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Kate Dohe, Jenna Wilton Wednesday, October 22, 2008 LIS 671

Midterm Assessment of SpringerLink and Science Direct Introduction On the surface, database searching and photography have little in common, but we assert this is

not the case. Both database searching and photography rely on the skill of the individual; they rely upon his ability to focus his lens, adjust his exposure, evaluate his shots, and above all, perform comparative analysis of his tools and results. In this exercise, Jenna Wilton and Kate Dohe will demonstrate the comparative strengths and weaknesses of two key databases for scientific research--SpringerLink and ScienceDirect. To accomplish this, we identified and evaluated the toolsets of each, tested search results, and present the comparatively best results from our searches.

Database Assessments Criteria for Assessment We identify the following as assessment measurements: ✦ User Interface: How easy is it for users at different skill levels to conduct searches? Can support information be found easily when needed? Does the design of the site lend itself to navigation and legibility? ✦ Material Access: Can a user easily retrieve abstracts, full text, citation data, or other useful information about a given database artifact? ✦ Search result relevance: Is it transparent to a user why certain hits were returned for a search? Do the results pertain to the subject? ✦ Search features: Is the software flexible in its syntax, or standardized?

ScienceDirect In our testing, Elsevier’s ScienceDirect performed reasonably well. While it returned fewer results than SpringerLink, on the whole the results returned were far more relevant and accessible to

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users. Furthermore, ScienceDirect provides an extensive amount of support documentation and flexible usage options to users. Help Menu ScienceDirect’s help menu is presented in frames and a external browser window--a potential usability problem for searchers using pop-up blockers. On the other hand, a second browser window means I can cross-reference the help menu without disturbing my current search context—so to that extent it is not such a A small sampling of the rich User’s Guide ScienceDirect provides to users--it is nearly impossible to browse all of it in a single session.

terrible usability problem. Under “search tips” in Elsevier’s lengthy help document, we found most of the operants and

wildcard syntax. According to this document, spacing between words without exact phase limitation defaults to the AND operant. Interface Kate uses ScienceDirect extensively, and is therefore automatically inclined to prefer the interface based on experience. Furthermore, Kate’s preference for command line computing makes her significantly more appreciative of the “Expert mode” for those users who prefer manual query construction. On the other hand, while we can envision these options may cause problems for inexperienced users, we simply cannot imagine ScienceDirect’s core users—presumably, scientists —being unable to grasp even the advanced mode. Expert Mode’s results are far more extensive than Advanced Mode. When comparing search 2: tsunami AND warning, advanced mode returns 17 results; expert returns 475. Likely reasons for this are because Elsevier’s Advanced Mode makes it difficult for users to search every field in the database, and instead makes it most convenient to search T-K-A (title, keyword, abstract) fields

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instead. Since the exercise is specific to “Advanced Mode,” we will use its results rather than the widely expanded Expert results, but it is worth noting the functionality may greatly expand results for users. Information Presentation ScienceDirect makes it relatively easy to browse and control display options by offering a “preview” mode on a per-article or list basis.

Preview mode, working in this example. It appears to generate an embedded and fixed iframe of the complete page, rather than dynamically generate content with other tools.

Unfortunately, in testing this feature worked inconsistently--we suspect its reliance on Javascript to call this functionality is responsible for poor performance in browsers which do not handle scripts especially well. No HTML option for this display was noticed at the time of testing. Additionally, ScienceDirect offers a “related articles” link appended to each search hit. In practice, this appears to be a fairly opaque implementation: test results showed ScienceDirect’s interpretation of “related” articles seems to be “broader articles.” Rather than tsunami-specific information, many of these returned articles dealt with general disaster preparedness, or other broad topics. Citedness Within ScienceDirect, one of the most compelling and informative results had a citation report of 0--it happened to be a risk assessment study conducted by the USGS. We feel in our evaluations

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that the citation count should be a secondary, rather than primary, information evaluation method-too often, data collected from agencies which do not rely upon the peer-review process for survival is valuable to current research; additionally, new research by established experts often proves to be helpful as well. Additionally, ScienceDirect’s citedness numbers appear to diverge from Google Scholar’s on a number of results (noted in the bibliography)--who is telling the truth? Accessibility Given Elsevier’s reputation as the “big bad wolf” to small, Red Riding Hood-like librarians, it is surprising that ScienceDirect provides PDF access to the university community for a majority of its indexed content. On the other hand, they are patently not a charity organization, providing information free to all comers--the cost of this rich access is on the order of seven figures per year.

