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ICELAND

SWEDEN

FINLAND RUSSIAN FEDERATION

GREEN BACKBONES FOR THE CITY OF VARNA, BULGARIA,

NORWAY

ESTONIA LATVIA

43 13‛N 27 55‛E

LITHUANIA

DENMARK

BELARUS

IRELAND UNITED KINGDOM NETHERLANDS POLAND GERMANY BELGIUM

UKRAINE

LUXEMBURG CZECH REPUBLIC SLOVAKIA

MOLDOVA

FRANCE

AUSTRIA

LICHTENSTEIN

HUNGARY

Bern

SWITZERLAND SWITZERLAND

SLOVENIA CROATIA BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA SAN MARINO SERBIA ITALY MONTENEGRO KOSOVO

MONACO ANDORRA PORTUGAL

SPAIN

ROMANIA

GEORGIA Tibilisi

black sea VARNA

BULGARIA

MACEDONIA ALBANIA

TURKEY

GREECE SYRIA

CYPRUS ALGERIA

MALTA

TUNISIA

MAROCCO

LEBANON

ISRAEL JORDAN EGYPT

LIBYA

varna on the european map

Zilina Prešov

SLOVAKIA Košice

Trenčín Banská Bystrica

Botoşani Trnava

Miskolc

Nitra

Bratislava

Suceava

Nyíregyháza Satu Mare

Bratislava

Salgótarján

Baia Mare

Eger

Lasi

Debrecen Bistriţa

Gyár

Budapest

Budapest

Piatra-Neamţ

Zalău

Vaslui

Tatabánya Szombathely

Oradea

Szolnok

Bacău

HUNGARY

Székesfehérvár

Veszprém

Târgu Mureş Miercurea-Ciuc

Kecskemét

640 km

320 km

Békéscsaba

Zalaegerszeg

Alba Iulia

Kaposvár

Ljuljana

Szeged

ROMANIA

SLOVENIA

Focşani Galaţi

Braşov Brăila

Deva

Pécs

Tulcea

Buzău

Ljuljana

Ploieşti

RimNicu-Vilcea

Reşiţa

CROATIA Zagreb

Stiniu Gheorghe

Arad

Szeksard

to Russia / Kazakstan / China

Piteşti

Novi Sad

Slobozia

Tirgoviste

Tirgu Jiu

Constanja

450 km

Belgrade

Bucharest

Beograd (Belgrade)

Varna

330 km SERBIA

Sarajevo

Slatina

Craiova

Dobrich Ruse

Razgrad

Vidin

SERBIA

Pleven

Shumen

Montana

Turgovishte

Veliko Tarnovo

Varna

Vralsa Lovech

Sofiya (Sofia)

MONTENEGRO KOSOVO

Sofia

Pristina

Silistra Giurgiu Alexandria

470 km

Pogorica

Bucuresti (Bucharest)

Drobeta Turnu-Severin

BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

200 km

Sarajevo

Călăraşi

Zagreb

Plovdiv Khaskovo

Pazardzhik

Skopje

Burgas Yambol

Stara Zagora

Kyustendil

Skopje

Sliven

BULGARIA

Pernik

Pristina

Pogorica

Gabrovo

Blagoevgrad Smolyan Kŭrdzhali

Tirana

MACEDONIA

Tirana Bari

Bari

ALBANIA

WHY VARNA ? population <1.000.000

density <300.000

<600.000

>300.000

> 3.000 km/2

< 1.000 km/2

> 1.000 km/2

distance and population comparison on the balkan peninsula

pan-european corridor ‘8’

varna on the balkan map_important port city on the pan-europen trade route

Rostov

UKRAINE

TRADE !

Rostov

UKRAINE

Mariupol

Mariupol

RUSSIAN FEDERATION MOLDOVA

Mykolayiv Odesa

MOLDOVA Novorossyisk Tuapse

RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Kherson

Odesa

Tuapse

ROMANIA

Novorossyisk Sevastopol 400 km

GEORGIA Poti

ROMANIA

Sevastopol

GEORGIA

530 km

Poti

BLACK SEA

Constanja 622 km DANUBE

Artvin

1100 km

850 km

Ruse

BLACK SEA

Constanja

Artvin

Rize Sinop

Varna

DANUBE

Giresun

Samsun

Bartın

Varna

Burgas

Samsun Bartın

Burgas

TURKEY

Rize

Sinop

Ruse

Zonguldak

TURKEY

Istanbul Istanbul

population <12.000.000

Yalava

<1.000.000

<300.000

<150.000

distance and population comparison on black sea

<1.000

main crude and dirty products

main tanker movements

pan-european corridor ‘8’

varna on the black sea map_important trade and port city

1_Varna on the European map.Demographic and economic analyses_Green backbones for the city of Varna_student: Katerina Dimova_thesis supervisor: Andreas Kipar_MSc in Architecture _ AA 2010-2011


TOURISM !

RUSSIAN FEDERATION

ESTONIA LATVIA

LITHUANIA BELARUS

POLAND

UKRAINE

CZECH REPUBLIC

SLOVAKIA MOLDOVA HUNGARY

Bern

SWITZERLAND

SLOVENIA CROATIA BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA SERBIA

black sea

ROMANIA

black sea BULGARIA

MONTENEGRO KOSOVO MACEDONIA ALBANIA

30 cruise destinations

3,99 million international tourists per year

former socialist republic

geopolitical map

varna as an important tourist destination in europe

Rostov

Rostov

UKRAINE

UKRAINE Mariupol

Mariupol

Mykolayiv

MOLDOVA

RUSSIAN FEDERATION

RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Mykolayiv

MOLDOVA

Kherson

Odesa

former USSR

Kherson Odesa

Tuapse

Novorossyisk Tuapse

Novorossyisk

ROMANIA

GEORGIA

Sevastopol

ROMANIA

GEORGIA

Sevastopol

Poti

Poti

BLACK SEA Constanja

DANUBE

Ruse

Varna

Sinop Bart覺n

Burgas

Zonguldak

Trabzon Samsun

Rize

BLACK SEA

Constanja

Artvin DANUBE

Balchik Evsinovgrad Varna

Trabzon

Dobrich Ruse

Giresun

Sofia

Sinop Giresun Samsun

Ordu

Bart覺n

Burgas

Zonguldak

TURKEY

Istanbul

Artvin

Rize

TURKEY

Istanbul

Yalava

Yalava

BIODIVERSITY ! main tourist cruise routes

dolphines distribution in black sea

varna as an important cruise destination on black sea

botanical gardens

biodiversity

romania

geographical data_bulgaria varna

serbia

black sea

sofia

continent: europe subregion: balkan peninsula total area: 110,993.6 km2 water area: 2,390 km2 coastline: 354 km highest point: Musala, 2.925 m lowest point: Black Sea, 0 m

