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A Heart For The Hills Revitalizing the Conway Town Park

Prepared for Tara Guild Parks and Recreation Committee By Kate Cholakis Conway School Of Landscape Design 332 South Deerfield Road Conway, Massachusetts 01341 Fall 2010


7mi to Ashfield “The Centre occupies a deep valley shut in by towering hills, and is, in the mild seasons of the year, an inviting spot. It contains numerous handsome dwellings, two stores, a bank, hotel, public library, high school, three churches, and a fire-engine company, called Protection, No. 1, organized in 1858, and now numbering upward of 80 members.� Louis H. Everts. History of the Connecticut Valley in Massachusetts Volume II, 1879.

7mi to I-91

LEGEND CONWAY TOWN PARK

Downtown Conway sits in a low-lying area along the South River. Steep hills and dense forest surround this historic New England town. State highway Route 116 bisects the town, offering access to Interstate 91 in the east and to the town of Ashfield in the west.

DOWNTOWN CONWAY HIGHWAY RTE. 116 ROADS SOUTH RIVER, PUMPKIN HOLLOW BROOK, OTHER STREAMS 30 FT. CONTOURS

prepared for: tara guild, parks and recreation conway, massachusetts

Image: MassGIS <http://www.mass.gov/mgis/mapping.htm>

kate cholakis

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

conway town park

Introduction Historical Context Social and Ecological Context Existing Conditions Circulation Drainage Vegetation and Soils Sun and Shade Summary Analysis Summary Implications Alternative 1: Static to Dynamic Alternative 2: Stone by Stone Alternative 3: Ebb and Flow Alternative 4: Integrate, Insulate Alternative 4: Details Materials Precedents Plant List: Overview Plant List: Front Plant List: Back Conclusion

fall 2010

index

index

Conway School of Landscape Design Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 South Deerfield Road / PO Box 179 Conway, Massachusetts

overview of downtown conway


The Town Park, also known as the Veterans Park, is located in the heart of downtown Conway, Massachusetts. Although recently redesigned, the park suffers from a lack of use and maintenance. Many residents feel that the park seems disconnected from its historical and social context. Tara Guild, a member of the Conway Parks and Recreation Committee, approached the Conway School for help in revitalizing this neglected, sterile space. Her goals for the project fall into three main categories: integrating, re-vegetating, and defining the park.

Integrating the Park with Town Events and Activities

Design proposals should also respond to the values of the Conway community. These values were summarized and published in the 2000 Open Space and Recreation Plan (OSRP) for the Town of Conway. The following list was generated from a public process during which students of the Conway School of Landscape Design gathered information about the interests and concerns of the community. They reflect a vision of the town held by Conway residents:

Although the grass turf of the park is maintained by the town highway department, maintenance of the plant beds depends upon local volunteers. Plans for the park should incorporate native plants that require little maintenance, yet contribute to the visual appeal of the space. Defining the Borders of the Park

Anne Capra, Joan Casey, and Janet Curtis. Open Space and Recreation Plan. Conway, Massachusetts, March 2000.

Currently, the neighbors’ backyards are visible from the park. While sitting on park benches, one can occasionally hear voices from the house interiors. The client would like the design to address this need for privacy for the neighboring residential properties.

Photograph by Kate Cholakis

LOCATION OF WEEKLY FARMERS MARKET PLANTED TRAFFIC ISLAND

ROUT

E 116

TOWN PARK TOWN HALL

LIBRARY

Left: The recently designed town park is located in the center of downtown Conway. Right: The client would like the park to be integrated with nearby features, such as the Field Memorial Library, and with town events and activities, such as the annual Festival of the Hills.

Photograph by Kate Cholakis NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION. THIS DRAWING IS PART OF A STUDENT PROJECT AND IS NOT BASED ON A LEGAL SURVEY.

prepared for: tara guild parks and recreation committee conway, massachusetts

Re-Vegetating the Park with Low Maintenance Native Plants

OSRP 2000 Goals: • Conway continues to look like and function as a rural community. • Clean rivers, streams, and drinking water exist in town, and in the watershed as a whole. • A wide variety of wildlife habitats, with food, cover, water, and space, are supported by both public and private landowners. • Trails on private and public land are used with respect and maintained by the community.

conway town park

Multiple events occur within a short walking distance of the park. The Wednesday afternoon, seasonal Farmers Market recently moved to the small connecting road between the planted traffic island and row of residences. The annual fall festival (Festival of the Hills) utilizes several buildings in the downtown area, such as the nearby Town Hall and library. Parades throughout the year also use the roadways adjacent to the park. However, the lack of defined entrances and the centralized location of the memorial make it difficult for these events to utilize the space. The client would like the park to be incorporated into town events. In addition, the client envisions the park as a space for people to enjoy on a regular basis. She would like the park to serve as a place for people to relax, play, and gather.

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Community Goals

introduction

Client Goals

kate cholakis

Overview

Conway School of Landscape Design Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 South Deerfield Road / PO Box 179 Conway, Massachusetts 01341

overview of site and project goals

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1908

PRESENT

kate cholakis

1890

Downtown Conway Today

To Ashfield

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Pumpkin Hollow Brook

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Old Downtown Conway (Pumpkin Hollow)

history of town park

Image: John Warner Barber’s Historical Collections. Reproduced in Diane Lee’s Conway 1767-1967. Conway, Massachusetts, 1967.

1918 • The park appears in maps as early as 1918. A hedge-lined diagonal pathway crossed the space. • The planted island across the street was defined by a soldiers’ memorial. The town’s Women’s Relief Corps placed an urn here in memory of soldiers with unknown burial locations. Today, this urn is located across the street in the park.

Image: Conway 1767-1967.

2004 (Prior to Route 116 Highway Project) • The diagonal pathway across the park remained in the same location for nearly a century. However, at one point it was paved over with concrete. • Norway maples within the park shaded the pathway and open lawn. • Three memorial stones were located towards the front of the park. • Although not shown on the map, the planted traffic island consisted of a flower garden maintained by the Garden Club, a tall Christmas tree, the soldiers memorial, and flagpole. Memorials

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In the 1930s, the state of Massachusetts constructed a highway (Route 116) through the downtown area. Increasing traffic took its toll on the road, which has continually received repairs. As the elm trees declined from Dutch Elm disease, telephone poles

and other highway infrastructure came to dominate the landscape. In 2004, the Massachusetts Highway Department carried out a streetscape project to improve the integrity of Route 116 and the appearance of the downtown area. Although power lines were not able to be buried, a considerable amount of attention was placed on a new design for the town park. Despite this effort, the formality of the design did not reflect the rich history of the town, and the park is not regarded as an important node of the downtown area.

Image: Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association, Memorial Hall Museum, Deerfield MA.

2004-Present (Route 116 Highway Design) • The Massachusetts Highway Department divided the highway project into smaller areas of focus. • The Town Park, located in block 8, received a new design created by Waterfield Design Group. • A concrete oval pathway replaced the diagonal path, and the maple trees were removed. • The memorial stones were grouped together towards the front of the park. • The flagpole and memorial urn were moved from the island to the park. The Christmas tree was replaced, and the flower garden was removed.

Right: Construction detail for park

prepared for: tara guild parks and recreation committee conway, massachusetts

1839: Pumpkin Hollow

To Shelburne Falls

So

In the early 1900s, industry and agriculture both declined. Abandoned mill buildings dotted the landscape, and forest began

to reclaim fields. However, the downtown retained its residential and town center ambience. Elm trees lined the Main Street, and the unique architecture of the Field Memorial Library defined this axis.

conway town park

History: Downtown Conway

The original downtown area of Conway was located south of its current location in a lowlying area known as Pumpkin Hollow. Wood, a by-product of clearing land for agriculture, fueled the growth of industry, and mills

sprung up along the streams of the town. In the 1800s, due to the construction of mill buildings along the river, the downtown of Conway migrated north to a flat area near the South River. The downtown remained in this location up through to the present day. However, this does not mean that it did not continue to change over time.

historical context

The park is centrally located within the historical downtown area of Conway. In 1999, Main Street was added to the National Register of Historic Places for the way in which its architecture reflects the development of the town over time.

Conway School of Landscape Design Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 South Deerfield Road / PO Box 179 Conway, Massachusetts 01341

historical context

PARK

NTS

NTS

Historical Maps and Survey Documents: Supplied by MassDOT

NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION. THIS DRAWING IS PART OF A STUDENT PROJECT AND IS NOT BASED ON A LEGAL SURVEY.

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PAGES

SITE: TOWN PARK

16

CONWAY INN

LIBRARY TOWN HALL

ECOLOGICAL

REC. FIELDS

131’

The park is within a short walking distance of many public buildings, such as the post office, coffee shop (Pages), Conway Inn, library, and Town Hall. In addition, the town recreation fields, which include tennis courts, a playground, and sports fields, are located behind the Town Hall. Combined with the residences lining the street, these elements contribute to the town’s social context.