SpringerLink Much of the functionality of this search interface seems to have been taken from Cuil’s operating methodology. Navigation The main search page presents as an alphabetical list of 2,000 journals grouped in sets of ten per page. In the extreme right hand corner is a single search box with the options “Go” and “...”. The link to “more options” does not get the user any information on how to structure their search (that’s what the cleverly named “...” button does). Rather, this link takes the user to an advanced search page which is rudimentary but gets the job done. Browse Springerlink does not allow for user customization in retrieval display, so the user cannot specify how many items are displayed per screen. Springerlink, like Cuil, has decreed that only ten hits can be viewed per page. This is a huge problem as the user quickly grows frustrated with scanning - 4-

Alphabet List for Journal Browsing. Please note that “x,” “y,” “space,” and “more” are not active links. Also, the list also does not wrap correctly in all browsers, so the user may have to scroll “off of the page” to find all of the alphabet.


through a handful of irrelevant documents and then having to wait for the next set to load. The site attempts to mitigate this frustration on the main search page by providing an alphabet link to the names of the journal titles. However, the user is still left having to guess at where the information they want is, rather than being able to scan large sections of data. Search Springerlink automatically truncates for the user, and their is no option to counteract this function. Additionally, it’s not clear how this interface is utilizing the “wild card” function. A search for “h*rt” retrieved four articles related to “HRT.” A search for “h*art” yielded several returns for “Art,” but none for “heart.” Springer, again like Cuil, inserts a lot of hype about their system. They brag about having items “Online First,” citedness, and the number of Springerlink boasts about having “over four million documents” in their collection, but a search for “abstract” returns only 1.4 million documents.1 While this search is by no means conclusive, it does cast a shadow of suspicion over their claims as they are an academic research site.

documents that have been uploaded in the last X amount of time. They unfortunately sacrifice functionality for “bragability.” For example: Springer seems to make a significant amount of literature available online, evidenced by the

ubiquitous PDF icons in search results. However more often than not in tests the user is redirected to a purchase page for information. While there is no help file to consult, there is a singularly uninformative FAQ. Nowhere in the FAQ is information about actually structuring searches and using the syntax—compared to Elsevier’s extensive user guide, this is unacceptable. When looking under the “Expanded View” the user finds that they cannot view the publication dates. Further, while the searches consistently return valid results, it is difficult to separate these from the irrelevant results.

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Sort and Output Functions Springerlink sorts the returns by default according to their ranking algorithm. What is their ranking scheme? They don’t bother to provide documentation to inform the user. It is possible to sort the returns by date, but you have to specify this prior to initiating your search. This does not accommodate the fickle nature of the user. There is information on whether or not the articles is “Cross Referenced” but this is buried within the advertising column on the right hand side of the screen, so the casual user may not

Does this section have to do with references, or with advertisements?

recognize this resource.

Conclusion The content which was retrieved from SpringerLink was very good. Unfortunately the user has to work hard to find that information. It would be informative to conduct an affective user behavior study on this site to see how long the user will try to work with this site before becoming frustrated and giving up.

Scitopia An analysis of our search returns revealed that the search for “tsunami*” in the abstract with the 4 OR’d terms in the full text generated high numbers of relevant returns in both SpringerLink and ScienceDirect. This search was repeated in Scitopia to see if it yielded the same results. 153 sites were returned, with a cluster titled “early warning” containing 24 results . The search also yielded 25 links related to “real-time tsunami.” The real-time tsunami cluster yielded an impressive 52% relevant articles, but this pales in comparison to the 75% of relevant articles returned in the “early

