Issuu on Google+

backbones for the green

of Varna,Bulgaria city

katerina dimova _ 749404

tutors _ prof. andreas kipar valeria pagliaro, piera chiuppani

politecnico di milano _ master in architecture _ AA 2010 - 2011


Politecnico diMilano Milano Politecnico di Facolta diArchitettura Architetturae Società e Societa Facoltà di Course of studies: ARCHITETTURA Concentration - Landscape Architecture - MI Track: ARCHITETTURA Misfit agriculture and urban decontaminations.

Green backbones for the city of Varna, Bulgaria, . Agricoltura fuori campo,green decontaminazioni as generators of urban spaces and urbane multifunctional activities Thesis supervisor: Prof. Arch. ANDREAS OTTO KIPAR Stefano Boeri Thesis supervisor: Politecnico di Milano Politecnico di Milano Student: Katerina Dimova Matteo Umberto Poli Thesis co-examiners: Matr. 749404

Politecnico di Milano Carlo Ostorero Politecnico di Torino

A.A. 2010 – 2011 Student:

A.A. 2008 - 2009

Chiara Geroldi Matr. 720154


LIST OF DRAWINGS Page

Title

01_

Varna on the European map.Demographic and economic analyses

02_

Geographic,economic and historic analyses

03_

Geographic and demographic analyses of Varna,Bulgaria

04_

Focal points in the city and historic analyses

05_

Perseptive and social analyses

06_

Morphology of the city

07_

Morpgology of the city

08_

Project concept

09_

Project proposal

10_

Green backbones program

11_

Reference projects

12_

Manual for planning & construction of green infrastructure

13_

Manual for planning & construction green infrastructure

14_

Slow motion green backbone.Project area

15_

Analyses of the area and matrix for possible intervention

16_

Analyses of the area and matrix for possible intervention

17_

Analyses of the green system of the area and possible interventions

18_

Planning urban design management for crime prevention

19_

Project topics and strategies

20_

Masterplan of the area

21_

Project zoom in

21_

Conclusion


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page 01_ 03_ 04_ 05_ 06_ 06_ 08_ 08_ 10_ 10_ 12_ 14_ 16_ 17_ 18_ 24_ 34_ 36_ 38_ 40_ 42_ 44_ 48_ 50_ 52_ 55_ 57_

Title List of drawings Table of contents Abstract_english Abstract_italian General information about the city Morphology of the city General information about Varna Project concept Historical timeline Manual for planning & construction of green infrastructure Economy Population Culture Architecture Pereseprive analyses and problem of the different areas of the city Analyses of the green system of the city Proposal for green backbones Trajectory of the paths Charachteristics of the paths Manual for planting and construction of green infrastructure Plan for general development Reference projects Zoom in project - slow motion green backbone Project zoom in Conclusion Acknowldgements Bibliography


ABSTRACT Varna, Bulgaria is a city with great historical value, unique nature and economical importance, as the biggest port in Bulgaria and one of the ancient settelments in Europe. After analyzing the city we discovered that the three main layers-the waterfront, “Sea garden”, and the mainland are isolated from one other. The main percentage of green spaces, cultural and leisure activities are concentrated in the city center, the “Sea garden”, and the waterfront. The peripheral areas remain grim, low maintained, isolated, difficult to reach,often not secure and with lack of visual indicators. What is more is the increase of urban residents pressure of work and study enhances their demand of green space and public areas. The project proposes a network of slow and fast mobility, which makes the city permeable and brings environmental qualities to the area. The preliminary goals are to unite the different layers of the city through green infrastructure, connecting the main parks, green areas,the waterfront and focal points, leading to regional green spaces. The paths are uniting element, generator of activities, green areas, new alternative way of transport and backbones for future development. They attract along its course different worlds, give values to existing ones and bring new qualities to the area. The strategy is based on an overall understanding about the main characteristics of the city, the demographic features (population size, age structure, and social groups), its cultural, spatial, urban, environmental and historic characteristics. The project links diverse spaces and merges the functionality of individual components into single composition.It consentrates on three crucial areas in the city, proposing different programs, according to the needs of the areas. One slow motion path, for recreational activities ,following the canals of the city,connecting the waterfront with regional parks. Second fast motion path, mainly for transport connections, following the main arteries of the city. Third green backbone, connecting the focal points in the city center, mainly for touristic and commercial activities. We zoom in the first path, using the concept of “being green” and “being blue” ,working with water and green.The project gives basic indications for the possible interventions in the other areas. The final proposal is of three backbones crossing the city,from the waterfront to the regional parks,making the city permeable,bringing environmental qualities and creating unique green system.