2 ecological context: riparian corridor

SO

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SOCIAL 131’

Image: http://hilltownfamilies.wordpress.com/2009/11/22/artswalk/

4 potential Connections

PRIORITY HABITAT AREA FOR RARE SPECIES

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PUMPKIN HOLLOW BROOK

(Designated by the Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program)

131’

The park is also located near two rivers: the South River and Pumpkin Hollow Brook. A priority habitat area for rare species has been designated for areas around these rivers, and extends into the back portion of the town park. Combined with the adjacent forested land, this riparian corridor exemplifies Conway’s rich ecological context.

The town park sits at the intersection of Conway’s social and ecological diversity. This intersection represents two strong values held by Conway residents: respect and enjoyment of the natural world and the importance of community life. The park may be imagined as a node that connects the ecological and social communities of Conway.

kate cholakis

TE 1

ANNUAL ARTS WALK POTENTIAL NATURE TRAILS 131’

For example, the park could serve as an entrance to potential nature trails through the wooded areas behind the downtown, while also serving as a stop for town events, such as the annual Arts Walk. The Arts Walk concludes with lighting the town Christmas Tree for the season, utilizing the space on the planted traffic island.

conway town park

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TOWN OFFICES

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RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

Conway School of Landscape Design Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 South Deerfield Road / PO Box 179 Conway, Massachusetts 01341

TOWN AND COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

3 intersection of social and ecological contexts

1 social context: downtown conway POST OFFICE

LEGEND

prepared for: tara guild parks and recreation committee conway, massachusetts

Analyzing the context of the park suggests the possibilities for integrating the space with the community and the landscape.

social and ecological context

social and ecological context

These possibilities for connection could be further developed by the community with more research into the logistics of creating public nature trails on private land.

NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION. THIS DRAWING IS PART OF A STUDENT PROJECT AND IS NOT BASED ON A LEGAL SURVEY.

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WEEKLY FARMERS MARKET

2 Habitat

Photograph by Kate Cholakis 40’

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TO DEERFIELD AND I-91

SEPTIC TANK PATH TO RECREATION FIELDS

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The leach field for the Town PRIVATE Hall septic system is located RESIDENCE underneath the mowed area of the park. Before installing any plants, the exact area of the septic system should be identified and mapped. To ensure optimal functioning of the system, deeply rooting plants and trees should not be planted near the leach field. However, the existing wide expanse of turf contributes to a feeling of exposure, and could be reduced.

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3 Town Hall Septic

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PLANTED TRAFFIC ISLAND STR

TOWN PARK

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0’ 5’ 10’

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3 APPROXIMATE SEPTIC AREA

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SPLIT-RA

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The wooded area towards the back of the park extends the habitat associated with the river into the park. This area consists of many fruit-bearing shrubs and man-made brush piles that provide food and refuge for wildlife. This inter-connectedness of the natural world and downtown life could be emphasized.

TOWN CHRISTMAS TREE

95

5 Veterans Memorial

A veterans memorial dominates the front of the park. Although this provides a focal point for the park, it designates the park as a solemn space. This limits the adaptability of the park to a variety of activities.

TOWN HALL

Photograph by Kate Cholakis NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION. THIS DRAWING IS PART OF A STUDENT PROJECT AND IS NOT BASED ON A LEGAL SURVEY.

prepared for: tara guild parks and recreation committee conway, massachusetts

A split-rail fence marks the property boundary between the park and private residence on the northwest side of the park. However, there is no boundary between the park and private PRIVATE residence along the southwest side of the RESIDENCE park. This contributes to the lack of privacy.

TO ASHFIELD

existing conditions

1 Boundaries

kate cholakis

Across the street from the park, the traffic island provides access to the town Christmas tree, which is decorated annually in the winter, as well as to the weekly, seasonal Farmers Market, which has recently moved to this location. These two events occur during different seasons, and present opportunities for the park to be integrated with town events.

Examining the park and its immediate context suggests several constraints and opportunities that will be factored into the creation of alternatives.

Conway School of Landscape Design Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 South Deerfield Road / PO Box 179 Conway, Massachusetts 01341

4 Planted Traffic Island

conway town park

existing conditions

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PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION DURING WEEKLY FARMERS MARKET PARKING FOR TOWN HALL

1 Vehicular Circulation

ACCESS TO POINTS OF INTEREST ACCESS TO PARK

PRIVATE RESIDENCE

FAR M

ERS

2

MAR

KET LIBRARY STEPS (INFORMAL GATHERING AREA)

1 BENCH BENCH

VETERANS MEMORIAL 5

PLANTED TRAFFIC ISLAND

16

BENCHES 3

5 Edges

The park lacks clearly defined edges. The back of the park is porous to views into and out of neighboring residences. The front of the park is open to vehicular noise and pollution as well as to views into the park from the street. This lack of defined edges contributes to an uncomfortable feeling of exposure.

3 Parking

The parking area along Academy Hill Road increases pedestrian circulation, as it is used by visitors to nearby destinations and events. However, cars back into the road at an odd angle, and people do not cross the street using the crosswalk.

D

PRIVATE RESIDENCE

L

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TOWN HALL

IMPLICATIONS These patterns suggest that the park serves as a venue for vehicular and pedestrian movement. The park is overlooked by fastmoving vehicles. It does not serve as a physical landing for pedestrians: it falls short of providing adequate gathering areas for people.

4 Seating

0’ 5’ 10’

20’

40’

Benches within the park are spaced equidistantly around the oval pathway instead of in groups, limiting the possibility of social gatherings. Their material (granite), width (3’ seating space), and lack of backrest makes them uncomfortable for reading or relaxing.

LIBRARY

TE 1

TOWN PARK

4

ROU

Circulation is concentrated towards the front, northeast corner of the park. This reflects the tendency that people have to use the park as a means to reach other destinations, such as the Town Hall and recreation fields.

PATH TO RECREATION FIELDS

ROUTE 116

NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION. THIS DRAWING IS PART OF A STUDENT PROJECT AND IS NOT BASED ON A LEGAL SURVEY.

prepared for: tara guild parks and recreation committee conway, massachusetts

2 Pedestrian Circulation

INTRUSIVE VIEWS AND SOUNDS

kate cholakis

Traffic is concentrated along Route 116. This traffic limits pedestrian movement from the park to the planted traffic island, weekly Farmers Market, and library. Although the speed limit is 25 mph, cars gain speed as they enter the town from the hill towards the south of the park. This compromises pedestrian safety.

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TO DOWNTOWN SHOPS

VEHICULAR CIRCULATION

conway town park

The circulation patterns within the park and its local context raise several concerns regarding pedestrian safety and aesthetic experience.

circulation

LEGEND

Conway School of Landscape Design Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 South Deerfield Road / PO Box 179 Conway, Massachusetts 01341

circulation

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http://www.fundforlakegeorge.org

DRAIN DRAIN

6 DEEPLY-ROOTING VEGETATION in the back of the park increases water infiltration into the ground.

0’ 5’ 10’

20’

40’

1

95.6

LOW POINTS WITH ELEVATIONS

109.3

HIGH POINT WITH ELEVATION

INFILTRATION RATES

LOW TO MODERATE INFILTRATION (MOWED LAWN)

3

6

MODERATE TO HIGH INFILTRATION (MULCHED AND WOODED AREAS)

96.8

95.6

DITCH 5

DRAIN 4

DRAIN

IMPLICATIONS Untreated water from the roads empties into a river that is designated as priority habitat for rare species. Road salt and vehicular pollutants compromise the health of wildlife. During the summer, impervious surfaces collect solar heat that releases into the runoff. The warm, polluted water reduces the amount of dissolved oxygen in the stream, further compromising aquatic life. Shallow-rooting turf grass only allows for low to moderate water infiltration. Grading directs water that cannot infiltrate into storm drains, and possibly into a ditch in a neighbor’s backyard.

5 A LOW DITCH IN

THE NEIGHBOR’S BACKYARD occasionally collects water. Some water within the park may move into the neighbor’s backyard, contributing to the pooling water.

4 GRADING DIRECTS

EXCESS WATER FROM THE PARK into a storm drain located on Academy Hill Road.

Runoff into the nearby river and neighbor’s backyard is an example of the consequences resulting from 109.3 separating the downtown from its ecological context. HIGH POINT: HILL This presents an opportunity to connect these two DESCENDING INTO 3 SHALLOW-ROOTING DOWNTOWN AREA landscapes: replacing the turf lawn with street trees MOWED TURF and small shrubs would increase water infiltration while dominates the open offering shade for park visitors. Rain gardens would space of the park, limiting slow down the movement of stormwater, increasing the the amount of water that possibility for infiltration while offering visual interest can infiltrate the ground. and educational opportunities for visitors. NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION. THIS DRAWING IS PART OF A STUDENT PROJECT AND IS NOT BASED ON A LEGAL SURVEY.