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warning” cluster. There two clusters contained only five duplicate sites, but still yields a total of 26 unique, relevant articles. The site is well organized. There is a clearly labeled “Advanced Search” tab. At the top of the advanced search page is a link to a help page for the advanced search. The layout is simple, the indicators are straightforward and familiar. They have implemented a streamlined search system to aid the user. The results display page is organized on the left hand side of

Reserved advertising space

the page into clusters. The center pane feels spacious and uncluttered, allowing the user easy access to the information it contains. The right hand side of the page is reserved for advertisers, and Scitopia maintains this restriction. The result list allows for several ordering schemes so that the user has quite a bit of control over how the information is displayed. The content can be limited to a certain periodical within the search return list, eliminating the need for an additional search with the journal name, which further empowers the user. The site also utilizes a visual ranking scheme by employing stars to indicate the rank the page. Critical information is also immediately displayed. The returns are grouped into pages of 25 returns. This provides enough content that

Some of the functionality of the site

the user’s need for immediate gratification is satisfied, while not overwhelming the user. The efficient layout of the text means that

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the user can quickly scan this information for the most relevant items. There is no method by which to book mark items within the site.

Scitopia also indicates what types of content are contained within the search.

This is not necessarily a limiting factor as most web browsers enable tabbed browsing, so the user can simply open multiple tabs within their browser and bookmark, download or export the citations to their computer. The interface loads the next page of results quickly, further easing user frustration. A final accessibility feature that they have added to their search interface is the prominent display of the journal name and logo next to each article entry. This gives the user an immediate visual cue and creates an association for the user. The content seems to be restricted to abstracts unless the user has a subscription / membership to the individual journals. This is a problem for the average member of the public, but for the student or researcher who has access to a library subscription this is not necessarily a hinderance. The ease of use, intuitiveness, functionality and relevance of returns in this site make it a worthwhile investment of time for the researcher, even if they have to go to another database to retrieve the full text of the article.

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Search Exercises

Kate Dohe, Jenna Wilton Wednesday, October 22, 2008 LIS 671

ScienceDirect Search 1: “tsunami warning”

Only five results are returned here, searching in T-K-A only (there appears to be no easy way to expand results to fulltext+au+journal title, etc. without invoking Expert Mode). Of these, three are full text, and four of the five are completely relevant to tsunami warning systems. Interestingly, Elsevier appears to include singular and plural terms by default—a quick check of the help documentation confirms this. Two of the articles appear to explain scientific advancements in using global positioning systems as part of existing tsunami warning systems, and a third article, #5 on the list, provides extensive background on the tsunami warning system in place. However, this article is dated 2003, and may be out of date now.

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Search 2: tsunami AND warning

As expected, this returned 17 results, 15 of which are full text for UH users. All five of the results from search #1 are included here. After perusing the abstracts, we concluded the percentage of irrelevant results has gotten somewhat higher—given the broadness of the search, many articles expound upon one term or the other, with only tangential mention of the other term. However, only two articles appeared to be completely off topic—an article concerning crisis management in information systems (#11); another entertaining article projecting the potential damage caused by an asteroid impact upon the earth (#16). Search 3: tsunami* AND warning*

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Since Elsevier automatically returns plural and possessive phrase searches, this wildcard search is functionally identical to search #2. To confirm this, we compared each search result, and the two are identical. After examining Elsevier’s help documents, there is no documented way to turn this off; even using exact phrase limits and curly brackets still returned the plural hits. Search 4: tsunami* AND (warning* OR predict*)

Now some field spread is becoming evident in search results—while the majority of results are still limited to oceanology or similar fields, result #1 is “Psychosocial Predictors of Chronic PostTraumatic Stress Disorder in Sri Lankan Tsunami Survivors,” which is a clear psychology article. On the other hand, many articles are still highly relevant to the overall search. Surprisingly, over 90% of results are still full-text for UH students—how many of these originate in OA journals is not immediately clear. Search 5: tsunami* AND (warning* OR predict* OR alert*) Since the addition of OR alert* only adds one more hit to the total return count, one can reasonably extrapolate the phrase “tsunami alert” is not commonly used in the scientific community. To confirm