_04


ABSTRACT Varna (Bulgaria), è una città caratterizzata da un grande patrimonio storico-culturale, da un particolare ed unico paesaggio naturale e infine da una solida e forte economia locale. E’ tra le più antiche città d’ Europa e rappresenta il più grande centro portuale della Bulgaria. Analizzando attentamente la città, è risultato che le tre più importanti aree della città, il lungomare, i giardini antistanti il mare, e il centro abitato sono isolati l’ uno dall’ altro. Il maggior numero di aree verdi, di spazi per le attività culturali e per il tempo libero che la città offre, è concentrato proprio all’interno di queste tre aree. La periferia è invece abbandonata a sé stessa, isolata, difficile da raggiungere e rappresenta di conseguenza un luogo poco sicuro in cui stare. A causa della mancanza di strutture facilmente riconoscibili succede spesso che le persone possano perdersi in queste zone. Inoltre l’ aumento di tempo libero dei residenti, lo stress causato dal lavoro e dallo studio accresce la loro richiesta di aree verdi e spazi pubblici. La proposta progettuale è quella di realizzare una rete di connessioni, sia lente che veloci, che renda la città facile da attraversare, e che possa portare ad un miglioramento della qualità dell’ ambiente. Il primo obiettivo che ci poniamo è di collegare le varie regioni della città mediante dei percorsi verdi che, connettendo i principali parchi e i più importanti punti di ritrovo, conducono sino alle grandi aree naturali della regione. Questi raggi verdi sono elementi di unione, rendono possibile la crescita di attività e di nuove aree verdi, permettono alle persone spostamenti più facili, e rappresentano la spina dorsale della città per futuri sviluppi. Quest’ossatura verde attrae lungo i suoi percorsi mondi e situazioni differenti, valorizza ciò che già esiste e migliora la qualità ambientale del luogo. La strategia di progetto si basa sull’analisi complessiva dei più importanti aspetti della città, le sue caratteristiche demografiche (numero di abitanti, età media, etnie e minoranze sociali), spaziali, urbanistiche, ambientali e storico-culturali. Ci concentriamo sulle tre principali aree della città, proponendo tre programmi differenti, in accordo con i bisogni delle diverse zone. Il primo percorso, seguendo i canali della città, è studiato per consentire lo svolgimento di attività fisiche e di svago. Il secondo permette invece facili e veloci spostamenti, collegando le più importanti strade cittadine. Infine il terzo attraversa i principali punti di ritrovo del centro cittadino, facilitando così la crescita di attività turistiche e commerciali. Inoltre è riportato un approfondimento tecnico del primo percorso, in cui si sviluppa il concetto di “being green” e “being blue”, lavorando con acqua e vegetazione. Sono anche date indicazioni per gli interventi nelle altre aree. La proposta finale è quindi quella di realizzare un “green network”, che collegando il centro cittadino al lungomare e ai suoi giardini crea un unico sistema.

_05


dedicated to my family...


Varna

is the largest city and seaside resort on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast and third-largest in Bulgaria after Sofia and Plovdiv, with a population of 334,870 inhabitants according to Census 2011. It is the administrative centre of the homonymous province and Varna Municipality. Commonly referred to as the marine (or summer) capital of Bulgaria, Varna is a major tourist destination, business and university centre, seaport, and headquarter of the Bulgarian Navy and merchant marine, as well as the centre of Varna Province and Bulgaria’s North-Eastern planning region.

GENERALINFORMATIONABOUTVARNA

_08


Geography and transportation The city occupies 238 km2 on verdant terraces ,descending from the calcareous Franga Plateau (height 356 m) on the north and Avren Plateau on the south, along the horseshoe-shaped Varna Bay of the Black Sea, the elongated Lake Varna, and two artificial waterways connecting the bay and the lake and bridged by the Asparuhov most. It is the centre of a growing conurbation stretching along the seaboard 20 km north and 10 km south (mostly residential and recreational sprawl) and along the lake 25 km west (mostly transportation and industrial facilities). Since antiquity, the city has been surrounded by vineyards, orchards, and forests.

Commercial shipping facilities are being relocated inland into the lakes and canals, while the bay remains a recreation area; almost all the waterfront is parkland. The urban area has an excess of 20 km of sand beaches and abounds in thermal mineral water sources(temperature35– 55 C ). It enjoys a mild climate influenced by the sea with long, mild, akin to Mediterranean, autumns, and sunny and hot, yet considerably cooler than Mediterranean summers moderated by breezes and regular rainfall. _09


HISTORICALTIMELINE

_10


E

C

O

N

O

M

Y

The economy is service-based, with 61% of net revenue generated in trade and tourism, 16% in manufacturing, 14% in transportation and communications, and 6% in construction. Financial services, particularly banking, insurance, investment management, and real-estate finance are booming. As of December 2008, the fallout of the global financial crisis has not yet been hard.

