MICA(P) 107/10/2008 | ISSN 0219/5615 | PPS 1561/06/2009 (028033)
IO-Link: Aiding Communication
The Ultrasonic Revolution
Petrochemical Efficiency vs Safety
Green Design For Sustainability
Electric Pressure Calibrator with built-in Pump! *See card inside for more information
Your path to greater productivity starts at Automation Fair® 2008 Automation Fair 2008 — a two-day event that is the educational highlight of the year. Attend in-depth tech sessions and hands-on labs. Visit more than 100 exhibits ®
and displays. Learn best practices at specialized industry forums. Discover greater productivity. As always, there’s no charge to attend Automation Fair 2008 — it’s all free! Interested? For details and registration, visit www.automationfair.com. or email us for more information at
November 19-20, 2008 Gaylord Opryland Complex November 19-20, 2008 Gaylord Opryland Complex Copyright © 2008 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
ENQUIRY NO. 879
ENQUIRY NO. 863
contents Oct/Nov 2008
ISSUES & INSIGHTS
Market Report: Process Safety System Market Shows Unprecedented Growth
The Power Of Coordination
Intrinsic safety is the natural choice for low voltage instrumentation problems. By Ian Armstrong
The SIS market is expected to grow at a CAGR of over 12 percent per year to over US$2.5 billion in 2012. By Asish Ghosh, Arc Advisory Group
All In Real Time
A unique approach to on-line optimisation technology has resulted in continuous savings for some very dynamic Olefins plants. By Paul Yap and Leong Hon Mun, Honeywell Process Solutions
The Power Of Coordination
A coordinated control and optimisation system can improve the stability and responsiveness of a power plant. By Pekka Immonen, Ted Matsko, Marc Antoine, programme manager, plant optimisation, ABB Power Systems
Total Insight, Total Control
SOFTWARE & NETWORKS
Intelligent Down To The Last Meter IO-Link is designed to facilitate communication between sensors/actuators from different manufacturers and higher-level systems. By Klaus Ebinger, Hans Turck
Total Insight, Total Control Installing an Advanced Diagnostics system for an existing fieldbus infrastructure presents a cost benefit to a process plant. By Arasu Thanigai and Andreas Hennecke, Pepperl+Fuchs
INSTRUMENTATION & MEASUREMENT
EDDL: Marching Into Mainstream
EDDL with enhancements enables a single tool for simple and sophisticated devices including advanced setup and diagnostics. By Jonas Berge, Emerson Process Management
2â€ƒ industrial automation asia | Oct/Nov 2008
Intelligent Down To The Last Meter
Our mission to be an excellent components and systems supplier in S.E. Asia, South Asia and Oceania region has brought us to INDIA. Our products all incorporate the latest technology, possess excellent safety characteristics and are environmentally friendly. Fuji Electric FA Components & Systems Co. Ltd. is dedicated to create a valuable future through high quality products that satisfy our customers while preserving the environment.
Fuji Electric FA Singapore Private Ltd (India Branch) 503, A – Wing, 5th Floor, Dynasty Business Park, Andheri Kuria Road, Andheri East , Mumbai – 400069, India Tel: (91) 22 40104870 Fax: (91) 22 40104872 Website: http://www.fujielectric.com.sg
ENQUIRY NO. 883
Fuji Electric FA Singapore Private Ltd 171 Chin Swee Road #12-01 San Centre Singapore 169877 Tel: (65) 6533 0014 Fax: (65) 6533 0021 Website: http://www.fujielectric.com.sg
contents Oct/Nov 2008
Efficiency Vs Safety: Tank Farm Dilemma
Separating tank gauging and tank shut down allows the most optimum operation and safe management of a tank farm. By Warren Galbraith and Michael Krause, Endress+Hauser
Green Design For Sustainability
Green design has influenced not only products, processes and services; it has permeated into the philosophy of business. By Augustine Quek
The Ultrasonic Revolution
Ultrasonic meters have revolutionised the way gas has been metered at high pressure over the past decade. By Dr Volker Herrmann, Sick Maihak
Industrial Automation Asia (IAA) is published 8 issues per year by Eastern Trade Media Pte Ltd 1100 Lower Delta Road #04-02 EPL Building Singapore 169206. Tel: (65) 6379 2888 • Fax: (65) 6379 2805 Website: www.iaasiaonline.com Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Subscription Rates: IAA is available to readers on subscription in Singapore at S$60.00 per annum. Subscription by airmail to readers in Malaysia is also at S$60.00 per annum; and Asia Pacific, America, Europe and other regions at S$100. Refer to the subscription card in each issue for further details. For more subscription information Fax: (65) 6379 2806 • Email: email@example.com Copyright. Eastern Trade Media Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. No portion of this publication covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced in any form or means – graphic, electronic,
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Efficiency Vs Safety: Tank Farm Dilemma
Green Design For Sustainability
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4 industrial automation asia | Oct/Nov 2008
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ENQUIRY NO. 877
Dark Clouds, Green Lining
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The month of September saw one of the most eventful and dramatic weeks in the history of Wall Street with prominent investment bank Lehman Brothers filing for bankruptcy and other financial institutions scrambling to prevent succumbing to a similar fate and becoming the next victim of the credit crunch. Ramifications of Lehman’s demise ring far and wide. Words like ‘seismic’ have been used to describe the spate of events. The American economy is but the first domino block; the wave of consequence is set to crash into other shores beyond those of North America. Said former Federal Reserve chief Alan Greenspan: “I can’t believe we could have a once-in-a-century type of financial crisis without a significant impact on the real economy globally, and I think that indeed is what is in the process of occurring.” We in the automation industry cannot just turn a blind eye to the proceedings. The impact of the financial meltdown will surely affect us as well. The belief is that the technology sector, amongst others, stands in the line of fire. Many technology companies, big and small alike, are expected to be hit by the slower economy and unfavourable exchange rates. The energy sector possesses a more direct relationship with the financial meltdown. A huge bailout package passed by the US Senate to rescue the financial market included US$18 billion worth of tax credits for businesses and residents investing in renewable energy, from building and operating power plants to installing small wind turbines on residential properties. In fact, the energy sector has shown no hint of slowing down. Investors have continued to pump record sums of money into solar, biofuel and other renewable energy companies. According to Greentech Media, an online news and market research company, venture capitalists invested US$2.8 billion in greentech in the third quarter of the year, more than double the US$1.3 billion total for the second quarter, and bringing total VC investments in greentech this year to US$5.09 billion. Keeping up with the latest trends and identifying energy as a big growth industry as well, IAA plans to bring more technology news pertaining to this sector in the next year, with the aim of keeping you, our readers, updated in this exciting and burgeoning field.
energy sector has
shown no hint of slowing
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Ian Armstrong, Asish Ghosh, Paul Yap, Leong Hon Mun, Pekka Immonen, Ted Matsko, Marc Antoine, Klaus Ebinger, Arasu Thanigai, Andreas Hennecke, Jonas Berge, Dr Volker Herrmann, Warren Galbraith, Michael Krause, Augustine Quek, Dr Guido Beckmann, Reiner Zitzmann Editorial Consultants
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6 industrial automation asia | Oct/Nov 2008
MICA (P) No. 107/10/2008 ISSN 0219/5615 PPS 1561/06/2009 (028033) Co Reg No. 199908196C Colour Separation: Pica Digital Pte Ltd Printer: Fabulous Printers Pte Ltd
ENQUIRY NO. 886
Industry News ABB Hosts Customer Event
Singapore: ABB held its annual customer event over the course of two days, from September 22-23, 2008, at ITE College East, a post secondary technical institution in Singapore. Themed ‘Power and productivity for a better world’, the event consisted of an exhibition of the company’s products, solutions and services for
various industries, and technical seminar sessions conducted by speakers from ABB as well as other companies like Otto Integrated Solutions and Renew Powers Technologies. In the limelight were the three key sectors of energy efficiency, grid reliability and industrial productivity. Out of the 52 tracks comprising the event,
Siemens Completes Testing Of 800kV Converter Transformer Nuremberg, Germany: Following successful final acceptance testing at the Siemens transformer factory in Nuremberg, the world’s first 800kV transformer for extra-high-voltage DC transmission systems is ready for delivery. The transformer will be used in the ‘Yunnan-Guangdong’ high-voltage DC transmission system (HVDC) in China. Siemens will deliver 10 of the 800kV HVDC transformers for this system, and another ten units with a DC insulation voltage of 600kV. Starting in mid 2010, this HVDC system will transport 5000MW of power over 1400km between Yunnan province in the south west of China and the province of Guangdong in the south of the country. ENQUIRY NO. 7102
8 industrial automation asia | Oct/Nov 2008
15 were on energy efficiency, 16 were on grid reliability and the remaining 21 were on industrial productivity. The tracks included ‘The new development of variable speed drives in energy efficiency’ by Jukka Tolvanen, energy efficiency market manager, ABB Oy, ‘New ways in managing power distribution’ by Goran Wiklund, concept development manager, ABB distribution automation and ‘High quality power transformers for grid reliability’ by Thomas Fogelberg, corporate executive engineer – head of quality, ABB Power Transformer Group. The exhibition hall was separated into these three sectors as well. On display were exhibits showcasing robotics, analytics, turbocharging, low voltage products, power systems etc. Affirming the event to be a successful one was the impressive turnout by invitees of the event. All in all, it served as an excellent platform for the participants to network and receive updates on the latest technology and trends in the industry. ENQUIRY NO. 7101
Yokogawa Wins DCS Award Singapore: Yokogawa Engineering Asia has been awarded the ‘2008 Frost & Sullivan Asia Pacific Distributed Control System (DCS) Company of the Year’ award for the performance of its DCS across the Asia Pacific region. In April this year, Frost & Sullivan awarded five Yokogawa group of companies with six prestigious Market Leadership Awards for Distributed Control System (DCS) for Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, Australia and New Zealand, and Market Leadership Awards for DCS and Automation, and Software for Thailand. “Yokogawa is honoured to receive this award. This endorsement by Frost & Sullivan and by the market, clearly affirms Yokogawa’s commitment to customers’ excellence. Yokogawa’s leadership position is the result of our continuous investment in research & development, dedicated personnel
Kersi F Aspar, Yokogawa receives the award from Dr Tan Guan Hong from SIAA.
and our unwavering lifecycle operation support to customers. We are grateful for their trust and confidence in Yokogawa. We will continue to be their dependable partner of choice and provide innovative solutions for the industry in the years to come,” said Kersi Aspar, executive VP, Yokogawa Engineering Asia.
In February this year, Yokogawa launched the eight generation DCS, Centum VP, an integrated production control system that will become the flagship platform for the VigilantPlant Operational Excellence initiative. ENQUIRY NO. 7103
ADVANTECH ADAM-6000 ETHERNET I/O MODULES
ADAM-6000 Series 10/100Mbps Ethernet Interface Supports Modbus/TCP Protocol Supports UDP Protocol for Real-Time Application by Event Triggering /Data Streaming Functions Complete I/O in a Single Module Built-in HTTP Server
© 2008 Advantech Co. Singapore Pte Ltd
Authorised Microsoft Windows Embedded Distributor
Singapore (South Asia Pacific Headquarter) Tel: 65-6442 1000 Email: email@example.com Malaysia: Kuala Lumpur Tel: 60-3-8075 6196 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Penang Tel: 60-4-397 3788 Email: email@example.com Thailand: Bangkok Tel: 66-2-248 3140 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Australia: Melbourne Tel: 61-3-9797 0100 Email: email@example.com Sydney Tel: 61-2-9482 2999 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
ENQUIRY NO. 870
Modbus/TCP OPC Server Available
Oct/Nov 2008 | industrial automation asia 9
Opto 22 Opens Representative Office in China S p e c i f i c a l l y, the office will work closely with APT to grow business in China through sales, marketing, and technical initiatives, such as identifying new business opportunities, seeking out new customers, recommending qualified systems integrators, and providing technical support for Opto 22-based applications in China. “In support of our distribution efforts throughout Asia and the Pacific Rim, having a representative local to Shanghai will greatly aid us in servicing our existing customers and further penetrating the fast-growing Chinese market,” explains VP Bob Sheffres.
Shanghai, China: Opto 22 has opened a new corporate office in Shanghai, China under the leadership of chief representative Surge Yu. The office will focus on identifying new business opportunities and increasing sales throughout mainland China, working with Chinese distributor APT, and assisting APT in its service and support of existing customers throughout China. SG-571-E1 günstig 85x114 30.04.2008 16:30 Uhr
A reasonable piece. igus® E-Chain® E1 +++ Reasonable for large numbers +++ Easy to open +++ 250 mm length of each chain band +++ Rapid lengthening and shortening +++ Easy to mount by simply putting it at any link +++ Different materials and colours +++
McObject Expands In China Beijing, China: McObject has expanded in China by adding a team in Beijing with experience in embedded database systems, headed by a new VP, Husen Tu. T h e c o m p a n y i s a l re a d y established in China and counts Dalian Commodity Exchange and Bank of China, as well as industrial concerns and electrical power utilities, among its customers there. Adding Husen Tu as VP, along with his staff, “highlights our increased focus on this market, and adds critical mass and expertise to accelerate growth,” Chris Mureen, COO, said. ENQUIRY NO. 7105
ENQUIRY NO. 7104 Seite
You Know You Get Quality When It Say’s CEJN! A Complete System Solutions For High Pressure Hydraulics Hydrostatic Pressure Testing Units and Universal Test Benches • • • •
Test Pressure up to 3500 Bar Explosion Proof Compact Design Hoses, pipes, valves, pressure vessels, all hydraulic components can be tested
Air driven pumps for hydraulic and pressure testing • Pressure up to 3000 Bar
EUROPRESS • Lightweight Hand pumps • Pressure up to 2800 Bar
• • • •
igus® Singapore Pte Ltd Phone +65-6487 1411 Fax +65-6487 1511 email@example.com plastics for longer life® The terms "igus" and "E-Chain" are legally protected trademarks in the Federal Republic of Germany and, where applicable, in some foreign countries.