plovdiv

land use: - arable land 29,9 % - permanent crops 1,9 % - forests and woodlands 34 % - other 34,2 % temperate: cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers terrain:mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast natural resources: bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land

turkey

macedonia

greece

geography of bulgaria 02_Geographic,economic and historic analyses_Green backbones for the city of Varna,Bulgaria_student: Katerina Dimova_thesis supervisor: Andreas Kipar_MSc in Architecture _ AA 2010-2011


geographical data_varna province: Varna municipality: Varna total area: 238 km2 coastline: 30 km elevation: 80 m lowest point: Black Sea, 0 m climate:humid subtropical climate natural resources: manganese ore,gas,rock salt trade and tourism: 61% manufacturing: 16% transportation and communications: 14% construction: 6%

Geography and transportation The city occupies 238 km2 on verdant terraces ,descending from the calcareous Franga Plateau (height 356 m) on the north and Avren Plateau on the south, along the horseshoe-shaped Varna Bay of the Black Sea, the elongated Lake Varna, and two artificial waterways connecting the bay and the lake and bridged by the Asparuhov most. It is the centre of a growing conurbation stretching along the seaboard 20 km north and 10 km south (mostly residential and recreational sprawl) and along the lake 25 km west (mostly transportation and industrial facilities). Since antiquity, the city has been surrounded by vineyards, orchards, and forests. Commercial shipping facilities are being relocated inland into the lakes and canals, while the bay remains a recreation area; almost all the waterfront is parkland. The urban area has an excess of 20 km of sand beaches and abounds in thermal mineral water sources (temperature35– 55 C ). It enjoys a mild climate influenced by the sea with long, mild, akin to Mediterranean, autumns, and sunny and hot, yet considerably cooler than Mediterranean summers moderated by breezes and regular rainfall.

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topography of municipality of varna Varna is the largest city and seaside resort on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast and third-largest in Bulgaria after Sofia and Plovdiv, with a population of 334,870 inhabitants according to Census 2011. It is the administrative centre of the homonymous province and Varna Municipality.Commonly referred to as the marine or summer capital of Bulgaria, Varna is a major tourist destination, business and university centre, seaport, and headquarters of the Bulgarian Navy and merchant marine, as well as the centre of Varna Province.The city lies in the Bay of Varna, nestled in a deep valley between the Frengen Plateau and the Avren Plateau. Varna is over 11 km long, while its width, including newly erected residential quarters, is nearly 9km. The city’s structure resembles an amphitheatre as it follows the curves of the Bay of Varna. It is surrounded by gardens, vineyards and groves.

view of the city scape of varna,bulgaria

"Varna now draws about 30,000 new residents a year"

120,345

180,633

253,079

302,860

308,601

312,889 312,026 320,837 334,870

1965

1975

1985

1992

2001 2005 2009 2011

76,954 1946

1956

69,563 1934

41,419 1910

92,5 % bulgarians, 3,5 % turks, 5 % other nationalities

tourists per year: 4.74 million (2006) 3,99 milion international tourists

25,256

metropolitan population: 416,603

1780

334,870 people in Varna

urban population: 343,704

1887

density: 1,718/km

4,000

population city: 334,870

“South-eastern Europe City of the Future ” Financial Times

view of the city scape of varna,bulgaria

port cathedral

03_Geographic and demographic analyses of Varna_Green backbones for the city of Varna,Bulgaria_student: Katerina Dimova_thesis supervisor: Andreas Kipar_MSc in Architecture _ AA 2010-2011


technical university

stadium_sport center

central cemetery

bus station

shopping malls

medical university

stadium_sport center meteo station delfinarium

zoo park

bank with architectural value

natural science museum “palace” of sport and culture amphiteatre

financial university minicipality of varna

luna park

archeological museum cathedral byzantine church drama teater mineral water tank

summer theater

congress hall skate park observatorium aquarium

roman terms train station

naval museum swimming pool

yaght port

public functions and activities are concentrated mainly in the city center and in the “Sea garden”

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key points in the city the Red Army occupied the city Mass tourism emerged Varna is running for European Capital of Culture

historical timeline regional park

“palace” of sport and culture sea garden

train station

night activities

yaght port

04_Focal points in the city and historic analyses_Green backbones for the city of Varna,Bulgaria_student: Katerina Dimova_thesis supervisor: Andreas Kipar_MSc in Architecture _ AA 2010-2011

2019 AC

Bulgarian Communist Party gave up its political monopoly

Sept. 1944

16-17th th cent

A major port, agricultural, trade and shipbuilding centre for the Ottoman Empire

1989 AC

ottomans

1389 AC

1261 AC

8 th century

Treaty of Nymphaeum, between peace treaty with the Michael VIII Palaeologus and Byzantine Empire that Genoa that opened up the Black established the new Sea to Genoese commerce Bulgarian state was concluded at Varnanear Odyssos scriptorium-a key role in the development of the Cyrillic alphabet by Bulgarian scholars under the guidance of one of Saints Cyril and Methodius

680 AC

6th-7th century

Justinian I made it the seat of the Quaestura

Asparukh, the founder of the First Bulgarian Empire, routed an army of Constantine IV near the Danube delta and, pursuing it, reached the so-called Varna

