ALEXEY BRODOVITCH The man behind Harperâ€™s Bazaar Katelynn Maloney Fall 2016 Linda Talleur BDS102 8:30-11:20
Written Description............................................. 3 Don Norman Response...................................... 4 Reading No. 1 Response................................ 5-6 Grid Reading Response..................................... 7 Hand Constructed Posters................................. 8 Preliminary Work................................................ 9 Digital Drafts................................................ 10-11 Final Poster...................................................... 12 Preliminary Studies..................................... 13-16 Color Lecture Reflection................................... 17 Extra Readings............................................ 18-20 Color Theory Assignment............................ 21-32 Color Police Assignment.................................. 33 Designer Choices........................................ 34-36 Research Paper............................................... 37 Project Summary.............................................. 38
PROJECT BRIEF Alexey Brodovitch
For this project we explored the elements of a good design. We were asked to expand our views on how to talk about what makes a “good” or “bad” design.
Through lessons we formed ways of talking to take it a step further than, “I like it” or “I don’t like it” to create more helpful and constructive critiques.
Our mission was to design a poster. Simple enough? We started with the
industrial design guru Dieter Rams’s 10 principles of good design. We took
these principles to explore current and historic works for inspiration and examples.
The posters we produced were to showcase a famous designer that was
known for being extraordinary in their field. We used the 18x24 dimensions we were given to create an exhibition about our chosen designer. Through this
display we give a framework and comprehension into their creative style and methods.
We started by researching our individual designers and forming hand-constructed posters. After several critiques and revisions we then created our
digital poster utilizing the Adobe Creative Suite programs including, InDesign,
Photoshop, and Illustrator. However, it wasn’t until after drafts and critiques of our digital posters did we produce our final draft.
Posters are a part of our everyday lives. We see them for lost animals, concerts, events, and meetings. It’s designing an eye-catching poster that’s complicated.
RESEARCH DON NORMAN VIDEO
http://www.ted.com/talks/ don_norman_on_design_ and_emotion.html Notes: -Pleasant things work better -Anxiety and fear causes you to focus >depth first focus -happiness allows you to think differently -First: visceral- subconsious -Second: behavioral- feeling in control -Third: reflective- no control, little voice that observes and tells you things, shows image -Works against something, (roller coaster example) -Visceral “scared, dont do it” –> Reflective “it’s ok it’s safe” Summary:
The job of a designer is to make
everything beautiful. Creating things that are neat and fun while also
being functional. It makes the buyer or viewer want to look at it or use it. In Don Norman’s words, “pleasant things work better.” Fear and anx-
iety allows us to focus and be less
distracted by changing the way you
the box ideas. The visceral level is
the immediate reaction to items and
feelings. Behavioral levels of processing are when most of the work gets
done. It’s all about feeling in control of what we are doing. Cognition is about understanding the world; emotion is
about acting in it. The reflective level of processing looks over everything that’s going on, it’s the little voice in
your head. Causes your attention to
be drawn to certain things, or process things like safe roller coasters. Reflection:
Don Norman really touches on the
fact that us as designers are allowed
to have fun. When stress and anxiety
causes our minds to focus too closesly on a problem is when we lose our perspectives. Different perspectives are extremely important for design-
ers because our whole mission is to
create brand new, inventive ideas that aren’t what people are asking for but
what people want. We, as designers, get to share our weird, crazy and fun ideas with the world.