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drainage

95.6

LIMITED INFILTRATION (IMPERVIOUS SURFACES)

1) Impervious surfaces direct water into storm drains. Pipes empty this untreated water into nearby rivers. In Conway, runoff from Route 116 drains into the South River via storm pipes (see photograph on left). 2) More permeable surfaces, such as the grass turf and wooded areas of the town park, increase water infiltration into the soil. Deeply-rooting plants contribute to higher infiltration rates, whereas shallow-rooting plants allow for limited to moderate water infiltration. Therefore, the wooded areas in the back of the park allow for water infiltration, whereas the grass turf still produces runoff.

UNDERGROUND DRAINPIPES DRAINS

2

Analyzing the drainage within and near the park demonstrates two basic methods for processing stormwater:

WATER FLOW

kate cholakis

STORM DRAIN TO SOUTH RIVER

LEGEND

prepared for: tara guild parks and recreation committee conway, massachusetts

road flows across these surfaces into on-street storm drains. Underground piping directs the runoff into the nearby South River.

the Town Park on two sides and completely envelopes the planted traffic island. This prevents water infiltration along the road, concentrating water in storm drains.

Conway School of Landscape Design Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 South Deerfield Road / PO Box 179 Conway, Massachusetts 01341

2 RUNOFF from the impervious

1 IMPERVIOUS ASPHALT surrounds

conway town park

Drainage

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Mowed lawn fills most of the surface area of the traffic island. Isolated plants in this space tolerate direct sun as well as salt spray and pollution. (AC, AG, CS, NX)

The type, arrangement, and location of plants within the park relates to the plants’ function and degree of maintenance. Ornamentals and Small Shrubs 1 Isolated ornamental perennials and bulbs towards the front of the park are generally kept orderly. (AC, C, CA, FG, GP, L, NX, RC, UA)

A small group of bulbs, small trees, and shrubs provide a low but visually porous border between the park and the neighboring residence. (CK, KL, L, P, VT)

0’ 5’ 10’

20’

40’

OAK (Q) Grove of NORWAY SPRUCE (PA)

MAPLE (AS)

POTENTIALLY INVASIVE PLANTS MAINTAINED MULCHED PLANT BEDS SEEMINGLY UNMANAGED MULCHED PLANT BEDS

MAPLE (Acer)

FULL SUN PARTIAL SHADE

1

SHADE

AG

a

SOILS AC

2

7

NX

6

b

AG

Miscanthus sinensis

CS AG

5 6 Memorial Area

4

A AC AM AS C CA CK CV FG FM GP HT HV IV JV KL L M MS NX

5 Mowed Lawn

The sunny lawn receives perhaps the most maintenance, as it is mowed regularly.

PLANT LIST: TOWN PARK Alopecurus foxtail grass Aquilegia canadensis columbine Alchemilla mollis common lady’s mantle Acer saccharum sugar maple Chrysanthemum spp. Clethra alnifolia summersweet Cornus kousa kousa dogwood, ‘constellation’ Chionanthus virginicus fringe tree Fothergilla gardenii dwarf fothergilla Fothergilla major large fothergilla Gaultheria procumbens checkerberry Halesia tetraptera Carolina silverbell Hamamelis virginiana common witchhazel Ilex verticillata winterberry, ‘red sprite’ Juniperus virginiana red cedar Kalmia latifolia mountain laurel Lilium spp. Malus spp. apple Miscantus sinensis silver grass Nepeta x. Faassenii catmint, ‘walker’s low’

Isolated plants surrounded by mowed lawn provide a focal point for the memorials. This area is generally kept orderly and devoid of less ornamental plants. Ornamental grasses (PV, MS), Dogwood (CK), Catmint (NX)

P PA PO PS PV Q RC

Polygonum spp. smartweed Picea abies Norway spruce Polygonatum odoratum fragrant solomon’s seal Pinus strobus white pine Panicum virgatum switchgrass Quercus spp. oak Rhododendron carolinianum Carolina rhododendron (or PJM rhododendron) S Solidago spp. goldenrod UA Ulmus american elm, ‘new harmony’ VT Viburnum trilobum American cranberry PLANT LIST: TRAFFIC ISLAND AC Abies concolor white fir AG Amelianchier x Grandifolia autumn brilliance serviceberry CS Cornus sericea red twig dogwood NX Nepeta x. Faassenii catmint, ‘walker’s low’ NOTE: only plants visible and identifiable during late autumn were recorded for this analysis.

Soil Association and Type: Merrimac-Ondawa, Podunk Fine Sandy Loam. The soil is a moderately well-drained fine sandy loam that formed in recently deposited material along nearby streams. Except when soil is saturated, water passes readily through it. A high water table keeps the soil wet late in the spring and following periods of rain. The town park shares this association with downtown Conway, and with the land to the north and west along the South River. Soil Test: Two soil samples were taken in the park during the fall of 2010. Each sample included ten smaller samplings from two areas of the park (see A and B on the map). Results are summarized below: a Front of the park: pH is around 6.2; organic matter is around 7% (within desirable range); micronutrient levels are normal. b Back of the park: pH is around 6.0; organic matter is around 9.2% (high); micronutrient levels are normal, but some added compost would increase low phosphorous levels.

IMPLICATIONS The vegetation of the park demonstrates the stark contrast between the highly-maintained front and unmanaged back of the park. Although the back of the park has an unkempt appearance, it extends wildlife habitat into the park. The front of the park seems open and exposed, and provides little refuge for people or wildlife. Planting trees and shrubs in the grassy areas towards the front would create shade, decreasing the feeling of exposure. Vegetating the back of the park with low-maintenance plants of different scales (ferns to small shrubs to understory trees) would increase the visual appeal while providing habitat for wildlife.

NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION. THIS DRAWING IS PART OF A STUDENT PROJECT AND IS NOT BASED ON A LEGAL SURVEY.

prepared for: tara guild parks and recreation committee conway, massachusetts

4 Shrub/Bulb Border

REGULARLY MOWED LAWN WITH ISOLATED PLANTS

kate cholakis

A row of Norway spruces 3 (Picea abies) extends the vertical scale of the park. However, low understory plants surround the bases of their trunks. Wild grasses and other plants have appeared in this plant bed, contributing to its unmanaged Lonicera appearance. Despite this morrowii appearance, this area consists of many native plants that provide food and cover for wildlife. (Aster, A, AM, FM, GP, HV, IV, PO, S)

MAPLE (AS)

Conway School of Landscape Design Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 South Deerfield Road / PO Box 179 Conway, Massachusetts 01341

3 Wooded Area

LEGEND

APPLE (M)

conway town park

2

Tree Border This line of trees provides a visual screen between the neighboring residence and the park. However, two of the trees in this screen are deciduous, creating seasonal gaps in an otherwise visually orderly evergreen row. (CV, HT, JV, PS)

MATURE TREES

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7 Planted Island

vegetation and soils

vegetation and soils

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sun and shade

The intersection of Academy Hill Road and Route 116 receives limited sun throughout the day during the winter months, when the park is not in use.

3

NOON SHADOWS 3 PM SHADOWS

This area can become uncomfortably warm for those walking around and sitting in the park.

EQUINOXES (SEPTEMBER AND MARCH) Seating areas become uncomfortably warm in the summer.

The lack of full bottom branches on the Norway spruces produces filtered shade for the plant beds below.

In the fall and spring, the intersection and front of the park is exposed to sunlight, making this space warm and comfortable. The mulched plant beds underneath the Norway spruce canopy receive significant morning sunlight and dappled, afternoon shade. Plants added to these areas should be tolerant of partial sun and shade.

IMPLICATIONS During the summer, fall, and spring months, most of the park and intersection receive significant exposure to sunlight over the course of the day. In the recent re-design of the park, these areas were designated as pedestrian spaces; they include benches and pathways. In the spring and fall, exposure to the sun provides welcome warmth. However, these areas can become uncomfortably hot during the summer. These pedestrianoriented areas feel exposed and lack the refuge provided by shade trees.

NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION. THIS DRAWING IS PART OF A STUDENT PROJECT AND IS NOT BASED ON A LEGAL SURVEY.

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9AM SHADOWS

sun and shade

The intersection and the park receive significant exposure to sunlight throughout the course of the day in the summer.

prepared for: tara guild parks and recreation committee conway, massachusetts

SUMMER (JUNE 22)

kate cholakis

2

Conway School of Landscape Design Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 South Deerfield Road / PO Box 179 Conway, Massachusetts 01341

WINTER (DECEMBER 22)

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1

LEGEND

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summary analysis

VEHICULAR CIRCULATION

STORM DRAIN TO SOUTH RIVER

PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION PEDESTRIAN/VEHICULAR CONFLICT

WEEKLY FARMERS MARKET

PRIVATE RESIDENCE

ENJOYABLE VIEWS

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W

NH

AL

INTR

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STR

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E

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AC

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H MY

LOW POINT WITH ELEVATION

109.3

HIGH POINT WITH ELEVATION CANOPY TREES/ FORESTED EDGE

1 Memorial Area

2 Mowed Lawn

D OA

The location of the septic system underneath the park prevents the planting of deeply rooted trees and shrubs. This space is therefore kept open as a sunny lawn that receives perhaps the most maintenance, as it is mowed regularly. This area provides open space and views of the library and Town Hall, but its formal shape does not accommodate sports games or other casual, recreational activities and interactions.