680 AC

Slavic conquest of the Balkans

442 CE

442 CE

335 BCE

1000 BCE

peace treaty the region between of ancient Theodosius II Thrace was and Attila populated by Thracians surrender to Alexander the Great


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the public areas in the city center are well mainained,well used during the whole days,providing place for different social,age and cultural groups

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the waterfront is the main generator of the city.most leisure activities are concentarted their and 90 % of the spend free time the citizens of the city spend there or in the city garden

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the childrenplaygrounds and existing parks are full during the whole day,although there is law maintainace of the spaces.very often the green spaces between the residential areas are totally abandoned,raising security and decay problems

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“Although calarity and legibility is by no means the only important property of a beutiful city,it is of special importance when considering environments at urban scale of size,time,and complexity.To understand this,we must consider not just the city as a thing in itself, but the city being perceived by its inhabitants” “ Indeed, a distinctive and legible environment not only offers security but also heightens the potential depths and intensity of human experince.....a legible city would be one whose districts or landmarks or pathways are easily identifiable” “ Moving elements in a city,and in particular the peopleand their activities,are as important as the stationary physical parts” The image of the city,Kevin Lynch

The notion of ekistics implies that understanding the interaction between and within human groups—infrastructure, agriculture, shelter, function,in conjunction with their environment directly affects their well-being (individual and collective). The subject begins to elucidate the ways in which collective settlements form and how they inter-relate. By doing so, humans begin to understand how they 'fit' into a species, i.e. homo sapiens, and how homo sapiens 'should' be living in order to manifest our potential—at least as far as this species is concerned. Ekistics, the Science of Human Settlements,Konstantinos Apostolos Doxiadis

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the need of the residence for public common space is obvious and very often they take the initiative and convert the space with minimum interventions

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the sea garden,bordering with the waterfront is one of the main qualities of the city.generator of green spaces and multifunctional activities.the sea gadren is the main place for leisure and recreation of the city

moving slightly from the city center the urban environment changes.lack of save pedestrian roads,low mainainance and rarely we can find a cosy public space

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the monuments of the city attact visitors and small commersial functions,what is missing is common public spaces,providing opportunities for open social & leisure activities

the main monuments are isolated from onother,the connections between them have a random character and often the tourists feel ‘lost’ looking from one place to onother

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high traffic,difficult connections with the city center,lack of bicycle paths and well defined connections with the waterfront and the sea garden

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the only ‘rent a bike’ in the city,on the entrance to the sea garden.during the visit we saw few bicycles trying to struggle into the traffic of the city

05_Perseptive and social analyses_Green backbones for the city of Varna_student: Katerina Dimova_thesis supervisor: Andreas Kipar_MSc in Architecture _ AA 2010-2011

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_street network has largely random charachter _there is no distinction between minor and major streets _heavy traffic and parking problems

_existing bike path of 2 km _proposal in the PGT from 2010 for a systme of bicycle paths

balchik

balchik

sofia

sofia

ruse

ruse

1 km

transport schemes

heavy car flow

medium car flow

existing bike path

bicycle paths according to the new PGT

_industrial areas scattered around the residential areas _consentration around the railway station

area with one way road in the central part of the city

2 km

heavy vehicles

_the mixed multi function zone has a good prerequisitives for the preservation of existing vegetation and long-term enrichment of the green spaces

1 km

morphology of the city

1 km

2 km

1 km

2 km

build area_industrial

2 km

mixed area/residential and industrial

_not well connected to the city center _lack of public transport _safety problems of the periphery

1 km

morphology of the city

2 km

low rise residential buildings

2 km

middle rise residential buildings

_the peripheral neighbourhoods are not organically linked to the old town and if they are â&#x20AC;&#x153;sewnâ&#x20AC;? to it mechanically _mass constructed areas with lack of identity

_no clear spatial and functional structure of the city.during the 60ties of the previous century there was the first urban planning attempt to give a clearer structure to the city,to direct the development of industrial area along the west port and the central station,the residential area-north and northwest and the recreation area-northeast along the beach

1 km

morphology of the city

1 km

2 km

high rise residential buildings

06_Morphology of the city_Green backbones for the city of Varna_student: Katerina Dimova_thesis supervisor: Andreas Kipar_MSc in Architecture _ AA 2010-2011

1 km

2 km


_Industrialization of housing helped to solve the housing crisis in Varna, simultaneously, it caused to appear so called "Grey Stream" in architecture, following quantitative but not qualitative criteriaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s. The manufactories were producing unified panels and building components, not taking into consideration the estetical qualities and the diversity of the environment which they create

_Varna district enjoys favourable soil and climatic conditions for cultivation of grain crops, permanent crops and vegetables. The agro-climatic conditions enable high yields from the fodder crops, for feeding the milk cattle while the cereal production furthers the development of pig-breeding and poultry raising

1 km

industrial area

2 km

1 km

residential area

agricultural area

_The green areas in the city,mainly in the center, are scare and scattered without links between them.Exception makes the â&#x20AC;&#x153;Sea gardenâ&#x20AC;?,which is situated well on the waterfront, in direct contact with the bay and the city center

_Gullies (canals) have nourished important ameliorative function related to the collection and disposal of surface water. In the - northern and southern part of the municipality, they are well structured and with preserved features. In many areas of settlement formations bordering Varna, gullies are significantly narrowed in some places destroyed and can not hold significant amounts of water in heavy rains. Gorges have other important functions: -Create a vivid green ecopath which links the urban green areas to suburban and agricultural -Improve the microclimatic characteristics of the city during the summer months, bringing fresh air

1 km

protected green areas

2 km

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urban parks and green areas

green areas on wetlands

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green areas for sport activities

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parks outside the city border

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cannals_rivers

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A B C

green nurseries

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protected forests

F G H

protected green areas

I J K

green areas on wetlands

L M N

urban parks and green areas

O P Q

parks outside the city border

R S T

build area/industrual

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build area/residential

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Plan of PGT for preservation and enrichment of the basic resources of the green system by: _ Increase the biological activity of the urban environment by keeping all green areas and saturating them with vegetation _ Enrich the existing vegetation along the transport infrastructure and creation of new green shelter belts along the main urban traffic flows _ Protection from abuse and requalification of the canals, which provide natural landscapes into the urban fabric and lead to regional scale _ Renovation and creation of new public green spaces in the housing estates _ Preserving the character of the landscape and its spatial elaboration _ Development of green system while maintaining the specific character of Varna, surrounded by green areas of the northwest and south, connecting through gorges the urban parks and green system _Continuity of urban green and natural areas providing opportunities for: fresh air and ventilation, natural landscape in the urban fabric; optimum accessibility to the waterfront _ Providing appropriate green areas for public use, reserving new areas for development of green system .Creation of new urban and suburban recreational parks.