10 industrial automation asia | Oct/Nov 2008
High Pressure Couplings High Pressure Hoses Porting Blocks & Adaptors High Press Pressure Gauges
CEJN Products Far East Pte Ltd
70 Bendemeer Road #03-03 Hiap Huat House Singapore 339940 Tel: +65 6748 6434 Fax: +65 6747 0375 Website: www.cejn.com Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
ENQUIRY NO. 875
ENQUIRY NO. 868
Quick Connect Products for High Pressure Hydraulic Applications
Birla Nifty Copper Engages Mipac
Brisbane, Australia: Birla initially engaged Mipac to review its use of process control and instrumentation at its copper operation west of Port Hedland. They have now chosen to continue working with Mipac to implement the control strategy improvements recommended in the areas of SAG milling, flotation and thickening. As a result of the control strategies implemented, Birla Nifty Copper expects to improve process stability, consistently increase the feedrate to the SAG mill and reduce the demands on operators. “At Nifty, we will employ an approach which maximises the attributes of the existing control system infrastructure”, said Andrew Thornton, principal process control engineer, Mipac. “While Mipac can and has provided successful ‘blackbox’ control solutions we feel that the Nifty site being remote is best served with a robust PLC based control strategy which can be understood and maintained locally.” ENQUIRY NO. 7106
Kuosheng, Taiwan: Invensys Process Systems has signed a US multi-million dollar deal with state-owned Taiwan Power Company (TPC) to provide upgrades to the Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in northern Taiwan. Under the terms of the contract, IPS will replace and upgrade obsolete analogue-based recirculation water control systems with digital systems, allowing Kuosheng NPP to better handle plant transients and improve plant availability. IPS will also provide modifications to operational training simulators to ensure process consistency with the upgrades. ENQUIRY NO. 7107
ENQUIRY NO. 873
IPS Wins Contract For Taiwan Nuclear Plant
Oct/Nov 2008 | industrial automation asia 11
Jetter Hosts Programming Workshop For Children Ludwigsburg-Neckarweihingen, Germany: Due to the success of last year’s event, children from the Aldingen primary school once more visited Jetter AG for a programming w o r k s h o p a t t h e c o m p a n y ’s training centre in LudwigsburgNeckarweihingen. Training manager Markus Friedrich greeted the two girls and nine boys at the centre, and spent the next two hours explaining basic automation technology terms and the JetSym programming language to them. The children were then given the task of programming a small pick-and-place robot with pneumatic grippers, a vertical axis and also a horizontal servo axis. The young guests tackled the assignment with enthusiasm and confidence, and with a little help from Mr Friedrich and his colleague
ENQUIRY NO. 872
12 industrial automation asia | Oct/Nov 2008
Dieter Götz, found effective solutions. At the end of their seminar both participants and instructors were very pleased with the results, a fact illustrated by a comment of one of
the young programmers, overheard when they were leaving: “What? Is it over already?” ENQUIRY NO. 7108
California, USA: LonMark International (LMI) has established a collaborative agreement with the EnOcean Alliance. The partnership will provide a platform for bringing LonMark’s open, interoperable device-level protocol for wired and unwired networks together with EnOcean’s RF end-device solution for low/no-power devices. By leveraging shared marketing channels, the two industry-leading providers anticipate that the agreement will drive new growth opportunities for both organisations. “ T h e technical, education, and marketing teams from both LonMark and EnOcean are committed to pursuing common, Ron Bernstein open, interLonmark operable integration standards,” said Ron Bernstein, executive director of LonMark. “We look forward to working together as our two organisations bring enhanced solutions to the market.” “ We s e e great synergy between our t w o o rg a n i sations and a re e x c i t e d about the opportunity to work t o g e t h e r, ” said Graham Graham Martin M a r t i n , EnOcean EnOcean Alliance chairman and CEO. ENQUIRY NO. 7109
Metso Strengthens Presence In China Shandong, China: Metso will establish its third service centre in China. The centre, which will be located in Zibo, Shandong province, will provide machinery maintenance and process development services to the pulp and paper making industry in Northern China. Metso’s investment in the new centre will amount to over €10 million (US$14.7 million). The greenfield Service Centre will be operational in 2009. It will feature a fully equipped roll service workshop providing rolls, roll covers as well as mechanical roll maintenance. ENQUIRY NO. 7110
N-TRON’s 700 Series Fully Managed Industrial Ethernet Switches -40˚C to 85˚C Operating Temp with Full SNMP and Web Management
• • • • •
Plug-and-Play EtherNet/IP™ IGMP Support cUL1604, Class I, Div. 2, EN51055, ABS, DNV Includes N-View™ & N-Ring™ Technology ESD and Surge Protection on All Ports Extreme Vibration and Shock Resistance e-mail: N-Tron_sales@n-tron.com N-TRON, Corp tel: (251) 342-2164 Mobile, AL (251) 342-6353 www.n-tron.com fax:
® N-TRON, Corp. N-TRON and the N-TRON logo are trademarks of N-TRON, Corp. Prices show are list, FOB Mobile, AL. EtherNet/IP is a trademark of ControlNet International used under license by ODVA.
ENQUIRY NO. 882
LonMark Enters Into Partnership With EnOcean Alliance
Oct/Nov 2008 | industrial automation asia 13
Emerson Enables ‘Right First Time’ Acetylene Bottle Filling Te x a s , U S A : E m e r s o n P ro c e s s Management’s PlantWeb digital plant architecture has enabled SABIC Europe, part of the Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC), to gain tighter control of acetylene production at its Geleen, Netherlands, plant thereby reducing annual costs by €300,000 (US$440,000), increasing throughput and plant availability, and improving efficiency by 30 percent. At the acetylene production site at Geleen, empty gas cylinders are refilled with acetylene gas. This filling process, consisting of loading, automatic filling and administrating and managing the filling data, has been integrated into a plant automation system using Emerson’s DeltaV digital automation system and Foundation fieldbus networked instruments including Emerson’s Micro Motion Coriolis
flowmeter for direct measurement of mass flow. In comparison with the previous manual method of weighing and filling which often required cylinders to be reworked, throughput has increased by 25 percent. The man hours have been reduced by 20 percent, the physical
work has been reduced considerably and as a consequence, the safety, health and welfare of the operators have been improved. Foundation fieldbus devices are being used as an enabler of condition based maintenance strategies. Each valve has a built in alert, which, when networked using Foundation fieldbus can warn operators when recalibration is necessary. The introduction of predictive m a i n t e n a n c e h a s re m o v e d t h e downtime required for checking the accuracy of the flow meters and valves. Previously valves had to be checked as part of a planned shut down on average 24 times a year. This has been reduced to just two planned shut downs. The number of unplanned shutdowns has been reduced to zero. ENQUIRY NO. 7111
To realize safety, comfort and fulfillment in people’s lives and contribute to the global environment through "human-centered automation".
Fiber Sensors Photoelectric Sensors
Massflow Meters / Controllers Temperature / Process Controllers Inductive Proximity Sensors
ENQUIRY NO. 874
Solid State Relays
Yamatake Controls Singapore Pte Ltd
Blk 26 Ayer Rajah Industrial Estate, #01-06/07/08, Ayer Rajah Crescent, Singapore 139944. Tel: (65) 6778 5966 • Fax: (65) 6778 0012 • Website: www.yamatake.com.sg
14 industrial automation asia | Oct/Nov 2008
SmartTCP Automates Structural Steel Welding Processes
NI Automation Seminar
Michigan, USA: SmartTCP has been selected by Kern Steel Fabrication to automate its structural steel welding process. The robotic welding solution, which is designed for fabrications in small batch production, combines hardware and software into a flexible and efficient welding cell that will automate both the robot programming and the weld production of Kern’s high mix, low volume parts. “With the current shortage of expert welders coupled with the spiraling costs associated with finding skilled labour, we felt that automating our manual welding process was the next investment we could make that would give us a real return on investment given the very competitive climate of the structural steel industry,” said Tom Champness, president of Kern Steel Fabrication. The SmartTCP solution to be implemented in the Kern facility will include a bridge gantry system 92’ long with two head and tail positioners (30,000 lbs capacity each), one Kuka KR6 arc ceiling mount robot, welding equipment and the SmartTCP welding automation software.
Singapore: National Instruments will be hosting an automation seminar on October 30. Held in Singapore at the Suntec International Convention and Exhibition Centre (MR 309), participants can expect to learn how to develop an automated test system from start to finish. They can also find out how to perform a functional test on multiple units under test with modular instruments and develop a highthroughput parallel test system. Attendees of the event can also gain new technologies for developing a next generation modular test system using the PXI platform, explore how National Instruments TestStand management software can add sequencing, flow control, multi-threading to LabView tests and measurements, and understand how to improve the flexibility and time to market of test systems using existing equipment.
ENQUIRY NO. 7112
ENQUIRY NO. 7113
SIMPLIFY PROCESSES The best solutions are usually very simple.
FieldConnex® goes one step further. It simplifies the installation and the infrastructure, allowing you to design a fieldbus topology for your specific application. The High-Power Trunk, for example, transmits data and supplies power using only one cable and limits energy at the spur rather than the fieldbus trunk cable. Our Advanced Diagnostic Module in combination with a powerful commissioning wizard continuously monitors the fieldbus physical layer providing precise and detailed analysis. Intelligent components from the specialists who simply know what fieldbus is all about.
Pepperl+Fuchs Pte Ltd · 18 Ayer Rajah Crescent · Singapore 139942 Phone +65 6779-9091 · Fax +65 6873-1637 · email@example.com · www.pepperl-fuchs.com
ENQUIRY NO. 697
Process automation is very much like other aspects in life. Complex systems are driven by astonishingly simple processes. Consider fieldbus. It offers straightforward communication from the control system to each field device. Control commands, closed loop control, and monitoring enable the management of the most complex processes.
Oct/Nov 2008 | industrial automation asia 15
Foundation Fieldbus Events Planned Around The World Location
Event & Contact Information
Nov 6, 2008
Foundation Fieldbus End User Seminar
Savannah, Georgia, USA
Nov 6, 2008
Foundation Fieldbus End User Seminar
Chicago, Illinois, USA
Nov 20, 2008
Foundation Fieldbus End User Seminar
Dec 2-5, 2008
Dec 3, 2008
Foundation Fieldbus End User Seminar
Foundation Fieldbus End User Seminar
Foundation Fieldbus End User Seminar ENQUIRY NO. 7114
Schneider Unveils Actassi
APPOINTMENTS & NOTICES
Singapore: Schneider Electric has announced Actassi, an end-to-end connectivity from data centre to workstations at offices and hotels. Actassi consists of smart patching solution, ‘tough’ cabling, and ergo-aesthetic terminals that are designed for ease of use. By focusing on the most useful features, Actassi's smart patching solution enables MAC (move, add, change) implementation even for a dynamic network. Moreover, the ID-TracerTM software is built on an open platform. The ‘tough’ cabling, including the F2 cable and ID-3TM F2 patch cords, helps to reduce rework frequency even with varying installer quality. At the other end of connectivity, the ergo-aesthetic Terminals are designed to improve ergonomics of work for users whether they are in meeting rooms, individual workstations, or in hotel rooms while they are on the road. ENQUIRY NO. 7115
Beijer & Alfa Laval Reach Agreement Malmoe, Sweden: Beijer Electronics has signed a long-term agreement to supply operator panels to Alfa Laval. The companies will jointly prepare a standard solution for the processing equipment that Alfa Laval currently sells worldwide. The agreement covers Beijer Electronics’ current operator panels and new software. Beijer Electronics’ technology and global presence were decisive in the choice of vendor. Fredrik Jönsson, Beijer Electronics’ CEO, commented: “We assign significant resources to develop competitive solutions for our OEM customers; our strengths are in specialist skills, flexibility and a high service level. The project has begun, and delivery of the first operator panels tailored for Alfa Laval’s design and functionality is scheduled for late 2008. Beijer Electronics’ President and CEO, Fredrik Jönsson 16 industrial automation asia | Oct/Nov 2008
Siemens PLM Names New VP & GM Siemens PLM Software has announced that Rajiv Ghatikar will serve as their new vice president and general manager for ASEAN/Australasia. Based in Singapore, Mr Ghatikar will lead the ASEAN / Australasia regional sales team, supported by regional distributors and resellers. In his new role, he will be responsible for the management of all sales, sales support and services delivery for the region.