The city is the easternmost destination of Pan-European transport corridor 8 and is connected to corridors 7 and 9 via Rousse. Major industries traditionally include transportation distribution, shipbuilding , ship repair, and other marine industries. Varna forms the Varna-Devnya Industrial Complex, home to some of the largest chemical, thermal power, and manufacturing facilities in Bulgaria. Tourism is of foremost important with the suburban beachfront resorts of Golden Sands, Holiday Club Riviera, Sunny Day, Constantine and Helena, and others with a total capacity of over 60,000 beds (2005), attracting millions of visitors each year (4.74 million in 2006, 3.99 million of which international tourists ).

_12


The resorts received considerable internal and foreign investment in the late 1990s and early first decade of the 21st century, and are environmentally sound, being located reassuringly far from chemical and other smokestack industries. Varna is also Bulgaria’s only international cruise destination (with over 30 cruises scheduled for 2007) and a major international convention and spa centre. Economically, Varna is among the best-performing and fastest-growing Bulgarian cities; unemployment, at 2.34% (2007), is over 3 times lower than the nation’s rate; in 2007, median salary was the highest, on a par with Sofia and Burgas. In September 2004, FDI Magazine (a Financial Times Business Ltd publication) proclaimed Varna South-eastern Europe City of the Future citing its strategic location, fast-growing economy, rich cultural heritage and higher education


P

O

P

U

L

A

T

I

O

N

The first population data date back to the mid-17th century when the town was thought to have about 4,000 inhabitants. After the liberation in 1878, the first population census in 1881 counted 24,555. In 2011 the population is 334, 870. Varna is one of the few cities in Bulgaria with a positive natural growth (6300 births vs. 3600 deaths in 2009 ).

“Varna now draws about 30,000 new residents a year.� Financial Times

_14


C

U

L

T

U

R

E

Varna has some of the finest and oldest museums, professional arts companies, and arts festivals in the nation and is known for its century-old traditions in visual arts, music, and book publishing, as well as for its bustling current popculture scene. Over the past few decades, it developed as a festival centre of international standing. Varna is a front-runner for European Capital of Culture for 2019, planning to open several new high-profile facilities such as a new opera house and concert hall, a new exhibition centre, and a reconstruction of the Summer Theatre, the historic venue of the International Ballet Competition.

_16


A

R

C

H

I

T

E

C

T

U

R

E

By 1878, Varna was an Ottoman city of mostly wooden houses in a style characteristic of the Black Sea coast, densely packed along narrow, winding alleys. It was surrounded by a stone wall restored in the 1830s with a citadel, a moat, ornamented iron gates flanked by towers, and a vaulted stonebridge across the River Varna. The place abounded in pre-Ottoman relics, ancient ruins were widely used as stone quarries.Today, very little of this legacy remains; the city centre was rebuilt by the nascent Bulgarian middle class in late 19th and early 20th centuries in Western style with local interpretations of Neo-Renaissance, Neo-Baroque, Neoclassicism, Art Nouveau and Art Deco (many of those buildings, whose ownership was restored after 1989, underwent renovations). During the rapid urbanization of the 1960s to the early 1980s, large apartment complexes sprawled onto land formerly covered by small private vineyards or agricultural cooperatives as the city population tripled. Beach resorts were designed mostly in a sleek modern style. With the country’s return to capitalism since 1989, upscale apartment buildings mushroomed both downtown and on uptown terraces overlooking the sea and the lake. Varna’s vineyards, dating back perhaps to antiquity and stretching for miles around, started turning from mostly rural grounds dotted with summer houses, into affluent suburbs sporting opulent villas and family hotels, epitomized by the researched postmodernist kitsch.With the new suburban construction far outpacing infrastructure growth, ancient landslides were activated, temporarily disrupting major highways. As the number of vehicles quadrupled since 1989, Varna became known for traffic jams; parking on the old town’s leafy but narrow streets normally takes the sidewalks.


