GUIDE TO VISUAL IDENTITY DESIGN
GUIDE TO VISUAL IDENTITY DESIGN
visual identity design workshop to enhance your skills
Copyright ÂŠ 2015, Katerina Kirpa
TABLE of CONTENTS
Identity as a system
Windows 8 analysis
Beyond 2 D
Flexible & Adaptive
Creative thinking techniques
List of images
INTRODUCTION In the hypercompetitive fastmoving world of rapid globalisation, we are often overwhelmed with endless choice of similar product designs and features in all kinds of price range and when there is no significant difference between the price and quality, decision making becomes increasingly influenced by the positive brand identity. The question is how you communicate an identity in ephemeral fast environment where everyone
is fighting for attention which becomes the new currency and differentiation is crucial. This book is a practical guide to teach the design process of visual identity development. Each step is illustrated with examples of great masters of design and my own practice. This book is for both graphic designers and those who want to gain advanced understanding of the subject.
DEFINING TERMS When it comes to discussion about design and branding, the key terms often have different meanings depending of who is talking about it, thus it is vital to define the key terms used in this book.
VISUAL IDENTITY It is visual and verbal expression of a brand or a group, including all design applications, such as the logo, letterhead, business card, website, and other applications (Landa, 2011). It also can include package design, signage or environmental design. It is the creation and application of a distinctive visual language that makes organization recognizable and unique. It is tangible,
you can see it, touch it and hold it.
CORPORATE IDENTITY â€œCorporate identity involves not only a visible namestyle or symbol, but also the creation and practice of an organizational cultureâ€? (Knight & Glaser, 2010). Corporate identity guidelines include behavioural communication and serve as a powerful navigational tool since it can create a strong sense of belonging for employees and customers. Corporate identity functions on three dimensions: symbolism (visual self-expression), behaviour and communication (Maurya, et.al., 2015)..
“A logo is not a brand, unless it’s on a cow” Sean Adams
WHAT IS BRAND? It is important to note that an identity is not a brand. Brand is a totality of all “functional and emotional assets of the product, service, or group that differentiates it among the competition” (Landa, 2006). It is the formulation of value and status through application of an identity. Wheeler notes that “it is about seizing every opportunity to express why people should choose one brand over another” (2009). Another important part of the equation is the audience. Neumeier puts it simply, “a brand is a person’s gut feeling about a product, service, or company” (in Wheeler, 2009). In other words, it is the perception formed by the audience. Branding used to be something that was imposed on the consumer, however, today it is increasingly considered from the “consumer-end”. Thanks to advances in technology, there is a real-time dialogue between brands and consumers. Successful brands celebrate the community, instead of celebrating themselves. Coca-Cola’s used to market “The Real Thing”, but now they have changed it to “Open Happiness” with the prime focus on the well-being of the people. A designer cannot “make” a brand. It is the audience who can do it, therefore there is always a room for ambiguity since they create meanings attached to a particular idea or design. “Manufacturers and designers propose; consumers dispose” (Gobe, 2007). A brand is what it is (behaviour) plus characteristics (functional and emotional assets ), the perception of visuals, identity, communication and actions by the audience. 8
Brand = behaviour + functional/emotional assets identity + audienceâ€™s perception
BRAND EXPERIENCE It is an individual experience a customer gains while interacting with a brand. Landa notes that every interaction contributes to customerâ€™s per9
ception of a brand (2006). The main goal is to spark interest, build trust and loyalty to the brand, which requires knowledge of how people interact
with a brand and how can you create voice with integrity seeming one across all interactions.
“Logo: a distinctive symbol representing a company, object, publication, person, service or idea” Sean Adams
LOGO We need logo for the same reason we have a signature. To express uniqueness and personality. Logo is like putting a face to a name, says noted designer David Airey, adding that logos can help people remember their experiences with companies (Airey, 2010). However, a logo is more than a signature of a company, it is “a language that communicates to consumers, independent of verbal information (Van der Lans et al., 2009 in Foroudi, et.al 2014).