Adept Technology Appoints New CEO Adept Technology has named John Dulchinos its chief executive officer. He will succeed Robert Bucher, who has been named executive chairman of the board of directors. Mr Dulchinos remains president of Adept and has also been elected to serve as a member of the company’s board. Michael Kelly, Adept’s current chairman of the board, will continue to serve on the board in the position of lead independent director. ENQUIRY NO. 7117
ENQUIRY NO. 7116
Winner of Frost & Sullivan 2008 Asia Pacific Industrial Technologies Awards DCS Company of the Year
â€œThank Youâ€? The Management and Staff of Yokogawa Engineering Asia would like to express our thanks and appreciation to all our valued customers in the Asia Pacific region for your support. We are grateful to you for your trust and confidence in Yokogawa. We will continue to be your dependable partner of choice and provide innovative solutions for the industry in the years to come.
Asia P acific Industrial Te chnologies Aw ard DCS Compa ny of the Year
ENQUIRY NO. 866
hen the idea of a modern digital fieldbus was first debated, it was not envisaged that such a development should target individual sub-groups of devices, rather that it would provide a means of treating all components on a plant as one. Control, electrical or instrumentation would be the domain of the digital fieldbus, providing an unsurpassed level of data availability, exchange and comparison previously unknown to the electrical, control and instrument (EC&I) engineer. It was to be used as a medium to bring the disciplines together as part of a wider directive of improving visibility of plant devices with the overall objective of improving plant availability and productivity. One Solution Profibus uses a common profile for communications configuration for all certified devices. Even though the
One-touch pumping for one-handed pressure calibration. Make a difficult job easy with one simple button. The new Fluke 719, with its built-in electric pump, transforms pressure calibration into a fast one-handed operation. • Pumps up pressure in seconds • Best-in-class pressure (0.025 %) and mA accuracy (0.015 %) • Sources and simulates mA for I/P calibrations and 4 to 20 mA loop troubleshooting
Why hassle with a hand pump? Save hours with the Fluke 719, built with rugged reliability by the brand you trust for calibration.
Extended 3-Year Warranty. When you buy before 31 Dec 08.
ENQUIRY NO. 884
Learn more at http://sg.fluke.com/719b
Forget the hassle of hand pumping.
18 industrial automation asia | Oct/Nov 2008
Fluke. Keeping your world up and running.
Fluke South East Asia Pte Ltd Tel: (65) 6799-5566 Fax: (65) 6799-5577 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Nineteen years on from the launch of Profibus, the proliferation of the technology has been recognised, with over 25 million devices installed worldwide. physical characteristics may change, the profile remains the same. This helps in reducing engineering, operational and maintenance efforts, as well as being an enabler to a wide range of diagnostic information such as device life, operational status and health. Just as important has been the freedom to integrate packaged plant into the overall plant control structure with the minimum of effort. Packaged plant communication has so often been crude and minimal, allowing very little in the form of overall integration. However, the proliferation of Profibus within OEM’s has allowed users to get the best from these often troublesome pieces of equipment. One Common Language The advent of Profibus with its common communications profile allows the EC&I Engineer to resolve communications issues at a stroke. Communications between electrical, control and instrumentation devices can now be performed with the minimum of effort. These devices are not only easy to configure, but they can be swapped out or modified during runtime, all with the minimal of disruption to the process. This has only been achievable through strict certification of devices. Profibus International has established seven test centres around the world, ensuring that all devices are tested for interoperability and interchangeability. One Safe Solution Profibus achieved TUV certification for Profibus DP in 1999 and since then over 41,000 applications have been installed worldwide. The certified version of Profibus is known as Profisafe and has led to a much more flexible means of implementing safety devices. Controllers and I/O can be mounted remotely without impact on the certification as can process instruments following the release of Profisafe for Profibus PA. This certification also allows standard and safety rated devices to be combined on the same segment, thus reducing the need for multiple segments for the same plant areas. This is itself provides the potential for significant time, cost and device savings on plants which require high levels of safety devices. ENQUIRY NO. 7118
One technology, two instruments, all bulk solids
Finally: Finally: The The radar radar team team forfor every every filling filling level level Finally: One One technology, technology, twoteam two instruments, instruments, all bulk all bulk solids. solids. BulkBulk solids solids measuremeasureThe radar for every filling level mentment with with VEGA VEGA radarradar brings brings the optimal the optimal solution solution to practically to practically any appliany appli-
One technology, two instruments, all and bulkand solids. Bulk solids measurecation: cation: VEGAPULS VEGAPULS 67 is 67 more is more universal universal reliable reliable than than ultrasonics ultrasonics – –
mentwithout with VEGA radar brings the optimal toeven practically appliwithout costing costing more. more. And And VEGAPULS VEGAPULS 68solution handles 68 handles even the most theany most difficult difficult
cation: VEGAPULS 67 is more universal and than –radarradar application application conditions. conditions. Whether Whether heat,heat, dust dust or reliable filling or filling noise noise –ultrasonics the–VEGA the VEGA without costing more. And VEGAPULS 68 handles even the most difficult team team can solve can solve any measurement any measurement problem. problem.
application conditions. Whether heat, dust or filling noise – the VEGA radar VEGAPULS VEGAPULS 67 67 VEGAPULS 67
VEGAPULS VEGAPULS 68 68 VEGAPULS 68
VEGAPULS VEGAPULS 67 67
VEGAPULS VEGAPULS 68 68
up to 2up bar to 2 bar
up to 40 upbar to 40 bar
Measuring Measuring rangerange
up to 15 upmto 15 m VEGAPULS 67 -40 ... -40 +80... °C+80 °C up to 2 bar universal universal up to 15 m (replacement (replacement for ultrasonics) for ultrasonics) -40 ... +80 °C
up to 70 upm to 70 m VEGAPULS 68 -40 ... -40 +200 ...°C +200 °C up to 40 bar extreme extreme conditions conditions up to 70 m (dust, (dust, noise,noise, heat) heat) -40 ... +200 °C
extreme conditions (dust, noise, heat)
team can solve any measurement problem. Temperature Temperature Pressure Application Application Measuring range
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any manufacturers of laboratory automation systems have already chosen CANopen in order to connect the different components such as eg dilutors, centrifuges, shakers, etc to the system controller. To be able to use common industrial modules and off-the-shelf software a certain degree of standardisation is necessary. The further communication within the CANopen network is standardised, ie in CANopen device profiles, the simpler the configuration of laboratory devices becomes. The device profiles exactly the specify address space and the communication parameters for devices. Furthermore, they define the default behavior of the devices. Despite the strict rules, CANopen device profiles offer also the possibility to implement manufacturer-specific device behavior. Thus system integrators have the option of adding functions on top of the standardised default behavior. Laboratory Automation Systems Well-known biotech companies founded the CANopen special interest group (SIG) laboratory in order to develop a set of CANopen device profiles for laboratory automation systems. Companies such as Cetoni, Hamilton, Ixxat, Qiagen, Roche, Stago Instruments or Plugit encourage these activities. The set of device profiles for laboratory automation systems CiA 434 describes the master-slave communication between a laboratory automation master and several 20 industrial automation asia | Oct/Nov 2008
Manufacturers of laboratory automation systems have developed a set of CANopen device profiles for these systems. By Reiner Zitzmann, technical manager, CiA
Laboratory automation master CiA 434
Figure 1: Laboratory automation system.
laboratory automation slaves (units) as illustrated in Figure 1. In addition to the general system architecture, the first part of this set of profiles defines a finite state machine (FSA). The FSA as shown in Figure 2, has to be supported by all devices, implemented according to the specification CiA 434. This offers the
advantage, that all devices connected to a laboratory automation system can be controlled in the very same standardised way. A f t e r p o w e r- o n , t h e d e v i c e automatically transits to ‘Idle-state’ and stays there until the next command of the laboratory automation master is received. In case, for example, global device parameters have to be configured, the laboratory automation slave has to be switched to ‘Configuration’. Only in this state, the configuration of these parameters is possible. Leaving this state means, all CANopen objects representing configuration data can only be read at the device’s CANopen interface.
State machine active No error state Error Configuration
Command processor active state Batch mode Non-operating
Figure 2: Finite state machine for laboratory automation units.
Switching the device to nonoperating activates the ‘Command processor’. The activation of the command processor implies, that the device is in principle ready to execute operating commands, such as eg aspirating/dispensing a certain volume, cooling or heating till a commanded target temperature is reached, etc. Nevertheless, in ‘Non-operating’ no operation command is executed. To achieve a scalable profile, that is applicable to simple as well as to intelligent laboratory automation units, the current draft of the device profile offers two types of executing operation commands. With regard to simple laboratory automation units, the ‘Direct execution’ state was introduced. A laboratory automation unit in this state starts processing an operation command immediately after reception. In contrast to this, the ‘Batch mode’ was specified. The ‘Batch mode’ allows the pre-programming and monitored execution of comprehensive batch programmes. Such comprehensive batch programmes are assembled of two types of operation commands, system- and process commands. In contrast to process commands, which directly influence the device’s process interface, system commands allow to influence the order of processing the batch programme, such as eg describing command loops, pausing the programme, until a certain event occurs, etc. In order to change the external device behavior smoothly, complex laboratory units may support two independent batch programmes. While the first one is processed, the second one may be configured. After finishing the first one, the device may directly switch to the second one. Considering that laboratory automation units may support up to two independent batch programmes, the ‘Batch mode’ enables the implementation of very complex and intelligent laboratory automation units. Therefore the busload can be reduced and the system controller is unburdened and available for further tasks.
Volume eg. [ml]
A1 A = Aspirate
A2 D = Dispense
R = Result
Figure 3: Flow profile by means of dosing commands.
A comprehensive overview of the current device state is provided in the status word. The status word indicates the current FSA state, the batch programme that is currently processed, and the operation command that is going to be processed next. The results of the last process command are available at the laboratory automation unit’s CANopen interface as well. For immediate interruption of processing the current operation c o m m a n d/batch programme, a laboratory automation master issues the command ‘Enter interrupt state’. In case a local device error occurs, the laboratory automation unit automatically transits to the ‘Error’ state and informs the master application by means of an Emergency message about the error event. Additional Profiles However all laboratory units have to support the definitions of the global part one, the requirements with regard to configuration and control data differ from laboratory automation unit to unit. Therefore the set of device profiles for laboratory automation systems provides definitions for the single laboratory automation slave devices as well. The device profile for dilutor units shall be applicable to dilutors, dispensers as well as pump units. Therefore the profile defines several function blocks, such as ‘valve function block’ for valve control, ‘flow table function block’ for executing pre-defined flow tables or a ‘syringe function block’ for controlling the syringes. Depending on the application,
a device designer has the freedom of choice to support those function blocks that suit best to his application. The only mandatory function block is the simple ‘dosing function block’. By means of the consecutive dosing commands, this function block enables the generation of a dosing profile as illustrated in Figure 3. In addition all of these function blocks specify the parameters required for the related control mode such as eg flow acceleration, pressure limit, etc. In addition to the device profile for dilutors, the profiles for lyse/ shaker units and axis control units are currently under development. Among others, pipette control units, washing units, heating and cooling units, mixer and shaker units, centrifuge units, stacker units and detection units are planned. CANopen device profiles for laboratory automation systems will be scalable in a way, that it is applicable to simple as well as to very complex modules of laboratory automation systems. It will reduce time and effort for setting up laboratory control systems, including laboratory automation units of different manufacturers. CANopen was chosen as embedded network as it is already well accepted in the medical application field. Due to the high degree of standardisation, several providers of software, hardware and tools exist. These available products may decrease the effort for development and maintenance enormously. ENQUIRY NO. 7119
Oct/Nov 2008 | industrial automation asia 21
integrated safety functions for fast stopping of the drive with short response time, and for safe monitoring of functions such as safe velocity limitation. One of the factors enabling this kind of integration is safe data communication between components.
Advanced communication systems not only offer deterministic transmission of control information, they also enable transfer of safety-relevant data over the same medium. By Dr Guido Beckmann, technical committee chairman, ETG
ntelligent safety solutions in the automation components and communication systems enable integration of safety technology into the machine design. In the sphere of safety sensors these are safety devices that already integrate functional extensions such as muting.
For the evaluation and safety logic – in addition to ‘large’ safety controllers – small, local logic devices are already offered that are scalable to suit the respective task. Inflexible relay logic thus becomes a thing of the past. Drive technology also offers PLC
Protocol Features In the interest of realising safe data communication over EtherCAT, the Safety-over-EtherCAT protocol has been disclosed within the EtherCAT Te c h n o l o g y G ro u p ( E T G ) . T h e following features were crucial in the development of this protocol: • Compliance with SIL 3 of IEC 61508. • Safe and non-safe information on the same communication system. • Independence of the protocol from the transfer system and medium. • The length of the safe process data is not restricted by the protocol. • Ver y short frame lengths are possible. • No limitations with regard to transfer speed and cycle time.