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agriculture

2 km

Z

07_Morphology of the city_Green backbones for the city of Varna_student: Katerina Dimova_thesis supervisor: Andreas Kipar_MSc in Architecture _ AA 2010-2011

2 km


GREEN BACKBONES FOR THE CITY OF VARNA, BULGARIA AS GENERATORS OF GREEN AREAS AND MULTIFUNCTIONAL ACTIVITIES

sound wave diagram of a doplhin

sound wave diagram of a robin

sound wave diagram of human voice

sound wave diagram of a robin

The project proposes a network of slow and fast mobility, which makes the city permeable and brings environmental qualities to the area. The preliminary goals are to unite the different layers of the city through green infrastructure, connecting the main parks, green areas,the waterfront and focal points, leading to regional green spaces. The paths are uniting element, generator of activities, green areas, new alternative way of transport and backbones for future development. They attract along its course different worlds, give values to existing ones and bring new qualities to the area. The strategy is based on an overall understanding about the main characteristics of the city, the demographic features (population size, age structure, and social groups), its cultural, spatial, urban, environmental and historic characteristics.The project links diverse spaces and merges the functionality of individual components into single composition.It consentrates on three crucial areas in the city, proposing different programs, according to the needs of the areas.

08_Project concept_Green backbones for the city of Varna_student: Katerina Dimova_thesis supervisor: Andreas Kipar_MSc in Architecture _ AA 2010-2011


URBAN GREEN SPACE STRATEGY _Vision

POLICY_ a strategy for achieving a number of specific objectives. It should embrace the devel-

opment of a major approach or method, which is suitable for attaining goals and resolving specific issues. In the case of green spaces, strategies are required to address a variety of (ecological) environmental, social and economic policies.Some of the purposes of green space strategy are:

Protecting and developing urban green system,increasing the attractiveness by improving accessibility,ensuring adequate quality and level of surfaces and preserving their environmental potential

_Mission

• Strengthen its long-term perspectives and promotion of sustainability • Promote a more holistic overview and better understanding of the urban green space situation, provision and quality as well as the needs, priorities and values of its inhabitants • Build a collective vision of its own urban green space development • Discover effective ways to solve urban green space problems and develop its urban green space potentials • Improve the quality of life i.e. improve its environment together with its facilities for recreation, leisure and social activities • Incorporate the urban green space issues into its planning system and legislation • Raise public and political awareness for urban green spaces and generate public participation • Generate stakeholder and interdepartmental cooperation • Develop long term funding and management opportunities

_ development policy of the central city neighborhoods, raise the living standards in urban areas, including and by preserving existing and creating new green areas and ecosystems _ regenerating deprived areas and mixing functions and social groups within the urban structure, especially in areas of social segregation; _ careful management of urban ecosystems, especially with regard to water, energy, waste and noise pollution _ development of efficient and environmentally friendly means of transport which lead to sustainable mobility _ conservation and enhancement of cultural heritage _to safeguard a network of good quality, well managed green spaces for citizens and tourists with suitable facilities for children and handicapped people _to use green spaces to demonstrate the city’s historic background and local identity _to ensure the existence of sustainable green spaces with high ecological value which are efficient in terms of healthy living and working conditions. Applying for adequate provision of leisure and sports facilities

_Main objectives

_Objectives and goals for the improvement

_to achieve the municipal vision of ‘green and blue ribbons’ by developing an accessible and attractive network of green spaces and integrating them into binding spatial planning concepts _to improve the city’s quality standards, adapted to users interests and new green typologies; based on sustainable maintenance, financial potentials and development concepts _to increase citizen participation in planning, building and maintenance activities in order to develop a green and liveable green city

_to create easy connections with the waterfront and the sea garden _to give identity to the peripherar area _to resolve typical suburban problems (deficit of adolescent leisure facilities, social conflicts due to high density of prefabricated housing estates) _to protect and improve existing green spaces and their valuable natural habitats _to develop, implement and monitor an extensive and sustainable management system _to develop a public parks for citizens of different ages _to improve the public accessibility and usage of the area through the provision of a path system _to implement the aims of the adolescents by creating a graffiti project at the venue (noise protection wall) _to ensure a sustainable maintenance regime for the area through public partnership contracts

_The concept and main issues

The Green Backbones project proposes a network of slow mobility green belts pasing throught the city of Varna,starting from the waterfront,crossing the urban fabric and leading to metropolitan scale. Taking an analysis of the city’s existing condition,problems,needs and requirements of the citizens, we identify a trajectory ,which connects the existing green and public areas,discover new one and bring environmental qualities to the city.Injecting green and reinforcing the exising one,create a unity between the different layers of the city. The path connects the focal points,give new identity to the place,breaks the infrastructure,providing new alternative ways of transport.The relationship with context, the ability to bring together multiple systems and hierarchies of public spaces, make up the important themes of this project which involves both public and private.

bicycle paths from the PGT

touristic green path

fast motion green infrastr. slow motion green infrastr.

green areas

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_Challenges and Problems

_the adjoining residential area is characterised by high density, social conflicts, a lack of recreational facilities and missing connections to the hinterland. _there are few and low maintained footpaths and insufficient amount/poor quality of green spaces. _a challenge to open up the landscape for leisure and sport activities in order to improve the local residential qualities and discourage people from moving away _problems of vandalism _problems concerning people’s involvement and participation at the outset

