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[ W03 ]

 

   


[ W03 ] M I N D M A P 1


[ W03 ] M I N D M A P 2


[ W03 ] M I N D M A P 3


[ W03 ] M I N D M A P 4


[ W03 ] M I N D M A P 5


[ W03 ] M I N D M A P 6


[ W03 ] M I N D M A P 7


[ W03 ] M I N D M A P 8


[ W03 ] S T U D I O FOOTINGS+FOUNDATIONS

INTRODUCE THE CONCEPT OF BUILT SCALE AND IDENTIFY THE BASIC STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS, CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS AND MATERIALS OF THE PAVILION

CASE

STUDY

BUILDING

AND

A

VARIETY OF OTHER BUILDINGS ON CAMPUS   MOMENT1    

A  FORCE  MULTIPLIED  BY  A  LEVER  ARM,  PRODUCING   A  TURNING  EFFECT:   M0  =  F  x  d  

STRIP  FOOTING2    

A   FOUNDATION   THAT   IS   EXCAVATED   AND   CAST   IN   LONG   LENGTHS,   USED   TO   CARRY   LONGITUDINAL   LOADS   SUCH   AS   EXTERNAL   WALLS   AND   WALLS   TO   HOUSES  (see  Glossary  for  more  detail).  

RETAINING  WALL3  

STRUCTURAL   ENCASEMENT   (WALL)   CONSTRUCTED   TO   HOLD   BACK   SOIL,   WATER   OR   MATERIALS   (see   Glossary  for  more  detail).  

SLAB-­‐ON-­‐GRADE4    

A  

CONCRETE   FLOOR   SLAB   RESTING   ONTO   THE   GROUND  OR  A  SUB-­‐BASE  OF  HARDCORE.  

PAD  FOOTING5    

AN   ISOLATED   FOUNDATION   THAT   IS   SQUARE   OR   RECTANGLE   ON   PLAN   AND   USED   TO   DISTRIBUTE   POINT   LOADS,   SUCH   AS   COLUMNS,   TO   THE   GROUND  (see  Glossary  for  more  detail).  

SUBSTRUCTURE6      

T HE  

FOUNDATION7  

THE   UNDERLYING   SUPPORT   OF   A   STRUCTURE.  IT   IS   NORMALLY  MADE  FROM  CONCRETE,  WHICH  IS  CAST   BELOW   GROUND   LEVEL   TO   PROVIDE   A   CRITICAL   INTERFACE   BETWEEN   THE   STRUCTURE   AND   THE   GROUND   BENEATH   IT   (see   Glossary   for   more  

HORIZONTAL   DISTANCE   BETWEEN   TWO   SUPPORTS.  

detail).  

STRUT8  

A  

STRUCTURAL   MEMBER   INSERTED   TO   ACT   IN   COMPRESSION   AND   IS   USED   TO   HOLD   OR   BRACE   SOMETHING;  IT  CAN  BE  VERTICAL  OR  HORIZONTAL.  


CAMPUS [ L O T

6

C A F E ]

BUILDING

WALK

ELEMENTS D

STRUCTURAL FRAME/EXTERIOR BEARING WALLS

E

A

D

L

O

A

D

S

CONCRETE   PANELS   MAKE   UP   THE   SUPERSTRUCTURE   FRAMEWORK;   INDENTATIONS   FROM   THE   FORMWORK   INDICATE   THAT   THE   CONCRETE   WAS   POURED   IN   SITU   AND   NOT   PRECAST.   STEEL   BARS   REINFORCE   THE   STRUCTURE.   THE   FAÇADE   DOUBLES   AS   AN   EXTERIOR   BEARING   WALL,   TRANSFERRING  THE  DEAD  LOADS  (SELF-­‐WEIGHT  OF  STRUCTURE)  THROUGH   TO  THE  FOUNDATIONS  AND  INTO  THE  GROUND.  

ENCLOSURE SYSTEM

GLASS   WINDOWS   AND   DOORS   (WITH  

ALUMINIUM   SILLS/FRAMES)   MAKE   UP   THE   BUILDING   ENVELOPE.   THESE   ARE  NON-­‐LOAD  BEARING.  