Standard fieldbus Standard I/O
Safety/ standard I/O
Safety/ standard I/O
Conventional safety technology compared with advanced machine concepts with integrated safety function. 22 industrial automation asia | Oct/Nov April 2008 2008
EtherCAT is used as a singlechannel communication system for transferring safe and non-safe information. The transport medium is regarded as a ‘black channel’ and not included in safety considerations. A safety frame containing the safe process data and the required data backup is included in the EtherCAT process data. This ‘container’ is safely analysed in the devices at the application level. Safety-over-EtherCAT therefore uses a unique master/slave relationship between two devices, the Safety-overEtherCAT connection. This ensures that each device only returns its own new message once a new message has been received. The complete transfer path
between master and slave is thus monitored in each cycle; accumulation of delay times is eliminated or detected. Via suitable procedures, the frame is designed such that a minimum container length of six bytes is sufficient for transferring all error detection and correction information, including one byte of safe process data. Incidentally, the protocol does not impose any limits regarding the length of safe process data. This means that safety components with many safe process data are also supported. Approved Technology The protocol has been assessed by German Technical Inspection Agency (TUV). It is certified as a protocol for transferring process data between Safety-over-EtherCAT devices up to SIL 3 according to IEC 61508. The implementation of the protocol in a device must meet the requirements of the safety target. Any transmission
Regional Network Hitachi Asia Ltd Hitachi Asia (Thailand) Co. Ltd Hitachi Asia (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd
Device 2 Safety application
Safety over EtherCAT protocol
Safety over EtherCAT protocol
EtherCAT communication interface
EtherCAT communication interface
Safety-over-EtherCAT software architecture.
link can be used, including fieldbus systems, Ethernet or similar transfer routes, optical fiber cables, copper cables, or radio links. There are no
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restrictions or requirements for bus couplers or other devices located along the transfer route. ■
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Oct/Nov April 2008 | industrial automation asia 23
issues & insights
Safety Intrinsic safety is the natural choice for low voltage instrumentation problems, with existing solutions that are compatible with all gases and area classifications. By Ian Armstrong
ntrinsic safety is a method of protection whereby the object or process in question is considered inherently safe. In other words, it is, without any external interference, free from the threat of harm. It is a requirement that may be applicable to devices that are being operated in areas with flammable gases or fuels. According to the automation standard ISA-RP12.6, intrinsically safe equipment are ‘equipment and wiring which is incapable of releasing sufficient electrical or thermal energy under normal or abnormal conditions to cause ignition of a specific hazardous atmospheric mixture in its most easily ignited concentration’. Intrinsically safe products receive their classification
because their electrical power usage is below the level of power required to set off an explosion within a given hazardous area. To add to this, these products are incapable of storing large amounts of energy which might spark an explosion when discharged. Examples of hazardous areas are environments where flammable gases, vapours and liquids are stored and manufactured. These areas are prevalent in many of today’s manufacturing facilities including chemical plants, paint manufacturers, oil refineries, textile mills, etc. Traditionally, protection from explosions in a hazardous environment has been achieved by either using explosion proof equipment which is able to contain an explosion
Raytek & Ircon Provide IS Solutions
evices can be approved as intrinsically safe (IS) only after passing a rigorous approval process required by a recognised entity. Instruments that feature PTB and TÜV certified hazard classes EEx ia IIC T4 and EEx ib IIC T4 approval, meaning they can be used with a large number of different gases or easily flammable vapours. Models of the Raytek
24 industrial automation asia | Oct/Nov 2008
Thermalert TX have been certified by PTB as intrinsically safe according to hazard class EEx ib IIC T4. The TX series of two-wire fixed online infrared sensors is designed for online temperature monitoring of machinery and plant processes. The TX has a 4-20 mA interface and can be remote-programmed via the HART/RS232 interface
using Windows software. The sensors measure in a range of –18 deg C to 2000 deg C. All measuring data are displayed graphically and are stored for subsequent evaluation. The Ircon Modline 5 with explosion proof XP housing been designed for Modline 5R sensors and is certified d IIB + H2. XP housing
includes remote interface via the DPM, MSI or Modline 5 Modview software to access sensor settings. ENQUIRY NO. 7201
inside an enclosure, or pressurisation or purging, which isolates the explosive gas from the electrical equipment. Intrinsically safe equipment cannot replace these methods in all existing applications. However, what they potentially offer is significant savings in costs of the installation and maintenance of equipment in the hazardous area.
IS Configuration The elements of IS systems can be organised in several different ways. For instance, IS barriers may be incorporated within an instrument, such as a humidity transmitter with a remote sensor. The electronic portion of this instrument would be installed in a safe environment and the remote probe installed in the hazardous environment. A system like this would consist of all of the necessary elements for an IS installation and would free the user from having to specify and acquire IS barriers. However, the electronic portion of the instrument could never be mounted in a hazardous location, seriously limiting the flexibility of installation. Another approach is to separate the IS barriers from the instrument. In this case, the entire instrument and probe can be mounted anywhere within the hazardous environment. Power and signal wires terminate at the IS barriers in the safe environment allowing for flexibility in installation, but it also requires that the user specify and acquire barriers that are appropriate the installation. ENQUIRY NO. 7202
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Elements Of An IS System An intrinsically safe (IS) system is made up of the intrinsically safe device that is located in the hazardous environment, a power limiting device (intrinsically safe barrier or galvanic isolator) located in a non-hazardous area, and the associated wiring. Intrinsically safe devices typically operate on low voltage DC and consume less than one watt of power. For a manufacturer to achieve intrinsically safe certification of a device, the design and the apparatus itself must be inspected and approved by an appropriate regulating authority. When IS devices are correctly installed and connected, they are incapable of creating sparks or heat that could cause ignition of the hazardous environment. Intrinsically safe devices must always be connected to power limiting devices, such as intrinsically safe barriers or galvanic isolators. These barriers are located in a safe, non-explosive environment and are placed between the electrical power supply and the intrinsically safe device. Their goal is to limit the voltage and current available to the intrinsically safe device that is in the hazardous environment.
Oct/Nov 2008 | industrial automation asia 25
issues & insights
Process Safety System Market Shows Unprecedented Growth
Increased Demand Greater awareness of safety standards, such as IEC 61508, IEC 61511, and ANSI/ISA-84, and
26 industrial automation asia | Oct/Nov 2008
global environmental awareness is increasing the demand for safety systems. Additionally, high profile industrial accidents, such as in the BP Texas refinery in the USA and in the Buncefield terminal in the UK, have increased the sense of vulnerability among m a n u f a c t u r e r s , l e a d i n g to increased demand for safety systems. In North America and Western Europe, the obsolescence of older equipment is also leading to greater demands for safety systems. Safety Lifecycle Management All major safety standards have specified safety lifecycles, which show considerable similarities, differing only in the details. The safety lifecycle, specified by the IEC 61511 standard, shows a systematic approach to safety starting from a hazard and risk analysis to implementation of the safety system and finally to its decommissioning. With the increased awareness in safety standards, the demand f o r s o f t w a re t h a t h e l p s i n managing the safety lifecycle
he strong growth of the Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) market will continue in 2008. However, due to the downturn of the economy in North America the growth rate will be somewhat tempered in subsequent years. The worldwide market, which was around US$1.4 billion in 2007, is expected to grow at a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of over 12 percent per year to over US$2.5 billion in 2012, according to the Arc Advisory Group study, ‘Process Safety System Worldwide Outlook – Market Analysis and Forecast Through 2012’. The safety system market has experienced unprecedented growth for the last two years. Increased demand for oil and gas due to the economic growth of China and India along with the high price of crude oil is fueling investments in oil and gas production and in refining, leading to increased demand for safety systems.
Safety System Business Worldwide ($Millions)
The SIS market is expected to grow at a CAGR of over 12 percent per year to over US$2.5 billion in 2012. By Asish Ghosh, VP, Manufacturing Advisory Services, Arc Advisory Group
is growing rapidly. Many SIS suppliers and third parties, such as system integrators, offer custom consulting in these areas. However, SIS users are now looking for packaged solutions that may help them comply with the standard. Opportunities In Asia & Middle East The EMEA region is the largest ma rke t for sa fe t y sy ste m s, followed by A sia a nd Nor th A merica. With the booming economy of China and India, the Asian region will show highest growth. The EMEA region will also show a large growth in the market as the high price of crude oil will lead to significant investments in grass-root facilities in the Middle East and parts of Europe. ENQUIRY NO. 7203
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A unique approach to on-line optimisation technology has resulted in continuous savings for some very dynamic Olefins plants. By Paul Yap (L) and Leong Hon Mun (R), advanced solutions business, Honeywell Process Solutions Southeast Asia
All Real Time In
lefins plants have evolved into highly integrated and flexible processing systems that can profitably adjust to ever-changing landscapes of raw material availability and market demand for high purity Olefins products. A d v a n c e d P ro c e s s C o n t ro l technologies such as Model Predictive Control (MPC) are commonplace in Olefins plants and have greatly improved the consistency of product quality and constraint protection and have typically resulted in quick payback on investment. Another advanced technology, on-line optimisation promises even greater benefits. Application of traditional on-line optimisation technology however remains a challenging task primarily because of long process dead times, mixed process dynamics and frequent disturbances. The steady state models 28â€ƒ industrial automation asia | Oct/Nov 2008
used in traditional optimisation are inadequate representation of the online behaviour of most commercial Olefins plants. A unique approach to on-line optimisation of dynamic processes is presented in this paper. In this approach plant steady state is not a requirement for on-line optimisation. This approach fully utilises the MPC dynamic models for optimisation. Application of this on-line optimisation technology has resulted in continuous savings for some very dynamic Olefins plants. This paper briefly describes this dynamic optimisation technology and summarises experiences from several completed and in-progress Olefins plant optimisation projects. Ethylene Plants Ethylene is the largest volume
industrially produced organic material. Current worldwide production is projected to increase at a rapid pace that exceeds the rate of GDP increase for the foreseeable future. A typical modern plant produces in excess of a billion lbs per year. Feedstock to Ethylene plants ranges from light Ethane/Propane mix (E/P) to heavy naphtha and vacuum gas oils. Most plants are designed with raw material flexibility in mind to make use of opportunities that arise from time to time. Majority of ethylene produced is used in the production of polymers and ethylene derivatives such as Ethylene Oxide and Glycol. Depending on the plant location, the ethylene produced could be supplied to a network of ethylene product pipeline or to dedicated derivatives unit. Plants that produce for dedicated downstream units are
more challenging to operate as they have to continuously adjust to the demand swings of the downstream facilities. Ethylene plants in general have some unique characteristics that have a strong bearing on the optimiser design. These are: • Semi-continuous operation of furnaces. • Frequent furnace feed switching. • Frequent feed quality variations. • Significant product demand variation. MPC Technology Model Predictive Control (MPC) refers to a class of control algorithms in which dynamic process models are used to predict and control a process. MPC is well suited for high performance control of constrained multivariable processes because explicit pairing of Controlled Variables (CV) and Manipulated Variables (MV) is not required and constraints are directly imbedded in the problem formulation. One drawback in conventional
MPC technology is that it requires by CV high/low bounds and not by specification of CV reference trajectories. specification of model uncertainty. Reference trajectories are typically set In Profit Controller, the complete equal to the steady state targets and are unit dynamic optimisation is solved not dynamically optimum and are often together using the Range Control dynamically infeasible and could result Algorithm. It not only solves for in excessive MV movement without the steady-state optimum, but also additional move suppression. determines the trajectory of ‘how to Honeywell’s Profit Controller get there’ while handling the control removes this requirement. tasks currently at hand. This trajectory It employs a funnel design in its is a combination of control response problem formulation that enables a and economic optimisation path. simultaneous determination of both Note that economic ‘setpoints’ the MV moves and the CV reference could instead come from a plant-wide trajectories. Solution procedure optimisation solution, in which case embedded in the controller is called Profit Controller serves as a dynamic the Range Control Algorithm (RCA). enforcer of optimisation setpoints. For practical applications, there This is how it integrates with Profit usually are an infinite number of Optimiser. solutions to a MPC control problem. In Profit Controller, a minimum effort Approaches To RTO solution is sought which means Functionally, Real Time Optimisation minimum movement to the process. (RTO) is a supervisory control layer. The minimum effort solution brings a RTO continuously strives to maintain significant robustness to the control the plant operating conditions at solution. This treatment of robustness the most profitable point. In order differs from the standard robust control to achieve this functionality, an design in that the control robustness RTO system must have the following is gained from the freedom provided three capabilities: SI-701-EasyChain 85x114 18.04.2007 15:29 Uhr Seite
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Oct/Nov 2008 | industrial automation asia 29
control point 1. to determine the current state (State Estimation), 2. to determine the optimum state (Optimum State), 3. to determine a path from the current to the optimum (Dynamic Path). State Estimation refers to the determination of the current state of the system. The plant is a dynamic entity with a wide mix of process dynamic characteristics (fast, slow, inverse and delayed responses) and all manners of process disturbances. This means that a â€˜snapshotâ€™ of process data gives an incomplete and sometimes incorrect view. A complete assessment of current state requires analysis of process history. State estimation defines both where the plant is right now as well as where it can be expected to be in the future. Optimum State refers to the steady state optimum point. For a system described by a set of algebraic equations, there are useful mathematical tools such as linear algebra and optimality theorems . The task then is to describe the reality of the plant operation into a set of algebraic equations. Having defined the equations, finding the optimum is just a mathematical exercise. Dynamic Path refers to the path taken in going from the current state to the optimum state. In general a multitude of paths exist and the most direct path is not necessarily the best path and may not even be feasible for a process with dynamic interactions. Dynamic Optimisation Profit Optimiser is a paradigm shift in RTO. Instead of a steady state optimisation model this optimiser has a dynamic model of the process. The dynamic optimisation model is not developed from scratch. Instead the starting point for the optimisation model is the MPC control model of the process. The MPC model forms the base optimisation model. Limited amount of additional modeling effort is required to tie various controller models using dynamic bridge models, 30â€ƒ industrial automation asia | Oct/Nov 2008
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source-clone models and combined constraint models . Since MPC is a prerequisite for optimisation, use of MPC models for base optimisation model represents a significant savings of engineering effort both during the initial development of the optimiser, and more importantly in the long term maintenance of the optimiser. Profit optimiser is based on a dynamic model of the process, therefore, steady state operation of the plant is not a prerequisite for optimisation. At any given time the optimiser is aware of the various transients in the process and has a prediction for their consequences, that is, it has a prediction of steady state values for all variables. In this framework, the steady state optimisation problem is formulated as a semi positive definite Quadratic Programming (QP) problem for which solution is fast and guaranteed. QP formulation along with frequent gain updating in essence amounts to a SQP type optimisation. The optimiser typically executes at the frequency of MPC controllers, usually once every minute. At each execution of the optimiser, the optimiser gets process feedback. This frequent process feedback compensates for model mismatch, this forms the basis for data reconciliation. For process areas where nonlinearities are significant such as the reaction system, frequent gain updating is performed using cracking yield models. In this approach, there is a tight integration between optimisation and
controls. Not only does the optimiser pass down the optimum desired values to the controllers, it also passes down the optimisation speed factor to each of the controllers that takes into account the dynamic characteristics of each of the controllers. This dynamic optimiser moves the process towards the optimum along a minimum energy path that eliminates optimiser induced dynamic violations of Controlled Variables. In addition, the dynamic optimiser also helps the process better cope with disturbances by applying corrective action to multiple controllers as and when needed. Real Time Solution In summary, Profit Optimiser is an effective technology for optimisation of dynamic processes such as the ethylene process. Since this optimiser is based on dynamic process models, steady state operation for the process is not a requirement for optimisation. The optimiser formulates a semi positive definite QP that can be solved efficiently with guaranteed optimum, typically at the same frequency as the controllers. The optimiser allows for on-the-fly gain updating, which in essence makes it a SQP optimiser. Since the controller models provide bulk of the optimisation model, initial development efforts as well as long-term maintenance efforts for the optimiser are greatly reduced. On the whole, Profit Optimiser is an optimisation solution that can be effectively used to optimise real world dynamic problems in real time. ENQUIRY NO. 7301
Seeing details, understanding the big picture.