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culture activities

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sub-culture activities

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archeological museum

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varna art gallery

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aquarium & sea museum

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astronomic observatory

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ethnographic museum

6

modern history museum

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national science museum

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festival and congress center

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bg national revival museum

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palace of culture and sport

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dolfinarium

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drama theater

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vladislav varnenchik museum

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roman thermal baths

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navy museum

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zoo park

09_Project proposal_Green backbones for the city of Varna_student: Katerina Dimova_thesis supervisor: Andreas Kipar_MSc in Architecture _ AA 2010-2011


SLOW MOTION GREEN PATHS FOR RECREATIONAL, SPORT AND LEISURE ACTIVITIES: 2.6 km / 20 min 1.1 km / 8 min 1.3 km / 10 min

SITE: the path follows the three cannals coming north from the city from Frangenskoto plato.The path starts from waterfront,following the canals of the city,which have a great potential for green and public areas.What is more,there is an existing slow motion infrastructure which is low maintained and often interrupted.The new slow motion infrastructure crosses the Sea garden,green sport facitilies,the park of the Technical university and leads to metropolitan scale.The new infrastructure provides verticalslow motion connection,connecting with the proposed by the PGT horizontal ones PATH 1 : 2,6 km PATH 2 :1,1 km PATH 3 : 3 km

KEY POINTS IN THE AREA: Science museum,Palace of sport and culture, stadium, Technical university

CONCEPT: Following one of the most potential parts of the urban fabric-the cannals,we create greenbackbones,as generators for multi-functional activities,urban spaces and alternative way of transport.The path unites the three layers of the city-waterfront,sea garden and the city fabric,leading to metropolitan scale

PROGRAM:

-slow motion bicycle paths both for recreation and transport use -recreational activities -parks and green areas -sport facilities -children playgrounds

IMAGE:

-reinforcing the wild nature following the canals,the project creates an image of a wild forest with organic shape and asymetric characther.Wild vegetation and botanical special enriching the estetic and visual charachter of the area.

FAST MOTION GREEN PATH FOR TRANSPORT AND COMERCIAL ACTIVITIES: SITE: following the main infrastructure axes of the city and the main flow of people.

The path connects the waterfront,the city center,passing though some key points of the area and leads to the most densified residential quarters. PATH 1 : 2,5 KM PATH 2 : 4 KM

KEY POINTS IN THE AREA: skate park, summer theater, luna park, economy

university,municipality of varna, city cathedral, central bus station, central cemetery, shopping malls varna,residential quarters

CONCEPT: following the biggest flow of people in the city the strategy proposes a green

shoulders,as protective layer for the pollution and noise,with bicycle paths as alternative way of trasport.The new infrastructure will reduce the traffic problems of the city,bring some new green and public areas,renovate an old one and encrease environmental and ecological qualities if the city.The new motion path crosses the city verticaly proposing connections with the the horozontal paths from the PGT.

4 km / 32 min 2,5 km / 19 min

PROGRAM:

-protective green shoulders -fast motion movement-bicycle paths mainly for transport use -shopping activities -parks and green areas

IMAGE:

Create urban green atmosphere,with linear vegetation and line of trees.Regular character of the spaces,converting to more organic one,when penetrating in the minor streets and residential areas

GREEN PATH WITH TOURISTIC,CULTURAL AND RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES: SITE: historical path of the city center,connected with the Sea garden and the waterfront CONCEPT:

0.90 km / 7 min 0.30 km / 2,6 min 0.50 km / 4min

following the main touristic routes in the city we propose a path with cultural and recreational activities.It connects the waterfront,the sea garden and the main monuments in the city center,proposing a new tourist route,reviving existing spaces and introducing new one,mainly based on the concept of Varna as a tourist city

KEY POINTS IN THE AREA: historical monuments of the area,the sea 0.80 km / 6 min

garden and the waterfront

PROGRAM:

-slow motion movement mainly for tourist, cultural and leasure activities -shopping activities -parks and green areas

IMAGE:

Work with minor interventions.Renovating existing public and green space.Consentrate on the areas near the historical monuments and give indication for the focal points on the path.Introduce bicycle path.

10_Green backbones program_Green backbones for the city of Varna_student: Katerina Dimova_thesis supervisor: Andreas Kipar_MSc in Architecture _ AA 2010-2011


REFEFENCE PROJECTS

11_Reference projects_Green backbones for the city of Varna_student: Katerina Dimova_thesis supervisor: Andreas Kipar_MSc in Architecture _ AA 2010-2011


MANUAL FOR PLANNING AND CONSTRUCTION OF GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE _the manual aims to determine a design method for the construction of all green paths

in the city,which form the new environmental green skeleton of Varna

DEFINITION OF GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE _ network of natural landscape assets

which underpin the economic, socio-cultural and environmental functionality of our cities.The green spaces and water systems which intersperse, connect and provide vital life support for humans and other species within our urban environments.Diversity system to relate other spatial forms and provide the city with ecological safety values. GREEN PATHS VARNA _ network of slow mobility starting from waterfront,passing though the city,following the cannals and the main infrastructure of the city,forming unique green system and leading to regional scale.The connection strategy gives value to existing spaces, some hidden or unknown, others degraded or simply excluded from urban life: a garden, a boulevard, a neighbourhood.

COMPOSITIONAL ELEMENTS _ 1_main axes - linear parks crossing the city,consisting of

pedestrian routes,bicycle paths and green areas,following : the canals of the city,main infrastructure with the biggest flow of people,the main tourist paths. The path consists of : 1.1_roads 1.2_green area 1.3_areas with particular functions ( different activities, according to the existing conditions and the PGT )

2_transversal green connections_ the connections are usually linear areas (streets) that bring in to the main axis .The function of the connections is to provide better access and to support the overall green system 3_green peripheral areas-the peripheral green areas are represented by all the areas that fall within the scope of relevance of the path and that are not crossed by the main axis.