LR

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PRIVATE RESIDENCE

95.6

The memorial’s location towards the front of the park allows for increased visibility. As a result, isolated plants are managed and orderly. However, this location exposes the memorial area to vehicular noise and direct sunlight, compromising solemn contemplation.

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PLANTED TRAFFIC ISLAND

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SEPTIC TANK

TOWN HALL

3 Boundaries

The boundaries of the park are porous. The lack of buffers encourages intrusive views into and out of neighboring residential properties. This lack also exposes the park to vehicular pollution. The boundaries between the road and sidewalks are also problematic: crosswalks lack visibility and compromise pedestrian safety.

prepared for: tara guild parks and recreation committee conway, massachusetts

E

SIV LIBRARY VIEW TO

TOWN CHRISTMAS TREE

conway town park

RU INT

MORNING SUN/ AFTERNOON SHADE APPROXIMATE SEPTIC LOCATION HIGHWAY RUNOFF MOVEMENT

95.6

kate cholakis

FILTERED SHADE

Conway School of Landscape Design Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 South Deerfield Road / PO Box 179 Conway, Massachusetts 01341

INTRUSIVE VIEWS

VETERANS MEMORIAL

3

fall 2010

Combining the greatest opportunities and constraints of the site suggests how patterns of circulation, drainage, vegetation, and sun/shade affect the park experience and wildlife.

summary analysis

LEGEND

4 Habitat PATH TO RECREATION FIELDS 0’ 5’ 10’

20’

40’

109.3

The back, shady area of the park is rarely visited by pedestrians, and receives the least maintenance. Although it appears to be unmanaged, it contains many native plants that support wildlife, extending the habitat beyond the park into the space. This area of the park, unlike the impervious roadways, encourages water infiltration into the ground.

TO DEERFIELD AND I-91 NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION. THIS DRAWING IS PART OF A STUDENT PROJECT AND IS NOT BASED ON A LEGAL SURVEY.

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A'

Isolated Island The lack of crosswalk definition makes access to the planted traffic island difficult and at times unsafe. The granite wall on the island faces away from the park, contributing to this space’s isolation.

As the section illustrates, these four “zones” lack integration. Everything in the park is exposed all at once. The park lacks mystery, and fails to draw people into the space.

A

WOODED BACK

OPEN MIDDLE

TOWN PARK 0’ 5’ 10’

20’

40’

EXPOSED FRONT

ROAD

ISOLATED ISLAND

ROAD

LIBRARY

fall 2010

summary implications

A

prepared for: tara guild parks and recreation committee conway, massachusetts

Wooded Back The back of the park is shaded and enclosed. Although people do not walk to this area of the park, it supports wildlife and connects to the riparian habitat beyond the park.

kate cholakis

Open Middle The middle of the park is defined by a formal oval pathway and grass turf that does not accommodate casual interactions. Isolated benches in direct sunlight do not provide refuge or inspire gatherings. The space seems barren and sterile.

Conway School of Landscape Design Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 South Deerfield Road / PO Box 179 Conway, Massachusetts 01341

Exposed Front Paved surfaces, clustered monuments, and busy roadways dominate the front of the park. It serves as a venue for movement rather than rest.

The opportunities and challenges associated with the memorial area, mowed lawn, boundaries, and habitat suggest that the park comprises four main zones with different characteristics:

conway town park

summary implications

A'

NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION. THIS DRAWING IS PART OF A STUDENT PROJECT AND IS NOT BASED ON A LEGAL SURVEY.

10 /21


LOW WOODLAND PLANTS TALL WOODLAND PLANTS

ADDED STEPPING STONE PATH

CONCRETE WALKWAYS COBBLESTONE STEPPING STONES

EXPANDED CORNUS SERICEA

GATHERING AREA WITH SCULPTURE

OPEN LAWN ADDED STREET TREES AND LOW VEGETATION

ADDED STREET TREES

MEMORIAL STONES

20’

40’

fall 2010

STONE SEATING SCULPTURE/ARTIFACT

CONCEPT:

Vegetation deconstructs geometry, and a “node” towards the front of the park serves as a transitional area between the park and the road.

SHRUB BORDER

TOWN HALL

0’ 5’ 10’

aLTERNATIVE 1

TALL SHRUBS

MOWED GRASS

LIBRARY

PRIVATE RESIDENCE

PROPOSED TREES

PERENNIAL ORNAMENTALS

MOVED BENCH

MEMORIAL AREA WITH ADDED STEPPING STONE PATH

EXISTING TREES

NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION. THIS DRAWING IS PART OF A STUDENT PROJECT AND IS NOT BASED ON A LEGAL SURVEY.

prepared for: tara guild parks and recreation committee conway, massachusetts

PERENNIALS

LEGEND

kate cholakis

PRIVATE RESIDENCE

CONS • The memorials might not receive the attention and respect that they deserve in such a hidden space. • The open lawn space assumes an unusual shape, making this design less cohesive and perhaps less adaptable to town events. • The memorial path is not accessible to people in manual and motorized wheelchairs.

Conway School of Landscape Design Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 South Deerfield Road / PO Box 179 Conway, Massachusetts 01341

This alternative works with existing hardscape elements, but disrupts the formal geometry of the park with added street trees and understory plants. New vegetation generates shade for park visitors and creates more mysterious views into the park. An informal gathering area towards the front of the park serves as a transitional area between the interior and exterior of the park. A stepping stone pathway and managed plant beds integrate the wooded area with the rest of the park.

PROS • Most pathways remain in current locations. • Street trees create shade for park visitors. • An added walkway winds through the wooded area, offering a more contemplative environment for observing the memorials. • Stone benches create an informal gathering space near the front of the park. • An added shrub border extends along the edges of the park that meet the residential properties, increasing privacy.

conway town park

Alternative 1: Static to Dynamic

11 /21


PICNIC TABLES FOR FARMERS MARKET

CONCRETE PATHWAYS TRANSFORM INTO PERMEABLE STEPPING STONES

PROPOSED TREES TALL SHRUBS LOW WOODLAND PLANTS TALL WOODLAND PLANTS PERENNIAL ORNAMENTALS MOWED GRASS CONCRETE WALKWAYS COBBLESTONE

LIBRARY

STEPPING STONES MEMORIAL STONES

fall 2010

EXISTING TREES

aLTERNATIVE 2

LEGEND

kate cholakis

CONS PROS • The proximity of the memorials to the road • The memorials receive greater visibility may hinder a contemplative experience towards the front of the park. • The pathway across the park bisects the • The added path across the park references lawn, creating unusual open spaces that may the path that existed here for nearly a century This alternative incorporates themes of not accommodate town events and activities. (prior to the recent re-design of the space). transformation and history. Concrete pathways In addition, this path may not have relevance • The vehicular/pedestrian interaction is defined transition into stepping stones that continue into the to people today, as it does not connect major with gathering spaces or nodes. woodland to the potential nature trails. Stone seating features. • The historic stone wall on the island greets transitions into a stone wall created with pieces of • The memorial path is not accessible to people vehicles entering the town. historic stone walls from the Conway landscape. in manual and motorized wheelchairs. • Woodland plants in the back of the park Vegetation transitions from more ordered plant beds extend wildlife habitat. towards the front of the park to a woodland garden in the back. MEMORIAL AREA HISTORIC STREET LAMPS (REPLICAS PROTECTED BY OF THOSE FLANKING THE LIBRARY) PRIVATE LINE THE FARMERS MARKET AREA SHRUBS RESIDENCE

Conway School of Landscape Design Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 South Deerfield Road / PO Box 179 Conway, Massachusetts 01341

alternative 2: Stone By Stone

WINTERBERRYLINED POTENTIAL TRAIL TO RIVER

0’ 5’ 10’

20’

STONE WALL SEATING TRANSFORMS INTO HISTORIC STONE WALL

PRIVATE RESIDENCE

40’

ADDED PATH REFERENCES HISTORIC WALKWAY ACROSS PARK

GATHERING AREA WITH SCULPTURE AND STONE WALL SEATING

GATHERING NODES FOCUS ON CROSSWALKS

EXPANDED CORNUS SERICEA WITH STONE WALL

CONCEPT:

SCULPTURE/ARTIFACT

This alternative is guided by the geometry of pedestrian walkways. Nodes are created near crosswalks to draw attention to points of intersection. The material of the pathways and the stone walls changes as visitors walk around the park, evoking themes of history and ecology.