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Coordination A coordinated control and optimisation system can improve the stability and responsiveness of a power plant. By Pekka Immonen (L), manager of advanced control and optimisation, Ted Matsko (M), principal consultant, optimisation services, Marc Antoine (R), programme manager, plant optimisation, ABB Power Systems
ue to the lack of control coordination, industrial power plants are typically not fully optimised. The purpose of a coordinated control and optimisation system is to improve plant stability and responsiveness to demand or supply disturbances, and to minimise overall fuel costs. The specific objectives include, but are not limited to the following: 1.
Operational objectives a) Reduce process variability in: • Steam temperatures • Steam pressures • Boiler load
b) Maintain process variables within constraints: • Boiler steam flows, pressures, and temperatures • FD- and ID-fans, feedwater pumps • Turbine-generator power output • Tie-line load
2. Economic Objectives a) Improve power generation efficiency: • Increase turbine steam inlet temperatures • Minimise turbine extraction and exhaust pressures • Allocate load to most efficient turbines • Maximise backpressure power generation
32 industrial automation asia | Oct/Nov 2008
b) Improve steam generation efficiency and reduce fuel costs: • Minimise high cost fuels, maximise low cost fuels • Reduce load variations for better combustion control • Allocate load to most efficient boilers
c) Optimise in-house generation vs power purchases or sales: • Use PRV’s to reduce own generation when power cost is low • Maximise backpressure power generation
â€˘ Condensing power from low-cost fuels vs. purchased power â€˘ Blow-off power from lowcost fuel vs purchased power Coordinated Control & Optimisation T h e c o o rd i n a t e d c o n t ro l a n d optimisation solution adjusts the load demand of each turbine, duct burner, boiler, and other plant components based on the steam and power side control requirements and economic optimisation. Because of the complexity of the steam and power systems, it is difficult to develop coordinated control strategies using the base controls only, and optimisation at that level is practically impossible. Therefore, the solution involves a combination of base level control changes and advanced, supervisory control strategies. The coordinated control and optimisation solution is based on a multi-level approach (Fig 1). At the top level a Real Time Optimisation (RTO) programme monitors the current plant situation and uses efficiency data to optimise the load scheduling of individual plant equipment. The programme then dispatches these orders to an Advanced Process Control (APC) layer, which provides coordinated, decoupled control of pressures, flows, and power generation. The base control level modulates the actuators affecting the plant to maintain the process quantities at the setpoints determined by the APC layer. In advanced control mode the coordinated control and optimisation application essentially determines the loading of the individual plant components. In order to improve plant stability, the solution uses all process components to respond quickly to large disturbances, allowing these components to temporarily deviate from their economic optimum targets. Once the process upset or disturbance is over, the process is automatically brought back to its
Real-Time Optimization (RTO)
process values states control modes
Advanced Process Control (APC)
Base Regulatory Control (Integrated DCS)
Fig 1: Typical architecture for coordinated control optimisation.
optimum conditions. No operator intervention is required to achieve this. The various plant components can be taken in and out of optimisation by operator discretion. All changes take place bumplessly, and the optimisation algorithm recognises the available degrees of freedom for any given combination of component modes. Real-Time Optimisation The optimisation layer (RTO) uses Linear Programming (LP) or MILP (Mixed Integer LP) technology. LP is a common optimisation methodology used for planning and scheduling applications in many industries, and it is particularly well suited for cogeneration optimisation. The LP minimises an objective function (eg total cost of fuel), while adhering to many constraints. For example, LP determines how to best allocate load to the turbines, duct burners and boilers and the APC software responds to these commands while continuously maintaining the tieline load and monitoring all process constraints in real-time. Some of the constraints are part of the plant model, representing
mass and energy balances. Other constraints represent capacity limits (maximum fuel flow rates, generator and transformer KVA limits, etc). Tie-line load to the local power grid is another constraint which can be included in the optimisation constraints. The MILP capability is utilised when discrete decisions need to be made. For example, low cost market price energy may not be available to the plant before the more expensive base energy has been used up. A linear or nonlinear solver without MILP capability would use the lower cost energy first, which would not be possible contractually. Advanced Process Control The APC layer uses Model Predictive Control (MPC). MPC is a multivariable control algorithm and like LP, MPC uses a model, but this model is a dynamic model (time-dependent). MPC runs at a much higher frequency than the LP, typically less than 10 seconds compared to several minutes for the LP. The MPC solutions for the applications described in this paper use a process model to predict Oct/Nov 2008 | industrial automation asiaâ€ƒ 33
control point the effect of moving multiple base control setpoints and to estimate the level of disturbances acting on the process. This results in a greatly simplified control structure with much easier tuning. In addition, MPC achieves smoother transition from one constraint to another and shows superior performance during load changes and process disturbances. The benefits of using MPC for such processes are: • Reducing variance, thus obtaining better control performance. • Ability to operate closer to optimal constraint (design) limits because of lower variance. • Operating closer to limits reduces operating costs or increases production. Due to the many constraints and complex interactions in a power plant, multivariable MPC is well suited for coordinated control of the plant since the MPC algorithm ‘knows’ the dynamic behaviour and the interactions between the process quantities, and controls all the variables at the same time, in a coordinated fashion. This is different from traditional control (eg PID control), where each controller has one input and one output. The knowledge of the process behaviour is contained in the dynamic models of the MPC controller and they predict the model output response to model input changes. The inherent knowledge of the process constraints also eliminates the need for complex over-ride schemes, simplifying the design of the control system. The advantage of this solution is the ability to use state-space models and multi-objective optimisation with prioritised control objectives, which is particularly useful for power plant optimisation. The benefits include much improved obser ver-based estimation of process disturbances, and more robust handling of multiple levels of constraint priorities, as compared to other MPC algorithms. 34 industrial automation asia | Oct/Nov 2008
Fig 2: Example of optimised Boiler: Turbine coordination.
Case In Point The industrial power plant shown in Fig 2 generates steam in two process boilers and one power boiler and delivers it to the various users at different pressures and temperatures. On average, the plant generates approximately 90 percent of the electrical power needed by the manufacturing process with one double extraction-backpressure turbine and one straight-flow condensing turbine. The balance is purchased from the local power utility. As the purchased power price is much higher than the incremental cost of its own condensing power, the amount of power imported from the grid should be minimised. This is not an easy task for the base controls and the operators, due to the following operational challenges: • There are large fluctuations in process steam and power demand • T h e a m o u n t o f s t e a m f ro m the process boilers cannot be controlled, and is also subject to large variations • The power boiler is also used for waste incineration. This combined with the large variability in the boiler load makes it difficult to maintain adequate control of the boiler steam pressure and temperature • Because of the variations the boiler
is frequently overloaded, causing serious maintenance problems The energy demand variations are also reflected in the tie-line load. There are frequent situations where power is exported to the grid. This is not economical since the power company does not provide any credit for the exported power. In order to improve the plant operations, a boiler-turbine coordinated strategy was developed, using MPC technology. The objective for this plant was to reduce pressure and temperature variability, and to maximise its own power generation without exporting power or overloading the boiler. The various prioritised constraints of the MPC algorithm were employed to achieve the following functionality: • In a normal situation the plant is running at one of its load constraints, ie maximum steam flow for the power boiler and minimum or maximum power for the condensing turbine, or m i n i m u m ( z e ro ) p u rc h a s e d power. • The minimum pressure constraint has a higher priority than the boiler steam flow constraint. In case of high steam demand the power boiler load is increased to its maximum limit first. If more steam is needed, the condensing
Fig 3: Improved steam pressure, Temperature and flow control.
turbine load is reduced next until its minimum is reached. If the demand still exceeds supply the boiler pressure starts dropping. At that point the controller will increase the boiler steam flow beyond the maximum limit if needed to keep the steam pressure above its minimum setting. • The maximum pressure constraint has a higher priority than the minimum power purchase limit. In case of low steam demand, the power boiler steam flow is minimised first, and afterwards the condensing turbine will absorb the excess steam even if power needs to be exported. By implementing the APC solution, the achieved improvements are: • Reduced standard deviation by 80 percent on steam temperature and pressure, and 60 percent on power
boiler steam flow. The trends in Fig 3 show the improvement realised through APC on steam control (temperature, pressure and flow). • Because of the reduced variability the steam temperature setpoint could be increased by 10 deg C, and the average boiler steam flow could be increased by 29 t/h (6 percent). As a result, more power could be generated in-house, reducing imported energy. This adds up to total yearly energy savings of several percent. • In addition, the improved steam pressure control not only reduces the number of boiler trips due to pressure or drum level fluctuations, but also reduces lifetime consumption of critical thick-walled boiler components.
Fig 4: Boiler-Turbine optimisation user interface.