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this, I ran an additional search for tsunami* AND alert*, which returned only two hits, one of which is returned in searches 2, 3, and 4. Furthermore, the “new” drop is only tangentially relevant—it is a paper on global warming. Search 6: tsunami* AND (warning* OR predict* OR alert* OR forecast*)

The addition of “forecast*” to the search does not return any new articles—this indicates “forecast” is a term which is either rarely found in academic literature on tsunamis, or is typically found in existing literature. Thus far, my conclusion is that the “best” search term includes warning* OR predict*. Search 7: tsunami* in the Abstract/Summary AND (warning* OR predict* OR alert* OR forecast*) fulltext

This term returned 248 results, making it impractical to critically examine each abstract for relevance. Clearly, the jump in results from previous searches is a result of placing terms in fulltext search fields, rather than restricting the terms to T-K-A searches. As a consequence of this, a higher percentage of results are less relevant upon initial examination—substantially more results deal exclusively with tsunami science, and far fewer are focused on warning systems.

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Search 8: tsunami* in title AND (warning* OR predict* OR alert* OR forecast*) fulltext

Relevance in these 191 results appears to be more focused than in search 7, making this a more effective search strategy. At the same time, it still provides searchers with a moderate amount of results to peruse for supplemental information. Search 9: tsunami* in title AND (warning* OR predict* OR alert* OR forecast*) abstract

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Interestingly, even though only 33 hits were returned in this search, a significant amount of the toplevel returns were non-topical. The top two, in fact, dealt with the psychological coping mechanisms of tsunami survivors. Additionally, the other highly relevant search results are duplicates from other broader searches. Search 10: all terms in abstract

In this search, Jenna and Kate initially had some disagreement in query construction. Kate interpreted “all terms in abstract” to mean “tsunami AND (warning OR predict OR alert OR forecast), whereas Jenna included all terms as an OR query. As a result, initial counts for each search were widely divergent; for effective evaluation purposes, we have chosen Kate’s option. This option reveals modestly more expanded results than search 9, but does not appear to significantly improve the overall relevance of search returns. Search 11: all terms in title

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In terms of relevance and total results returned, this search is not fundamentally different from search 1. Furthermore, the additional return only adds a fairly irrelevant result--the psychology article referenced in previous searches appears as result #1 when sorting chronologically.

SpringerLink Search 1: “tsunami warning”

140 results—first ones look pretty relevant, but are from 2005—clearly, they are sorting by “relevance” by default. However, around result #61, results suddenly diverge into tax preparation, cosmic event preparedness, and a reference source simply called “Bogs.” Oddly, however, quite a few of the last results are highly relevant, which makes it less transparent for a searcher to determine why certain results are being ordered and presented in such a way. Search 2: tsunami AND warning Search 2 expands the search results fourfold, but again, many of the results seem “odd,” such as the 1755 Lisbon Earthquake references (#2 and #3, pictured below). Some are very relevant, but results seem overrun with divergent subjects.

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Search 3: tsunami* AND warning*

Just like Elsevier, the identical hit count to search 2 indicates the search software automatically searches plural terms, without truncation syntax, even though this is documented and provided. Furthermore, since hits are unchanged, the 1755 earthquake in Lisbon still has prominence in the search. Search 4: tsunami* AND (warning* OR predict*)

??

Of the first 10 results, we would class only #9 as even remotely relevant. As we continue to see more and more information about the Lisbon 1755 earthquake (which appears to be an academic fad), it proves the point of how trendy topics appear to drown out information. There seems to be a - 16 -


lot to “slog through” before finding the goods. There also seems to be an even more apparent lack of transparency in search results—a journal article focused on consumer trends in peer-to-peer file sharing networks appears in the results for inexplicable reasons. Search 5: tsunami* AND (warning* OR predict* OR alert*)

Much like the results from ScienceDirect, alert doesn’t seem to add any significant results—in this case, only an increase of 3 total hits. However, the chaff proportions remain significantly higher in Springerlink compared to ScienceDirect. Search 6: tsunami* AND (warning* OR predict* OR alert* OR forecast*)

Again, additions here appear to parallel the proportion of additions to hits in ScienceDirect. Just like the others above, though, SpringerLink seems to still be spitting out a lot of garbage--this is more apparent when sorting chronologically.