WHAT A LOGO CAN DO? Successful logo design can differentiate from the competition, attract attention, clearly identify the company and it’s individuality. A logo also manages to forge personal relationships with the audience inspiring the sense of pleasure and appealing to sensibility and credibility. Most importantly, logos have the power to communicate a message and tell a story, not the whole story, but it is where a narrative starts. WHY EVEN A GOOD LOGO FAILS? No matter how impeccably logo is designed, if a company does not deliver on its promise and fails the customer, the product will not become good. Geissbuhler argues that the success or failure of a logo is linked to the product or service it represents.
“Other identities have failed because the service, product or company it represented have failed” (Adams, 2008). Chermayeff & Geismar agree, saying that “meanings can only be created over time, and most of them are created by the actions of the organization; their products, services and relationships” (2000). Michael Bierut adds that logos are just holders for meaning. “It’s the company that gives meaning to the logo, not the other way around”. If an identity doesn’t make a connection with something we can relate to, it fails.
“You understand something only relative to something you already understand” Richard Saul Wurman
Logo by Liska + Associates. The logo projects a happy dog wagging its tail and suggests a pleasant experience for your pet.
IDENTITY AS A SYSTEM Chermayeff & Geismar, the brand design firm that has greatly influenced identity design field and culture, notes that “the mark alone can never convey all the dense meanings; all it can do is make a promise” (2000). A mark comes with related visual systems. “Colour palettes, type treatments, and image selection - as well as visual attitude can add nuance, character, and adaptability to the visual identity” (Chermayeff & Geismar, 2000.). A number of acclaimed designers such as Wolff Olins (USA Today visual identity), Stefan Sagmeister (The Jewish Museum identity system), Otl Aicher (Munic Olympics 1972) and Michael Bierut (Saks Fifth Avenue) (Wheeler 2009, p. 268) perceived visual identities as programmes based on connected visual elements. Steff Geissbuhler (C&G Partners), leading US design consultancy, sees identity as building blocks. The logo is accompanied with several elements such as typography, colour and imagery that make a system (Adams, 2008). Geissbuhler says that “the most challenging of these components depends on which one takes the lead and becomes the most important element next to the logo itself” (Adams, 2008). Noted American designer Paula Scher agrees stating that “the logo as identification did not really identify anything, because if the corner of the object was obscured in any way, so was the entire identity” (Scher, 2005), the designer suggests thinking about the system as the kits of parts.
Components of visual system Logo Colour Typeface Pattern/Texture Material Illustrations + photography usage
KIT OF PARTS Scher suggests approaching identity as system based on a group of related elements and notes that “sometimes you may identify a logo type, a type system, a colour system, a form system and begin assign uses for it” (Skillshare, 2014). Scher calls these elements “the kit of parts”. They are building components which according to her make up a graphic language and serve as a tool to convey information, spirit and allow extending the identity Fig.10 for the future growth. “They are things that are used collectively to make something recognizable. They are things that you are using over and over to define a place” (Skillshare, 2014). These are the core Public Theatre elements that identity system relies on. Identity
Scher developed a system for Public Theatre identity based on American woodtype in different weights. When put together it created a specific recognizable spirit and used continuously in different configurations created a distinct language.
VISUAL IDENTITY: WINDOWS 8 In order to define principles of practice and gain insight into how noted designers develop visual identity systems, 5 step approach analysis has been used to research Windows 8 identity.