C E N T R A L PART O F T H E C I T Y The public areas in the city center are well mainained,well used during the whole days,providing place for different social,age and cultural groups. The monuments attact visitors and small commersial functions,what is missing is common public spaces,providing opportunities for open social & leisure activities The main monuments are isolated from onother,the connections between them have a random character and often the tourists feel ‘lost’ looking from one place to onother


_19


THES E A G A R D E N & W A T E R F R O N T The sea garden,bordering with the waterfront is one of the main qualities of the city.generator of green spaces and multifunctional activities. the sea gadren is the main place for leisure and recreation of the city.It is well maintained and 90 % of the inhabitants and tourist of the city spend their free time in these two areas. The Seaside Garden will always be associated with the name of the Czech Antonin Novak - a park designer specialized in the Vienna castles of Schoenburn and Belvedere. The 35 years old Novak was invited to Varna and he was assigned the post of a park director. Soon the Seaside Garden became known as the most beautiful park on the Balkan Peninsula. Little by little the territory of the park enlarged and in 1905 it reached to 90 decares. In some 10 years Varna was already established as a resort centre and the rest of the park was also electrified.


_21


P E R I P H E R Y

Moving slightly from the city center the urban environment changes.lack of save pedestrian roads,low mainainance and rarely we can find a cosy public space. The childrenplaygrounds and existing parks are full during the whole day,although there is law maintainace of the spaces.very often the green spaces between the residential areas are totally abandoned,raising security and decay problems. The need of the residence for public common space is obvious and very often they take the initiative and convert the space with minimum interventions _11


__12 23


_24


GREENSYSTEM OFVARNA,BULGARIA


GREEN SYSTEM

_26

Considering the green system of Varna, two of the main goals taken into the last PGT of 2010 are: _ Development of “sustainable” infrastructure transport (road,air,water), telecommunications, energy, water economy _ Care for nature conservation that dominates everywhere in the future “city in nature” preventive protection and conservation of natural areas and landscapes as natural places of recreation in the evolving urban structure Other criteria are: Preservation and enrichment of the basic resources of the green system by: _ Increase the biological activity of the urban environment by keeping all built and / or reserved by structural developments lawns and green areas and saturating them with vegetation _ Enrich the existing vegetation along the transport infrastructure and creation of new green shelter belts along the main urban traffic flows _ Protection from abuse and requalification of the canals passing thought the city, which provide natural landscapes into the urban fabric and lead to regional scale _ renovation and creation of new public green spaces in the housing estates _ Preserving the character of the landscape and its spatial elaboration _ Development of green system while maintaining the specific character of Varna, surrounded by green areas of the northwest and south, connecting through gorges the urban parks and green system _continuity of urban green and natural areas providing opportunities for: fresh air and ventilation, natural landscape in the urban fabric; optimum accessibility to the waterfront _ providing appropriate green areas for public use, reserving new areas for development of green system .Creation of new urban and suburban recreational parks.


_security / reservation of land for special green areas ( dendro-botanical park, zoo, amusement park, sports park), meeting the opportunities of Varna - European city with advance socio-economic development _ spatial development of urban green system while preserving valuable natural areas and biodiversity in urban areas, protected areas

The forecasted model (scenario) is built on the idea of the future city of Varna in 2020 2030 as a city with great amount of temporary inhabitants. The permanent population due to natural demographic processes and significant mechanical growth will reach 660 thousand inhabitants. The provisional population reached the highest number during the summer holiday season - 300 thousand people. Thus anthropogenic peak load reaches 960 thousand persons. What is more increase the temporary population which resides in Varna and in a long time outside the holiday season and becomes a semi-permanent population. This demographic picture reflects primarily on the residential,resort environment, and furthermore on the overall urban structure of the city. As we mentioned one of the priorities of the PGT is development of “sustainable infrastructure”building“soft” infrastructure crossing the city.It contains a pedestrian path , bicycle network,green areas and points of activity. Such a network can and should connect all points of social activity - secondary service centers, coastal areas, sports and entertainment sites, etc.

_28


Classification and aspects of development of the green system:

The functional aspect is determined by the function and purpose of green areas - associated with providing the necessary green space for public use, and environment to live and work in different systems of the urban structure. Aesthetic aspect is related to the image which creates the individual parks, and the green system as a whole on the urban milieu. The landscape aspect provides a green entry to the city and its organic links with the natural suburban areas, creating a specific design of Varna as part of a green wreath of northwest and southern forests, connected through gorges and parks throughout the city, leading to the “Sea garden” and the waterfront. The environmental aspect is related to: _increasing the biological activity of the city by increasing the green mass of vegetation _improving the environmental characteristics of the environment - isolation and filtering of nuisance from transport and industrial sites _reduction: noise, dust, sulfur and nitrogen oxides in air, providing environmental comfortable zones for living and recreation. The social aspect is towards satisfying the needs for a short rest, and by direct influence of micro-climatic and sanitary factors on the human health - green areas have on average prophylactic and therapeutic effect, have a positive physiological and impact on people. These aspects have an economic effect on the development of Varna, as tourism development is directly related to natural resources and social and health status have their economic dimensions with direct financial relation regarding the efficiency of the population and healthcare costs.