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Search 7: tsunami* in the Abstract/Summary AND (warning* OR predict* OR alert* OR forecast*) fulltext

A-ha! This seems to be the sweet spot—243 results, many of which are significantly more relevant immediately. On the other hand, some articles pertaining to peer to peer networks which use phrases like “a tsunami of activity” in the abstract still appear. Search 8: tsunami* in title AND (warning* OR predict* OR alert* OR forecast*) fulltext

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Uh-oh, Lisbon’s #1 with a bullet again. That aside, significantly more of the results seem more relevant to predictive models of tsunami activity, which is reassuring. However, comparatively it appears search 7 is more likely to be the premium search strategy for this database. Search 9: tsunami* in title AND (warning* OR predict* OR alert* OR forecast*) abstract

At this point, we observed a significant reduction in garbage search results, and an increase in highly relevant results. Though many of the best results appear in other searches, this seems to be a more effective search lens to apply. Search 10: all terms in abstract Paralleling our results from ScienceDirect, this appears to soften the focus of search 9, but only

marginally so. Additionally, none of the results added to this search appeared to add significantly to the overall relevance of results--while little of it qualifies as junk outright, most of it is concerned with the hard science of tsunamis.

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Search 11: all terms in title

Unlike the results in ScienceDirect, this search returns fewer results than the initial “tsunami warning� search conducted. This is somewhat unusual, but may be related to the amount of irrelevant results returned in the initial search, plus the difference in permissible search fields between the two databases.

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Best Results

Kate Dohe, Jenna Wilton Wednesday, October 22, 2008 LIS 671

Geist, Eric L. and Tom Parsons. 2008. Assessment of source probabilities for potential tsunamis affecting the U.S. Atlantic coast. Marine GeologyIn Press, Corrected Proof [Available online 28 August 2008.] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/ B6V6M-4T9VPDN-1/2/05b3e2b02128b7c1a3201c110b30ab9e Database: ScienceDirect / FT Citations:

Scopus: 0

Google Scholar: 0

Abstract Estimating the likelihood of tsunamis occurring along the U.S. Atlantic coast critically depends on knowledge of tsunami source probability. We review available information on both earthquake and landslide probabilities from potential sources that could generate local and transoceanic tsunamis. Estimating source probability includes defining both size and recurrence distributions for earthquakes and landslides. For the former distribution, source sizes are often distributed according to a truncated or tapered power-law relationship. For the latter distribution, sources are often assumed to occur in time according to a Poisson process, simplifying the way tsunami probabilities from individual sources can be aggregated. For the U.S. Atlantic coast, earthquake tsunami sources primarily occur at transoceanic distances along plate boundary faults. Probabilities for these sources are constrained from previous statistical studies of global seismicity for similar plate boundary types. In contrast, there is presently little information constraining landslide probabilities that may generate local tsunamis. Though there is significant uncertainty in tsunami source probabilities for the Atlantic, results from this study yield a comparative analysis of tsunami source recurrence rates that can form the basis for future probabilistic analyses. Grasso, Veronica F. and Ashbindu Singh. 2008. Global Environmental Alert Service (GEAS). Advances in Space Research 41:11 1836-1852 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/ B6V3S-4R68NKN-2/2/167e50cd3a236c4b0e3d4f0778d0222 Database: ScienceDirect / FT Citations:

Scopus: Zero - 21 -


Google Scholar: Zero

Abstract Early warning systems represent an innovative and effective approach to mitigate the risk associated with natural hazards. Early warning technologies are now available for almost all natural hazards and systems are already in operation in all parts of the world. Nevertheless, recent disasters such as the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004 and Katrina hurricane in 2005, highlighted inadequacies in early warning technologies. Efforts towards the development of a global warning system are necessary for turning the tide in early warning processes and technologies. There is a pressing need for a globally comprehensive early warning system based on existing systems. The global system should be a mechanism which can consolidate scientific information and evidences, package this knowledge in a form usable to international and national decision makers and actively disseminate this information to those users. The proposed Global Environmental Alert Service (GEAS) will provide information emanating from monitoring, Earth observing and early warning systems to users in a near-real-time mode and bridge the gap between the scientific community and policy makers. Characteristics and operational aspects of such a service, GEAS, are discussed. Srinivas, Hari and Yuko Nakagawa. 2008. Environmental implications for disaster preparedness: Lessons Learnt from the Indian Ocean Tsunami. Journal of Environmental Management, Environmental Aspects of the Indian Ocean Tsunami Recovery 89:1 (October) 4-13. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6WJ7-4PS63X6-1/2/ a7bc124ec88eb243d6217211ef906171 Database: ScienceDirect / FT Citations:

Scopus: 0

Google Scholar: 1

Abstract The impact of disasters, whether natural or man-made, not only has human dimensions, but environmental ones as well. Environmental conditions may exacerbate the impact of a disaster, and vice versa, disasters tend to have an impact on the environment. Deforestation, forest management practices, or agriculture systems can worsen the negative environmental impacts of a storm or typhoon, leading to landslides, flooding, silting, and ground/surface water contamination.

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We have only now come to understand these cyclical causes and impacts and realize that taking care of our natural resources and managing them wisely not only assures that future generations will be able to live in sustainable ways, but also reduces the risks that natural and man-made hazards pose to people living today. Emphasizing and reinforcing the centrality of environmental concerns in disaster management has become a critical priority, requiring the sound management of natural resources as a tool to prevent disasters and lessen their impacts on people, their homes, and livelihoods. As the horrors of the Asian tsunami of December 2004 continue to be evaluated, and people in the region slowly attempt to build a semblance of normalcy, we have to look to the lessons learnt from the tsunami disaster as an opportunity to prepare ourselves better for future disasters. This article focuses on findings and lessons learnt on the environmental aspects of the tsunami, and its implications on disaster preparedness plans. This article essentially emphasizes the cyclical interrelations between environments and disasters, by studying the findings and assessments of the recent Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami that struck on 26 December 2004. It specifically looks at four key affected countries -- Maldives, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, and Thailand. Tolkova, Elena. 2008. Principal component analysis of tsunami buoy record: Tide prediction and removal. Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans (March) [Citation not updated to indicate page run] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/ B6VCR-4S3WWYC-1/2/35f4182324817701c42128aed314d243 Database: ScienceDirect / FT Citations:

Scopus: Zero

Google Scholar: Zero

Abstract Principal component or Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis is applied to tsunameter records by treating them as two-dimensional signals, where the second dimension is created by breaking a single time series into cycles and treating the cycle number as a second dimension. Under certain conditions, principal components calculated from different records are shown to determine the same functional space. Signal decomposition into pre-calculated principal components is used to predict or extract the tidal component of a record. This work shows that

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EOF processing allows for short-term tidal predictions at tsunami buoy locations with the precision of more advanced methods and with minimal a priori knowledge about tidal dynamics. Also shown is that filtering in EOF domain is sensitive to the non-tidal component of a record and therefore presents a tool for early tsunami detection and quantification. Pietrzak, Julie, et al. 2007. Defining the source region of the Indian Ocean Tsunami from GPS, altimeters, tide gauges and tsunami models. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 261:1-2 (September) 49-64 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V61-4NYD8V6-D/2/ f55084264f34e92c6a955c023b2c351b Database: ScienceDirect / FT Citations:

Scopus Cites: 1

Google Scholar: 0

Abstract To understand the role of the co-seismic moment magnitude, Mw, 9.1–9.3 Sumatra–Andaman Earthquake rupture mechanism on the severity of the Indian Ocean Tsunami, we used permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) data and carried out an analysis of co-seismic displacement and tsunami models. Tsunami modelling, validated against independent Jason-1 altimetry data and tsunami arrival time data as determined from tide gauges, was used to analyse the results of five co-seismic slip inversions, using GPS, seismicity and/or uplift data. In this way we determined the most likely slip distribution characterized by slip maxima of ~ 20 m in the South and ~ 20 m in the North. We used both the distribution and temporal evolution of the co-seismic slip as derived from the GPS data. We show that the ~ 9 min propagation time of the rupture led to constructive interference of waves radiating first from the South and minutes later from the North, strengthening the tsunami in Southern India, Sri Lanka and Thailand. We conclude that the incorporation of permanent real-time GPS stations would represent a valuable component of future tsunami warning systems. Satake, K., E.A. Okal, and J.C. Borrero. 2007. Tsunami and its Hazard in the Indian and Pacific Oceans: Introduction. Pure & Applied Geophysics 164:2-3 249-259. http://www.springerlink.com.eres.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/content/r2w1r4h851277702/fulltext.pdf Database: Springerlink / FT