STEEL BEAM + RECTANGULAR M A S O N R Y C O L U M N

R E A C T I O N

A   UNIVERSAL   BEAM   SPANS   THE   INTERIOR   AND   PROTRUDES   INTO   THE   FRONT   AREA.   IT’S   SUPPORTED   BY   A  CLAY  BRICK  COLUMN  WHICH  FEATURES  A  STACK  BOND  

IRONED MORTAR J O I N T

GRASS  FLOORS  THE  EXTERNAL  AREA  OF  THE  CAFÉ;  THE  

BEAM   AND   THE   COLUMN   ARE   SIMPLY   DESIGN   ELEMENTS   hOp://4.bp.blogspot.com/-­‐hE7CnAnW_-­‐o/T8SzSGM-­‐mUI/AAAAAAAADGI/RpOpl9xce8U/s1600/aa.jpg.  

 

FOR  AESTHETIC  PURPOSES  –  NON-­‐STRUCTURAL.  

E V A L U A T I O N O F K E Y M A T E R I A L S    

INTERIOR   FLOORING  

COMPRISES   OF   A   CONCRETE   SLAB   POURED   IN   SITU   AND   POLISHED   FOR   AESTHETIC   PURPOSES.   SYNTHETIC  

PATTERN   AND   IRONED   MORTAR   JOINTS.   BOTH   THE   Lot  6  Cafe,  2014,  

FLOORING SYSTEM

F O R C E

USE   OF   THIS   MATERIAL   SUGGESTS   THAT   THERE     UNIVERSAL BEAM

IS   AN   UNDERGROUND   AREA   (NO   SOIL   BELOW).  

 

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

I N S I T U CONCRETE

NO  NEED  FOR  CRANE  DURING  CONSTRUCTION  OR  FOR  STRUCTURAL  JOINTS;  THE  MATERIAL  ACTS  AS  ONE  UNIT.   ITS   RESISTANT   TO   THE   ELEMENTS   AND   WORKS   WELL   UNDER   COMPRESSION.   ITS   ALSO   INSULATIVE  

POURING   IN   SITU   IS   LABOUR   INTENSIVE;   THEREFORE   MORE   COSTLY.   ITS   NOT   TIME   EFFICIENT   AS   CONSTRUCTION  CANNOT  CONTINUE  UNTIL  CONCRETE  DRIES.  ALSO,  COMPLEX  FORMWORK  IS  NEEDED  FOR  THE  

(DECREASING  THE  NEED  FOR  CLIMATE  CONTROL  –  REDUCING  CO2  EMISSIONS).  

FAÇADE.  

G L A S S

TRAPS  HEAT  IN  WINTER  (DECREASES  NEED  FOR  HEATING)  AND  IS  AESTHETIC.  

TRAPS  HEAT  IN  SUMMER  (INCREASES  NEED  FOR  AIR-­‐CONDITIONING)  

ALUMINIUM

LIGHTWEIGHT   BUT   STRONG   AND   OXIDISES   TO   FORM   PROTECTIVE   COATING;   NO   NEED   TO   PAINT   TO   AVOID   CORROSION.  

HIGHLY   CONDUCTIVE   OF   HEAT   AND   COLD   –   MUCH   MORE   SO   THAN   TIMBER   WHICH   IS   COMMONLY   FOR   SILLS/ FRAMES.  

S T E E L

IS  VERY  DURABLE  AND  STRONG;  WORKS  WELL  UNDER  COMPRESSION  AS  REINFORCEMENT.  


[UNDERGROUND CARPARK] EACH   COLUMN   IS   SET   IN   A   SQUARE   PAD   FOOTING   AND  

ROOF SHELL

COMPRISES   OF   A   DRUM   AND   AN   UPPER   COLUMN   CAP.   THE   CAP   IS   INTEGRATED   INTO   THE   ROOF   STRUCTURE;  

L OA D PAT H

THE   ENTIRE   STRUCTURE,   THUS,   ACTS   AS   A   SINGLE   MEGALITHIC  UNIT  IN  COMPRESSION.    

 

U P P E R COLUMN C A P

FIBERGLASS   FORMWORK   WAS   USED   TO   CREATE   THE   ROOF   SHELL;   FACILITATING   THE   CREATION   OF   THE   CIRCULAR -­‐ TO -­‐ SQUARE   SHAPE   AND   THE   DESIRED  

D R U M

AESTHETIC   FINISH.10   CONTROL   JOINTS   ARE   USED   IN   CREATING   THE   ROOF   TO   ACCOMMODATE   ANY  

The  Age,  Underground  Carpark,  2011  

MOVEMENT   DUE   TO   CEMENT   SHRINKAGE   FROM  

hOp://images.theage.com.au/2013/03/11/4101180/art_w_carpark2_1203-­‐620x349.jpg.  

 

PAD FOOTING

MOISTURE  (SEE  W03  MINDMAP  7).  