ANALYSIS Windows logo is based on a simple flat square based on a classic drawing perspective grid. Logo is used DESCRIBE as a container for imagery for packaging, advertising and other communication materials. Logo becomes a container for imagery, colour functions as a placeholder. Form defines and signifies Windows 8 identity. Bright and colourful illustrations in packaging and photographs are a part of identity of Windows 8. In 2012 Microsoft was launching the new version of its operating system Windows 8, at the same time IDENTIFY it decided to refresh its old identity. Scher (New. pentagram.com, 2012) was commissioned to create a system that would unify visual communication of â€œdecentralised company with individually designed logos that have no connection to each otherâ€? (Wollenberg, 2013, p. 52). Scher decided to retain the original concept of Widnows as a metaphor for seeing into screens and systems but give it a modern look and reflect a window clearer. Advertising campaign was led by Wolff Ollins and others. Scher introduces a simple flat square form which suggests modernist influence. Scher uses the symbol INTERPRET of a window originally developed by Microsoft, but instead of the skewed version that resembled a flag, Scher introduces a classic perspective where lines stretch into space, this enables to communicate dimension with a flat shape. Scher noticed that all previous logo designs wanted to look dimensional. She reasons it may be because their goal was to look like a button you push to perform a function, and a flat form would not work in this case, therefore gradation was introduced . To communicate the sense of dimension, Scher puts window into a perspective grid. The entire system becomes based on the idea of perspective. Previously used four colours
(red, green, blue, yellow) are removed because they do not represent anything. Scher uses bright blue colour but it functions as a placeholder and window shape is used as a container to put other content. The shape is very simple, almost neutral because it will be used for the complex application across media. The concept of simplicity resonates with the function of a window. Windows is a platform for the viewer to see, therefore it is pure and simple. Accordingly, software is used for individual customerâ€™s goals and projects. The use of both icon and a word mark in a logo gives flexibility to use either one element or both when applying it across media. Visual identity is also based on consistent use of typography. Criteria: 1. Is it based on a clear visual identity system? 2. Do elements (kit of parts) relate to the whole system? 3. Are these emelents applied consistently? 4. Do these elements match the tone and voice of the visual identity?
It is a successful design solution because it unifies previously scattered Microsoft logos and creates a clearly defined system, a logic behind the identity which was the goal of the client. Elements of graphic language function together and are interdependent. They are consistently within the structure. The identity is simple enough to be dynamic and used across many mediums. It also gives a framework, for the development of other communication materials. It is modern and fresh and complies with Microsoft Metro style. The identity represents the company as it has retained its concept of window in perspective and the neutrality of window as a platform to see.
PRINCIPLES Use simple form to create visual identity because it will be applied for many uses. “It might change SIMPLE FORM colour, be attached to secondary typography, have to exist with a pile of other complicated logos, animate, contain patterns or make patterns” (Scher in Wollenberg, 2013). Scher says that if something is too complex, it will fail to perform on complex tasks ahead. Construct a visual system based on smaller elements (typeface, colours, imagery, etc.) to communicate IDENTITY = distinct and coherent message of a company or a SYSTEM person. Develop identity system that is scalable across media and offers room for change and variation. FLEXIBLE Rigid systems will become boring fast because people need constant change, therefore, if a designer strives to create long lasting visual identity it has to be flexible. Scher introduces the concept of liquid identity, “where the form is never the same but the recognisability stays” (Beyondvisual.co.uk, 2012). Aim to create identity that is recognizable, i.e. it has unique elements that make viewers notice them, RECOGNIZABLE assign to the particular organisation or product and through constant application eventually make people recognize it. According to Scher, “what’s important is that audiences recognise the system when they see it. They don’t need to know they are recognising it” (Wollenberg, 2013). Create
distinguished visual presence based
on graphic vocabulary that differentiates the DISTINCTIVE organisation from the competition, focuses on unique brand strengths and captures its authentic voice and enables the organisation to create individual and specialised communication. Use colour, type or form consistently to create unified and coherent identity that has a consistent CONSISTENT brand voice and tone in all visual communication across the media. Develop visual identities that reflect the essence of the organisation and enable it to speak to its audience REFLECTS THE through every medium possible. To achieve it Scher SPIRIT researches the history of organisation, both internal and external perception of the company. She looks at the goals of the company and competition as well as the users of organisationâ€™s products or services.