think. Allowing people to have fun
while trying to solve a problem we are more susceptible to weird and out of
READING NO. 1
Ralph Caplan, John Heskett & Kees Dorst Notes: By Design by Ralph Caplan •Design won’t save the world, but the design process can help make it worth saving •Theatre story o African American students used a designed seating plan to desegregate at a theatre in a small town •Design is a process of making things right, for shaping what people need Toothpicks & Logos by John Heskett •Design doesn’t have a specific set of outlines and steps that can be taught but is much more flexible o More up to individual tastes •Design is instrumental in everyday human life o Everything can be improved if given attention o The margin of error between designing something well or badly are extremely small • Cost factors have an affect • The word design can mean several different things o Design is to design a design to produce a desing • Design-human ability to shape and create ideas and objects to serve our needs • Every design is influenced by humans and can therefore have errors and can be discussed • Rather than a broken history, design history is layered on as time goes by and new developments are made o Supplement instead of replace o Ancient arts have just been adapted for today Understanding design by Kees Dorst •Design is a balance of creative and analytical thinking o Design= creating solutions and implementing them for gradual improvement •Model1.Define problem 2.Generate solutions 3.Implement a solution based on requirements •Learning 1.Propose
2.Experiment 3.Learn from results 4.Repeat •Evolution-develop the problem and solutions until they are able to match up, not a creative leap, but a bridge •Social process- design has become a process of creating a consensus among those who work toward a solutionww o Creative designers may not be best for leading discussion •A game- every design is a gamble that the designer risks by investing personal goals into it which is why design can be so addictive o Sure I could have designed that, but would I risk my entire career on it. Summary: Design’s ultimate purpose is to solve problems. While those who’s minds are wired towards the mathmatics and sciences find solutions, a designer’s mind works towards finding as many possible solutions as possible by looking at it with different perspectives. Design can be used as several different things. It can be a game, an evolution, a way of learning, a problem solving model, and a balance of analytical and creative thinking. Reflection: After reading one I realized how much of a design thinker I am. Especially during the section on design being a game. I’ve always invested all of my time into the designs I work on. There’s always a risk with everything we design. Taking our hard work and putting it out there for others to critique is always exciting and nerve wracking.
Thinking with Type by Ellen Lupton Summary: The grid has played a major part in design since the beginning. A grid is anything that breaks down space or time into regular units. This means that it can be changed or reworked depending on the project being created. The grid was first used in regular book publishing, the margins around the big blocks of type allowed for a less confusing reading experience. Over the years different artist styles have been developed and along with new styles came new uses for the grid. The Futurist movement expanded on font sizes and shapes, dada artists, and constructivism created new systems of symmetry without a fixed hierarchical window. Swiss designers have pushed the boundaries of design throughout the 20th century. While American designers dismissed these designs and too strange, they have been using the Swiss style with the grander display styles used today. Reflection: When a normal person looks at a publication like Vogue or Glamour they donâ€™t look at the layouts and see a grid. But every page was designed using the grid. Thatâ€™s why I think that the grid is the most underrated tool of a graphic designer. I think that while itâ€™s important to understand the basic function and use of the grid in designs, we should also understand rules are made to be broken. Using the grid is an aid for us and we can make it our own.
PRELIMINARY POSTERS AND SKETCHES
DIGITAL DRAFTS CONT.
“A layout man should be simple with good photographs.”
PRELIMINARY STUDIES Grundberg, Andy. “Alexey Brodovitch.” AIGA. The American Institute of Graphic Arts, 1988. Web. 04 Sept. 2016 Alexey Brodovitch is remembered today as the art director of Harper’s Bazaar for nearly a quarter of a century. But the volatile Russian emigré’s influence was much broader and more complex than his long tenure at a fashion magazine might suggest. He played a crucial role in introducing into the United States a radically simplified, “modern” graphic design style forged in Europe in the 1920s from an amalgam of vanguard movements in art and design. Through his teaching, he created a generation of designers sympathetic to his belief in the primacy of visual freshness and immediacy. Fascinated with photography, he made it the backbone of modern magazine design, and he fostered the development of an expressionistic, almost primal style of picture-taking that became the dominant style of photographic practice in the 1950s. In addition, Brodovitch is virtually the model for the modern magazine art director. He did not simply arrange photographs, illustrations and type on the page; he took an active role in conceiving and commissioning all forms of graphic art, and he specialized in discovering and showcasing young and unknown talent. His first assistant in New York was a very young Irving Penn. Leslie Gill, Richard Avedon and Hiro are among the other photographers whose work Brodovitch nurtured during his long career. So great was his impact on the editorial image of Harper’s Bazaar that he achieved celebrity status; the film Funny Face, for example, which starred Fred Astaire as a photographer much like Avedon, named its art-director character “Dovitch.” Despite his professional achievements and public success, however, Brodovitch was never a happy man. Born in Russia in 1898 of moderately well-todo parents, he deferred his goal of attending the Imperial Art Academy to fight in the Czarist army, first against the Austro-Hungarian Empire and then