COLUMN/ROOF SYSTEM

 

 

THE   STRUCTURE   IS   CONSTRUCTED   USING   IN   SITU   CONCRETE   (FORMWORK   LINES   INDICATED   IN   ORANGE   –   SEE   LEFT)   AND   STEEL   MESH   REINFORCEMENT   IN   A   GRID   PATTERN.   THIS   HYPERBOLIC   PARABOLOID   ROOF   SHELL9   SYSTEM   OVERCOMES   THE   STRUCTURAL   LIMITATIONS   OF   A   TRADITIONAL   CONCRETE   COLUMN/SLAB   SYSTEM;   IT   ALLOWS   FOR   THE   PLANTING   OF   MANY   TREES   IN   THE   LAWN   ABOVE   AND   FACILITATES   WATER  DRAINAGE.  

 

SOUTH LAWN

  REACTION

CONTROL

JOINT

EFFLORESCENCE   AND   MOISTURE   STAINING   (SEE   W03   MINDMAP   6)   ARE   EVIDENT   IN   SOME   AREAS,   INDICATING   THAT   THERE   ARE   DRAINAGE   PROBLEMS.   PERHAPS   ADDITIONAL   DRAINAGE   PIPES   ARE   NECESSARY   IN   COLUMNS   THAT   SUPPORT   AREAS   OF   THE   SOUTH   LAWN   THAT  ARE  PRONE  TO  ACCUMULATING  WATER.  

DRAINAGE

PIPE

C O L U M N / L AW N S E C T I O N

C A R PA R K

 

EFFLORESCENCE

FORCE

FLOORING SYSTEM  

A   CONCRETE   SLAB   MAKES   UP   THE   FLOOR.   CONCRETE   WORKS   WELL   UNDER   LARGE   COMPRESSIVE   FORCES   AND   IS  HARD  SO  WON’T  BE  DAMAGED  BY  CARS.    

MATERIALS EVALUATION  

THE  

USE   OF   STRUCTURAL   CONCRETE   IS   VERY   COST   EFFECTIVE   AND   THE   DURABILITY   OF   THE   MATERIAL   ENSURES   MINIMAL   MAINTENANCE.   POURING   IN   SITU   ALSO  DECREASES  TRANSPORT  COSTS.  

  THE  EFFLORESCENCE  AND  WATER  STAINING  PRESENT  ARE   NOT   DUE   TO   THE   CONCRETE   QUALITY   BUT   TO   THE   DRAINAGE  SYSTEM.  


[ ARTS WEST STUDENT CENTRE ] ‘C A N T I L E V E R E D ‘ B E A M S   TIMBER   BEAMS   APPEAR   TO   ACT   AS   CANTILEVERS   SUPPORTING   THE   TRUSS/ROOF;   THEY   ARE   IN   FACT   PURELY   DESIGN   FEATURES,   INSTEAD   BEING   HELD   UP   BY  THE  OTHER  STRUCTURAL  ROOF  ELEMENTS.    

HOT FORMED MEMBERS

COLD FORMED PLATES STEEL BEARING PLATE

W O O D

B E A M

G

COMPRESSIVE FORCES

U

T

T

E

R

DRAINAGE SYSTEM  

TENSILE

FORCES

B EVELED ,  

STAINLESS   STEEL   GUTTERS   LEAD  

RAINWATER   TO   THE   DOWNSPOUT .  

V INYL ,   GALVANIZED   STEEL   OR   ALUMINIUM   ARE   MORE   COMMONLY   USED   AND   ARE   JUST   AS   EFFECTIVE;   THE   STAINLESS   STEEL   FINISH   HAS   BEEN   CHOSEN   PURELY   FOR  AESTHETIC  REASONS.      

REACTION FORCE

TRUSS/ROOF SYSTEM    

THE   MEDIUM-­‐HIGH   SLOPE   ROOF   WAS   MADE   UP   OF   STEEL   RIBBED   ROOF   DECKING   CONNECTED   TO   A   STEEL   TRUSS   SYSTEM   SUPPORTED   BY   REINFORCED  CONCRETE  COLUMNS.       S T E E L

R O O F I N G

M A T E R I A L

S E C T I O N

THE   SEMI-­‐OPEN   WEB   TRUSS   SYSTEM   COMPRISED   OF   WELDED,   HOT   FORMED   STEEL   MEMBERS   AND   COLD   ROLLED   PANELS   BOLTED   INTO   THE   FRAME  IN  A  WARREN  TRUSS  (see  Glossary)  FORMATION.  MEMBERS  IN   A   TRUSS   ARE   SUBJECT   TO   AXIAL   TENSION   OR   COMPRESSION   –   DEPENDING  ON  THEIR  LOCATION  IN  THE  SYSTEM.  