An important contribution to the success was the early participation of the plant’s engineering and operations staff. Operator acceptance was bolstered by the fact that the optimisation system user interface was entirely implemented using the common human-machine interface of the plant’s distributed digital control system (DCS). An example of the optimisation system displays is shown in Fig 4. A Multi-level Approach Because of the complexity of many industrial power plants, it is generally difficult to develop good coordinated control strategies using the base controls only, and true optimisation at that level is practically impossible. By using a multi-level approach, the new solutions presented in this paper are able to control all process variables in a coordinated, decoupled manner. These solutions have been implemented in different projects and resulted in significant improvements such as reduced process variability; better response to process upsets, decreased equipment stress, and i m p ro v e d p l a n t s t a b i l i t y. T h i s translated to substantial economic benefits such as increased power or steam generation efficiency, optimised in-house generation vs purchased energy, and reduced down times. Yearly savings in operating costs of several percent and payback times of less than one year are no exceptions. This improvement solution can also be implemented with no down time on the stem generation which is critical for most of the plant. ENQUIRY NO. 7302 Oct/Nov 2008 | industrial automation asia 35
software & Networks
Intelligent Down To The Last Meter IO-Link is designed to facilitate communication between sensors/actuators from different manufacturers and higher-level systems. By Klaus Ebinger, product manager of process sensors, Hans Turck he requirements for production automation are continually rising. It takes flexible production lines, detailed product tracking or close cooperation between man and machine to open up the last meters to the sensors and actuators for continuous communication. The fieldbusindependent communication interface 36â€ƒ industrial automation asia | Oct/Nov 2008
IO-Link now offers a uniform standard that applies to all manufacturers. Many sensors and actuators now have microprocessors that control displays and parameterise and store configuration data. To date, manufacturing automation has offered only proprietary solutions that have enabled sensor and
actuator intelligence to be used for communication purposes as well. Customer acceptance has been correspondingly low. Thatâ€™s why 14 manufacturers of sensors, actuators and automation systems began an initiative with the goal of overcoming the binary standard interface shortage and making additional functionalities of modern sensors and actuators for the automation system centrally accessible. The result of this cooperation is IO-Link, a fieldbus-independent communications interface for sensors and actuators. With the IO-Link, a standard has been created that makes it possible for the actuators and sensors to communicate with the respective device, regardless of the manufacturer. Combined Operation Possible The IO-Link integrates conventional and intelligent actuators and sensors
into automation systems without extra effort and expense. Devices that currently have ‘intelligence on board’ are ideal for applications with IO-Link. With this approach, the devices can be configured, parameterised and operated via a three-way cable. Each device has an extensive parameter set and can be configured and parameterised in a time-savings manner. Simple proximity switches are not as well suited for use with this new standard. The IO-Link uses existing communications systems (fieldbuses or Ethernet based systems); the last few meters to the actuators and sensors are connected in a point-topoint connection using commercial, unshielded standard cables. The IOLink thus helps reduce the number of interfaces and the multitude of variants. Typical intelligent actuators and sensors include valve clusters, motor
starters, optical sensors, light grids, analogue signals, RFID or positioners. These devices may possess application-specific parameters and data (for example, diagnosis data) that are transferred via a serial communication process. To achieve this, flexible message lengths are possible in order to be able to transfer comprehensive data sets, such as those for pressure sensors or light grids. No Special Cabling The IO-Link enables both binary process data as well as analogue signals to be transferred. With a continual IO-Link communication, there exists the possibility of operating analogue and binary sensors on a joint interface module. If the binar y connection was previously laid out only to transfer pure switching information, now, thanks to the IO-Link, typically 2 bytes in 2 ms cycles can each be transferred
by means of a combined process and data channel. This opens up the ‘last meter’ to the sensors and actuators for continuous communication. The IOLink therefore requires no special cabling. The proven, inexpensive and unshielded industrial cables can continue to be used for connecting the sensors and actuators. IO-Link facilitates centralised error diagnosis and location right down to the sensor and actuator level. Exact error location or maintenance requirement reduces machine downtimes, and a centralised parameter address makes it considerably easier to replace devices. This means that the standard creates an optimal, cost-effective solution for the entire chain, from actuator or sensor to integration into the automation system. Investment Guaranteed When it comes to developing the
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software & Networks interface, investment protection is also important for the manufacturer and user. That’s why conventional sensors and actuators can be operated on an IO-Link module and, conversely, IO-Link sensors and actuators can be connected to standard switching mode on conventional digital input/ output modules. That’s how all currently available sensors can be used; mixed operation with enhanced intelligent products is possible. Therefore, converting an existing system to the IO-Link is not a problem. Its biggest advantage is its backwards compatibility to conventional technology, which makes it possible for users to convert their machines or plants gradually at any time. Another important point is the integration of the IO-Link system in the fieldbus world. How can the process or the parameter data be transferred and managed? Here, the user has various options available: for customers who only want to transfer pure process data, simple GSD files are available on an input/output data basis, regardless of device. In this case, it isn’t possible
The IO-Link integrates conventional and intelligent actuators and sensors into automation systems without extra effort and expense.
to parameterise. In case users intend to configure and parameterise individual devices, there are specific GSD files available that can be implemented depending on the device design or type. Data is managed in the control system. The use of device-specific DTMS is also a good solution. Users can change the configuration using an integrated FDT during operation. Operation is menu-based. This solution works regardless of fieldbus and manufacturer. Lower Time Expenditure With the IO-Link, devices that are basically on site and have to be easily accessible are installed on the system close to the application, reducing
The IO-Link helps reduce the number of interfaces and the multitude of variants. 38 industrial automation asia | Oct/Nov 2008
installation time considerably. In this case, the centralised control system simply handles parameterising and configuration. Due to the transfer of parameter data from the higher-level control system, the start-up times are also considerably reduced. Thanks to continuous communication and using the IOLink, the user can flexibly respond to new requirements even during the machine’s run-time. So, for example, during a product change, the configuration settings can be changed centrally and in real time via IO-Link, reducing costly downtimes. The same applies to replacing an IO-Link sensor during a service call: The parameter and configuration data are transferred to the new device via the centralised control system. The chances are good that this standard will spread worldwide. The original collaborators may be German companies, but they clearly have something to say to the world. Furthermore, because the IO-Link is fieldbus-neutral, it is not just a purely European solution. The process is currently underway to obtain approval for IEC standardisation. These factors will help the IO-Link gain recognition outside of Europe as well. ENQUIRY NO. 7303
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Besides attending the conference, you will also Besides attending the conference, you will also Technology and Engineering Professionals. hear from an entire ecosystem of innovation hear from an entire ecosystem you of innovation Besides attending the conference, will also experts. experts. hear from an entire ecosystem of innovation Secure your participation for operational experts. Secure your participation for operational excellence – today! For complete conference Secure your participation for operational and session – details and registration, visit excellence today! For complete please conference excellence – today! For complete conference www.wonderware.com/wworld08/ or email to visit and session details and registration, please and session details and registration, please visit email@example.com for other www.wonderware.com/wworld08/ or email to www.wonderware.com/wworld08/ or email to Wonderworld locations near you. firstname.lastname@example.org for other email@example.com for other Wonderworldlocations locations near Wonderworld near you.you. ENQUIRY NO. 865
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software & Networks caused by problems with the fieldbus physical layer before causing harm. Since the complete fieldbus structure is under constant supervision, plant performance and system availability will be improved drastically.
Insight Total Control Installing an Advanced Diagnostics system for an existing fieldbus infrastructure presents a cost benefit to a process plant. By Arasu Thanigai (L), business development manager for fieldbus devices, AP and Andreas Hennecke (R), product marketing manager for fieldbus technology, Pepperl+Fuchs
he fieldbus is the enabling technology of a new generation of process plants. It allows the integration of all plant instrumentation, control loops and I/O devices. Due to new solutions like Advanced Diagnostics, it also offers total control of the physical fieldbus layer in combination with remote access to every detail of each instrument connected. With up to 31 field instruments attached to one and the same cable, modern fieldbus technology significantly reduces the amount of wiring needed for power supply and signal transmission. Remote Diagnosis The Advanced Diagnostics Module (ADM) for monitoring the physical layer is a test instrument which is fully integrated into the fieldbus power supply and connected directly to the trunk of the network. After a first run immediately following the commission of a new or modified system, the operating condition is stored as a baseline along with respective alarm limits. From then on it works fully automatic and is able to determine and document 40â€ƒ industrial automation asia | Oct/Nov 2008
the compliance of the complete system with the design rules of the fieldbus standard IEC 61158-2. Audible and visual alarms will make the system operator or maintenance staff aware of any deviations from the baseline. Complex wiring diagrams can be replaced with a simple spreadsheet documenting all components the physical layer is comprised of. In this way, numbers and locations of the wiring blocks and field devices connected to each trunk can be easily found. The service technician only needs to run a software package right at the maintenance station. Clear text messages point to possible problems and suggest remedies for the fault. It is then up to the maintenance staff to decide what kind of action needs to be taken and plan their activities accordingly. After maintenance work, alterations or extensions of the fieldbus infrastructure, a quick check with the Diagnostic Manager is all that is needed to verify the quality of the physical layer. Advanced Diagnostics is able to sort out 90 percent of all alarms
The Hard Cases A single deficiency in the fieldbus infrastructure normally does not really affect plant operation. Real problem cases usually are often intermittent and therefore difficult to detect. Or they are caused by multiple faults on one segment. In such cases it is helpful that the Advanced Diagnostic Manager also allows remote access via the Internet. Maintenance technicians can therefore call on offsite fieldbus experts who are able to immediately access all information and give supportive instructions over the phone. Alternatively, it is also possible to write all status data into a file and mail it to the expert. In either case, help is available within a short time frame and at reduced cost, since time and expenses for traveling are eliminated. Inherent Safety The fieldbus also allows the integration of safety-related equipment up to SIL 3. In this way, standard and safety equipment can share the very same physical layer for communication, while the fieldbus infrastructure is left out of the evaluation of safety related equipment. Additional availability of the fieldbus infrastructure is ensured through redundant electronic components such as the power supplies and the use of Advanced Diagnostics for the fieldbus physical layer. With all these advantages, installing an Advanced Diagnostics system for an existing fieldbus infrastructure is a cost benefit almost right from the start. The capital investment required to service one hundred fieldbus segments supporting 1,200 field devices, approximately equals the cost of one skilled instrument and electrical engineer for only three months. ENQUIRY NO. 7304
ENQUIRY NO. 694
ENQUIRY NO. 681
instrumentation & Measurement
mainstream EDDL with enhancements enables a single tool for simple and sophisticated devices including advanced setup and diagnostics. By Jonas Berge, director, PlantWeb consulting, Emerson Process Management
imple smart pressure and temperature measurement transmitters could be configured without need for graphics. However, more sophisticated (complex) devices such as valve positioners, variable speed drives, machinery health monitors, and radar level transmitters now common in process industry plants require advanced graphical setup and diagnostics. By upgrading software to the new enhancements of the international standard IEC 61804, plant personnel can make their devices, both old and new, simple and advanced, easier to use than ever before. Similarly, predictive diagnostics can be better integrated into daily work practices by displaying them to the 42â€ƒ industrial automation asia | Oct/Nov 2008
right persons. This is achieved without making system management more difficult with respect to staying current with new devices and Windows versions. This article recommends a best practice for device integration outlined in the NAMUR NE 105 recommendation by upgrading to a single standard: IEC 61804-3. Meet The Requirements Back in 1992, the original Device Description (DD) technology made it possible for the first time to configure many types of smart transmitters from different manufacturers using the same universal communicator rather than one proprietary communicator from each
NAMUR NE 105 N A M U R i s a n a s s o c i a t i o n o f p ro c e s s i n d u s t r y automation technology users, whose members work together to define requirements for new technologies, systems, and devices. NE 105 is their recommendation for integrating fieldbus devices in engineering tools. It is the best collection of user requirements for device integration. End-user requirements for device integration defined in NAMUR NE 105 include: • Investment protection • No software version conflicts & non-interfering • Easy device update
• • • • • • •
Intuitive Consistent look and feel Single universal solution No license keys No Windows version conflict Support for full device functionality Interoperability testing
NE 105 deals partly with the displays technicians see. They must be able to show all functionality in the device, and the look and feel must be consistent from one device to the next. However, for the most part NE 105 has a focus on system management and investment protection. Using a single device integration technology meeting all the requirements of NE 105 is considered ‘best practice’ for process industry plants. Enhanced EDDL EDDL is a compressed text file that exists in the computer, not in the device, and tells the software what commands to send to the device to exchange information, how to decode the information, and how to display this information to the user. EDDL is an integral part of HART, Foundation fieldbus, Profibus, and WirelessHART communications.
ENQUIRY NO. 878
manufacturer. This led to a significant improvement in productivity. Challenged with greater user expectations, engineers were faced with the task of providing graphics for DD while not sacrificing the ease of system management, robustness, and investment protection to which plant personnel have become accustomed. The solution: HTML-like graphical extensions in an enhanced technology renamed enhanced Electronic Device Description Language (EDDL). This technology makes all HART, Foundation fieldbus, and Profibus devices easier to use.
Oct/Nov 2008 | industrial automation asia 43
ED D N L (D AM D ED U ) s D R ta ED L NE nd DL Co 10 ard FD w op 5 ize T ith era rec d gr e tio om ou nh n m p an Te e jo c am nd in em at s ED en form ion DL t s ed t C and oo a pe rd ra ize tio d n Te am
cr ea te d DT M FD T/
(D D) cr ea t
instrumentation & Measurement
Device integration technology time-line.
