac, Meadow anenome, Anemone canadensis, 12-18” H 18”W, part sun, average to moist, white flowers in late spring/ early summer, vigorous spreader, weed whack in spring if necessary, z4-8.

An, Pussytoes, Antennaria plantaginifolia, full to part sun, dry soil, white blooms April June, evergreen.

AfL Lady fern, Athyrium filix-femina ‘Lady in Red’, part sun, average to moist soil

As, Snowdrop anemone, Anemone sylvestris, 12-18”HW, bright shade, acidic to neutral, white blooms in spring, dormant in summer.

Ch, Hairy lipfern, Cheilanthes lanosa, 6-8”H 12”W, bright shade, average, well-drained soils.

North Creek Nurseries North Creek Nurseries

AnP, Purple dome aster, Aster novae-angliae ‘Purple Dome’, 1-2’HW, sun, average soils, purple blooms fall, attracts butterflies.

North Creek Nurseries

North Creek Nurseries

North Creek Nurseries

CrB, Bugbane, Actea (Cimicifuga) racemosa ‘Brunette’, 3-4’H 2-3’W, part shade to full shade , average to moist soils, white flowers August to September, cut back in fall, z3-8.

North Creek Nurseries

North Creek Nurseries

Perennials

HmA, Autumn Bride coral bells, Heuchera macrorhiza ‘Autumn Bride’, 24” HW, sun to shade, white blooms Sept.-Oct., average to moist.

SUSTAINABLE GROUNDS DEVELOPMENT

HFV, Frosted violet coral bells, Heuchera ‘Frosted Violet’, 12-18”H 18” W, part sun, purple foliage, booms in blooms early summer, not native.

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APPENDIX A Plant Palettes

North Creek Nurseries

Herbaceous Perennials

Sc, Bluestem goldenrod, Solidago caesia, 16-20” HW, sun to shade, rich damp soil, average to moist soils, dry shade, yellow blooms in fall, weed trim in fall.

SsS, Solar Cascade goldenrod, Solidago shortii ‘Solar Cascade’, 24-30”H 12-24”W, full sun to part shade, average to dry soils, yellow blooms late summer/early fall, z3-8.

Pb, Solomon’s seal, Polygonatum biflorum, 2-5’ HW, part to full shade, average to moist soils, spreads by underground rhizomes, cut back in fall.

North Creek Nurseries

Janet Novak, CT Botanical Society

PsB, Creeping phlox, Phlox stolonifera ‘Blue Ridge’, 6”HW, moist fertile soils, partial shade to shade, purple blooms in spring, fragrant.

Vl, Labrador violet, Viola labradorica, 1-3” HW, part shade to shade, blue blooms in April/May, average to moist neutral soils, MA Native.

Wt Barren-strawberry, Waldsteinia (Geum) ternata, 3-6” H 6-12”W, sun to shade, average to moist, drought tolerant, yellow blooms in spring, evergreen.

Cs, Glory of the snow, Chionodoxa sardensis, bulb, fall planting, 5-6”H 4”W, blue blooms in April, plant in low-mow lawn area.

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Gi, Snow drops, Galanthus ikariae 5-8”H, 3”W, white blooms in March/April, interplant w/ Polygonatum.

SUSTAINABLE GROUNDS DEVELOPMENT

Douglas Houck of Dunn Gardens

wikimedia.org

wikimedia.org

Bulbs

IhK, Rock garden iris, Iris histrioides ‘Katharine Hodgkin’, 4”H 3”W, blooms early April, plant with Cheilanthes.

NI, Cyclamen daffodil, Narcissus itzim, 12”H 6”W, full sun to partial shade, deep yellow blooms in early spring.

KATE CHOLAKIS AND LAURA RISSOLO


APPENDIX A Plant Palettes PEIRCE AND ATHLETIC CENTER LANE The palette includes a mix of fall and spring flowering plants to offer seasonal interest, grasses with attractive foliage, and trees and shrubs that complement the existing cherry trees. Bulbs add to spring colors and textures.

Botbln, Wikimedia Commons

Trees and Shrubs

Hv, Witchhazel, Hamamelis virginiana, deciduous tree, 10-15’HW, full sun to part sun, moist, welldrained soils, yellow fall foliage, yellow blooms Oct.-Nov., unique branching habit, tolerates pollution, attracts birds, MA Native.