GOING BEYOND 2D Computing ability to see, to listen and to talk is improving on a daily basis and it is becoming more pervasive, multiple screens are used. Living in the digital age, visual identification is created considering that it might be moving, crossing the boundaries between media platforms, it might be 3 dimensional and interactive, because of the easier and instant communication that platforms will offer. Today, the identity programme is a “multidimensional expression of a brand vision brought to life in the most imaginative way” (Gobe, 2009) and a designer is presented with a task not only work with graphics but also sounds and textures, “transcending forever the role of the logo as a two dimensional property” (Gobe, 2009).
FLEXIBLE AND ADAPTIVE In fast-moving world of constant flow of information, the brands need to be agile to be able to adapt and react quickly. Rigid identity systems fail as they become obsolete and irrelevant very fast. A brand should be willing to change quickly. This poses a question, if a brand is in constant movement, how to create personality that lasts and stands for its values to make connection with the users. Topalian noted that focus should be put ‘on distilling the essence of identity, especially the core needed to provide continuity in times of rapid change, yet still allow flexibility to exploit new opportunities as they arise’ (Topalian, 2003). In other words, brands must understand their core values that never change, but adapt to the current circumstances and evolve, as living beings.
CONSTRUCTNG BRIEF Before you dive into sketching and design, it is necessary to build a brief that will serve you as strong foundations to rely on. Developing a brief is a creative conversation. Firstly, create atmosphere where it is a virtue to be curious. Tell your client that you might ask questions that might seem rather naive but if you do it right at this stage of briefing, soon you will detect the real problems and gain new perspective about the project. Truly professionals can explain complex specialist subjects in a simple way that everyone can understand. Ask clients what are their goals and aspirations of this project, where do they want to go and they will say what they dream of. Your job is to look for connections, question things and challenge the brief. Be clear on what results do you want to achieve and agree on the criteria how the output will be measured, so the final design would not come as a surprise, but as a logical and creative progression of thought and visual expression. If necessary, rewrite the brief. Creative thinker Mario Pricken draws attention to the danger of making assumptions during a briefing session with clients, he questions how can you tell whether the information that they are providing you is a fact not a speculation? “The more unproven assumptions find their way into the stating phase, the more likely they are to lead to errors and bad decisions” (Pricken, 2010).
The key questions to answer: Who - client, competition, audience? What – what media? When - deadline for completion? Where - the function of the design, where it is going to be seen? Why - what’s the goal?
Essence of client-designer relationship Respect Open communication Shared vision Trust Creative interaction collaboration (Cullen, 2007)
BRIEF TEMPLATE Here is the template that I use for briefing sessions with the clients. However, during the meeting the conversation may take to a whole new level and direction, the key tip here is to question everything. No matter what is written or said, know that the opposite is also true.
BRIEF: Company Name Company background: Who you are? What do you do? Whatâ€™s your passion? Your values. Project background: What is the design problem? What is the cause? What has initiated this project? Objective: What is the objective of this communications? What is the function and purpose of the design? Audience: Who do we want to share our passion with? Who is the primary audience we are trying to reach? What are their behavioural traits, values, lifestyle, demographics. What are values of our audience?
“Once the destination is known, the journey can begin. It’s only people who don’t know where they are going that have to stick to the beaten track for fear of getting lost ” Mario Pricken
Deliverables: What do we want the creative to accomplish? Budget: Has a payment schedule been agreed upon? Who is the point person on this project for your company? Schedule: What is the consultation, review and approval process? Due date for completed artwork? How many rounds of revisions should designer build into the estimate and time line? Limitations: Are there any limitations or restrictions? Criteria: How work will be judeged? How will you know when the goal has been reached?