The original DD technology, dating from 1992, lacked the ability to display and store graphics and thus did not meet the requirement for support of full device functionality. Other solutions had the graphics but did not meet the other NE 105 requirements. New EDDL with enhancements supports graphics while preserving all the advantages of original DD. The enhancements to EDDL were jointly developed by engineers from the Fieldbus Foundation, HART Communication Foundation, Profibus Nutzerorganisation eV (PNO), and OPC Foundation to meet the requirements of NE 105. Full Device Functionality Most plants today have sophisticated (complex) devices like control valve positioners, machinery health transmitters, variable speed drives, and radar level transmitters that must be managed from the same software as simple pressure and temperature transmitters. Since the original DD did not have graphics or persistent data storage, other solutions had to be developed to support the more sophisticated devices. Systems mixing multiple technologies were harder to manage and had added limitations. EDDL solved this with enhancements providing rich graphics, a menu system, persistent data storage, and ability to handle data dependencies. Wizards and calculations are available to make complex procedures such as setup and calibration easy, reducing mistakes, and at the same time make sure all technicians perform these tasks the same way with greater consistency. Charts and graphs with multiple simultaneous values as well as table grids allow advanced setup and advanced diagnostics of sophisticated (complex) devices. The enhanced menu system makes navigating large sets of parameters much easier. Manufacturers impart their device and application know-how to users in the form of text, images, and context sensitive help to make their devices easy to use. It is the device manufacturer that decides on the content and structure of the information displayed to make their devices user friendly while all information is presented. EDDL with enhancements enables a single tool for simple and sophisticated devices including advanced setup 44â€ƒ industrial automation asia | Oct/Nov 2008
Graphical elements in EDDL with enhancements.
and diagnostics. Thus EDDL is suitable for all phases of the life-cycle including maintenance and operation. Users see the full, rich, and familiar Windows graphical presentations on their computers. EDDL makes devices fully interoperable, and since they are displayed as intended by their manufacturers, nothing hidden. Devices that fully support EDDL with enhancements need no additional software. Consistent Look & Feel Device manufacturers must be allowed to determine how information and features in their devices are organised in displays: content and structure. Previously however, device manufacturers used different icons, different button locations, and different color schemes etc for their displays. The variations resulted in inconsistencies between devices, which made life difficult for technicians who had to manage a mix of devices from different manufacturers using different protocols. This dilemma is solved using EDDL, which allows manufacturers to define the display content and structure of a device, but not look and feel details. Therefore, colour coding for parameterisation status such as ‘writable’, ‘read-only’, ‘changed but not downloaded’, and ‘compare mismatch’ is defined by the device software and thus identical for all devices regardless of protocol, manufacturer, or type. Moreover, the look and feel are the same as for the entire control system and asset management package. EDDL displays devices graphically but without undue creativity. The look and feel of buttons to accept parameter changes, access help, and print are the same for all devices. Consistent use of option lists, check boxes, and multiple status indication are also standardised by EDDL. Tools to pan and zoom for trend charts and waveform graphs work the same way for all devices. Gauges, bargraphs, and histograms are the same for all devices regardless of protocol, manufacturer, or type. Device displays make use of a standard multilingual EDDL dictionary of common phrases displayed in user interaction such as prompts and help text. Furthermore, IEC/TR 61804-4 includes a standard root menu for navigation. As a result, EDDL-based tools are easy to learn. Working with a mix of devices soon becomes intuitive thanks to the consistent look and feel, nomenclature, and messaging. The consistent look and feel of EDDL are intrinsic properties of the technology not matched by earlier attempts to style guides.
Consistent look and feel across all manufacturers, device types, and protocols.
Investment Protection A control system needs to operate for 15 years without having to be replaced. Therefore: • It should not be necessary to upgrade Windows version when a new device type or version is integrated to the system. Oct/Nov 2008 | industrial automation asia 45
instrumentation & Measurement • System support for an existing device should not be lost when Windows is upgraded or when service packs or hot fixes are installed. • Support for an existing device should not be lost when device management software is upgraded. • It should not be necessar y to upgrade device management software when a new device type or version is integrated. Device integration solutions using Windows software interfaces are coupled to fast-paced changes of the IT revolution. As an independent standard IEC 61804-3, decoupled from Windows, EDDL is intrinsically unaffected by rapid obsolescence in the IT world. EDDL files for new devices are independent from, and therefore compatible with, old Windows versions, patches, .NET framework, and service packs. New Windows versions, patches, .NET framework, and service packs are equally compatible with EDDL files for old devices. New versions of device management software are compatible with EDDL files for old devices. DD files without graphical enhancements are supplied together with enhanced EDDL files to support older device management software. EDDL staves off obsolescence because an EDDL file is a document, not software. There is: • No need to upgrade Windows version or install patches, .NET framework, or service packs to support new device versions. • No need to wait for new EDDL files before Windows upgrade, patches, service packs, .NET framework or upgrade. • No need to wait for new EDDL files before device management software upgrade. • Ability for future devices to be integrated into existing device management software. There should be few surprises associated with a Windows language version/edition. Plant personnel can quickly adopt any new Windows version and benefit sooner. Files created for devices in 1992 still work on systems shipped today, showing that EDDL protects the control system investment. No Software Version Conflicts Plants cannot afford the risk of new versions of software interfering with control systems or even device management software. This is why third-party software is never allowed to be installed on a DCS. Nor are device integration solutions that rely on device drivers allowed on a DCS, since each driver is actually third-party software. For this reason, device diagnostics had to be done from a console that is not integrated with the DCS operator station, so checking diagnostics was not a natural part of daily operations. 46 industrial automation asia | Oct/Nov 2008
EDDL solved this because the file is compressed text, and no software is installed to support a device. Thus it does not interfere with the DCS. Thus, EDDLbased diagnostics can be totally integrated with the DCS. Moreover, because each version of every device type has its own unique file, integrating a new type or version of device does not interfere with existing devices. In an integrated system, EDDL enables work to be done from a single ‘dashboard’. That is, there is no need to change seats to diagnose a device failure. Device diagnostics can be done from the operator workstation. Operators can differentiate device problems from process problems and take appropriate action such as putting a loop into manual control before the process is affected. Then, the operator can call on a technician in the field with the details so that the problem can be fixed.
Device diagnostics integrated with plant operations.
Easy Device Update New types and versions of devices come into plants as part of improvements and replacements all the time, so it must be easy for technicians to integrate them into the system. Some earlier solutions required installation of driver software to support a new device type or version. The technician who commissioned a new device also had to be a bit of an IT expert to handle installation prompts such as license agreement, disk space, replacing existing files, etc. He also needed an 'administrator' level password, but installation was still time-consuming. EDDL solves this as well because the file is not a programme or driver so there is no need for the technician who commissions a new device to install software. New EDDL files are downloaded from the device manufacturer, then simply copied and pasted onto the system, like a document. Because EDDL files are very small, they can even be emailed as an attachment if need be. Moreover, EDDL files for existing devices are never removed, thus ensuring robustness. Beyond mere detection, EDDL supports automatic association of a device to its EDDL file without manual
binding, saving a substantial amount of configuration work. This is possible because the EDDL file and folders are given the same name as the manufacturer, type, and version codes in the device. All EDDL files are loaded the same way regardless of manufacturer, type, or protocol, even while system is running. Like the original DD, new device types and versions can be commissioned by non-experts. EDDL is plug and play. Single Universal Solution Most plants have a variety of device types, and supporting intelligent devices should not add undue burden. EDDL is the technology used in the DCS and handheld field communicator. But because the original DD did not support graphics, some systems complemented DD with device management software. Administering two kinds of device integration files associated with two device integration technologies added unnecessary work. Moreover, software drivers frequently required license keys to be obtained to unleash full functionality. This is now also solved by enhanced EDDL, which is now used in DCS, handheld, and device management software. There is no longer a need to grapple with two technologies. Moreover, EDDL files require no license keys, saving both cost and administrative time.
Interoperability Testing Plant officials generally require that devices interoperate flawlessly with DCS, handheld field communicator, and device management software. The HART Communication Foundation, Fieldbus Foundation, and Profibus organisations address this by checking the EDDL files along with the device as part of their interoperability testing to make sure the standard is upheld. As a result, EDDL has great interoperability and enables plug and play device integration. Third-Party Evaluation The new enhanced EDDL technology was designed to meet the user requirements set forth in NE 105, and this objective has been achieved. The renowned German test institute BIS Prozesstechnik conducted an independent study and found that EDDL does indeed meet these requirements. Leading manufacturers have already upgraded their devices and systems from original DD to enhanced EDDL and others are following suit. These improved solutions are well on their way to mainstream acceptance. ENQUIRY NO. 7401
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ENQUIRY NO. 867
when you can’t handle it?
Oct/Nov 2008 | industrial automation asia 47
he worldwide increa sing demand in oil, gas and chemical products and the need to manage resources is in everybodyâ€™s mind. The development of the oil price is heavily discussed and different scenarios for the future are presented. The oil and gas industry as well as the chemical storage market is booming. All the players are reporting huge profit gains and increasing stock prices.
In recent years there seems to be a trend that the major oil companies are divesting their storage facilities to concentrate on the core refining competencies and optimising refinery productivity. The storage operating companies are investing in distribution chains of bulk oil, gas and chemical products to become the specialists in storage and distribution. This has led to huge
investments within the industry for new refineries, additional storage facilities, new exploration and production technologies as well as upgrades of existing tank farms and refineries. When considering tank farms one can think that each is constructed and operated to meet the individual requirements of each customer. They can consist of one or two standalone tanks and progress to hundreds
Efficiency Vs Safety:
Tank Farm Dilemma
Separating tank gauging and tank shut down allows the most optimum operation and safe management of a tank farm. By Warren Galbraith (L), marketing services business development, tank gauging, gamma, DP flow, and Michael Krause (R), head of employee development, Endress+Hauser
48â€ƒ industrial automation asia | Oct/Nov 2008
of tanks distributed over multiple geographical locations. However all tank farm operators require basically the same skills to store and distribute bulk liquids safely and efficiently 24/7/365.
are challenging to fulfill with existing systems. Distinguishing between the requirements of tank farm operation with life-cycle management tools and emergency shut down (ESD) systems is necessary to achieve the optimum solution. Tank gauging systems and tank gauges vary in the communications method as much as they do for standards of flange fittings. The tank gauging companies traditionally tried to protect their installed base by means of manufacture specific protocols, such as V1 from Endress+Hauser, TRL1 from Emerson Rosemount, BPM from Honeywell ENRAF or WM550 from Whessoe.
and pre-emptive maintenance thus avoiding unscheduled and unplanned tank farm or single tank group shut downs. For example, monitoring the signal to noise ratio of a radar gauge can give valuable information about a The Challenges possible failure. If the ratio drops T he log ist ic s a nd ma na gement below a certain threshold, which may of a tank farm is becoming more happen due to condensation, build challenging as operators seek to up, liquid turbulences, etc, a reliable improve efficiency. Adding new signal evaluation cannot be always tanks is costly and sometimes not guaranteed. possible based on local restrictions. A sudden alarm resulting from The maximum allowed capacity of loss of signal can lead to the incorrect existing tanks is now fully utilised in shut down of a tank. If this happens comparison to the past where bigger during filling processes it may cause ullage levels had been applied. serious problems for the operators Storage companies turnover tanks as critical tasks cannot be finished quicker and quicker to keep on time. Only an independent up with the product demands reliable overfill protection or and improve utilisation to a physical human check on minimise the need for building the tank level can then protect expensive new tanks. This against overfilling. leads to higher demands and Indeed, with life-cycle requirements on the installed management features, the gauges to measure different safety of the tank farm is parameters like level, average increased as unpredictable temperature and pressure. situations or malfunctions of Life-cycle management gauges can be managed better and condition monitoring with condition monitoring are key tools to increase the software tools. availability and reliability for Based on more data a profitable tank farm. communication and powerful Should a gauge have an analysis functions it is possible unexpected failure, the lost to combine all features into tank availability cost can run one gauge. Highly accurate Life-cycle management and condition monitoring are key tools to increase the availability and reliability for a to hundreds of thousands gauges are promoted as ‘all-inprofitable tank farm. of dollars per day. Tankers one’ solutions with the highest cannot be unloaded/loaded safety aspects. Functional which upsets the time schedule and These proprietary protocols are safety approvals like SIL – Safety the distribution of the various stored slowly losing the interest of customers Intergrity Level or the well accepted products. with the implementation of HART, German WhG – Wasserhaushaltsgesetz At the same time the Buncefield fire, Modbus and process fieldbuses such or TÜV certifications approve the November 2005 in UK, raised new and as Profibus and Fieldbus Foundation. reliability and safety of a gauge. more stringent safety requirements for With the introduction of these tank farms which will soon become internationally accepted protocol Configured For Safety the norm worldwide. Insurance methods comprehensive information Nevertheless, to realise the highest companies increase premiums if tank from the gauges can be re-transmitted sa fet y, the instr ument specific farm operators do not fulfill the latest to traditional inventory systems as parameters must also be adapted safety standards. well as passing data to ‘condition to the individual tank requirements. monitoring’ software tools. Alarm messages, warning information, A Fine Balance trip thresholds, etc must be configured The focus on increased efficiency of a Condition Monitoring to guarantee reliable and quick tank farm as well as increased safety Such tools allow customers to enhance indication of a failure transmitted to standards brings tank farm operators the availability of tank farms as more the control room to avoid a possible into a dilemma. Both requirements information is available for predictive overspill. Oct/Nov 2008 | industrial automation asia 49
The focus on increased efficiency of a tank farm as well as increased safety standards brings tank farm operators into a dilemma.