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Citations:

Google Scholar: 0

Cross-References: 1

Abstract The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused an estimated 230,000 casualties, the worst tsunami disaster in history. A similar-sized tsunami in the Pacific Ocean, generated by the 1960 Chilean earthquake, commenced international collaborations on tsunami warning systems, and in the tsunami research community through the Tsunami Commission of International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics. The IUGG Tsunami Commission, established in 1960, has been holding the biannual International Tsunami Symposium (ITS). This volume contains selected papers mostly presented at the 22nd ITS, held in the summer of 2005. This introduction briefly summarizes the progress of tsunami and earthquake research as well as international cooperation on tsunami warning systems and the impact of the 2004 tsunami. Brief summaries of each paper are also presented. Lipa, Belinda J. et al. 2006. HF radar detection of tsunamis. Journal of Oceanography 62:5 (October) http://www.springerlink.com.eres.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/content/67308726455953x4/ fulltext.pdf Database: Springer Link / FT Citations

Google Scholar: 3

Cross-Reference: 0

Abstract This paper demonstrates that HF radar systems can be used to detect tsunamis well before their arrival at a coastline. We solve the equations of motion and continuity on the ocean surface using models to simulate the signals produced by a tsunami approaching the east U.S. coast. Height and velocity profiles are derived along with expressions for the radar-observed current velocities in terms of bathymetry and tsunami height and period. Simulated tsunami-generated radial current velocities are superimposed on typical maps of radial velocity generated by a Rutgers University HF radar system. A detection parameter is defined and plotted to quantify the progress of the tsunami, which is shown to be detectable well before its arrival at the coast. We describe observations/

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warnings that would have been provided by HF radar systems at locations in the path of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Crawford, G. et al. 2005. Planning for Tsunami-Resilient Communities. Natural Hazards 35:1 121-139. http://www.springerlink.com.eres.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/content/n2m33507v2078099/ fulltext.pdf Database: Springerlink / FT Citations:

Google Scholar: 5

Cross-References: 4

Abstract The National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) Steering Committee consists of representatives from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the states of Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. The program addresses three major components: hazard assessment, warning guidance, and mitigation. The first two components, hazard assessment and warning guidance, are led by physical scientists who, using research and modeling methods, develop products that allow communities to identify their tsunami hazard areas and receive more accurate and timely warning information. The third component, mitigation, is led by the emergency managers who use their experience and networks to translate science and technology into user-friendly planning and education products. Mitigation activities focus on assisting federal, state, and local officials who must plan for and respond to disasters, and for the public that is deeply affected by the impacts of both the disaster and the pre-event planning efforts. The division between the three components softened as NTHMP scientists and emergency managers worked together to develop the best possible products for the users given the best available science, technology, and planning methods using available funds. Darienzo, Mark et al. 2005. Local Tsunami Warning in the Pacific Coastal United States. Natural Hazards 35:1 (May) http://www.springerlink.com.eres.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/content/l531pv2u283p525r/fulltext.pdf Database: Springer Link / FT Citations