Am, Chokeberry, Aronia melanocarpa, deciduous EXISTING Flowering cherry, Prunus spp., shrub, 6-10’H x 3-5’W, full sun to shade, acidic deciduous tree, 20-50’HW, pink blooms in wet to dry soils, tolerant of poor soil conditions, spring. orange or purple fall foliage, white blooms in spring, persistent berries, MA Native.

Ha, Coralbells, Heuchera americana ‘Chocolate veil’, 12”HW, full sun to partial shade, white blooms in summer, chocolate foliage. MA Native.

Cn, Calamintha nepeta ssp. nepeta, 1215”HW, sun, average to dry soils, blue blooms June-Oct., mint-scented, fast grower, container plant, z5-9.

SUSTAINABLE GROUNDS DEVELOPMENT

Weston Nurseries

Mijn Tuin.org

Babikow.com

Container Plantings

Ss, Stonecrop, Sedum spurium or sieboldii, 6-12”HW, pink blooms Sept.-Oct., full sun, hot dry conditions and poor stony soils, z3-9.

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APPENDIX A Plant Palettes

As, Snowdrop anemone, Anemone sylvestris, 12-18”HW, bright shade, acidic to neutral, white blooms in spring, dormant in summer.

North Creek Nurseries

Ac, Nodding onion, Allium cernuum, 10-12”HW, droughttolerant, acidic soils, sun to part sun, pink blooms in late spring.

North Creek Nurseries

Cp, Oak sedge, Carex pensylvanica, 8-10” H 12-18”W, part sun to shade, moist to average soils, drought-tolerant, MA native.

Cp, Tickseed, Coreopsis pubescens ‘Sunshine Superman’,12-18”HW, dry soils, full sun, yellow blooms mid-summer through Sept., MA native.

Caroline Brown,Earth Friendly Gardening

North Creek Nurseries

North Creek Nurseries

Herbaceous Perennials, Groundcovers, and Ferns: Cherry Tree Understory

Gt, Bowman’s Root, Gillenia (Porteranthus) trifoliata, 2-3’ H 2’W, part sun, moist to dry, white blooms in late spring, red fall foliage, MA native.

Mc, Hair-awn muhly, Muhlenbergia capillaris, 12-40”H x 16-32”W, sun, moist, well-drained soils, salt tolerant, white to purple blooms in late summer, burst of red in the fall, MA native.

Ps, Creeping phlox, Phlox stolonifera, 6”HW, moist fertile soils, part shade to shade, purple blooms in spring, fragrant, z5-8.

Pa, Christmas fern, Polystichum acrostichoides, evergreen fern, 2-3’ HW, well-drained acidic to neutral, moist to somewhat dry, part to full shade, MA native.

Sr, False Solomon’s seal, Smilacina (Maianthemum) racemosum, 2’HW, part shade to shade, average to moist soils, creamcolored blooms in spring.

TcIB, Foam flower, Tiarella cordifolia ‘Iron Butterfly’, 10-18”H 12-18”W, part shade, average to moist soils, white blooms in spring.

Vl, Labrador violet, Viola labradorica, 1-3” HW, part shade to shade, blue blooms in April/ May, average to moist neutral soils, MA Native.

North Creek Nurseries

Df, Wavy hairgrass, Deschampsia flexuosa, 8-18” H 12-18”W, part sun to shade, moist to average soils, drought-tolerant, MA native.

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APPENDIX A Plant Palettes

TheSiteGardner

North Creek Nurseries

Herbaceous Perennials, Groundcovers, Ferns, and Bulbs: Rain Garden

Cpa, Marsh marigold, Caltha palustris, 1518”H 12”W, part shade to shade, moist to wet, yellow blooms in April, MA Native.

North Creek Nurseries

Cl, Northern sea oats, Chasmanthium latifolium, 3’ HW, sun to shade, prefers moist soils, drought-tolerant, ornamental seed heads in summer and winter, vigorous seeder, z4-9.

Weedalogue.com

Anb, New York aster, Aster novae-belgii ‘Alert’, 8-12” HW, full sun, average to moist soils, blooms blue-purple Sept., MA Native.

ClBB, Spreading sedge/Bunny Blue Carex, Carex laxiculmus ‘HOBB’ Bunny Blue, 8-12” H 12-16”W, part sun to shade, moist to average soils, MA Native.