CONSTRUCTION OF GREEN PATH _ 1_main axes - the main axis and the line of suitability for cycling / foot

traffic continues thought the whole structure.They pass through different areas defined below ( 1_1, 1_2, 1_3 ). Each type will be treated with specific requirements in order to obtain a homogeneity within the path.The parts defined are: 1.1_ road - the elements that make up the main axis a) pedestrian path b) cycle route-when the space is limited for separate path we provide space on the road,or pedestrian path c) green area -areas directly connected to the main axes The areas will be provided in the draft with the order of priority from a) to c).Green will be added depending on the space as defined in the subsequent sections type 1.2_structured parks and green areas 1.3_areas with particular function

2_transversal green connections 3_green peripheral areas - requalificateing and connecting to the

green paths

1.1_MAIN AXES - road

Starting from the distance between the two building fonts, evades : the width of the carriageway, the width of the pedestrian route , the width of the cycle route . Depending on the remaining space will be diversified solutions for the inclusion of green areas.Follow standard sections diversified in relation to the size of the green (from the minimum to the maximum).

section 1 _ 2

section 1 _ 1

min 2 m

min 2 m min 2 .5 m

min 1.5 m

The traffic calming measures taken may be different, and sometimes it is possible also adopt two together: a) measures of speed: regulate max of 30 Km/h the permitted speed on the road b) horizontal measures: to amend the road section to force vehicles to slow down c) vertical Measures: change the level of rolling creating gradients rise of entire sections.Working on the differentiation of materials

min 2 m

Depending on the remaining space will be diversified solutions. We apply the presented solution when the remaining space available for the green area is greater than 1.00 meter

section 1 _ 7

min 2 m min 2.5 m

min 2 m

Depending on the remaining space will be diversified solutions. We apply the presented solution when the remaining space available for the green area is between 2.0 m and 3.0 m

section 1 _ 8

min 1.5 m

min 1.5 m

Depending on the remaining space will be diversified solutions . We apply the presented solution when the remaining space available for the green area is min 2.0 meters.

min 2.5 m

section 1 _ 3

min 1.5 m

min 2 m

Depending on the remaining space will be diversified solutions . We apply the presented solution when the remaining space available for the green area is min 2.0 meters.

min 2.5 m

areas of interventions

12_Manual for planning & construction of green infrastructure_Green backbones for the city of Varna_student: Katerina Dimova_thesis supervisor: Andreas Kipar_MSc in Architecture _ AA 2010-2011


PLAN FOR GENERAL DEVELOPMENT : Objectives : improve the quality of life and contribute to the attractiveness of the territory 1. Work for better environment Use the potential of the green areas Increase the pedestrian paths according to in accordance with the traffic flows Introduce urban furniture, encouraging the use of public spaces and contributing to the esthetical qualities of the area Requalification of dismissed green areas in particular, areas bordering with traffic, parking and dismissed areas 2. Work for urban quality of the space consider the architectural and esthetic features of the area improve the materials and take into consideration local materials and traditional use importance of illumination

• street furniture _reduce typologies _reorganize typologies according to the function of the areas _reorganize the locality _increase the security factors and control • street railings _reduce typologies _coherent typologies with locations • bicycle parkings _reduce typologies _provide better focalizations • kiosks _reduce typologies _provide better localization _increase the control • signal stripes _regulate the signal colors _use more horizontal and less vertical signals

3. Give general criteria’s for good urban furniture To emphasize on the viewpoints of the city and give esthetical qualities to it Introduce abacus of the urban furniture importance of illumination To be able to criticize and then increase the quality of public space we have to take into consideration several components of the urban fabric: • street and pavement _increase the green areas and add trees _reorganize the borders and elements of protection _reorganize the pavement _use urban furniture and work on better illumination

VEGETATION _ is chosen taking into consideration the existingspecies, the geographical charactheristics of the area and introducing new botanical species with decorative character

section 1 _ 4

min min22mm

section 1 _ 5

2.5 m minmin 1.5 m

Depending on the remaining space will be diversified solutions . We apply the presented solution when the remaining space available for the green area is in between 3.0 m and 5.0 meters.

section 1 _ 6

min 2.5 m

min 2 m

min 1.5 m

Depending on the remaining space will be diversified solutions . We apply the presented solution when the remaining space available for the green area is more than 5.0 meters.

min 1.5 m

If on one-way street there is no space for both tracks monodirectional in two directions, we propose a track on the motorway following the same direction of motor vehicles . There will be safety interventions for calming the traffic.

1.2_MAIN AXES - park and green areas

In the generic green areas we provide pedesrtian and bicycle path.In the structured park we propose continuity of the parks and the vegetation.The peripherical green areas are integrated with similar decorative qualities to give a continuous image of the structure.

min 2.5 m

1.3_MAIN AXES - areas with particular function

If the green path crosses areas of transformation according to the PGT,with particular function,or private areas,the architect has to garantee bicycle path and pedestrian passage

2_TRANSVERSAL GREEN CONNECTIONS - connections should ensure a continuity of green areas. We must therefore work on : 2.1_ planting of tree-lined avenues 2.2_ green areas on the parking lots

min 2 m

areas of interventions

13_Manual for planning & construction of green infrastructure_Green backbones for the city of Varna_student: Katerina Dimova_thesis supervisor: Andreas Kipar_MSc in Architecture _ AA 2010-2011


SLOW MOTION GREEN BACKBONE FOR RECREATION,LEISURE,SPORT ACTIVITIES AND ALTERNATIVE WAY OF TRANSPORT 2.6 km / 20 min 1.1 km / 8 min 1.3 km / 10 min

sound wave diagram of a robin

inspiration...