T

H E   C O N C R E T E  

C O L U M N   S U P P O R T S  

MATERIALS EVALUATION

FEATURED   SILICONE   CONTROL   JOINTS   TO   A L L O W   F O R   E X P A N S I O N

/

CONTRACTION   IN   THE   STRUCTURE ;   COARSE   A G G R E G A T E   W A S   V I S I B L E   W I T H   A   POLISHED   FINISH   FOR   AESTHETIC  PURPOSES.  

 

CONTROL JOINT

LOAD   BEARING   MATERIALS   (STEEL/CONCRETE)   ARE   EFFICIENT   IN   TRANSFERRING   LOADS   AND   ARE   BOTH   DURABLE  AND  COST  EFFICIENT.       TIMBER   IS   READILY   AVAILABLE   IN   AUSTRALIA   THUS   THE   USE   OF   THIS   MATERIAL   IN   THE   CLADDING   IS   ALSO  ECONOMICAL.     THE   USE   OF   STAINLESS   STEEL   GUTTERING   IS   VERY   COSTLY   AS   THE   MANUFACTURING   PROCESS   IS   MORE   INVOLVED.  


[ UNION HOUSE NORTH COURT ] DRAINAGE SYSTEM  

THE   FUNNEL-­‐LIKE   FORM   OF   THE   STRUCTURE   DIRECTS   WATER   THROUGH   A   CIRCULAR   OPENING   INTO   A   DRAIN   AT   THE   BASE/ANCHOR   POINT.   THE   WATER   IS   THEN   LED   TO   THE   STORM   WATER   SYSTEM.   THIS   ENSURES   THAT     WATER   DOES   NOT   SIT   ATOP   THE   MEMBRANE   AND   EXERT   UNFORESEEN   LOADS   TO   AVOID   COMPROMISING   THE   INTEGRITY   OF   THE   FORM  

–   COLLAPSE   OR  

DISTORTION  –  OF  THE  MEMBRANE   University  of  Melbourne,  Union  House  -­‐  North  Court,  2013.  

hOp://media-­‐cache-­‐ak0.pinimg.com/736x/fa/88/d4/fa88d413dffcaf8bd5e0455e21b7646c.jpg.  

MEMBRANE SYSTEM

 

JOINS + CONNECTIONS  

   

A   FLEXIBLE,   WATERPROOF   MEMBRANE   STRUCTURE   PROVIDES   SHELTER   FOR   THE   NORTH   COURT;   CREATING   SHADE   AND   PROTECTING   USERS   FROM   FROM   RAIN.  

 

STEEL   ANCHOR   CABLES   ARE   ARRANGED   IN   A   RING   AND   ENSURE   EVEN   LOAD   TRANSFER.   THE   ANCHORS   ALLOW   F O R   R O T A T I O N / M O V E M E N T   T O   ENSURE   THAT   LOADS  

( FROM  

WIND   ETC .)  

DON’T   OVERCOME   THE   THE   SAIL   TRANSMITS   EXTERNAL   LOADS   TO   A   GROUND   ANCHOR   VIA   TENSILE   FORCES ;   CURVATURES   IN     THE   SHAPE   AVOID   EXTREMELY   HIGH   FORCES .  

 

S T R U C T U R E

’ S  

MAXIMUM  TOLERANCE.    

D R A I N


[ UNION HOUSE STAIRS WEST END ]

M A T E R I A L S -­‐  CLAY  BRICK   -­‐  GALVANISED   STEEL:   STAIRS/ UB  BEAMS   -­‐  STEEL  CABLES   CONSTRUCTION ELEMENTS -­‐  MASONRY  STRUCTURE   (COMPRESSION)   -­‐  CANTILEVERED  BEAMS   -­‐  STAIRS  SUPPORTED  BY   GROUND  AND  CONNECTED  TO   BEAMS  VIA  CABLES  (TENSION)   CREATING  THE  ILLUSION  OF   BEING  SUSPENDED  

[ B E AU R E PA I R E C E N T R E P O O L ]

M A T E R I A -­‐  CLAY  BRICK   -­‐  STEEL  BEAMS/COLUMNS   -­‐  GLASS  

L

S

CONSTRUCTION ELEMENTS -­‐  STEEL  FRAME  CONSTRUCTION   -­‐  BRICK  CLADDING  (RUNNING  BOND   PATTERN)  CREATES  THE  ILLUSION   OF  LOAD-­‐BEARING  MASONRY  