2020 LEADERSHIP This project will be used as an example to illustrate design process.
BRIEF: 2020 Leadership Company background: The University wishes to enhance the leadership competencies of our strategic and operational leaders to support them in the delivery of our strategic plan which centres around providing a high quality experience for our students, therefore it is launching 2020 leadership programme. Values: transformation, leadership, journey of continuous learning. Project background: The programme is mandated for the target population and nominees have been identified from individual faculties and departments. Objective: To establish a clear and recognisable brand for the programme, through logo and other visual-expression that can be incorporated into communication of the programme. To engage the target participants in wanting to be part of the programme
Audience: Leadership population ranging from Vice Chancellor, Executive Deans, Directors, Heads of School, Heads of Department. Deliverables: Leadership branding, incorporating logo and colour scheme. Diagramatic representation of the programme to show how different components of whole programme link together. Scedule: Detailed schedule of meetings was set up. Limitations: Are there any limitations or restrictions? Comply with the already established visual identity of the university. Criteria: 1. Does it show the concept of journey and development? 2. Does it convey transformation? 3. Does it comply with the brand guidelines of the university? 4. Is it original and imaginative? 5. Is it unique and unmistakably ours? 6. Does it resonate with the target audience? 7. Does it fit with the aims of our long-term strategy? 8. Is it workable? 25
RESEARCH Start fresh, question everything, do not hesitate to ask even basic questions because they can produce brand new answers and expose connections that you have never seen before. Here are a few techniques to get you started. VISUAL RESEARCH
Research and assemble collection of visual images (pictures, illustrations, brand imagery) that can be used to communicate the particular style, aesthetics, context, target audience or anything relevant to convey proposed design system and bring it to live in your mind of your team.
It is a primary research method that allows the researcher to create direct contact with a participant and collect his or her opinions, perceptions and experience. The researcher manages the session to gain necessary information, structures questions accordingly.
It is an exploration of a single instance of a question put into context, using various sources of research and data collection (interviews, observation, analysis). Researcher formulates problem and draft hypothesis, conducts research, revise the initial hypothesis and tells a story.
(Martin and Hanington, 2012)
CREATIVE THINKING TECHNIQUES Creative thinking techniques can improve your creative abilities, help open your mind to unexpected solutions. It is an exercise to train your lateral thinking and produce vibrant ideas leaving the common, the usual concepts behind. In this chapter 4 techniques will be reviewed.
“The reason why so many successful ideas make huge impact is that they deviate from the norm”
idea Mario Pricken
I’ve got an
FORCED CONNECTIONS (Lupton, 2011) Compelling ideas often arise where unlikely ideas bump at each other. By exploring ideas and drawing links between them, you can come up with fresh concepts.
HOW TO USE? 01
Choose a connection. Decide between the areas to draw a link. E.g. you can mix services (juice bar + gallery), style (Art Deco + Cubism).
Make two lists, decide on you goal and make connections. For example, explore lists of functions (hair-dressing, car repair.) Make connections.
Mix styles, functions or messages. Create lists of images and ideas linked with each element and find connections between them. (leadership + obstacles); (leadership + action).
04 Choose a workable idea. Make sketches to bring your concept to life. Use this technique to explore the aesthetic and functional possibilities of your idea.
I used this technique to generate ideas for the brief of 2020 Leadership (project discussed in previous chapter).
A connection I have chosen is form (leadership + game, book, cartoon, sketch)
I will explore the list of form (game, board game, dot-the-dot, puzzle) and make connections.
Below are images linked with each element. Iâ€™m combining board game + minimal design + icon + playfull aesthetics
04 Iâ€™ve decided to choose the dot the dot concept for further exploration. Fig.19
Exploring the grids
Diamond grid was chosen because
How to communicate brand values using this graphics?
it is dynamic element, to make it more friendly the
Use the grid to create symbols that
circle is used as a
communicate brand values.
CONCEPT 1 journey + development + transformation
COMPARATIVE JUXTAPOSITION (Pricken 2002) â€œBefore and afterâ€? It is considered the basic technique in advertising, but for identity design it might bring novel visual experiences. Besides, there is always room for innovative ideas.
HOW TO USE? 01
List the features of the product, concept, based on the key terms that describe the benefit of this product.