Norms and regulations for green areas

_ 3 0

Research shows that green areas necessary for the scale of city as Varna is about 20,0 m² / person public green areas (green for general public use), as to this area should be added 2,7 m² / p cemeteries and about 5,0 m² / p sports fields defined by regulatory requirements - or a total of 27,0-28,0 m² / person.


The elements of the green system of Varna are unevenly distributed, both within the compact city and around it.In the central part ,the most spectacular and valuable element of the green system is the Sea Garden, followed by a well-formed smaller gardens and protective shoulders near the big boulevards. The rapid development of the city in recent years, consumed a significant portion of green areas in which the city’s resort features are getting lost. Living and working conditions deteriorate, recreational facilities are compromised. In its present range the green system is 16.088 acres in the vegetative cover. Considering the 350 thousand permanent inhabitants of the city we obtain 46 m2 / person, which is an indicator of green power system. The amount of green space for general public use in m2 / person in the current situation is: _Public

green

areas

actively

used

by

population_3765.00 acres _Public green spaces within urban territory_3565.00 acres _ Urban parks, regional parks and micro parks _

2802.50 acres _ gardens _ 174.50 acres _street vegetation_588.00 acres

_ Areas in natural forest parks actively used for recreation_200 acres

Street vegetation:

The system creates a common frame and connects by a band the green urban parks, gardens and green spaces, leading to public buildings and their inner courtyards. Meanwhile, the street landscape is the most vulnerable,street trees are cut off due to projections of buildings, bay windows, open entrances to garages and patios.Destroed are urban green belts along major boulevards. In general, the city still keeps and maintains good linear landscaping with trees, dividing strips and pedestrian spaces.


The conduct of new roads of higher class establishes wide, 20 m resolution green strip between lanes. This new 9.7 km of streets are with total planting of 19.4 hectares. The construction of new streets serving new residential, industrial and suburban structures also provides linear landscaping. For parks is necessary to provide 15 minute isochron pedestrian accessibility (1,000 m) to

their limits (a requirement of the World Health Organization). This is an important indicator of environmental quality and efficiency of recreational green spaces on the standard of living environment. The plan is evaluated in terms of the following accessibility: _ public green spaces over 5 acres at 1000 meters accessibility _ public green spaces of local importance, less than 5 acres in accessibility to 500 m / isochron 4-7 minutes / The existing green areas over 5 acres in the urban core, are now insufficient, and do not cover the regulation in terms of 15-minute walking isochron.

Green areas in residential areas:

According to the functional structure,this section is referred to the inner living housing complexes as well as backyard garden of the villa in private housing areas, local entities and new residential structures. Green space in private properties also participate in the general frame of the green system, the green mass, as expected under the plan the creation of new 1888.6 ha under green cover, which enter into the green power indicator system. Much of the industrial areas are with well established lawns. Their purpose has become mixed multi-zone, which is a good prerequisite for the preservation of existing vegetation and long-term enrichment of the green spaces. _32


Gullies (canals) have nourished important ameliorative function related to the collection and disposal of surface water. In the - northern and southern part of the municipality, they are well structured and with preserved features. In many areas of settlement formations bordering Varna, gullies are significantly narrowed in some places destroyed and can not hold significant amounts of water in heavy rains. Gorges have other important functions: _ Create a vivid green ecopath which links the urban green areas to suburban and agricultural _-Improve the microclimatic characteristics of the city during the summer months, bringing fresh air to the city Under the regulation of the construction line of municipality of Varna buildings retire 20 m from the gully in the city and 50 m in forest areas. Ban on construction in the territory provided for security, construction of facilities away from midstream of the canal and making analysis of hydraulic conductivity. The anti-erosion forests on Frangensko slope remain without admission of massive construction and they allowed the construction of wooden buildings in accordance with the restrictions and arrangements of the Forestry Act. Other goals are: _ preservation of “naturalness�, removing and avoiding artificial effects _ stimulate and enhance the natural self-healing


PROPOSALFORGREENBACKBONES

_34


13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

K

L 4

M M M 11 16

7

$€¥ 1o 5

1

N

$€¥ 14

3

15

13

culture activities

9

2

sub-culture activities

8 12

6

O

M

P $€¥

0.5 km

0.5 km

1

archeological museum

5

varna art gallery

9

aquarium & sea museum

13

astronomic observatory

2

ethnographic museum

6

modern history museum

1o

national science museum

14

festival and congress center

3

bg national revival museum

7

palace of culture and sport 11 dolfinarium

15

drama theater

4

vladislav varnenchik museum 8 roman thermal baths

16

zoo park

12

navy museum

l_Green backbones for the city of Varna_student: Katerina Dimova_thesis supervisor: Andreas Kipar_MSc in Architecture _ AA 2010-2011