TOWN HALL

NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION. THIS DRAWING IS PART OF A STUDENT PROJECT AND IS NOT BASED ON A LEGAL SURVEY.

prepared for: tara guild parks and recreation committee conway, massachusetts

OPEN SPACE

conway town park

STONE SEATING

12 /21


MEMORIALS MOVED TO OPEN SPACE ALONG STEPPING STONE PATH

PROPOSED TREES TALL SHRUBS LOW WOODLAND PLANTS TALL WOODLAND PLANTS PERENNIAL ORNAMENTALS MOWED GRASS CONCRETE WALKWAYS

LIBRARY

COBBLESTONE STEPPING STONES

MAIN ENTRANCE

MEMORIAL STONES

ENTRANCE FROM PARKING LOT

PLACEMENT EMPHASIZES CHRISTMAS TREE

CONCEPT:

The design responds to the ebb and flow of community life (activities and events) and ecology (water movement). The patterns of vegetation and walking paths create nodes that serve as gathering spaces and integrate the park with nearby features and community events.

PRIVATE RESIDENCE TOWN HALL

20’

40’

NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION. THIS DRAWING IS PART OF A STUDENT PROJECT AND IS NOT BASED ON A LEGAL SURVEY.

prepared for: tara guild parks and recreation committee conway, massachusetts

GATHERING SPACE NEAR SWALE AND SCULPTURE

SCULPTURE/ARTIFACT

SHADE PLANTS INTEGRATE AREA IN FRONT OF TOWN HALL WITH PARK SHRUB

conway town park

STONE SEATING

OPEN SPACE

0’ 5’ 10’

fall 2010

EXISTING TREES

aLTERNATIVE 3

LEGEND

kate cholakis

CONS PROS • Constructing the swale requires grading • Street trees, an arbor, and a main as well as careful research to ensure that entrance define the front edge of the park. it does not affect the functioning of the • A central gathering area opening out onto septic system. the lawn accommodates event gatherings This alternative connects the downtown and the river • Continuing the swale down to the river and daily activities. habitat behind the park through the process of stormwater requires arrangements with private • A sculpture located inside the swale treatment. A swale draws some of the runoff from the street property owners. connects art and ecology, two interests of into the park, and brings it through the site via a planted • The memorial path is not accessible the Conway community. or dry-rock swale. The swale continues down to the river to people in manual and motorized • The memorials are located in a sheltered after leaving the park. This process slows down the water, wheelchairs. yet visible location. increasing the opportunity for infiltration before emptying water into the river (a priority habitat area). ROCK BED SWALE DRAWS SMALL AMOUNT OF RUNOFF FROM ROAD PRIVATE INTO THE PARK RESIDENCE

Conway School of Landscape Design Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 South Deerfield Road / PO Box 179 Conway, Massachusetts 01341

alternative 3: Ebb and Flow

13 /21


PRIVATE RESIDENCE QR CK (M.)

JV IV (M.)

CC

CC

BENCHES LINE A WOODLAND WALK TOWARDS THE BACK OF THE PARK

AA

AA

STREET TREES WITH ATTRACTIVE FALL FOLIAGE VISUALLY UNITE THE PARK, TOWN HALL, AND ISLAND

GRASSES, JUNIPER

AR

PRIVATE RESIDENCE

40’

DECIDUOUS SHRUB BORDER

LOW VEGETATION HISTORIC STONE WALL STONE WALL SEATING

STEPPING STONES STONE PAVERS

AG (M.)

fall 2010

CANOPY AND UNDERSTORY TREES

aLTERNATIVE 4

EXISTING TREE MOVED (SEE VEGETATION ANALYSIS FOR IDENTIFICATION)

AR

BULBS, LOW PERENNIALS, RHODODENDRON

HV (M.)

20’

LIBRARY

SHRUBS, PERENNIALS

CV (M.) HT (M.)

CK (M.)

TREE ADDED (SEE PLANT LIST FOR IDENTIFICATION)

SHRUBS

AG (M.) JV

CK

STONE SEATING DEFINES AN INFORMAL GATHERING AREA TOWARDS THE FRONT OF THE PARK

RED-TWIG DOGWOOD STANDS BEHIND THE HISTORIC STONE WALL

CONCEPT:

Street trees and understory vegetation integrate the park with the island and Town Hall, creating a gateway for vehicles entering the town and a physical landing for pedestrians. Within the park, the mown lawn is transformed into an interesting shape that accommodates events and activities. This alternative integrates the movement of cars and people into the landscape.

TOWN HALL

NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION. THIS DRAWING IS PART OF A STUDENT PROJECT AND IS NOT BASED ON A LEGAL SURVEY.

prepared for: tara guild parks and recreation committee conway, massachusetts

UNDERSTORY WOODLAND PLANTS: FERNS, PERENNIALS

0’ 5’ 10’

A BRICK CROSSWALK IMPROVES PEDESTRIAN SAFETY AND ANNOUNCES VEHICULAR ARRIVAL TO MAIN STREET

THE EXISTING AMELANCHIER (AG) TREES HAVE BEEN MOVED TO FRAME THE TOWN CHRISTMAS TREE. LOW-GROWING JUNIPER COVERS AREAS OF THE ISLAND CURRENTLY FILLED WITH MOWED LAWN.

LEGEND

conway town park

THE MEMORIALS HAVE BEEN MOVED TO A SHADY YET VISIBLE LOCATION ON THE EDGE OF THE LAWN

CONS • The added Amelanchier arborea (AA) trees’ roots may grow too close to the septic leach field. The leach field should be mapped prior to planting trees. • Moving the benches to the south side of the property might intrude on the privacy of the neighboring home.

kate cholakis

PROS • Added trees and other vegetation fill in part of the mown lawn, producing shade and visual interest. • The benches have been grouped This alternative demonstrates how elements of the previous together towards the back of the park, three alternatives can be combined with particular plant choices. where they provide opportunities to enjoy Vegetation patterns and landscape elements integrate the this woodland area. park with the traffic island and Town Hall, while also creating • Existing plants have been saved and comfortable spaces within the park for people to gather, relocated, decreasing costs. contemplate the memorials, and explore a woodland landscape. • The stone pavers in the memorial area are intended to be ADA accessible.

Conway School of Landscape Design Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 South Deerfield Road / PO Box 179 Conway, Massachusetts 01341

Alternative 4: integrate, insulate

14 /21


3

2 Above: The stone wall and understory trees create a park-like experience for visitors. Below: Trees with horizontal, architectural branching patterns provide visual contrast to vertical elements (such as the Norway spruces), and offer winter interest.

3

A

A‘

1

4 Street Trees

4

Image: http://www.flickr. com/photos/bobistraveling/4359953884/

0’ 5’

20’

Image: http://www.americancenturies. mass.edu

40’

0’ 5’ 10’

A

SHRUBS AND TREES REDUCE SCALE

HISTORIC STONE WALL DEFINES OPEN SPACE

STREET TREES CREATE GATEWAY, PROVIDE SHADE

AMELANCHIER FRAME CHRISTMAS TREE

Crosswalk A brick or painted crosswalk draws the attention of drivers, alerting them of pedestrians and welcoming them to the downtown area.

20’

40’

A'

An added street tree in front of the Town Hall responds to the existing and added street trees in the park and planted island. It also references the history of street trees in this area. The photograph to the left shows the street tree that once stood in front of the old town hall.

Section Street trees and understory vegetation create less porous and exposed edges for the park. They serve as buffers between the park and the road, private residences and the wooded habitat. These elements break up the formal structure of the park, creating a sense of mystery for park visitors.

NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION. THIS DRAWING IS PART OF A STUDENT PROJECT AND IS NOT BASED ON A LEGAL SURVEY.

prepared for: tara guild parks and recreation committee conway, massachusetts

The memorials receive the respect they deserve in a contemplative setting. The existing Halesia tetraptera, moved to this newly created memorial space, drops its petals in the spring onto the memorial stones (see photographs at right).

fall 2010

aLTERNATIVE 4: details

Towards the back of the park, understory trees, such as Amelanchier arborea and Carpinus caroliniana, reduce the scale of the space, creating an intimate experience. Native shrubs and trees provide food and cover for wildlife while offering a quiet woodland experience for park visitors.

kate cholakis

2 Memorial Area

Conway School of Landscape Design Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 South Deerfield Road / PO Box 179 Conway, Massachusetts 01341

1 Woodland Walk

Images: http://www.hort. uconn.edu/plants; Rick Darke, The American Woodland Garden 2002

conway town park

Alternative 4: Details

15 /21


http://www.studiogblog.com

http://www.dirtstudio.com

http://www.arch.virginia.edu/

2 Concern: The existing crosswalks lack

http://www.pedbikeimages.org/ Max Bushell

visibility for vehicles moving down a hill into town and around a curve.