Think how comparative juxtaposition can show a problem situation and solution. How can you show a benefit in the picture with comparison? How can you communicate the benefit of the product through a metaphor?
Make the list of pairs of opposites based on the list that you made in step 1. Use these opposites to search for new ideas. Choose a workable idea.
Before: oranges After: orange juice
Comparative juxtaposition was used to show the sense of progress and creative leadership qualities of the leader. This is a metaphor for taking action and implementing a vision. The first image shows the blueprint of white paper and a plan (arrows and dotted lines symbolize strategy, research) and the second image shows the achieved goal - elegant origami ship. The symbol of the ship was chosen to represent the mean by which you move forward. It communicates journey, movement and progress. The 2nd and 3rd images compare two grids, the 1st is unclear, while the 2nd is instantly recognizable symbol. The concept is that a leader sees a vision where others do not; he communicates vision to the team and leads.
(Matsumura in Alder, 2001)
The method of Lotus Blossom resembles the peeling of lotus petals, each petal reveals more petals below. This method helps to stimulate thinking when you feel you are stuck by using ideas to move you forward systematically and be clear what information you need to collect further. This technique helps to follow an idea in various directions and analyse it deeper.
HOW TO USE? 01
In the central square write the problem (topic), then write ideas in the surrounding 8 squares.
Transfer each of 8 ideas to the centre of the adjacent lotus petal which will become the new topic in the square.
Repeat the process with supplying another 8 ideas. Watch how your ideas branch off and lead you to deeper analysis.
This is the central box Due to the limitations of this publication, I will review only a few squares and leave you to experiment further.
CONCEPT 3 Surprising Unknown
Idea: when you encounter an obstacle you come up with creative ways to overcome it, this is leadership. Experiments with humour in graphics.
CONCEPT 4 Location
Semantics You want to get her
streets You are here
“Everything in the universe has rhythm. Everything dances” Maya Angelou
CREATING FORM SPRINTING: MOVEMENT Movement is vital compositional aspect to master in any work of graphics. It the journey the viewer’s eye takes through the work of art. Exploration of movement can be a powerful tool for developing visual elements for identity design.
HOW TO USE? 01
Set parameters. Define sets of rules. E.g. (principles of movement) to experiment with the form to communicate brand values.
Spend 5 minutes looking at inspiring paintings or books of movement to help you start.
Sketch as many variants as you can, trying new ways for 20 minutes. Repeat the exercise at least 3 times until you choose a workable idea.
Limitation set by the brief: use only Din typeface family because it is a part of brand identity of the university. Graphic elements were used to suggest motion. Design variables create a sense of movement that causes viewers eye to move through overall composition.
CONCEPT 8 Diagonal line represents the movement, that journey implies. It creates energy and sense of space.
EVALUATION Evaluate generated concepts based on the criteria defined in the brief (page 20-21). logo concepts
graphic element Criteria/Concepts
Graphic element. Concept 2 and 1 scored the highest. After the feedback of the steering group, concept 1 was chosen for further iteration. Logo concept: Concept 8 was chosen because it scored best against criteria and focus group responded positively. 37
ITERATION Once you test your design and evaluate against criteria, time to iterate. Steering group members comprising of the leaders of university staff (course and school directors) felt that the line should have a pointer to direct, thus arrow was suggested. Several options explored. Movement within grid was tested.
Transforming Birmingham City University
Final decision was made to go with simple and clear logo because it will have to do complex tasks (be placed next to busy graphics, animate, etc.).
The steps of the arrow altered to go upward instead of downward to reflect the change needed for growth, work that is ahead and the sense of journey, direction and moving forwards. The elements of a flag and a ship were rejected, since the focus group felt that an arrow communicates the target message better. There is a room for further development of graphics within this grid to communicate other messages of the 2020 Leadership programme which is a continuous project. A few possible sketches are presented on the right.
etwork with others
APPLICATION In order to bring your design to life in the minds of clients show it in a variety of applications and put it in contexts most relevant to the company. This shortens the distance between an idea and imagining of how it might be implemented.