Iv, Blue flag iris, Iris versicolor, 2-3’ HW, full sun to part shade, purple blooms MayAug., MA Native.

Md, Scarlet beebalm, Monarda didyma ‘Fireball’, 16” HW, sun to part shade, showy red blooms July-Oct., moist to wet soils, MA Native.

Fm, Chequered lily, Fritillaria meleagris, 6-12” H, sun to light shade, moist to average soils, chequered purple blooms early spring, z4-8.

Photo courtesy of Missouri Botanical Garden

Cc, Caterpillar sedge/Fringed sedge, Carex crinita, 3’H x 2’W, sun to light shade, rich moist to wet soils, clay to loam to sand, robust clump of wide green arching leaves, MA Native.

SUSTAINABLE GROUNDS DEVELOPMENT

Oc, Cinnamon fern, Osmunda cinnamonea, 2-5’ HW, full sun to part shade, acidic and moist to wet soils, shallow-flooding, deciduous, fall color, brown stalks in spring, green in summer, MA Native.

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APPENDIX A Plant Palettes ATHLETIC CENTER HILLSIDE

Cl, Northern sea oats, Chasmanthium latifolium, 3’ HW, full sun to shade, moist but drought-tolerant, ornamental seed heads in summer and winter, vigorous seeder, z4-9.

Ed, Joe Pye weed, Eupatorium dubium ‘Little Joe’, 3-4’H 1’W, average to dry soils, sun to part shade, light pink blooms in late summer, attracts butterflies.

Mb, Eastern bee balm, Monarda bradburiana, 1-2’ HW, sun to part shade, average to dry soils, lavender blooms spring to summer, attracts butterflies and hummingbirds.

North Creek Nurseries

North Creek Nurseries

Cq, Small camas, Camassia quamash, 1-2’HW, sun, moist to average soils, purple blooms May/June, bulb, fall planting.

North Creek Nurseries

Ba, False indigo, Baptisia australis, 3-4’HW, sun to part sun, average to dry soil, purple blooms May - June.

North Creek Nurseries

AcA, Blue wood aster, Aster cordifolius ‘Avondale’, 18-24”HW, part to full shade, average to dry soils, light blue blooms in early fall.

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North Creek Nurseries

Grasses and flowering perennials increase diversity and attract pollinators.

Os, Sensitive fern, Onoclea sensibilis, 2’HW, sun to part sun, average to moist soils, spreads by underground rhizomes.

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Pm, Short-toothed mountain mint, Pycnanthemum muticum, 2-3’H 2’W, sun to part sun, average to moist soils, attracts butterflies, strong stems persist all winter.

SUSTAINABLE GROUNDS DEVELOPMENT

Rt, Brown-eyed Susan, Rudbeckia triloba, 2-3’H 12-18”W, sun to part shade, average, well-drained soils, seeds prolifically.

Sn, Indian grass, Sorghastrum nutans, 3-4’H 2-3’W, sun to part shade, dry to moist soils, attracts songbirds.

KATE CHOLAKIS AND LAURA RISSOLO


APPENDIX A Plant Palettes

Ec, Hardy ageratum, Eupatorium coelestinum, 2-3’HW, moist to average soils, part shade, purple blooms in late summer/fall, attracts butterflies.

Gm, Wild cranesbill, Geranium maculatum, 12-18”HW, sun to shade, moist to dry soils, lavender blooms in summer.

North Creek Nurseries

Ac, Meadow anenome, Anemone canadensis, 12-18” H 18”W, part sun, average to moist soils, white flowers in late spring/early summer, vigorous spreader, z4-8.

North Creek Nurseries

North Creek Nurseries

American Beauty Native Plants

Herbaceous Perennials, Ferns: Athletic Center Courtyard

Os, Sensitive fern, Onoclea sensibilis, 2’HW, sun to part sun, average to moist soils, spreads by underground rhizomes.

Pr, Jacob’s ladder, Polemonium reptans, 12-18”HW, part shade to shade, average to moist soils, purple blooms in spring, spreads by seed.

Sr, False Solomon’s seal, Smilacina (Maianthemum) racemosum, 2’HW, part shade to shade, average to moist soils, creamcolored blooms in spring, spreads by underground rhizomes.

