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Changing Landscapes: Can concrete be reinvented to contribute to our sustainable future?

Principles of Sustainable Materials SUST 708 + Materials Study: Phase II + Kathryn Rusek


Portland Cement Concrete

Recycling

Traditional wisdom based on natural materials Industrial By-products

Design Principles of Sustainable Materials SUST 708 + Materials Study: Phase II + Kathryn Rusek


MIPS

Principles of Sustainable Materials SUST 708 + Materials Study: Phase II + Kathryn Rusek


Principles of Sustainable Materials SUST 708 + Materials Study: Phase II + Kathryn Rusek


Principles of Sustainable Materials SUST 708 + Materials Study: Phase II + Kathryn Rusek


Principles of Sustainable Materials SUST 708 + Materials Study: Phase II + Kathryn Rusek


Principles of Sustainable Materials SUST 708 + Materials Study: Phase II + Kathryn Rusek


Recycling

Typical Concrete Life Cycle

Coal Electricity

Raw Materials

Use

Demolition

Landfill

Portland Cement Fly Ash Water Sand Aggregate New Uses Shoreline erosion control filled gabions retaining walls

Principles of Sustainable Materials SUST 708 + Materials Study: Phase II + Kathryn Rusek


Recycling

Principles of Sustainable Materials SUST 708 + Materials Study: Phase II + Kathryn Rusek


Recycling

Portland Cement Concrete

Recycling

Traditional wisdom based on natural materials Industrial By-products

Design Principles of Sustainable Materials SUST 708 + Materials Study: Phase II + Kathryn Rusek


Industrial By-products

Portland Cement Concrete

Recycling

Traditional wisdom based on natural materials Industrial By-products

Design Principles of Sustainable Materials SUST 708 + Materials Study: Phase II + Kathryn Rusek


Industrial By-products Fly ash from the coal industry & Blast furnace slag from the steel industry

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Significant environmental problems

Principles of Sustainable Materials SUST 708 + Materials Study: Phase II + Kathryn Rusek


Industrial By-products Fly ash from the coal industry & Blast furnace slag from the steel industry

=

Significant environmental problems

Principles of Sustainable Materials SUST 708 + Materials Study: Phase II + Kathryn Rusek


Industrial By-products According to Greenpeace, “toxins in coal ash have been linked to

cancer, respiratory illness, neurological damage, organ disease, and reproductive and developmental problems. “It contains arsenic, lead, and mercury among other toxic metals.” “Coal Ash is hazardous waste; it destroys communities, destroys our ecosystem, and unless regulated, will continue to do so in increasing amounts.

Principles of Sustainable Materials SUST 708 + Materials Study: Phase II + Kathryn Rusek


natural materials

Portland Cement Concrete

Recycling

Traditional wisdom based on natural materials Industrial By-products

Adobe Cob Compressed Earth Block Rammed Earth

Design Principles of Sustainable Materials SUST 708 + Materials Study: Phase II + Kathryn Rusek


Basic Earthen Brick

natural materials

WATER

CLAY POO SUN

SOIL

Principles of Sustainable Materials SUST 708 + Materials Study: Phase II + Kathryn Rusek


natural materials

Gold Stars for Sustainability 1) use of high heat for long periods of time is eliminated in exchange for solar curing 2) materials return back to the earth safely after serving their desired purpose 3)strength comes from ingredients like manure, straw and rice hulls Obstacles: Sun cured brick is susceptible to moisture destruction. It seems as if use is restricted to dry climates Principles of Sustainable Materials SUST 708 + Materials Study: Phase II + Kathryn Rusek


natural materials University of Seville in Spain and the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow, UK clay, wool, and alginate (seaweed) developed for use in adverse climate conditions

Published: April 20, 1919 Copyright Š The New York Times

Principles of Sustainable Materials SUST 708 + Materials Study: Phase II + Kathryn Rusek


Design

Portland Cement Concrete

Recycling

Traditional wisdom based on natural materials Industrial By-products

Design Principles of Sustainable Materials SUST 708 + Materials Study: Phase II + Kathryn Rusek


Design

The Hydrologic Cycle Precipitation replenishes rivers, lakes, and reservoirs Rainwater absorbed through soil becomes part of through flow that supplies water into natural aquifers

This process is critically necessary to the health of watersheds that supply water to most major metropolitan areas

http://www.uwsp.edu/gEo/faculty/ritter/glossary/h_k/hydrologic_cycle.html

Principles of Sustainable Materials SUST 708 + Materials Study: Phase II + Kathryn Rusek


Design

Storm Water Mismanagement

Urbanization of Streams: Studies of Hydrologic Impacts, EPA 841-R-97-009, 1997

Principles of Sustainable Materials SUST 708 + Materials Study: Phase II + Kathryn Rusek


Design

Storm Water Mismanagement

INCREASED STORM WATER

INCREASED FLOODING

HEAVY EROSION

ECOSYSTEM DEGRADATION HABITAT LOSS

In the continental US urban impervious surfaces cover 43000 square miles nearly the size of the state of Ohio

Urbanization of Streams: Studies of Hydrologic Impacts, EPA 841-R-97-009, 1997 An average 625 square miles is added each year

Principles of Sustainable Materials SUST 708 + Materials Study: Phase II + Kathryn Rusek


Design

Storm Water Mismanagement

Urbanization of Streams: Studies of Hydrologic Impacts, EPA 841-R-97-009, 1997

Impervious surfaces can be limited by land use restricitons but this simply moves the problem elsewhere Alternatively, urban structures can be built differently with materials that behave more like pervious soils

Principles of Sustainable Materials SUST 708 + Materials Study: Phase II + Kathryn Rusek


Design

Principles of Sustainable Materials SUST 708 + Materials Study: Phase II + Kathryn Rusek


Design

GRASSCRETE

Principles of Sustainable Materials SUST 708 + Materials Study: Phase II + Kathryn Rusek


Portland Cement Concrete

Recycling recycled aggregate

Traditional wisdom based on natural materials Adobe

Industrial By-products

Cob

fly ash

Compressed Earth Block

blast furnace slag

Rammed Earth

biomass binders organic naturally occurring binders

Design modular systems integrate with vegetation

Principles of Sustainable Materials SUST 708 + Materials Study: Phase II + Kathryn Rusek


Additional Sources Schueler, Thomas R. “The Importance of Imperviousness.” Reprinted in The Practice of Watershed Protection. 2000. Center for Watershed Protection. Ellicott City, MD. Cappiello, Dina. “Report: EPA Failing to stop Sprawl Runoff.” Seattle Times, 16 Oct. 2008 Prince Georges County Department of Environmental Resources Programs and Planning Division. 1999. ‘Low-Impact Design Strategies: An Integrated Design Approach’. Department of Environmental Resources, Prince Georges County, Maryland. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/fspubs/00232839/page10a.htm “Coal Ash is a Global Problem”. http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/en/news-and-blogs/campaign-blog/coal-ash-is-a-global-problem/blog/26408. Sept15 2010 “Bricks Made With Wool”. ScienceDaily (Oct. 6, 2010). http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/10/101005085503.htm

Principles of Sustainable Materials SUST 708 + Materials Study: Phase II + Kathryn Rusek


Concrete Analysis 1