PROJECT AREA

14_Slow motion green backbone.Project area_Green backbones for the city of Varna_student: Katerina Dimova_thesis supervisor: Andreas Kipar_MSc in Architecture _ AA 2010-2011


17

18

19

17

18

19

208.4

K

K

150.7

L

L

100.0

M

M

50.0

N

N 1,5 min

5 min

11 kcal

4 kcal

400 m

topography of the area

400 m

squares I sitting areas I public areas of events I kiosks I playgrounds

existing public spaces

residential buildings

educational buildings

SPACE RELATION

sch. section 1-1’

industrial buildings

schematic section 2-2’

schematic section 3-3’

section 4-4’

TOPOGRAPHY OF THE AREA AND EXISTING ACTIVITIES _ schematic section following the canal

190.0

150.0

100.0

50.0

0.0

17

18

19

PEDESTRIAN, CAR INFRASTRUCTURE & MATRIX OF MOBILITY K

1

The main infrastructure of the area passes horizontaly,providing connections from east- west and vise versa.The vertical connections are missing and people walk to reach the waterfront.The paths are low maintained and not secure.We propose a matrix for new possible ways of transport,renovation of green areas,pedestrian and bike paths and bringing activities,according to the existing one.

1 2

2

L

3

3

4 4

M

exist. bus stops

N

cannal main road secondary road pedestrian path cycle path PGT 1,5 min

5 min

11 kcal

4 kcal

400 m

existing pedestrian and car infrastructure

3 min

proposed matrix of mobility

15_Analyses of the area and matrix for possible interventions_Green backbones for the city of Varna_student: Katerina Dimova_thesis supervisor: Andreas Kipar_MSc in Architecture _ AA 2010-2011


17

18

19

MORPHOLOGY URBAN FABRIC AND MATRIX OF INTERVENTIONS K The area is mainly residential,both with high and low rise buildings.Two of the main universities of the city are situated in close distance to the canal.Due to that the population is considerably young.According to the functions of the existing buildings,we propose a general matrix of interventions,enriching the areas with new public spaces,green areas or renovating old one,connecting with the transport.

L

1

1’

2’

3

3’

2 4’

M

4

residential build. industrial build. educational build. N commercial build. 1,5 min 5 min 400 m 11 kcal

3 min

4 kcal

matrix of proposed activities according to the existing typologies of buildings

morphology of the urban fabric

suburban houses

SPACE RELATION

schematic section 1-1’

schematic section 2-2’

schematic section 3-3’

schematic section 4-4’

Renovating the canal and changing the trajectory, following old river paths _Bring environmental qualities, alternative way of transport and new public and green area _ Create a vivid green ecopath which links the urban green areas to suburban and agricultural _-Improve the microclimatic characteristics of the city during the summer months, bringing fresh air to the city

17

18

19

EXISTING ACTIVITIES AND MATRIX FOR NEW INTERVENTIONS K We map the existing activities in the area and we propose a matrix for possible interventions - bringing new or requalificating old one.In black in the chart we show the existing activities and in color the new proposal.Some of the “colofur” activities are already existing one.We need to check and requilify them if needed.

L

M

N 1,5 min

5 min 400 m

11 kcal

3 min

4 kcal

map of existing activities in the area

matrix of activities

16_Analyses of the area and matrix for possible interventions_Green backbones for the city of Varna_student: Katerina Dimova_thesis supervisor: Andreas Kipar_MSc in Architecture _ AA 2010-2011


17 17

18 18

19 19 abies alba

acer platanoides

celtis australis

achillea millefolium

K K

EXISTING GREEN AREAS ,LINE OF TREES AND CANAL PATH

LL

1

genista germanica fraxinus excelsior

1’

2’

3

ligustrum vulgare koeleria pyramidata

3’ 4’

2 4

M M

populus communis

populus nigra

rubus candidans

pyrus malus

N N 1,5 1,5 min min

5 5 min min

11 11 kcal kcal

4 4 kcal kcal

400 400 m m

existing green areas and green areas and line of trees

line of trees

matrix of mobility

existing species in the area_illustrations : Otto Wilhelm

schematic section 1-1’

schematic section 2-2’

17

18

schematic section 3-3’

schematic section 4-4’

19 carex bohemica betula pendula

fagus sylvatica carex brachystachys

PROPOSAL FOR NEW GREEN SYSTEM,AND REQUALIFICATION OF THE CANAL

K

L

1

fraxinus excelsior

1’

2’

3

ilex aquifolium

padus avium

juglans regia

3’ 4’

2 4

M

padus spinosa

pinus sylvestris

prunus amygdalus taxus baccata

N 1,5 min

5 min

11 kcal

4 kcal

400 m

requalification of the green areas and the cannal

matrix of mobility

proposed species in the area_illustrations : Otto Wilhelm

schematic section 1-1’

schematic section 2-2’

schematic section 3-3’

schematic section 4-4’

17_Analyses of the green system of the area and new interventions_Green backbones for the city of Varna_student: Katerina Dimova_thesis supervisor: Andreas Kipar_MSc in Architecture _ AA 2010-2011


17

18

19

17

K

K

L

L

M

M

N

N 1,5 min

5 min

18

19

100.0

1,5 min

5 min

400 m 11 kcal

4 kcal

400 m 11 kcal

macro problems map

4 kcal

micro problems map lack of bicycle paths and sidewalks

physical barrers,as a result of the infrastructure unmaintained green areas

abandoned area

underutilised parks

prostitution

areas with relatively higher incidences and decay

pedestrian underpass

islolated resinetial areas

parking problems

centrally located industrial areas

low functioning commercial area

areas with low presence of commersial and social activities

PLANNING URBAN DESIGN MANAGEMENT FOR CRIME PREVENTION _ SUSTAIN THE QUALITY OF SAFETY AND ELIMINATE PERCEPTION OF UNSAFETY URBAN PLANNING OBJECTIVES

Considering existing social and physical structures

Guaranteeing accessibility and avoiding enclaves

STRATEGIES / PRINCIPLES / GOALS

DESIGN PROPOSALS / ACTIONS

_consider social networks

_the proposal should encourage local sociability, which in a neighbourhood is essential to induce spontaneous surveillance

_affecting social balance

_care should be taken to achieve an appropriate mix of different people, income levels, services, etc.

_demands of the local population

_the decision process should involve the participation of residents and users

_impact of changes

_ targeted information, gradual and reversible interventions on the phisical environment, organisation of events,etc.

_promoting events and cultural activities

_care should be taken to achieve an appropriate mix of different people, income levels, services, etc.