EXISTING Tn, New York Fern, Thelypteris noveboracensis, 1-2’HW, part shade to shade, most vigorous in moist soils, MA native.

GROUND LAYER/MATERIALS

Hc, Bluets/Quaker ladies, Houstonia caerulea, can be seeded or plugged into the low-mow lawn for added color.

Low-mow lawn mixes can be purchased from various nurseries, and may include a combination of creeping and clumping fescues.

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cesacramento.ucdavis.edu

The following materials and plants are incorporated across the campus, particularly in Schemes 1 and 2.

Leaf mulch, created onsite (through leaf collection and shredding) or purchased from outside source.

SUSTAINABLE GROUNDS DEVELOPMENT

Tr, Dutch white clover, Trifolium repens var., 6-10”HW, average soils, sun to part shade, spreads rapidly, chokes weeds, can be aggressive, not native.

KATE CHOLAKIS AND LAURA RISSOLO

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APPENDIX B Estimates OVERVIEW The following estimates are based on wholesale spring 2012 prices from various nurseries. They are meant to serve as a general guide for pricing, and include a 10% contingency.

MCCARTHY CENTER HILLSIDE Symbol TREES & SHRUBS

Quantity

Common Name

Scientific Name

Size

2 4 7 18 6 13 6

Sweetshrub Fringe tree Oakleaf hydrangea Inkberry holly Mountain laurel Dwarf large-leaf rhododendron Arborvitae

Calycanthus x 'Hartlage Wine' Chionanthus virginicus Hydrangea quercifolia 'Sike's Dwarf' Ilex glabra 'Shamrock' Kalmia latifolia 'Sarah' Rhododendron 'Yaku Princess' Thuja spp.

PERENNIALS CrB Ac As An AfL AnP Ch HmA HFV PsB Pb SsS Sc Vl Wt

50 300 72 100 256 20 150 70 600 224 100 36 76 128 672

Purple-leaf bugbane Meadow anenome Snowdrop anemone Pussytoes Lady fern Purple dome aster Hairy lipfern Autumn Bride coral bells Frosted violet coral bells Creeping phlox Solomon's seal Solar Cascade goldenrod Bluestem goldenrod Labrador violet Barren-strawberry

Actea (Cimicifuga) racemosa 'Brunette' Anemone canadensis Anemone sylvestris Antennaria plantaginifolia Athyrium filix-femina 'Lady in Red' Aster novae-angliae 'Purple Dome' Cheilanthes lanosa Heuchera macrorhiza 'Autumn Bride' Heuchera 'Frosted Violet' Phlox stolonifera 'Blue Ridge' Polygonatum biflorum (sub. Multiflorum) Solidago shortii 'Solar Cascade' Solidago caesia Viola labradorica Waldsteinia (Geum) ternata

1 gal plug plug 5 pt plug 5 pt 5 pt 5 pt 5 pt plug 1 gal 5 pt plug plug plug

BULBS (Fall planting) Cs Gi IhK NI

4000 1000 100 100

Glory of the snow Snow drops Rock garden iris Cyclamen daffodil

Chionodoxa sardensis Galanthus ikariae Iris histrioides 'Katharine Hodgkin' Narcissus Itzim

bulb bulb bulb bulb

Low-mow lawn

Fine fescue

metal edging

BorderLine 16'L, 4", black

Type

5 gal+ 7-8' B&B 7 gal 7 gal 3 gal+ 5 gal+

Wholesale Price

shrub tree shrub shrub shrub shrub tree

$138.00 $640.00 $259.00 $666.00 $342.00 $1,248.00 existing

perennial perennial perennial perennial fern perennial fern perennial perennial perennial perennial perennial perennial perennial perennial

$500.00 $335.00 $50.00 $700.00 $450.00 $130.00 $975.00 $500.00 $3,900.00 $270.00 $950.00 $235.00 $85.00 $120.00 $1,200.00 $359.40 $281.50 $22.50 $17.85

ALTERNATIVE LAWN 4,200 sq. ft.

20 lbs -seed

lawn

$125.00

HARDSCAPE 475 lin. ft.