Communication material needed for conferences, seminars and learning centre activities: stands, badges, a programme brochure.
BRAND BOOK PRINCIPLES OF PRESENTING VISUAL IDENTITY 1. EXPLAIN THE BRAND: Describe your brand, its values, mission and vision in order to give a clear focus of what do you want to achieve, explain your voice. Present your symbols and in a simple way instruct how to use them. 2. DEFINE COLOUR SCHEME: Define colours of the brand. If you use a wide colour palette, explain what is the primary colour group and what is the secondary and how and when to use it. 3. PRESENT BRAND ELEMENTS: Add specific elements for your identity, including trademarks, image styles and brand signature. 4. SET TYPOGRAPHY: Show the typeface chosen for your brand, define weights, size, proportions if necessary. Explain how to use. 5. DEFINE YOUR TONE: both in terms of language, how are you going to speak through visuals. 6. EXPLAIN YOUR STYLE: Show how to use your all brand elements together. 7. APPLY ACROSS MEDIA: Provide guidelines for the use across the media. E.g. web guidelines, exhibition design, signage (relevant to company branding).
BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Adams, S. (2008). Masters of design. Beverly, Mass.: Rockport Publishers. Airey, D. (2010). Logo design love. Berkeley, CA: New Riders. Alder, H. (2001). Say it with pictures. Oxford: How To Books. Chermayeff, I., Geismar, T. and Geissbuhler, S. (2000). TM, Trademarks Designed by Chermayeff & Geismar. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. Cullen, K. (2007). Layout workbook. Gloucester, Mass.: Rockport. Gobe, M. (2007). Brandjam. New York: Allworth Press. Gobe, M. (2009). Emotional branding. New York: Allworth Press. Knight, C. and Glaser, J. (2010). The graphic design exercise book. Cincinnati, Ohio: How Books. Landa, R. (2006). Designing brand experiences. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. Landa, R. (2011). Graphic design solutions. Boston, MA: Wadsworth/ Cengage Learning. Lupton, E. (2011). Graphic design thinking. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. Martin, B. and Hanington, B. (2012). Universal methods of design. Beverly, MA: Rockport Publishers. Pricken, M. (2010). Creative strategies. London: Thames & Hudson. Pricken, M. (2002). Creative advertising. New York: Thames & Hudson. Scher, P. (2005). Make it bigger. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. Wheeler, A. (2009). Designing brand identity. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons
JOURNALS Foroudi, P., Melewar, T. and Gupta, S. (2014). Linking corporate logo, corporate image, and reputation: An examination of consumer perceptions in the financial setting. Journal of Business Research, 67(11), pp.2269-2281. Howard, J. (2000). Social Psychology of Identities. Annu. Rev. Sociol., 26(1), pp.367-393. Maurya, U., Mishra, P., Anand, S. and Kumar, N. (2015). Corporate identity, customer orientation and performance of SMEs: Exploring the linkages. IIMB Management Review. Topalian, A. (2003). Experienced reality: The development of corporate identity in the digital era. European Journal of Marketing, 37(7/8), pp.1119-1132. Wollenberg, A. (2013). Pure and simple. Computer Arts. March 2013, Issue 211, p. 51 â€“ 59
ONLINE RESOURCES Beyondvisual.co.uk, (2012). Design Icons: Paula Scher.Available at: http://beyondvisual.co.uk/blog/logo-design/design-icons-paula-scher [Accessed 17 Nov. 2014]. New.pentagram.com, (2012). New Work: Microsoft Windows 8 | New at Pentagram. Available at: http://new.pentagram.com/2012/02/newwork-microsoft/ [Accessed 11 Nov. 2014]. Skillshare, (2014). Brand Identity: Design Adaptable Branding Systems. Available at: http://www.skillshare.com/classes/design/BrandIdentity-Design-Adaptable-BrandingSystems/239606488 [Accessed 19 Nov. 2014]. 43