against the Bolsheviks. In defeat, he fled Russia with his family and future wife and, in 1920, settled in Paris. There, despite the burden of exile, he prospered; in 1924 his poster design for an artists’ ball won first prize, and in 1925 he won medals for fabric, jewelry and display design at the International Exhibition of Decorative Arts (the landmark “Art Deco” exposition). Soon he was in great demand, designing restaurant décor, posters and department store advertisements. He came to the United States in 1930 to start a department of advertising (later known as the Philadelphia College of Art). There he trained students in the fundamentals of European design, while embarking on numerous freelance illustration assignments in Philadelphia and New York. In 1934 Carmel Snow, the new editor of Harper’s Bazaar, saw his design work and immediately hired him to be its art director. It was the beginning of a collaboration that was to revolutionize both fashion and magazine design, and that catapulted Bazaar past its arch-rival, Vogue. At Harper’s Bazaar, where he was art director from 1934 to 1958, Brodovitch used the work of such European artists as Man Ray, Salvador Dali, and A.M. Cassandre, as well as photographers Bill Brandt, Brasai, and Henri Cartier-Bresson. He was the first to give assignments to emigré photographers Lisette Model and Robert Frank. Starting with a splashy, sometimes overly self-conscious style largely borrowed from his early counterpart at Vogue, Dr. M.F. Agha (AIGA medalist, 1957), he gradually refined his page layouts to the point of utter simplicity. By the 1950’s, white space was the hallmark of the Brodovitch style. Models in Parisian gowns and American sports clothes “floated” on the page, surrounded by white backgrounds, while headlines and type took on an ethereal presence. At his best, Brodovitch was able to create an illusion of elegance from the merest hint of materiality. Clothes were presented not as pieces of fabric cut in singular ways, but as signs of a fashionable life.
PRELIMINARY STUDIES Besides his achievements at Bazaar, Brodovitch’s legacy as a publications designer includes the short-lived but influential magazine Portfolio, three issues of which were published in 1949 and 1950. A flashy, innovative quarterly aimed at the design profession, Portfolio contained profusely illustrated feature on Alexander Calder, Charles Eames, Paul Rand, Saul Steinberg and others, as well as articles surveying the graphic variations of cattle brands and shopping bags. As art editor, Brodovitch helped conceive the magazine’s contents, as well as creating its distinct design with the help of die-cuts, transparent pages, multi-page fold outs and other elaborate (and expensive) graphic devices. Throughout his career, he continued to teach. His “Design Laboratory,” which focused variously on illustration, graphic design and photography and on occasion were offered under the auspices of the AIGA, provided a system of rigorous critiques for those who aspired to magazine work. As a teacher, Brodovitch was inspiring, though sometimes harsh and unrelenting. A student’s worst offense was to present something Brodovitch found boring; at best, the hawk-faced Russian would pronounce a work “interesting.” Despite his unbending manner and lack of explicit critical standards—Brodovitch did not formulate a theory of design—many students under his tutelage discovered untapped creative reserves. Even at the height of his powers, however, Brodovitch’s personal life remained linked to loss and disappointment. His family life was evidently unhappy. In addition, a series of house fires in the 1950s destroyed not only his country retreat but also his paintings, archives and library. In the 1960s after he left Harper’s Bazaar, he continued to teach but did little design work. He died in 1971 in a small village in southern France where he had spent the last three years of his life. Today Brodovitch’s legacy is remarkably rich. His layouts remain models of graphic intelligence and inspiration, even if seldom imitated, and the artists, photographers and designers whose careers he influenced continue to shape graphic design in
the image of his uncompromising ideals. Copyright 1988 by The American Institute of Graphic Arts.
Brodovitch, Alexey (b Ogolitchi, nr St Petersburg, 1898; d Le Thor, Vaucluse, 15 April 1971). American typographic designer, art director and photographer. After settling in the USA in 1930, he established a reputation as one of the most influential art directors of the 20th century. He was best known for his 24-year career (1934–1958) at the American magazine Harper’s Bazaar and for his Design Laboratory, operated first under the auspices of the Philadelphia Museum School (1936–40) and then (1941–59) of the New School for Social Research and the American Institute of Graphic Arts, both in New York. Through his work at Harper’s, Brodovitch revolutionized modern magazine design by forging a greater integration of typography, text and photography. His innovative layouts and numerous cover illustrations for the magazine popularized the techniques of montage, full-bleed paging and strategic sequencing of photographs that fostered interactive readership. In 1945Brodovitch published Ballet, an influential book featuring his own photographs of the Ballets Russes de Monte Carlo taken between 1935 and 1939. The book’s blurred, fast-paced, almost Surrealist photographs suggest Brodovitch’s preference for unconventional framing and juxtaposition, while its sequencing demonstrated for many the fundamental principles underlying his art direction and instruction. During his years teaching the Design Laboratory courses in New York, Brodovitchdirectly affected the careers of several important photographers, including Diane Arbus, Richard Avedon, Irving Penn and Lisette Model. His influence on graphic design and photography continued to be manifest in magazine and book publishing at the end of the 20th century.