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Google Scholar: 5

Cross-References: 0

Abstract Coastal areas are warned of a tsunami by natural phenomena and man-made warning systems. Earthquake shaking and/or unusual water conditions, such as rapid changes in water level, are natural phenomena that warn coastal areas of a local tsunami that will arrive in minutes. Unusual water conditions are the natural warning for a distant tsunami. Man-made warning systems include sirens, telephones, weather radios, and the Emergency Alert System. Man-made warning systems are normally used for distant tsunamis, but can be used to reinforce the natural phenomena if the systems can survive earthquake shaking. The tsunami warning bulletins provided by the West Coast/Alaska and Pacific Tsunami Warning Centers and the flow of tsunami warning from warning centers to the locals are critical steps in the warning process. Public knowledge of natural phenomena coupled with robust, redundant, and widespread man-made warning systems will ensure that all residents and tourists in the inundation zone are warned in an effective and timely manner. Titoy, Vasily V. et al. 2005. Real-Time Tsunami Forecasting: Challenges and Solutions. Natural Hazards 35:1 (May) http://www.springerlink.com.eres.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/content/h583207380727xxv/fulltext.pdf Database: Springer Link / FT Citations:

Google Scholar: 36

Cross-Reference: 12

Abstract A new method for real-time tsunami forecasting will provide NOAA’s Tsunami Warning Centers with forecast guidance tools during an actual tsunami event. PMEL has developed the methodology of combining real-time data from tsunameters with numerical model estimates to provide site- and event-specific forecasts for tsunamis in real time. An overview of the technique and testing of this methodology is presented.

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Braddock, R.D. 2003. Sensitivity analysis of the tsunami warning potential. Reliability Engineering & System Safety 79:2 (February) 225-228 http://www.sciencedirect.com.science/article/B6V4T-47RJ12W-C/ 2/4c0f2f8c5e1881def9df8121d8540a77 Database: ScienceDirect / FT Citations:

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Abstract Tsunamis are normally generated by underwater earthquakes. The earthquakes are normally easily detected by seismographs. However, the earthquake may not always generate a tsunami. Further, the severity of the earthquake is not linearly related to the severity of the tsunami. The tsunami may be detected by a deep-sea pressure transducer communicating through a surface rider buoy, through satellites to a tsunami warning centre. The detectors are expensive to build and maintain, need to be placed near surface-rider buoys, and the placement of these detectors needs to be optimal. The provision of adequate warnings from the network of detectors, called the tsunami warning potential, depends on the network of the deployed detectors, the number of detectors used, and the response times of the detectors, warning centre, and of the emergency services which need to convey the warning. The warning potential is also a function of the number in the population at risk. The sensitivity of the warning potential is analysed for first-order effects, particularly with respect to time delays arising from detection and operation of the emergency services to deliver the warning to the population. The sensitivity of the warning potential to population shifts is also considered. Areas for improvement are identified, together with suggestions of how the system can be optimised. Koike, Nobuaki, Yoshiaki Kawata, and Fumihiko Imamura. 2003. Far-Field Tsunami Potential and a Real-Time Forecast System for the Pacific Using the Inversion Method. Natural Hazards 29:3 425-436. http://www.springerlink.com.eres.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/content/h3x58284718862g4/ fulltext.pdf Database: Springerlink / FT Citations:

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Abstract Estimating tsunami potential is an essential part of mitigating tsunami disasters. We proposed a new method to estimate the far-field tsunami potential by assuming fault models on the Pacific Rim. We find that a tsunami that generates in the areas where there is no tsunami in the history can damage the Japanese coast. This shows that it is important to estimate tsunami potential by assuming fault models other than the past earthquake data. Another important activity to mitigate tsunami disasters is to provide appropriate warnings to coastal communities when danger from a tsunami is imminent. We applied a new inversion method using wavelet transform to a part of the real-time tsunami forecast system for the Pacific. Because this inversion method does not require fault location, it is possible to analyze a tsunami in real time without all seismic information. In order to check the usability of the system, a numerical simulation was executed assuming an earthquake at sea off Taiwan. The correlation coefficient for the estimated initial waveform to the assumed one was calculated to be 0.78. It takes 90 min to capture time-series waveform data from tsunami gauges and 5 sec to estimate the 2-D initial waveform using the inversion method. After that, it takes 2 minutes to forecast the tsunami heights at the Japanese coast. Since the sum of these times is less than the 105 minutes transit time of the tsunami from Taiwan to Japan, it is possible to give a warning to the residents before the tsunami attacks the Japanese coast. Comparing the tsunami heights forecasted by this system with those calculated by the fault model, the average error was 0.39 m. The average error of the arrival time was 0.007 min.

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