T R A J E C T O R Y OF T H E GREENP A T H S

_36


URBAN GREEN SPACE STRATEGY _Main _Visionobjectives _to achieve the municipal vision of ‘green and blue ribbons’

by developing an accessible and Protecting and developing urban green system,increasing the attractiveness by improving attractive network of green spaces and integrating them into accessibility,ensuring adequate quality and level of surfaces and preserving their environmental binding spatial planning concepts potential _to improve the city’s quality standards, adapted to users interests and new green typologies; based on sustainable maintenance, financial potentials and development concepts _Mission _to increase citizen participation in planning, building and maintenance activities in order to _ development of the central develop a greenpolicy and liveable green city city neighborhoods, raise the living standards in urban areas, including and by preserving existing and creating new green areas and ecosystems _ regenerating deprived areas and mixing functions and social groups within the urban structure, especially in areas of social segregation; _ careful management of urban ecosystems, especially with regard to water, energy, waste and noise pollution _The concept and main issues _ development of efficient and environmentally friendly means of transport which lead to sustainThe Green Backbones project proposes a network of slow mobility green belts pasing throught the able mobility city of Varna,starting from the waterfront,crossing the urban fabric and leading to metropolitan _ conservation and enhancement of cultural heritage scale. Taking an analysis of the city’s existing condition,problems,needs and requirements of the _to safeguard a network of good quality, well managed green spaces for citizens and tourists citizens, we identify a trajectory ,which connects the existing green and public areas,discover new with suitable facilities for children and handicapped people one and bring environmental qualities to the city.Injecting green and reinforcing the exising _to use green spaces to demonstrate the city’s historic background and local identity one,create a unity between the different layers of the city. The path connects the focal points,give _to ensure the existence of sustainable green spaces with high ecological value which are new identity to the place,breaks the infrastructure,providing new alternative ways of transport.The efficient in terms of healthy living and working conditions. Applying for adequate provision relationship with context, the ability to bring together multiple systems and hierarchies of public of leisure and sports facilities spaces, make up the important themes of this project which involves both public and private.

_Objectives and goals for 13the improvement 14

15

green areas

_to create easy connections with the waterfront and the sea garden _to give identity to the peripherar area _to resolve typical suburban problems (deficit of adolescent leisure facilities, social conflicts due to high density of prefabricated housing estates) _to protect and improve existing green spaces and their valuable natural habitats K and monitor an extensive and sustainable management system _to develop, implement _to develop a public parks for citizens of different ages _to improve the public accessibility and usage of the area through the provision of a path system _to implement the aims of the adolescents by creating a graffiti project at the venue (noise protection wall) _to ensure a sustainable maintenance regime for the area through public partnership contracts frastr. slow motion green infrastr.

_Challenges and L Problems

_the adjoining residential area is characterised by high density, social conflicts, a lack of 4 recreational facilities and missing connections to the hinterland. _there are few and low maintained footpaths and insufficient amount/poor quality of green spaces. M _a challenge to open up the landscape for leisure and sport activities in order to improve the local residential qualities and discourage people from moving away _problems of vandalism M _problems concerning people’s involvement and participation at the outset

M

16


FAST MOTION GREEN PATH FOR TRANSPORT AND COMERCIAL ACTIVITIES: SITE: following the main infrastructure axes of the city and the main flow of people.

The path connects the waterfront,the city center,passing though some key points of the area and leads to the most densified residential quarters. PATH 1 : 2,5 KM PATH 2 : 4 KM

KEY POINTS IN THE AREA: skate park, summer theater, luna park, economy

university,municipality of varna, city cathedral, central bus station, central cemetery, shopping malls varna,residential quarters

CONCEPT: following the biggest flow of people in the city the strategy proposes a green shoulders,as protective layer for the pollution and noise,with bicycle paths as alternative way of trasport.The new infrastructure will reduce the traffic problems of the city,bring some new green and public areas,renovate an old one and encrease environmental and ecological qualities if the city.The new motion path crosses the city verticaly proposing connections with the the horozontal paths from the PGT. 4 km / 32 min 2,5 km / 19 min

PROGRAM:

-protective green shoulders -fast motion movement-bicycle paths mainly for transport use -shopping activities -parks and green areas

IMAGE:

Create urban green atmosphere,with linear vegetation and line of trees.Regular character of the spaces,converting to more organic one,when penetrating in the minor streets and residential areas

G R E E N P A T H S W I T H D I F F E R E N TC H A R A C T E R

REEN PATH WITH TOURISTIC,CULTURAL AND RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES:

SITE: historical path of the city center,connected with the Sea garden and the waterfront CONCEPT:

0.90 km / 7 min 0.30 km / 2,6 min

.50 km / 4min

following the main touristic routes in the city we propose a path with cultural and recreational activities.It connects the waterfront,the sea garden and the main monuments in the city center,proposing a new tourist route,reviving existing spaces and introducing new one,mainly based on the concept of Varna as a tourist city

KEY POINTS IN THE AREA: historical monuments of the area,the sea 0.80 km / 6 min

garden and the waterfront

PROGRAM:

-slow motion movement mainly for tourist, cultural and leasure activities -shopping activities -parks and green areas

IMAGE:

_38

Work with minor interventions.Renovating existing public and green space.Consentrate on the areas near the historical monuments and give indication for the focal points on the path.Introduce bicycle path.


FAST MOTION GREEN PATH FOR TRANSPORT AND COMERCIAL ACTIVITIES:

SITE: following the main infrastructure axes of the city and the main flow of peo

The path connects the waterfront,the city center,passing though some key poin and leads to the most densified residential quarters. PATH 1 : 2,5 KM PATH 2 : 4 KM

SLOW MOTION GREEN PATHS FOR RECREATIONAL, SPORT AND LEISURE ACTIVITIES: KEY POINTS IN THE AREA: skate park, summer theater, luna park, econo

university,municipality of varna, city cathedral, central bus station, central ceme malls varna,residential quarters

CONCEPT: following the biggest flow of people in the city the strategy propo

2.6 km / 20 min 1.1 km / 8 min 1.3 km / 10 min 4 km / 32 min

shoulders,as protective layer for the pollution and noise,with bicycle paths as alte

SITE: the path follows the threeofcannals coming north from the city Frangenskoto plato.Theof the city,bring trasport.The new infrastructure will from reduce the traffic problems

path starts from waterfront,following the canals of areas,renovate the city,which have a great potential for green green and public an old one and encrease environmental and e and public areas.What is more,there is anif existing slow new motion infrastructure which low verticaly maintained qualities the city.The motion path crosses theiscity proposing conn and often interrupted.The new slow motion infrastructure the Sea garden,green sport the the horozontal paths crosses from the PGT. facitilies,the park of the Technical university and leads to metropolitan scale.The new infrastructure provides verticalslow motion connection,connecting with the proposed by the PGT horizontal ones PATH 1 : 2,6 km PATH 2 :1,1 km 2,5 km / 19 min PATH 3 : 3 km

KEY POINTS IN THE AREA: Science museum,Palace of sport and culture, stadium, Technical university

CONCEPT: Following one of the most potential parts of the urban fabric-the cannals,we create

greenbackbones,as generators for multi-functional activities,urban spaces and alternative way of transport.The path unites the three layers of the city-waterfront,sea garden and the city fabric,leading to metropolitan scale -protective green shoulders -fast motion movement-bicycle paths mainly for PROGRAM: transport use -shopping activities -slow motion bicycle paths both for recreation and transport use -parks and green areas -recreational activities -parks and green areas IMAGE: -sport facilities Create urban green atmosphere,with linear vegetation and line of trees.Regular character -children playgrounds of the spaces,converting to more organic one,when penetrating in the minor streets and

PROGRAM:

IMAGE:

residential areas

-reinforcing the wild nature following the canals,the project creates an image of a wild forest with organic shape and asymetric characther.Wild vegetation and botanical special enriching the estetic and visual charachter of the area.

FAST MOTION GREEN PATH FOR TRANSPORT AND COMERCIAL ACTIVITIES: GREEN PATH WITH TOURISTIC,CULTURAL AND RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES: SITE: following the main infrastructure axes of the city and the main flow of people.