COLOR LECTURE NOTES AND REFLECTION Notes: 1607 Isaac Newton published first color theory >he also created the first color wheel >research led to additive color mixing (RGB) CMYK- subtractive >subtractive-mixing paints and dyes, used most Hue- basic name of a color family Value- lightness (tints) or darkness (shades of a color Chroma is the purity of a color, the amound of grey added to a pure hue Analogous colors- three colors next to each other on the color wheel Limited palette helps to create color unity Transition in hues helps lead the eye around a design or photo, eliminating any leaps or gaps Softening the contrast or weakening the chroma can add to color unity by elminating big visual leaps and slowing down the viewerâ€™s path through the picture plane. Reflection: Color is the main building block of any design, photograph, or artistic work. Most people take the colors surrounding them for granted. Every advertisement surrounding us was created with a careful consideration for color. When picking out colors itâ€™s important to create color unity. This allows a work to be visually pleasing and leading the eye around the image. There are countless ways to either create unity or contrast through color. While unity aids the design, contrast results in confusion. Colors that are too similar or overpowering creates a distracting design.
EXTRA READINGS GESTALT PRINCIPALS -Gestalt psychologists believe that meaningful overall pattern is percieved before the parts - â€œThe sum is greater than the partsâ€? -Point >initial contact between drawing and color -Format >visual field of a picture image -Plane >elements can appear to be receeding or advancing >depending on the size and position in relation to the plane -Principals >proximity: forms close together are percieved as a group >similarity: forms that are similar tend to be grouped together >equality: equal and similar elements are immediately recognized >closure: people tend to see incomplete images as completed >figure-ground perception: people tend to regard pattern as a figure against a background >continuity: lines are seen as following the smoothest path
INDESIGN LECTURE NOTES Packaging-In-design will automatically make a folder of all the images and fonts used in the layout so you can transport it much easier W-switches from design to preview views More space in the bottom margin for footer information Shift + Tap- take to you the right margin of a text box Command + shift- allows you to access elements on pages that are on the master page
Hold the space bar- activates the hand tool that lets you drag the page around Mycommunitiy.ku.edu >> Online storage option
DESIGNANDTHINKING – A MOVIE https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=Z_YwyMssN0Y
•There has been a fundamental change in how people think about problems, especially in design •Design = can be extremely powerful or useless •Designers must think of all different kinds of ideas and problem solution alternatives •My first idea might fail but trying again is what design thinking is all about •Design thinking oMultidisciplinary thinking is key to helping everyone in all situations oLook at the world with complexity oCreative thinking is all about practice oApplying the skills and ideas of design and applying them to the broader complex world oDesign is a sport where you have to participate oArose do distinguish between the term design and the process of designing problem solving oThink about systems and how systems relate •Referred Pain oFirst step to design is recognizing a problem and starting the conversaWtion about that problem oAsk the question WHY •You can completely reframe the whole problem and solutions oPower to the people •Design research- quantitative and qualitative, want to accomidate as many people as possible, much different from marketing research oIf you want a good idea, have a lot of ideas oRapid prototyping
•Come up with as many ideas as possible •Take those ideas and ask for feedback, and repeat until something sticks •Don’t mind being wrong or having a bad ideas as long as they help you to get to the next stage, to a good idea •Come up with things by DOING •Thinking, making, and seeing the prototypes and mockups •Skype oThey are successful because it used a network not related to the senior executive’s model •Mission bike oPush the store experience as far as it can go oAll about overall customer experience •The surfer oIndustrial design- design within the business world oHelping design integrate into the business world •Coca-Cola oDesigning a company plan for how they want to be perceived vs apple who may not be loved as a company •Suits vs. turtlenecks oBusiness speaks in a limited number of languages which makes the language of design seem very intimidating or out of their comfort zone oFailing quickly and cheaply in order to succeed oBig companies get beat by kids in garages because the big companies exploit the same things hey know rather than inventing •Change oSocial entrepreneur- someone who is working to benefit society as a whole •Give yourself different perspectives •Algorithm thinking is very efficient and accurate, design thinking never comes to a solid solution