$1,300.00

Subtotal 10% Contingency Total Alt. 300 FF dry laid stone wall

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SUSTAINABLE GROUNDS DEVELOPMENT

KATE CHOLAKIS AND LAURA RISSOLO

$15,799.25 $1,579.93 $17,379.18 $15,000.00


APPENDIX B Estimates PEIRCE AND ATHLETIC CENTER LANE Symbol

Quantity

Common Name

Scientific Name

Size

Type

Wholesale Price

TREES & SHRUBS 7 1 PERENNIALS Ac AnA As Cc ClBB Cp Cpa Cl CpSS Df Fm Iv Mc MdF Oc PsB Pa Pt Sr TcIB Vl

38 18 72 31 160 704 18 13 28 366 100 24 12 12 24 1440 32 6 42 48 224

Black chokeberry Witchhazel

Aronia melanocarpa Hamamelis virginiana

5 gal + 5-6' B&B

shrub tree

$210.00 $100.00

Nodding onion New York aster Snowdrop anemone Caterpiller/fringed sedge Bunny blue sedge Oak sedge Marsh marigold Northern sea oats Star tickseed Common/wavy hairgrass Chequered lily Blue flag iris Hair-awn muhly Beebalm/Oswego tea Cinnamon fern Creeping phlox Christmas fern Bowman's root False Solomon's seal Foam flower Labrador violet

Allium cernuum Aster novae-belgii 'Alert' Anemone sylvestris Carex crinita Carex laxiculmus 'HOBB' Bunny Blue Carex pennsylvanica Caltha palustris Chasmanthium latifolium Coreopsis pubescens 'Sunshine Superman' Deschampsia flexuosa Fritillaria meleagris Iris versicolor Muhlenbergia capillaris Monarda didyma 'Fireball' Osmunda cinnamonea Phlox stolonifera 'Blue Ridge' Polystichum acrostichoides Porteranthus (Gillenia) trifoliatus Smilacina(Maianthemum) racemosum Tiarella cordifolia 'Iron Butterfly' Viola labradorica

plug 5 pt plug plug plug plug 5 pt 5 pt 5 pt 5 pt/1 gal 100 bulbs 5 pt/1 gal 5 pt/1 gal 5 pt 5 pt/1 gal plug 5 pt/1 gal 5 pt 5 pt 5 pt plug

perennial perennial perennial sedge sedge sedge perennial grass perennial grass bulb perennial grass perennial fern perennial fern perennial perennial perennial perennial

$42.94 $117.00 $48.24 $32.55 $190.40 $915.20 $20.34 $12.16 $182.00 $2,392.00 $10.05 $180.00 $78.00 $7.32 $180.00 $1,728.00 $208.00 $39.00 $277.42 $312.00 $212.80

Fine fescue Hedyotis/Houstonia caerulea

6 lbs -seed 1 qt

lawn perennial

$41.70 $300.00

ALTERNATIVE LAWN Hc

1250 sq. ft. Low-mow lawn 50 Bluets/Quaker ladies

Subtotal 10% Contingency Total

SUSTAINABLE GROUNDS DEVELOPMENT

KATE CHOLAKIS AND LAURA RISSOLO

$7,837.12 $648.00 $7,837.12

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APPENDIX B Estimates ATHLETIC CENTER HILLSIDE Symbol AcA Ba Cq Cl Ed Mb Os Pm Rt Sn

Quantity 96 9 25 8 6 38 32 114 76 76 750 s.f. 750 800

Common Name Blue wood aster False blue indigo Small camas Northern sea oats Joe Pye weed Eastern bee balm Sensitive fern Short-toothed mountain mint Brown-eyed Susan Indian grass

ScientiďŹ c Name Aster cordifolius 'Avondale' Baptisia australis Camassia quamash Chasmanthium latifolium Eupatorium dubium 'Little Joe' Monarda bradburiana Onoclea sensibilis Pycnanthemum muticum Rudbeckia triloba Sorghastrum nutans

Dutch White Clover - Nitrocoated Seed Jute erosion control matting Landscape staples

Trifolium repens var

Size plug 5 pt-1 gal plug/5 pt 5 pt plug plug plug plug plug

Type perennial perennial bulb grass perennial perennial fern perennial perennial grass seed

Subtotal 10% contingency

Total

Wholesale Price $150.00 $58.50 $10.05 $48.00 $39.00 $42.94 $48.00 $128.82 $85.88 $87.40 $5.00 $320.00 $60.00