_edges of projects

_the proposal should encourage local sociability, which in a neighbourhood is essential to induce spontaneous surveillance

_continuity with the existing city structure

_continuity of urban texture and flows in order to enhance movements, which influence vitality natural surveillance

_continuity of the street pattern

_continue the street pattern of surrounding areas in order to avoid interrupting urban flows, which are important for vitality

_avoid creating enclaves

_the structure and the street pattern of a new development, should be planned to avoid creating urban enclaves

_provide good accessibility to the public transport

_ location of stops must be studied in detail: they must be reachable through dear and safe routes

_allow for some traffic flow on local streets

_slow and moderate traffic flows provide a valuable “eye on the street”

_proper functions enhance vitality

_vitality generators:schools, universities, public buildings, hotels and shopping areas,commersial and leisure activities

_mixed use generates vitality and natural surveillance _each has different working hours, requires specific services and support facilities and generates flows of people and goods Creating vitality

Avoiding physical barriers

URBAN DESIGN STRATEGIES Continuity of urban fabric Visibility Accessibility

Attractiveness

MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES Maintainance

Surveillance

_risk of conflicts among activities

_ foreseeable activities should be analysed in terms of their compatibility

_all-day-iong activities for vulnerable areas

_specific activity generators e.g. recreation, commercial, hotels, health centres in selected key locations

_time and calendar of planned activities

_whether the anticipated activities taken together provide a reasonable temporal continuity of natural surveillance

_existing waste lands

_recover existing waste lands, it is necessary to understand what caused them and which are the problems involved

_existing infrastructures

_overcoming infrastructure barriers with new safe connections

PROPOSALS

DESIGN STRATEGIES

_clear orientation of pedestrians

_grasp immediately the organisation of a site and to see what is ahead along a route is important to feel safe

_easy and safe walking through a site

_creating clear routes provided with natural surveillance

_landscaping, vegetation and sightlines

_ trees and planting should be selected and maintained so that they allow vIsibility from streets

_lighting

_Lighting is considered adequate if a face can be easily recognised at a distance of 15 m

_pedestrian routes

_ clear layout rather than relying on signage, sight views to the surroundings,avoid dark alleys and entrapment spots

_access for disabled people

_ramps,checked also in terms of crime prevention,they should be visible from streets,shops and windows

_friendly character of public spaces

_ public spaces should look friendly and refiect common sense rather than the designer’s footmark

_allow for spontaneous activities

_public spaces, in order to be attractive, should allow for many activities, both planned and spontaneous

_avoid nuisances

_elements of public spaces such as ramps to underground parking, fire escapes, garbage collectors can induse nuisance

PROPOSALS

DESIGN STRATEGIES

_attractive space for a positive atmosphere

_high level of maintenance contributes to a welcoming atmosphere, which satisfies the users and promotes respect for the site

_maintenance well adapted to the use of spaces

_manager’s resources should be adapted to the individual characteristics of the space

_special attention to vulnerable places

_ technical facilities are frequent and vulnerable targets: public lighting, electricity and telephone systems

_assessment of the different modes of surveillance

_means of surveillance should be evaluated and compared to possible alternatives in order to determine those best suited

18_Planning urban design management for crime prevention_Green backbones for the city of Varna_student: Katerina Dimova_thesis supervisor: Andreas Kipar_MSc in Architecture _ AA 2010-2011


17

18

19

K

17

18

19

K

17

18

19

K

educational activities

L

L

L

M

M

M

temporary instalations

underpass overpass N

400 400m m

green shoulders woodland

CONNECTIONS

bridge

N

topography of the area

17

cultural activities GREEN SHOULDERS

400 400m m

N

topography of the area

18

19

K

17

400 m

CULTURAL ACTIVITIES

topography of the area

18

17

19

18

19

K

K

sport activities

L

L

L

M

M

M

proposed bike path rent a bike point bike path PGT N

linear parks along the cannals

BIKE PATHS

400 400m m

N

topography of the area

17

LINEAR PARKS

SPORT ACTIVITIES N

400 m

17

19

18

18

17

19

K

K

K

400 m topography of the area

topography of the area

18

skate park

19

urban horticulture

picknic area childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s playground L

L

L

garden sunbathing area M

M

M

seating area transversal green connections

MONORAIL N

N

400 400m m

17

18

19

BREAK BREAK THE THE WALLS WALLS !!

K

N

400 m

17

18

17

K

L

L

L

M

M

400 400m m topography of the area

N

400 400m m

19

K

N

topography of the area

N

18

19

BRING BRING THE THE PEOPLE PEOPLE !!

PLANT A FOREST !M

400 m

LEISURE ACTIVITIES

topography of the area

topography of the area

topography of the area

bird watches

GREEN CONNECTIONS

400 m topography of the area

19_Project topics and strategies_Green backbones for the city of Varna_student: Katerina Dimova_thesis supervisor: Andreas Kipar_MSc in Architecture _ AA 2010-2011


The project links diverse spaces and merges the functionality of individual components into single composition.It consentrates on three crucial areas in the city, proposing different programs, according to the needs of the areas. One slow motion path, for recreational activities ,following the canals of the city,connecting the waterfront with regional parks. Second fast motion path, mainly for transport connections, following the main arteries of the city.Green backbones, connecting the focal points in the city center, mainly for touristic and commercial activities.The final image is of unique green system that makes the city permeable,brings environmental qualities,connects existing green and public spaces,rediscover new one.Development and saturation of the green system while maintaining the specific character of Varna, surrounded by green areas of the northwest and south.

“30 min by foot,I am already outside the city! what a magnificent view towards the sea!”

”sport in the nature - I love it ! “

“ finally can reach uni by bike not being worried about the traffic “

“ easy, fast and healthy way to go to work! “

“ just follow the green path and you will reach the main historical monuments “

22_Photomontage & birdview of the city_Green backbones for the city of Varna_student: Katerina Dimova_thesis supervisor: Andreas Kipar_MSc in Architecture _ AA 2010-2011


Thesis project