EXTRA READINGS 5 Take Aways from movie The first thing that I took away from Design Thinking was that there has been a lot of change in the way society thinks about design. In a world full of advertisements and social media everything has to be designed. People are bombarded by messages everyday and design is the basic idea behind what people actually pay attention to and what is ignored. The second take away was that a designer’s job is to fail. Throughout the movie the different speakers would reiterate that a designer should come up with a lot of ideas and then see what work and what fail. Basically failing quickly and cheaply in order to succeed is the key. My third take away is that designers must look at every perspective. Moving to a new location to work, talking to someone else, and reading a new book can all give a designer new ways of looking at a problem in order to find new solutions. The fourth point I found interesting was design is much more than just the pretty picture or advertisement. Coca-Cola has used design, branding, and innovations to create a well known, and liked company. This is important because we can design our own reputation. My last take away from Design thinking is that we should all work to make the world a better place. Being a social entrepreneur can take place no matter what position you’re in. Illustrating children’s’ books that teach them to recycle or help the world, and designing fashion layouts that encourage people to donate old clothes are just two options of ways to incorporate a person’s individual passions into social entrepreneurship.
COLOR PHOTO ASSIGNMENT HARMONIOUS HUES
This photo shows harmonious hues through the colors or red, or-
ange, and yellow which are next to eachother on the color wheel.
This boquet includes harmonious hues through the oranges and reds.
The red, yellow and blues of this patio portray contrasting hues, all of the colors are at least three steps away from eachother on the color wheel
The orange and yellow hints contrast with the green
which also contrast with the purple accents in the sign.
The browns on the sign use harmonious values because they are all about the same darkness.
The values of the sign are harmonious because they all use the same vibrance.
The contrasting values of the guitars are because the blue guitar is a darker value than the lighter pink.
These colors have contrasting value because some are dark green value while others have a light pink value.
This patio furnature use harmonious chroma because they are all the pure pigments.
These are peppers found at the Lawrence Farmerâ€™s Market, they all have very pure chromas.
The dark foliage and bright colors show contrasting chroma be-
cause they have a more pure color in the pink than the darkened purples and reds.
These soaps vary in chroma due to the mixed colors produced
when making them. Some are very vibrant while others are more dull.
This sign uses a limited palette of muted yellows to allow the red word to stand out.
This building uses a palette of yellow and green only, which attracts the eye of pedestrians.
SOFTEN CONTRAST/ WEAKEN CHROMA
These scarves all demonstrate a weakened chroma because the colors are muted.
The landscape uses soft colors in the brick and cement.
TRANSITIONS IN HUE/ VALUE/ CHROMA
The vegetables show natural transition as their colors naturally fade and change.
The sky is always transforming, this is an example of the transition from day to night.
USE OF NEUTRALS
This sign uses neutral browns to convey the natural nature of the event.
These guitars use neutrals because the instruments are made of natural elements.
DOMINANCE OF HUE/ VALUE/ CHROMA
The pink flowers in the picutre show dominance because they are the most vibrant objects in the picture.
This fire hydrant has dominance because it catches the eye due to its warm color while being surrounded by a cooler color.
KEY THE COLOR
This tapestry at the farmers market shows key the color because there is a blue tint throughout the entire fabric.
This sunset demonstrates key the color because the oranges of the sun are reflected in the whole sky and the water.
COLOR POLICE GOOD COLOR USAGE
This canvas is an example of good color usage because it utilizes
the color in the background only. The entire background is a muted chroma in warm colors. This allows the white words to really stand out and easy to read.
BAD COLOR USAGE This canvas is an example of bad color usage. I chose this picture because a lot of the background images are the same color value and chroma. This makes the words really hard to read and the whole work of art is very chaotic. Process Book
DESIGNER CHOICES CHOICE #1
Alexey Brodovitch Russian-born photographer and designer (1898-1971) Most famous for his time as the art director for fashion magazine Harper’s Bazaar.