LIST OF IMAGES Fig.1 Apple Logo. Available at: http://www.apple.com/ [Accessed 5 June. 2015] Fig.2. Mercedes Benz Logo. Available at: http://www.brandsoftheworld. com/logo/mercedes-benz-4 [Accessed 5 June. 2015] Fig.3. Prada Logo. Available at: http://www.brandsoftheworld.com/ logo/prada-1 [Accessed 5 June. 2015] Fig.4. Airbnb Logo. Available at: http://www.brandsoftheworld.com/ logo/airbnb [Accessed 5 June. 2015] Fig.5. Hong Kong Airlines Logo. Available at: http://www. brandsoftheworld.com/logo/hong-kong-airlines [Accessed 5 June. 2015] Fig.6. Tyro Logo. Available at: http://tyro.com/[Accessed 15 June. 2015] Fig.7. Stay Logo Logo by Liska + Associates. Adams, S. (2008). Masters of design. Beverly, Mass.: Rockport Publishers. Fig.8. Radar Festival poster. Scher, P. (2012) Available at: http://new. pentagram.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/PublicTheater_1_400. jpg [Accessed 6 July. 2015] Fig.9. Corss-dressing in the park. Scher, P. (2009) Available at: http:// www.pentagram.com/en/NYSF_09_File_800_Sm.jpg [Accessed 6 July. 2015] Fig.10. The Public Theater Logo. Scher, P. (1994) Available at: http:// blog.pentagram.com/PT_Logo_Dev_Sm.jpg [Accessed 6 July. 2015] Fig. 11. Windows 8 logo.New.pentagram.com, (2014). [online] Available at: http://new.pentagram.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/ Windows_Logo.jpg [Accessed 14 Nov. 2014 Fig. 12. Guidelines-5.Pentagram.com, (2014). [online] Available at: http:// www.pentagram.com/en/Guidelines-5_embed.jpg [Accessed 14 Nov. 2014] Fig. 13. Windows 8 packaging 1. Underconsideration.com, (2014).
[online] Available at: http://www.underconsideration.com/brandnew/ archives/windows_8_oct_00.jpg [Accessed 14 Nov. 2014]. Fig. 14. Windows 8 packaging 2. Underconsideration.com, (2014). [online] Available at: http://www.underconsideration.com/brandnew/ archives/windows_8_oct_packaging_01.jpg [Accessed 14 Nov. 2014]. Fig. 15. Windows 8 Outdoor Advertising Campaign. Underconsideration. com, (2014). [online] Available at: http://www.underconsideration. com/brandnew/archives/windows_8_oct_outside_ad_00.jpg [Accessed 14 Nov. 2014]. Fig. 16. Motorcycle Dot the Dot, (2015). [online] Available at: http://cdn. dottodots.net/samples/Motorcycle_Dot-To-Dot.png [Accessed 14 July. 2015] Fig. 17. Tic Toe Board Game, (2015). [online] Available at: https://pixabay.com/p-39864[Accessed 14 July. 2015] Fig. 18. Checkers Board Game, (2015). [online] Available at: https://pixabay.com/en/checkers-game-board-checkered-27696/ [Accessed 14 July. 2015] Fig.19. Round Maze, (2015). [online] Available at: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/61/Round_maze. jpg [Accessed 14 July. 2015] Fig.20. Icon Clock, (2015). [online] Available at: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/08/ Simple_icon_time.svg/1280px-Simple_icon_time.svg.png [Accessed 14 July. 2015] Fig.21. Molto Piano, Jazz en Rafale (2014). [online] Available at: http:// lamamzelle.com/o2GQF3W/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/c.jpg [Accessed 5 December.2014] Fig.22. Molto Piano-2, Jazz en Rafale (2014). [online] Available at: http:// lamamzelle.com/o2GQF3W/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/d.jpg [Accessed 5 December.2014]
Identity is never a priori, nor a finished product; it is only ever the problematic process of access to an image of totality. Bhabha (in Howard, 2000)
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