3 Concern: Unmanaged areas of the park have

an overgrown appearance, and suggest that the park is neglected.

Potential Solution: Materials such as paint, brick, and stone can lend attention to existing crosswalks, improving safety and announcing vehicular arrival into the downtown.

http://sf.streetsblog.org/2009/07/10/eyes-on-the-street-anew-crosswalk-at-market-golden-gate-and-taylor/

http://picasaweb.google.com/lh/ photo/4w4GSIB7bxSgQ3klkGak1A

Raised crosswalks slow down traffic and define entry into an area. http://www.pedbikeimages.org/ Dan Burden

Potential Solution: At Ashintully in Tyringham, Massachusetts, a path through a woodland garden dominated by ferns is mowed yearly (right). Each time, the path is slightly different from the previous one. Native understory plants that require little maintenance retain the woodland experience, but communicate that the park is cared for. Photograph by Kate Cholakis

kate cholakis

http://www.arch.virginia.edu/

conway town park

Potential Solution: Pathways might be transformed into crushed concrete surfaces. At the Urban Outfitters complex in Philadelphia, concrete was salvaged and reused as a permeable surface. The grooves between larger slabs were filled with smaller pieces of rubble and planted with trees. However, these surfaces would not be ADA accessible.

fall 2010

in the park seem out of character with Conwayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rural and historical character.

materials

1 Concern: The formal, oval concrete pathways

prepared for: tara guild parks and recreation committee conway, massachusetts

Potential Solution: At Bloedel Reserve in Washington State, stepping stones and rectangular pavers define pedestrian walkways while blending in with the landscape. Stepping stones would lessen the formality of the Town Park. (See photographs to right).

Reusing existing materials and introducing new materials can help to resolve some of the problems associated with the current park design.

Conway School of Landscape Design Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 South Deerfield Road / PO Box 179 Conway, Massachusetts 01341

materials

16 /21


James Clarkson Environmental Discovery Center White Lake Township, Michigan

woodland gardens

Low-maintenance woodland gardens draw people into a landscape, offering an attractive and tranquil experience for park visitors.

Bloedel Reserve Bainbridge Island, Washington

public art

Salamander Sculpture and Mill Canal Newt Amherst, Massachusetts John Sendelbach Installing artworks from local artists incorporates the community into the design process, and anchors a space within its community.

Images: Clockwise from Top Left: http://www.asla.org/awards/2008/08winners/338.html; http://www.flickr.com/photos/writergirl76/1100342412/; next four images: http://www.johnsendelbach.com; unknown source; http://www.healthcarefineart.com/landscaping/

conway town park

pedestrian intersections

kate cholakis

Bloedel Reserve Bainbridge Island, Washington

fall 2010

Minuteman Crossing Amherst, Massachusetts John Senselbach

Informal gathering areas that allow people to sit near one another are conducive to casual conversation and group activities.

precedents

gathering areas

Drawing attention to the spaces in which pathways converge celebrates and reinforces pedestrian activity.

prepared for: tara guild parks and recreation committee conway, massachusetts

The park suffers from a lack of use and maintenance. Several strategies and landscape elements can attract people to a space and encourage stewardship.

Conway School of Landscape Design Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 South Deerfield Road / PO Box 179 Conway, Massachusetts 01341

precedents

17 /21


Front/Middle of Park • Sunny, well-drained • Areas along roads subject to salt and pollution • Dry to moist soils Image: http://www.hort. uconn.edu/plants/ Images left to right: http://www. hort.uconn.edu/plants/; personal photo; wildflower.org; finegardening.com

Common Name Serviceberry (existing, possibly moved) Red twig/red-osier dogwood (existing, possibly moved) Creeping juniper

Amelanchier x grandiflora

Variety Type ‘Autumn Sunset', 'Prince deciduous small William' tree/large shrub ‘Flaviramea' (yellow stems), deciduous small Cornus sericea 'Baileyi', 'Cardinal', 'Silver tree/shrub and Gold' (yellow stems) Juniperus horizontalis, evergreen ‘Bar Harbor', 'Depressa' communis groundcover

Catmint (existing, possibly moved)

Botanical name Amelanchier x grandiflora

Nepeta x faassenii

‘walker’s low’

perennial herb

Ht (ft.) 15-25'

Nepeta x faassenii

Juniperus horizontalis

Cornus sericea

Width (ft.) Sun/Shade Water full sun to 10' moist to dry part shade

6-10'

6-10'

full sun to part shade

moist, adaptable

1-2'

4-8'

full sun

adaptable

12-15"

24-30"

full to partial sun

droughttolerant

Soil Uses acidic; street/park tree; pollution tolerant; fall foliage; adaptable spring flowers adaptable

stems are of winter interest; can spread; pruning lends best effect; easily grown

well-drained, groundcover in neglected areas; salt tolerant adaptable well-drained

edging along paths; blue/purple flowers; spring interest

vegetated borders

Retain existing white pines and red cedars along split-rail fence, but be sure to thin them to prevent expansion into planted areas. Add red cedars or other similar evergreen trees to areas along the split-rail fence (consider dwarf varieties). Move existing silverbell (Halesia tetraptera) and fringe tree (Chionanthus virginicus) to sunnier locations where they can expand outward. Remove or prune existing apple tree. Add deciduous shrubs along borders without evergreen trees. Common Name

Botanical name

Eastern red cedar (existing and Juniperus virginiana expanded) (JV) Atlantic white cedar

Chamaecyparis thyoides

Sweet pepperbush (existing and Clethra alnifolia expanded) Witchhazel (existing, possibly Hamamelis virginiana moved)

Variety ‘Canaertii', ‘Emerald Sentinel', 'Pendula', 'Hillspire', 'Manhattan Blue' ‘Andelyensis' (10'), 'Aurea' (15'), 'Ericoides' (6') ‘Hummingbird', 'Paniculata', 'Pinkspire' ‘virginiana’

yes

fruit

yes

fruit

yes

cover, berries

yes

birds, insects

Images left to right: wildflower.org; http://www.hort. uconn.edu/plants/; http:// www.hort.uconn.edu/plants/ Juniperus virginiana Sun/ Shade

Ht (ft.)

Width (ft.)

evergreen tree

15-50' (select smaller)

8-15'

full sun adaptable adaptable

evergreen color; screens; windbreaks; attractive blue "berries"

Yes

"berries"; cover

evergreen tree

10-50’

10-20'

full sun

evergreen color; screens; windbreaks

Yes

berries; cover

deciduous shrub

5-8'

4-6'

deciduous tree or 10-15', up multi-stemmed shrub to 30'

10-15'

moist moist moist

Soil

Hamamelis virginiana

Type

full sun to part shade part shade to shade

Water

Clethra alnifolia

sandy

Uses

fall 2010

Native Wildlife Uses

Native Wildlife Uses

well-drained, fragrant; fall foliage; good for massing at Yes acidic woodland edge or in understory well-drained, flowers in late winter; understory plant; Yes acidic tolerates pollution; branching

prepared for: tara guild parks and recreation committee conway, massachusetts

Approximate Septic Area • The location of the septic system and other utilities should be mapped before plants are installed in this area

planted traffic island

Add new plants and expand existing vegetation to increase both winter and spring interest. Use vegetation to integrate island with park, creating a green or red (depending on the season) gateway to downtown Conway.

plant list: overview

Right: samaras of Acer rubrum (red maple) provide seasonal interest.

kate cholakis

The plant concept diagram to the right divides the park into areas with similar conditions. Species in the following list are grouped according to these general areas. Existing plants left in their current locations have been omitted from these tables. The tables therefore include new plants, moved plants, and expanded plants.

Back Wooded Area • Part to full shade • Underneath canopy of Picea abies (Norway spruce)

conway town park

The following plant list includes trees, shrubs, ferns, and perennials that can be integrated into the designs. Conway residents may add plants to the list. However, additions should be native to the region. Native plants generally require lower maintenance, as they have adapted to local conditions. In addition, they tend to be more deeply rooting, increasing the potential for water infiltration. Their placement within the park should respond to moisture and sun/shade conditions. This list is intended to be a resource from which residents may draw inspiration and data.

Planted Traffic Island • Sunny, well-drained • Subject to salt and pollution

Conway School of Landscape Design Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 South Deerfield Road / PO Box 179 Conway, Massachusetts 01341

plant list overview

Vegetated Border • Part shade to sun • Moist soils underneath canopy of Picea abies (Norway spruce)

insects seeds, browse

NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION. THIS DRAWING IS PART OF A STUDENT PROJECT AND IS NOT BASED ON A LEGAL SURVEY.