$1,083.59 $108.36 $1,191.95

ATHLETIC CENTER COURTYARD Symbol Ac Ec Gm Os Pr Sr Sc Tn

Quantity 500 76 64 192 96 208 152

Common Name Meadow anenome Hardy ageratum Wild cranesbill Sensitive fern Jacobs ladder False Solomon's seal Bluestem goldenrod New York Fern

ScientiďŹ c Name Anemone canadensis Eupatorium coelestinum Geranium maculatum Onoclea sensibilis Polemonium reptans Smilacina (Maianthemum) racemosum Solidago caesia Thelypteris noveboracensis

Size plug plug plug plug plug 5 pt plug

Type perennial perennial perennial fern perennial perennial perennial fern

Subtotal 10% contingency

Total

Wholesale Price $560.00 $85.88 $95.36 $288.00 $124.80 $1,352.78 $171.76 existing

$2,678.58 $267.86 $2,946.44

Suggested Nurseries: Cavicchio Greenhouses Inc., Earth Tones, New England Wetland Plants, North Creek Nurseries, Peaceful Valley Farm Supply, Prairie Nursery, Sunny Border Nurseries, Van Engelen Inc, Weston Nurseries

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SUSTAINABLE GROUNDS DEVELOPMENT

KATE CHOLAKIS AND LAURA RISSOLO


APPENDIX C Specifications LANDSCAPE PLANTINGS a. Planting season should be as follows: - Deciduous Trees: March 15th to May 1st and September 15th to November 1st, unless otherwise noted. - Evergreen Trees: April 15th to May 1st and September 1st to October 1st. - Shrubs: March 15th to May 31st and September 15th to November 15th. - Perennials: April 15th to May 30th and September 1st to October 15th. - Plant Plugs: April 15th to May 30th and September 1st to October 15th. - Bulbs: Sept. 1st until the ground freezes. - Low-Mow Lawn: August 15th to September 15th. If summer planting is necessary: prepare the planting area, plant trees and shrubs, and mulch the entire area to achieve a neat appearance. Provide adequate moisture. Plant perennials in the early fall. Pull away mulch before planting and return after perennial plant is in the ground. b. Transplanting seasons should be as follows: - Deciduous Trees: March 15th to May 1st and September 15th to November 1st, unless otherwise noted. - Evergreen Trees: March 15th to April 15th and September 1st to October 1st, unless otherwise noted. - Shrubs: March 15th to May 15th and September 15th to November 1st. - Perennials: April 1st to June 1st and September 1st to October 15th c. Maintenance: Maintenance shall be as specified by the Designer in the Sustainable Grounds Development document or the Maintenance Calendar, unless otherwise approved. d. Products: - Nomenclature: Plant material should be true to name and size. - Substitutions: No substitutions shall be accepted except with written substitution by the Designer. - Sourcing: Plants shall be nursery grown and not collected from wild populations. Local plant genotypes are preferred when available. e. Installation: - Planting Beds and Planting Pits: Planting beds and pits shall be prepared as indicated in the Sustainable Grounds Development document and as noted in this section. Remove existing

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SUSTAINABLE GROUNDS DEVELOPMENT

vegetation unless otherwise noted. Backfill planting holes in Scheme 1 and 2 zones with 1/3 compost and 2/3 native soil. Tamp backfill firm to prevent settlement. For plants on slopes, create wells to catch water. Water thoroughly after planting. If settling of soils occurs add more backfill to bring level to finish grade. Sheet Mulching: When specified use the following site preparation technique. Sheet mulching saves time and labor expenses, creates the least disturbance to soil microbes, and creates a built-in weed barrier for up to 2 years. Sheet mulching uses layered kraft paper, newspaper, or cardboard to smother turf and other weeds. Perennial plants and groundcovers are planted through the paper and have ample time to establish before the paper decomposes. Procedure: Mow the planting area to a height of 1 to 2 inches. Charge the ground with water. Lay down paper and overlap sheets at least 4 inches. Wet the paper as it is laid down. Spread 2-4 inches of mulch over the over the soil. Allow 2 to 4 weeks to pass before planting perennials and groundcovers. One day prior to planting perennials and groundcovers, soak the area with water to soften the paper. On the day of planting, pull the mulch away from an area slightly larger than the potted plant. Dig a hole through the paper to the parent soil. Remove any thatch before planting the perennial or groundcovers. Have a bucket of extra soil handy in case additional soil is needed. Reposition the mulch around the planted perennial or groundcover. Avoid mulch/stem/trunk contact. Watering: Thoroughly water plants immediately after planting by soaking hole without runoff. Water 1 time weekly to biweekly for the first three months. Fertilizing: Apply fertilizer, specified in the Sustainable Grounds Development document, at finish grade after planting. Incorporate into the top 1â&#x20AC;? of soil before mulching. Plant Counts: Quantities given in the Estimates are for reference only. The Contractor shall verify all quantities shown on the list and shall be responsible for furnishing all materials required to complete the plans.