[ O VA L PAV I L I O N N O R T H S I D E ]

M

A

T

E

R

I

A

L

S

-­‐  STEEL  FRAME  ELEMENTS   -­‐  STEEL  ROOF  DECKING   -­‐  IN  

SITU   CONCRETE  

(WITH  

WOOD  

GRAIN   TEXTURE   FROM   FORMWORK   –   DESIGN  FEATURE)  

-­‐  WEATHERBOARD   (HERITAGE  

LISTED  

AREA)  

-­‐  STEEL  MEMBERS  ARE  BOLTED   TOGETHER  

CONSTRUCTION

ELEMENTS

-­‐  FRAME  CONSTRUCTION   -­‐  TRUSS  SYSTEM  FORMS  CANOPY  (CLAD  

JOINTS + CONNECTIONS -­‐  GROUT  REINFORCES  MASONRY   -­‐  CABLE  ANCHORS  CONNECT   BEAMS  WITH  STAIRS  USING   PIN  JOINTS  WHICH  ALLOW   MOVEMENT   -­‐  INDIVIDUAL  STEEL  ELEMENTS   ARE  WELDED  TOGETHER  

WITH  TIMBER)  

-­‐  CONCRETE  STEPS   J O I N T S

+

M A T E R I A -­‐  STEEL  FRAME  ELEMENTS   -­‐  PRECAST  CONCRETE  

L

S

CONSTRUCTION ELEMENTS -­‐  FRAME  CONSTRUCTION   -­‐  CONCRETE  PANELS  ACT  AS  A  LOAD   BEARING  FAÇADE   -­‐  STEEL  CANTILEVER  SYSTEM;   ENGINEERS  CALCULATE  THIS  TO   ORIGINALLY  BE  ON  A  SLIGHT  SLOPE  

-­‐  TIMBER  CLADDING   JOINTS + CONNECTIONS -­‐  GROUT  REINFORCES  CLADDING  

[ MELBOURNE SCHOOL OF DESIGN ]

C O N N E C T I O N S

-­‐  STEEL  BOLTED  CONNECTIONS  

–  THE  DOWNWARD  FORCE  OF  THE   DEAD  LOADS  PRESENT  THEN  LEVELS   IT   -­‐  CANTILEVER  IS  SUPPORTED  BY   DIAGONAL  CROSS-­‐BRACING;  ONE   CONTINUOUS  BEAM  SPANS  THE  3   STOREYS  TO  REINFORCE  (USE  OF   MANY  SMALLER  BEAMS  WOULD   INTRODUCE  WEAK  AREAS  AT  JOINS)   JOINTS + CONNECTIONS -­‐  BOLTED  CONNECTIONS  BETWEEN   STEEL  MEMBERS  AND  IN  FAÇADE  

[OLD GEOLOGY SOUTH]

M

A

T

E

R

I

A

L

S

-­‐  ALUMINIUM   -­‐  GLASS   -­‐  CLAY  BRICK   CONSTRUCTION ELEMENTS -­‐  EXTRUDED  ALUMINIUM   FORMS  WINDOW/DOOR   FRAME  STRUCTURE  (OXIDISES   IN  AIR  TO  FORM  PROTECTIVE   BARRIER  –  LOW   MAINTENANCE)  

-­‐  BRICK  CLADDING   (STRUCTURE  APPEARS  TO  BE   MASONRY  BUT  IS  IN  FACT  A   FRAME  CONSTRUCTION)  

JOINTS + CONNECTIONS -­‐  GROUT  –  CLADDING   -­‐  PIN  JOINTS  –  WINDOW/ DOOR  FRAME  


1  Christopher  A  Gorse,  David  Johnston  and  Maron  Pritchard,  A  Dic>onary  

Of  Construc>on,  Surveying,  And  Civil  Engineering,  1st  ed.  (Oxford:  Oxford   University  Press,  2012),  273.   2  Ibid,  425.   3  Ibid,  349.   4  Ibid,  394.   5  Ibid,  295.   6  Ibid,  428.   7  Ibid,  172.   8  Ibid,  100.  

Lovell  Chen  Architects  &  Heritage  Consultants,  Underground  Car   Park  And  South  Lawn:  Conserva>on  Management  Plan  (Melbourne,   2011),  37.   10  Ibid,  38.   9  


Week 3