18 /21


browse

moist

well-drained, acidic

shade tree; samaras; foliage; does not tolerate highstress environments (salt/pollution); needs space

yes

seed

full sun

normal

well-drained, acidic

street tree; shade; rounded growth habit; shallow root system; foliage; withstands urban conditions

yes

acorns

40'

full sun

moist

well-drained, acidic

shade tree; branching; foliage; needs space; easy growing

yes

acorns

15-25'

5-10'

full sun

moist

foliage, flowers, bark

yes

fruit

15-25'

40'

full sun to adaptable partial shade

well-drained, acidic well-drained, acidic

foliage; flowers; tolerant of pollution; background or screen plant; bark

yes

fruit

deciduous shrub

5-8'

4-6'

full sun to part shade

moist

well-drained, acidic

fragrant; fall foliage; suckering - good for massing at woodland edge or in understory

yes

pollinators

deciduous shrub

6-10'

6-10'

full sun

moist

well-drained, acidic

red berries persist on stems into the winter (seasonal interest)

yes

fruit

15-25'

variable

full sun to part shade

moist

foliage; understory trees or shrubs

yes

fruit

6-10'

3-5'

full sun

adaptable

yes

fruit

6-10'

3-5'

yes

fruit

5-9'

5-9'

yes

fruit

6-10'

6-10'

yes

fruit

3-6'

3-6'

partial shade to full sun

moist

well-drained

flowers; compact evergreen shrub; leaves turn purple in winter; avoid windy/dry sites; understory plant at woodland edge

no

2-3'; 5-6'

full sun

moist

foliage; shrub borders

no

fruit

24-30"

full to partial sun

droughttolerant

well-drained, acidic well-drained

edging along paths; blue/purple flowers

yes

birds, insects

2'

partial sun

moist

flowers

yes

insects

nice edging juniper and other evergreens seasonal interest; flowers; borders and massed in beds

no

deciduous tree

40-60'

25-45'

full sun to part shade

moist

Sugar maple

Acer saccharum

‘Legacy', 'Monumentale', 'Green Legacy', dwarfs: 'Globosum', 'Shawnee', 'Natchez'

deciduous tree

60-75' (15-25' dwarf)

40-50'

full sun to part shade

Red oak (QR)

Quercus rubra

‘Splendens'

deciduous tree

60-75'

50-65'

Pin oak

Quercus palustris

‘Crownright', 'Sovereign'

decidous tree

75'

Amelanchier laevis Amelanchier arborea

‘Cumulus', 'Prince Charles', 'R.J. Hilton', 'Snowcloud' Amelanchier x grandiflora (25') - 'Autumn Brilliance', 'Ballerina', 'Princess Diana'

deciduous tree/shrub deciduous tree/shrub

Clethra alnifolia

‘Hummingbird', 'Paniculata', 'Pinkspire'

Ilex verticillata

‘Winter Red', 'Red Sprite'

Sweet pepperbush (existing, possibly moved and/or expanded) Winterberry (existing, possibly moved and/or expanded)

Amelanchier ‘Autumn Brilliance', 'Ballerina', 'Princess aborea, laevis, Diana', 'Cumulus', 'Prince Charles', 'R.J. xgrandiflora Hilton', 'Snowcloud' Aronia Black chokeberry v. elata melanocarpa Red chokeberry Aronia arbutifolia ‘Brilliantissima', x prunifolia Viburnum ‘Christom', 'Moonglow', 'Morton', 'Ralph Arrowwood dentatum Senior', 'Patzam', 'Perle Bleu' ‘Flaviramea' (yellow stems), 'Baileyi', Red twig/red-osier Cornus sericea 'Cardinal', 'Silver and Gold' (yellow dogwood stems) Rhododendren Rhododendron 'PJM' 'PJM' (existing, possibly moved ‘PJM' (carolinianum v. and/or expanded) dauricum) Serviceberry

deciduous tree/shrub deciduous shrub deciduous shrub deciduous shrub deciduous tree/shrub evergreen shrub

Ht (ft.) Width (ft.) Sun/Shade

Fothergilla (existing and Fothergilla deciduous ‘Blue Mist', 'Mount Airy' 2-3'; 6-10' expanded) gardenii; major tree/shrub Catmint (existing, possibly Nepeta x ‘walkers low’ perennial herb 12-15" moved and/or expanded) faassenii Lilium Lilies canadense or bulb 2-4' superbum ‘ice follies’, ‘cheerfulness’, ‘Tete-a-Tete’, Daffodil Narcissus bulb 4-20" ‘dutch master’, ‘February gold’ Penstemon Wild snapdragon ‘Husker Red' perennial herb 3-5' digitalis Wild columbine (existing, Aquilegia possibly moved and/or perennial herb 1-2' canadensis expanded) Panicum perennial Switchgrass ‘Heavy Metal' 3-6' virgatum grass Siberian squill Scilla siberica bulb 3-6"

3-5" 1-2' 2' 3-6' 3-6"

Water

full sun adaptable full sun or adaptable partial shade full sun to part moist shade

partial to full moist sun full sun to dry to partial sun moist full sun to dry to partial shade moist full sun to dry to partial shade moist full sun to part medium shade

Creeping phlox

Phlox stolonifera

perennial herb

6-10"

variable

partial sun

moist

Lupine

Lupinus perennis

perennial herb

1-2'

1-2'

full sun to partial shade

dry

Creeping juniper

Juniperus horizontalis

evergreen groundcover

1-2'

4-8'

full sun

adaptable

‘Bar Harbor'

Soil

slightly acid, well-drained well-drained, acidic well-drained, acidic adaptable adaptable

normal well-drained well-drained normal tolerant of most soils well-drained acidic, welldrained, woodsy soil well-drained, acidic well-drained, adaptable

Uses

4 season interest (winter architecture); foliage; persistent black berries 4 season interest (winter architecture); foliage; persistent red berries woodland edge mass; berries blue/black, fall color; durable; salt tolerance stems are of winter interest; can spread; pruning lends best effect; easily grown

yes

insects

flowers

yes

birds, insects

flowers and foliage are gold in fall and winter blooms; low groundcover; massed around shrubs or trees small flowers; transitional areas between sunny and shady spots; carpet of flowers; good with bulbs; border flowers; nitrogen fixer

yes

seed; cover

groundcover in neglected areas; edging masonry walls; planted with medium height flowering bulbs; salt tolerant

fall 2010

yes

'Red Sunset', 'Armstrong', 'Bowhall', 'Columnare'

Downy serviceberry (AA)

SHRUBS

slightly acidic street tree; foliage; samaras; shade

Acer rubrum

Allegheny serviceberry

BULBS, FLOWERS, GRASSES

Wildlife Uses

Type

prepared for: tara guild parks and recreation committee conway, massachusetts

Red maple (AR)

Native

Variety

plant list: front

Botanical name

kate cholakis

Common Name

Conway School of Landscape Design Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 South Deerfield Road / PO Box 179 Conway, Massachusetts 01341

TREES

Type

Images left to right: http://www.hort.uconn. edu/plants/; thegardenerseden.com/; http:// www.hort.uconn.edu/plants/; http://www.hort. uconn.edu/plants/; www.fs.fed.us/

conway town park

front/middle of park Add street trees to frame shaded areas. Move existing plants and add new plants to frame inviting views into the park while decreasing the feeling of exposure. Break up formality of pathways with vegetated areas.

no yes

honeybees

yes

browse; seeds

yes

cover, berries

19 /21


Ironwood/musclewood/ American Hornbeam (CC) Witchhazel (existing, possibly moved and/or expanded)

BULBS, GROUNDCOVERS, FLOWERS

SHRUBS

Blueberry Winterberry (existing, possibly moved and/or expanded) Sweet pepperbush (existing and expanded) Serviceberry Arrowwood Mountain laurel (existing, possibly moved and/or expanded) Rhododendron (existing, possibly moved and/or expanded) Roseshell azalea New England aster Creeping phlox

Hamamelis virginiana Vaccinium corymbosum, angustifolium

partial shade to shade

moist

acidic, wellfoliage, flowers; bark drained

15-25'

15-25'

partial shade

moist

acidic, well- architectural; small flowers; horizontal branching; drained flowers; berries, stems

20-30'

20-30'

partial shade

moist

10-15'

part shade to shade

moist

2'; 6-12'

2'; 6-12'

full sun to partial shade

moist

6-10'

6-10'

full sun

moist

5-8'

4-6'

15-25'

variable

5-9'

5-9'

7-15'

7-15'

shade to sun

moist

3-6'

3-6'

partial shade to full sun

moist

2-8'

2-8'

shade to sun

moist

2-6+"

3-5'

partial shade

moist

perennial herb

6-10"

variable

partial sun

moist

perennial herb

1-3'

1-3'

sun to shade adaptable

perennial herb

6-8"