KATE CHOLAKIS AND LAURA RISSOLO

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APPENDIX C Specifications MULCH a. Mulch shall be of local origin, either of shredded leaves or chipped wood and free from contaminants such as invasive plant seeds and roots, chemicals, or disease. When shredding leaves on site, apply leaf mulch to plants beds during the same season; leaf mulch shredded on site shall be spread in the garden beds closest to the source of collection. More finely shredded leaf mulch can be purchased for high-visibility locations from local suppliers (i.e., Nowak Brothers Tree and Landscape in Needham, MA).

EDGING a. Brown Border Stretch 6” steel edging with 1/8” gauge from Border Concepts shall be used where marked in site design plans, or otherwise approved. Install as per manufacturer’s instructions. Steel edging reduces the need for annual shovel edging and forms a protective barrier from weed infestation into planted areas.

LOW-MOW LAWNS: SEEDING a. Signage: 9 weeks prior to seeding, furnish the site with appropriate educational signs and delineate the area with marking equipment. b. Site Preparation for Existing Turf Areas: 8 weeks prior to seeding, prepare the site by applying a Glyphosate herbicide as per the manufacturer’s instructions. Protect any desirable plants from spray drift. 2 weeks prior to seeding, apply a second application of a Glyphosate herbicide as per the manufacturer’s instructions to kill any remaining turf grass and newly emergent weeds. 2-3 days prior to seeding, examine the sprayed area to confirm no further herbicide treatments are necessary. Apply another application of herbicide if necessary, otherwise, mow the dead material to a height of 1-2”. Rake the area clean of debris and scarify the area to expose 50% of the planting soils to a depth of 1” maximum. a. Seeding: Seed shall be “No Mow Lawn Mix” from Prairie Nursery. Sow seed 10-14 days after the last herbicide treatment, from August 15th to September 15th, and at such times that the seedlings will not be damaged by rain or high winds. Thoroughly mix the seed before spreading. Spread seed at the manufacturer’s specified rate. After sowing, roll the area to ensure proper seed to soil contact. Stabilize all slopes equal to or in excess of 2:1 with 100%

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SUSTAINABLE GROUNDS DEVELOPMENT

b.

c. d.

e. f.

biodegradable erosion control blankets (type “CS2” 70% straw and 30% coconut fiber, Source: New England Wetland Plants, Amherst MA, or equal approved by Designer). Place blanket over the seeded area and anchor with stakes to prevent soil erosion and loss of seeds during rain events. Accent Perennials: Sow Houstonia caerulea seed on the soil surface after fine fescue mix is rolled into the soil. If seed is unavailable, manually plant plugs the following spring. Accent Bulbs: The following fall, after seeding the lowmow lawn, plant Chionodoxa sardensis bulbs at a depth of 5” from Sept. 1st until the ground freezes. Establishment: Water every 2-3 days for two weeks. Once seedlings are evident, reduce watering to twice a week. Once seedlings are ½ - 1” tall, water biweekly until the ground freezes. Protect newly planted areas from traffic and erosion. Fertilizer: Fertilizers are not recommended for lowmow lawns. Maintenance: Refer to the Maintenance Calendar.

GRADING a. Locate Site Utilities: Use a utility marking service at least two full business days in advance of excavation. Contractor shall coordinate field adjustments with the Designer. b. Slope Stabilization: Unless otherwise noted, stabilize all slopes equal to or in excess of 2:1 with 100% biodegradable erosion control blankets, type “CS2” 70% straw and 30% coconut fiber, Source: New England Wetland Plants, Amherst MA, or equal approved by Designer.

KATE CHOLAKIS AND LAURA RISSOLO


Sustainable Grounds Development