Started as a painter while living in Paris after a time in the military. Gained public recognition by winning first prize in a poster design-
ing competition. The completion was for an artists’ soiree called Le Bal Banal in 1924. Picasso’s drawing took second place.
CHOICE #2 Paula Scher
American graphic designer (1948) Worked with CBS Records and Atlantic Records as art director
where she designed album covers. She was credited with as many as 150 album covers a year.
She received four grammy nominations for album artwork.
CHOICE #3 Paul Rand
American Graphic designer (1914-1996) Best know for his corporate logo designs such as IMB, UPS and ABC.
Inducted in the New York Art Directors Club Hall of Fame in 1972
RESEARCH PAPER THE MAN BEHIND HARPER’S BAZAAR
the position of art director (Grundberg). During Brodovitch’s first years as a magazine
art director he took inspiration from the fashion
magazine counterpart Vogue (Grundberg). His
Alexey Brodovitch is best known as the art director
crowded. After years of practice and refinement
design. He brought modern desig¬n techniques to
simplicity. Most of his designs revolved around the
rope in the 1920s (Grundberg). During his 24 years
early works were much more self-conscious and
for Harper’s Bazaar that revolutionized magazine
Brodovitch’s style took his layouts to the point of
the United States that were originally created in Eu-
pictures and utilized white space, typography, and
at Harper’s Bazaar, Brodovitch used his love for
Along with working at Harper’s Bazaar, Brodovitch
photography to make it the mainstay of his designs (Crump).
also taught at the Philadelphia College of Art.
He was a tough teacher who’s students new the
While a majority of Alexey Brodovitch’s career took
worst thing they could turn in to him was some-
American. He was born in Russia in 1898 into a
best thing Brodovitch could tell them was that their
army, he and his family fled Russia in 1920 to live
students went on to revolutionize the design world,
place in the United States, Brodovitch was not an
thing boring (Grundberg). They also new that the
well-off family. After years of fighting in the Czarist
works were “interesting” (Grundberg). Some of his
in Paris (Grundberg). It was in Paris that Brodo-
these people included: Diane Arbus, Richard Ave-
vitch’s start as a designer took place.
don, and Irving Penn (Crump).
While in Paris, Brodovitch won first prize for an
Brodovitch’s work opened lots of doors for maga-
won medals at the International Exhibition of Dec-
ation who’s careers continue to shape the world
berg). These, along with other activities, soon put
artist’s ball poster design contest in 1924. He also
zine design and inspired artists of the next gener-
orative arts for fabric, jewelry, and display (Grund-
Brodovitch in high demand as a designer.
In 1930, Brodovitch moved to New York City in pursuit of starting a department of Advertising (Grundberg). This department of Advertising is known
today the Philadelphia College of Art today. Four
years later, he was discovered by the new editor of Harper’s Bazaar, Carmel Snow, and was offered
Crump, James. “Brodovitch, Alexey.” Oxford Art
Online. Oxford University Press. n.d. Web. 4 Sept. 2016.
Grundberg, Andy. “Alexey Brodovitch.” AIGA. The
American Institute of Graphic Arts, 1988. Web. 04 Sept. 2016
PROJECT SUMMARY When this project was presented to us a few thoughts went through my mind,
‘all we have to do is design a poster?’ being the first thing. I soon realized how difficult an 18” by 24” poster would be to create.
The three images were my first obstacle to overcome. How to I choose im-
ages? How can I use them creatively? How do I take three unique works and make them work together?
I wanted to use the three required pictures to create an aesthetic that conveys the same feeling that Alexey Brodovitch also strived to deliver in his designs.
Alexey Brodovitch used strong photographs and type to steer the eye around the page. I used the same concept by placing a large photograph, which carried your eye to his name and through his other work.
I also used Brodovitch’s emphasis on alignment and white space to create a vintage and simplistic but also unobtrusive and honest design. I decided to
use the quote, “A layout man should be simple with good photographs,” because those are the ideas I used when laying out the poster.
In the end I decided to utilize a monochromatic, black and white, color
scheme. This was because I wanted to put more emphasis on the photo-
graphs themselves and the forms Alexey used instead of distracting from those elements with different colors.
In the end, I learned a lot about how today’s modern design was really de-
veloped through these great designers of the past. I love the way my poster
ended up. One of the things I learned from researching these designers is that breaking the mold is encouraged in the design world.