6-8"

partial shade

moist

deciduous tree/ 10-15', up shrub to 30' deciduous shrub

deciduous shrub deciduous Clethra alnifolia ‘Hummingbird', 'Paniculata', 'Pinkspire' shrub Amelanchier ‘Autumn Brilliance', 'Ballerina', 'Princess deciduous tree/ aborea, laevis, Diana', 'Cumulus', 'Prince Charles', 'R.J. shrub xgrandiflora Hilton', 'Snowcloud' Viburnum ‘Christom', 'Moonglow', 'Morton', 'Ralph deciduous dentatum Senior', 'Patzam', 'Perle Bleu' shrub evergreen Kalmia latifolia ‘Ostbo Red', 'Sarah', 'Elf', 'Bay State', etc. shrub Rhododendren evergreen 'PJM' (carolinianum PJM' shrub v. dauricum) Rhododendren deciduous prinophyllum shrub Aster novae‘Purple Dome,' 'Alma Potschke' perennial herb angliae Ilex verticillata

Phlox stolonifera

‘Winter Red', 'Red Sprite'

full sun to part moist shade full sun to part moist shade full sun or adaptable partial shade

yes

fruit

yes

fruit

yes

fruit

well-drained, flowers in late winter; understory plant; tolerates acidic pollution; branching

yes

seeds, browse

well-drained foliage; fruit; select more drought-tolerant cultivars acidic, sandy

yes

fruit

yes

fruit

yes

insects

yes

fruit

yes

fruit

yes

insects

acidic

well-drained, acidic well-drained, acidic slightly acid, well-drained

insects

flowers

yes

insects

well-drained, flowers; groundcover rich

yes

birds

yes

fruit

yes

fruit fruit

4-12"

partial shade

moist

acidic

Bunchberry

Cornus canadensis

perennial herb

3-6"

6"+

sun to shade

moist

acidic

Checkerberry/Creeping wintergreen

Gaultheria procumbens

evergreen herb/shrub

6"

6"+

partial shade to shade

dry to moist

acidic

Partridgeberry

Mitchella repens

evergreen perennial herb

2"

2"+

partial shade moist to to shade dry

deciduous fern

2-5'

3'+

partial sun

decidous fern

2-3'

3-4'

evergreen fern

2-3'

evergreen fern deciduous fern

Hay-scented fern

yes

yes

4-12"

Woodferns

no

insects

perennial herb

Polystichum acrostichoides Dryopteris intermedia, marginalis Dennstaedtia punctilobula

foliage; understory trees or shrubs

yes

Claytonia virginica

Christmas fern

red berries persist on stems into the winter (seasonal interest) fragrant; fall foliage; suckering - good for massing at woodland edge or in understory

woodland edge mass; berries blue/black, fall color; durable; salt tolerance well-drained, evergreen; architecture: dense in full sun, artistic in acidic shade; flowers; avoid windy areas flowers; compact evergreen shrub; leaves turn purple well-drained in winter; avoid windy/dry sites; understory plant at woodland edge well-drained foliage; flowers; woodland borders well-drained, flowers; interesting by stone wall and mixed with slightly acidic fothergilla acidic, well- small flowers; edging walks and beds; transitional drained, areas between sunny and shady spots; good with woodsy soil bulbs

Spring beauty

Interrupted fern

4 season interest (winter architecture); beautiful mottled bark; foliage; screen; upright spreading; small street or lawn tree

adaptable

Violets

Osmunda cinnamomea Osmunda claytoniana

Uses

20'

decidous tree/ shrub

‘Bluecrop', 'Blueray', 'Jersey', 'North Blue,' 'Patriot', 'Rubel', 'Sunshine Blue'

Soil

15-40'

Cornus florida

Carpinus caroliniana

Width (ft.) Sun/Shade Water

adaptable

flowering carpet on forest floor; dormant in summer shiny dark green leaves turn wine-red in fall; white flowers in spring; fruits in august persist into winter; groundcover fragrance when leaves are crushed, shiny evergreen leaves; flowers; berries

acidic

dark green leaves, whitish veins; pinkish flowers in summer; red fruits in fall/winter

yes

moist

acidic

seasonal interest (stalks in spring, beautiful fall color)

yes

partial shade to full shade

moist

normal

leafy fern that grows in large groups; brown leaflets that 'interrupt' the green leaflets

yes

18-24"

partial shade to full shade

moist

1-2'

2'+

shade

moist

normal

green throughout winter

yes

1-3'

3'+

partial shade

moist

acidic

groundcover; beautiful with azaleas

yes

well-drained, green throughout winter; sturdy, beautiful fiddleheads acidic in spring that unfurl; interesting in glade with rocks

fall 2010

‘Cherokee Brave', 'Cherokee Chief', 'Cherokee Princess', 'Cherokee Sunset', deciudous tree 'Cloud 9', 'Pendula', 'Rubra' deciduous tree/ Cornus alternifolia ‘Variegata', 'Argentea' shrub

Ht (ft.)

Solidago caesia, flexicaulis, speciosa Viola striata

Goldenrod

Cinnamon fern

FERNS

Type

plant list: back

Pagoda dogwood

Variety

prepared for: tara guild parks and recreation committee conway, massachusetts

TREES

Flowering dogwood

Botanical name

kate cholakis

Common Name

Conway School of Landscape Design Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 South Deerfield Road / PO Box 179 Conway, Massachusetts 01341

Type

Images left to right: flatbushgardener.blogspot.com; Rick Darke The American Woodland Garden 2002; Rick Darke; westonnurseries.com; westonnurseries.com Wildlife Native Uses

conway town park

back, wooded area of park Extend the habitat of the area behind the park; plant vegetation that serves as shelter and food for birds and other wildlife. Shade plants located near pathways and stone walls offer seasonal interest to visitors, and create a peaceful refuge from the downtown area.

yes

20 /21


In 1867, on the hundredth anniversary of the incorporation of the town, Conway residents gathered together and sang an ode to the place they called home:

conway town park

The same proud hills around us rise, The same bright waters flow. As when our grandsires trod these fields A hundred years ago; We’ll tell the tales of other days, We’ll talk of years gone by, And blend with many a sainted name Hopes that will never die, We welcome you! We welcome you! Our hearts and hands we join; God bless you all, as we recall The days of “auld lang syne.”

Acknowledgments

I would like to thank all those willing to meet and share their thoughts about the park and the greater town of Conway: project client Tara Guild of the Conway Parks and Recreation Committee, Garden Club representative Pam O’Brien, administrative aide Tom Spiro, Select Board members Maureen Chase, Chuck Trombley, and Jim Moore, Town Clerk Virginia A. Knowlton, Adm. Assessor Lee Whitcomb, and previous member of streetscape committee Ruah Donnelly.

I would also like to extend my gratitude to Rex Bryant of the Plans and Records Office of the Massachusetts Department of Transportation (MassDOT) and Senior Landscape Architect of Waterfield Design Group Christine Scypinski. Many thanks to the students, faculty, and staff of the Conway School of Landscape Design for their support, feedback, and ideas.

As a gateway, the park might reflect the character of the town while welcoming visitors to the community. Through a collaborative, community-driven design process, the people of Conway might create a heart for the downtown area that reflects the vibrancy of their community and the beauty of their land.

fall 2010

Conclusion

social context of the town park while addressing the concerns of the current park design. Re-designing the park presents an opportunity for community involvement. The ideas proposed in this plan set might serve as ways to begin discussions about revitalizing this neglected space. By combining design elements of these alternatives with plant choices, residents can craft these ideas into a plan that reflects the spirit of the community. Once part of the process, residents may be more willing to become stewards of the town park.

prepared for: tara guild parks and recreation committee conway, massachusetts

The alternatives proposed in this plan set seek to respond to the essence of this character:

they incorporate common interests and values, such as the importance of community life and respect for the land. They respond to the vision of the town held by Conway residents as summarized in the recent open space and recreation plan. Proposed design elements break up the rigid geometry of the existing design in order to create a rural appearance. Vegetation choices extend habitat for wildlife and improve the infiltration of water into the ground. Native woodland plants call to mind the beautiful network of trails winding through the forests of Conway. The proposed design elements respond to the rich ecological and

kate cholakis

The recent Route 116 streetscape project sought to create a gateway for downtown Conway and a gathering space for pedestrians. Today, the park is often overlooked and neglected. Perhaps the park’s lack of use derives from its isolation from context. Many residents of the town feel that the park does not reflect the character of Conway. The formality of the concrete pathways and isolated plant beds does not evoke the rich ecology and history of the town’s landscape.

Conway School of Landscape Design Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 South Deerfield Road / PO Box 179 Conway, Massachusetts 01341

Conclusion

Song lyrics from Celebration of the Hundredth Anniversary of the Incorporation of Conway, Massachusetts, Northampton: Bridgeman & Childs, 1867.

Photographs by Kate Cholakis NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION. THIS DRAWING IS PART OF A STUDENT PROJECT AND IS NOT BASED ON A LEGAL SURVEY.

21 /21


Park Design: Conway, Massachusetts