For example, the response time of an unexpected shut down must be known to avoid an overspill. The response time defines the time when the tank gauge recognises a failure, the gauge output is changed and the pumps are switched off and valves are closed. This time response determines the volume of liquid which enters the tank after the level gauge indicated it had failed. By not knowing or calculating this volume an overspill can occur. WhG and SIL approved instruments only permit changes to defined specific parameters of the gauge which will not impact on its response time, eg filter settings like delay times or ‘measurement on hold’. The complete timing and total liquid volume of the shut down process must be evaluated during commissioning, as subsequent changes are often complex to manage. Parameter Settings The increased safety requirement is a contradiction to the high availability requirement of the employed gauges for the highest productivity and profitability of a tank farm. Some applications like tanks with turbulent surfaces require special parameter settings to communicate stable and 50 industrial automation asia | Oct/Nov 2008
reliable level information to the control room. Limitations in parameter settings would cause problems which cannot be tolerated by operators, whilst health and safety requirements demand gauges with limited parameter settings to reduce the complexity and increase safety. ‘Safety overspill protection’ has been put under the microscope recently with the released ‘Buncefield Report’. The report explains the findings and gives recommendations resulting from an explosion at a storage depot that took place in England in November 2005. Athough there are many applications for overspill protection, the Buncefield Report refers to oil storage. In the UK, it is demanded by Health and Safety Executive (HSE) that the new requirements are adhered to. This includes the need for an ‘independent high level alarm system’. Periodic testing of the overspill system is now fundamental to approval. With an all-in- one solution the periodic testing of the overfill system is not practical, as the actual measurement information needs to be put on hold while verifying the level gauge. Tanks during operation cannot be tested as the level signal cannot be put on hold whilst checking the high alarm. An additional management procedure for testing the tanks is necessary to fulfill the new safety regulations. The Solution To overcome the dilemma between efficient operation with life-cycle management tools and the highest safety regulations the current state of art is to separate operation specific measurements and overfill protection systems. By focusing on operation specific measurement the highest accuracies can be achieved as well as an increase in availability using lifecycle management tools for condition monitoring. For safety shut down systems
with sensitive parameter settings, any possible malfunction, spurious alarms, warnings, etc can be assessed with a plausibility check in combination with the operation specific measurements before the complete system shuts down. With such system architectures, the optimum in safety, efficiency and profitability of a tank farm can be achieved.
The maximum allowed capacity of existing tanks is now fully utilised in comparison to the past where bigger ullage levels had been applied.
Whilst separating tank gauging and tank shut down appears to be a more complex solution, it allows the most optimum operation and safe management of the tank farm, improving availability and safety. Unplanned shut downs or accidental overspills are costly events that can be avoided by investing in a comprehensive tank gauging system. Modern tank gauging systems make use of the additional information from each installed gauge. Diagnostics information out of the operation specific measurement can be used to verify malfunction of emergency shut down (ESD) systems and vice versa. Based on implemented plausibility checks the tank gauging system can then fulfill the demand for highest availability for an increase in productivity as well as highest safety features. ENQUIRY NO. 7402
Ultrasonic Revolution Ultrasonic meters have revolutionised the way gas has been metered at high pressure over the past decade. By Dr Volker Herrmann, MD, Sick Maihak
wo u lt ra son ic t ra n sducers, mounted at a certain angle to the flow axis function alternatively as sender and as receiver. That means, that they each send and receive alternatively ultrasonic pulses which are either accelerated or slowed down depending on their travel direction, with (‘forward direction’ tf ) or against (‘reverse direction’ tr ) the gas flow. T h e re s u l t i n g d i f f e re n c e i n propagation times is calculated using geometric variables to determine the mean gas velocity. The cross-sectional area yields the volumetric flow during 52 industrial automation asia | Oct/Nov 2008
operation. The measurement result is not affected by the pressure, temperature, or gas composition. To increase the accuracy of the measurement, the gas velocity is measured with multiple paths. Benefits Of Ultrasonic The measuring result is independent of pressure, temperature and gas composition. No moving part means low maintenance. Also, no interference on flow translates to minimal loss of pressure. The technology can be applied in
the natural gas industry (production, transportation, distribution, storage), the chemical and petrochemical industry, power stations, and other gas-consuming installations ie in cement and glass industry, fertiliser plants and biogas plants. The Transducers The transducers form the heart of the technology. Natural gas meters are normally operated between 100 and 300kHz. Using frequencies as high as 200kHz gives a better resistance to ambient noise emitted by some pressure regulators and valves. Much effort has gone into miniaturisation of the transducers. By making them as small as possible, highly compact meters can be constructed and flow disturbance caused by the cavities is reduced. The transducers in the ultrasonic meters are made of metal with no matching layers. The impedance is matched using specially designed metal acoustic transformers, which ensures that the matching layer is no longer a potential source of uncertainty or drift.
Ultrasonic transducer B
L 1 1 – · tf tr 2 · cos a D2 · π Q=v· 4 v=
Ultrasonic transducer A
v … Speed of gas L … Path length α … Mounting angle Q … Flow rate D … Diameter tf … Transit time in direction of flow tr … Transit time against direction of flow
Operating principle of an ultrasonic meter.
The driving force of the transducers is generated by piezoceramics. These, and all the contacts, are hermetically sealed and covered by the external metal shell of the transducers. Titanium is used as standard. In particularly corrosive environments, stainless steel or Hastelloy can be used. The transducers can be implemented in pressures of up to 450 bar (or pressures below the ambient pressure) and in temperatures of up to 280 deg C. The time delay behaviour of the transducers has also proven to be extremely constant irrespective of the time, pressure and temperature. The transducers are virtually drift free. The acoustic signal transmitted and received by the transducers has a high signal noise ratio, even at ambient conditions. Ultrasonic meters have
Field installation of an ultrasonic meter.
revolutionised the way gas has been metered at high pressure over the past decade. Increased experience and new developments now mean that as well as being the ideal meter for high pressure installations, the meter is now ready to evolve into new applications, such as use in lower pressure installations where other technologies such as turbine meters have been utilised in the past. The meter operates according to the tried-and tested transit time principle. Ultrasonic sensors, which define a measuring path at a certain angle to the gas flow, are installed in the meter body. The path configuration has a significant effect on the uncertainty budget and, therefore, on the meter performance. It can reduce potential uncer tainty factors caused by bouncing.
There are several reasons why a non-bounce multi-path configuration was chosen: • When bounced path technology is not used, the reflector inside the pipe becomes superfluous. This may change its characteristics due to contamination or a change in wall roughness, thereby causing additional uncertainty. • Eliminating reflection saves acoustic energy, which can help reduce the electrical power input (intrinsically safe operation Ex ia) and allows even large meters to be operated under any operating conditions, including atmospheric pressure and gases of low density (H2) or high acoustic attenuation (CO2). • The saving in acoustic energy also results in a higher signal-to-noise ratio making the ultrasonic noise. • A l t h o u g h t h i s s p e c i a l p a t h configuration does not actually measure non-axial flow components arising from swirl effects, it does compensate for them very well. This has been proven in numerous tests in high and ambient pressure facilities. • Investigations have shown that four paths are sufficient for providing highly accurate results in practical installation technology. Research has shown that of the different path configurations analysed, the path configuration in which all the paths were at one level (similar to the one outlined here) was the least sensitive to the different installation effects. ENQUIRY NO. 7403 Oct/Nov 2008 | industrial automation asia 53
Green Design For
Sustainability Green design has influenced not only products, processes and services; it has permeated into the philosophy of business. By Augustine Quek
n 1985, 20 nations signed the Vienna Convention for the protection of the ozone layer, after a study published in the journal Nature showed a huge ozone loss over Antarctica. This led to the Montreal Protocol in 1987, an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of a number of halogenated hydrocarbons. The multilateral environmental agreement has been ratified by over 190 countries today, and is the single most successful envrionmental treaty to date. It also alerted the world to designing and manufacturing products and services that are more environmentally benign. For The Environment Green de sig n, a lso k now n a s ‘sustainable design’, ‘eco-design’, or ‘design for environment’, is the art of designing physical objects and the built environment to comply with the principles of economic, social, and ecological sustainability. It is a general reaction to the global environmental cr isis, where hu ma n e conom ic activity has led to the depletion of natural resources, damage to natural 54 industrial automation asia | Oct/Nov 2008
life -support systems and loss of biodiversity. Proponents of sustainable design generally believe the crisis may be resolved by using innovative design and industrial practices which reduce the environmental impacts associated with goods and services. Green design is considered a means of doing that while maintaining quality of life by using clever design to substitute less harmful products and processes for conventional ones. The objective of green design is to produce places, products and
services in a way that reduces use of non-renewable resources, minimises environmental impact, and relates people with the natural environment. Green design is often viewed as a necessary tool for achieving sustainability. It is an eclectic mix of industry-focused fields including industrial ecology and green chemistry,
Incorporating Green Design In A Car
sharing tools such as product life cycle management and assessment to judge the environmental impact of various design choices. Tools Of Green Design Life cycle assessments (LCA) have traditionally been used in the domain of academics to estimate the potential
ordon Murray Design is claiming a revolutionary automobile design that not only reduces the environmental impact of vehicle materials and packaging, but also reduces congestion, parking p ro blems and lifecycle carbon dioxide. The T.25 city car has its component parts minimised through multi-functional
environmental impact of a product or process. This was differentiated from Product Lifecycle Management (PLM), which is employed by industries to managing the entire lifecycle of a product from its conception, through design and manufacture, to service and disposal. Inevitably, the marriage of these two techniques would occur
compon ent d esign a n d careful consideration of tooling requirements. Minimal parts and the compact size reduce the cost and energy used in raw material extraction and manufacture. Not only are recycled materials used where possible, many components will be re-usable including the body and chassis. The chassis is designed to ‘flat pack’ for transportation,
as part of green design. For example, Dassault Systèmes, a provider of 3D and Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) solutions has recently unveiled updates to Enovia Materials Compliance Central on its V6 platform to deliver ‘eco design’ capabilities for automotive and high tech industries. It is a business-process application designed to empower companies to adopt proactive environmental compliance strategies, and to meet the stringent regulations mandated by the EU, specifically the End-ofLife Vehicle (ELV), the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) and the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) directives. The latest version allows generation of part-level reports and what-if scenario analysis of a product’s compliance. Users can also make component selection decisions based on the component’s compliance rating. The extensive search capabilities identify alternatives, or ‘green parts’, as well as the identification of leadfree options, after it has identified non-compliant components and the products that they are used in. Another interesting feature of the platform is the collaborative intelligence from diverse online communities. This approach provides key stakeholders with access to material compliance information throughout the product lifecycle from product development to manufacturing to end-of-life recycling.
where its compact size will enable 12 times as many 'bodyin-white's' to be shipped in a standard shipping container as compared to an average car 'body-in-white'. Its compact size also allows two T.25's to travel in one UK motorway lane, while three T.25's can fit into one standard UK parallel parking space, trebling much needed urban parking, reducing pressures for inner
cities as well as the disruption to traffic flow. The compact T.25 can still achieve a high safety standard (at least 4 Star Euro NCAP), has a better powerto-weight ratio than the average luxury sedan, while having less than half of the UK average carbon dioxide emissions and fuel consumption. ENQUIRY NO. 7501
Oct/Nov 2008 | industrial automation asia 55
design focus By providing an out-of-the-box solution, customers are able to implement industry standard data collection and reporting formats to realise immediate value from their investment. Built on a ServiceOriented Architecture (SOA), all deliverables related to collecting, integrating, analysing, and reporting material compliance information are accomplished in a single platform and environment, eliminating translation errors and ensuring consistency. Online collaboration is also offered by Sustainable Minds, an on-demand green product design software and information services company. SustainableMinds.com features expert advice and an industry blog to promote awareness and open knowledge sharing to bring sustainable product design to mainstream product design.
Erkin Sahin, Turkey
Methods Of Green Design There are three major elements in green design: green manufacturing design, green packaging design, and design for disposal and recyclability.
Green manufacturing design involves using non-toxic processes and production materials and minimising energy utilisation, emissions and wastes.
56â€ƒ industrial automation asia | Oct/Nov 2008
Proponents of sustainable design use innovative design and industrial practices which reduce the environmental impacts associated with goods and services.
Green manufacturing design involves using non-toxic processes and production materials and minimising energy utilisation, emissions and wastes. Green packaging design involves minimising, reusing andÂ recycling packaging materials and using recyclable or bio-degradable packaging materials. Design for disposal and recyclability involves re-use and/or refurbishment of components and assemblies. Material selection becomes important to enable re-use and to minimise toxicity. To support design for recyclability, design for disassembly needs to be addressed. Design for disassembly enhances maintainability or ser viceability of a product, and it enables recycling of materials, component parts, assemblies, and modules. This include designing modular parts, minimising the weight of individual parts, using joining and fastening techniques to facilitate disassembly and minimising fragile parts and leads to enable re-use and re-assembly. HPâ€™s Design for Environment (DfE) programme, established in 1992, exemplifies all three aspects of green design. The programme has three priorities: energy efficiency, materials innovation and design for recyclability. For example, HP LaserJet printers use no ozone depleting substances in product manufacturing. Its plastic
case parts have no halogenated flame retardants, and any plastic parts weighing more than 25 grammes are marked according to ISO 11469 international standards for easier sorting, while using common fasteners and snap-in features for easy disassembly. In addition, HP printers are suited for the use of recycled paper qualified according to EN 12281:2002. Energy consumption is reduced through Instant-On Fusing, which reduces preheating times, new low-melt toner and Sleep mode feature. Manuals are printed on elementary chlorine free (EFC) bleached virgin or recycled paper or put on CD-ROM to minimise paper uses. Improving Efficiency However, the efforts of green design to date have been to simply improve the efficiency of delivering individual goods and ser v ices. This limits green design in reducing whole earth impacts because growth in goods and services is consistently outpacing gains in efficiency. For example, in a 2006 report, the International Association of Electronics Recyclers projects that with the current growth and obsolescence rates of consumer electronics, somewhere in the neighborhood of three billion units will be scrapped during the rest of this decade, or an average of about 400 million units a year.