The path connects the waterfront,the city center,passing though some key points of the

and leads to the most densified residential quarters. SITE: historical path of the city center,connected with the Sea garden and PATH 1 : 2,5 KM

the waterfront

CONCEPT:

0.90 km / 7 min 0.30 km / 2,6 min 0.50 km / 4min

PATH 2 : 4 KM

POINTS AREA: skate park, summer theater, luna park, economy following the mainKEY touristic routes inIN theTHE city we propose

0.80 km / 6 min

4 km / 32 min

of varna, city cathedral, central bus station, central cemetery, sh a path with culturaluniversity,municipality and recreational activities.It connects the waterfront,the malls varna,residential quarters sea garden and the main monuments in the city center,proposing a new tourist route,reviving existing spaces and introducing new one,mainly CONCEPT: following the biggest flow of people based in the city the strategy proposes a g on the concept ofshoulders,as Varna as a tourist city layer for the pollution and noise,with bicycle paths as alternative protective of trasport.The new infrastructure will reduce the traffic problems of the city,bring some KEY POINTS INgreen THEand AREA: monuments of the sea environmental and ecolog publichistorical areas,renovate an old onearea,the and encrease garden and the waterfront qualities if the city.The new motion path crosses the city verticaly proposing connection PROGRAM: the the horozontal paths from the PGT. -slow motion movement mainly for tourist, cultural and leasure activities -shopping activities -parks and green areas

IMAGE:

2,5 km / 19 min

Work with minor interventions.Renovating existing public and green space.Consentrate on the areas near the historical monuments and give indication for the focal points on the path.Introduce bicycle path.

PROGRAM:

-protective green shoulders

-fast motion movement-bicycle paths for Varna_student: transport use kbones program_Green backbones for themainly city of Katerina Dimova_thesis supervisor: Andreas Kipar_MSc in Architecture _ AA 2010-2011 -shopping activities -parks and green areas

IMAGE:

Create urban green atmosphere,with linear vegetation and line of trees.Regular character of the spaces,converting to more organic one,when penetrating in the minor streets and residential areas


MANUAL FOR PLANNING AND CONSTRUCTION OF GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE _the manual aims to determine a design method for the construction of all green paths

in the city,which form the new environmental green skeleton of Varna

DEFINITION OF GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE _ network of natural landscape assets

which underpin the economic, socio-cultural and environmental functionality of our cities.The green spaces and water systems which intersperse, connect and provide vital life support for humans and other species within our urban environments.Diversity system to relate other spatial forms and provide the city with ecological safety values. GREEN PATHS VARNA _ network of slow mobility starting from waterfront,passing though the city,following the cannals and the main infrastructure of the city,forming unique green system and leading to regional scale.The connection strategy gives value to existing spaces, some hidden or unknown, others degraded or simply excluded from urban life: a garden, a boulevard, a neighbourhood.

1.1_MAIN AXES - road

VEGETAT

COM 1_ma

pedes se canals people 1.1_roa 1.2_gre 1.3_are ing to

2_tran

usually functio suppo

3_gre

repres releva axis.

De We for

Starting from the distance between the two building fonts, evades : the width of the carriageway, the inclusion of green areas.Follow standard sections diversified in relation to the size of the green (from t

COMPOSITIONAL ELEMENTS _ CONSTRUCTION OF GREEN COM PA 1.2_MAI MANUAL FOR PLANNING AND the gen and 1_main axes - the mainInaxis 1_ma 1_main axes - linear parks crossing the city,consisting of continuou pedestrian routes,bicycle paths and areas,following : the traffic continues thought the pedes whole RE CONSTRUCTION OFgreen GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE canals of the city,main infrastructure with the biggest flow of areas defined below ( 1_1, 1_2, canals 1_3

al m

e m

_the manual aims to determine a design method for the construction of all green paths

people,the main form touristthe paths. path consists of : skeleton of Varna requirements in order to obtain people ah in the city,which newThe environmental green section 1_2 1.1_roads defined are: 1.1_roa section 1 _ 1 1.2_green area 1.1_ road - the elements that1.2_gre make DEFINITION OF GREENfunctions INFRASTRUCTURE _ network of natural landscape assets 1.3_areas with particular ( different activities, accorda) pedestrian path 1.3_are which theconditions economic, socio-cultural of our ing to underpin the existing and the PGT ) and environmental functionality b) cycle route-when the space ing toi cities.The green spaces and water systems which intersperse, connect and vital pedestrian p space onprovide the road,or life support for humans other species the within our urban environments.Diversity c) green areasystem -areas directly con 2_transversal greenand connections_ connections are 2_tran to relate other spatial forms and provide the city with ecological safety The areas will be provided in the d usually linear areas (streets) that bring in to the main axis .The usually values. c).Green will be added dependin function of the connections is to provide better access and to functio quent sections type GREEN VARNA network of slow mobility starting from waterfront,passing support PATHS the overall green_system suppo parks and green are though the peripheral city,followingareas the cannals and the main the city,forming 3_green -the peripheral greeninfrastructure areas are of1.2_structured 3_gre 1.3_areas with particular function unique green system and leading to regional scale.The connection strategy gives value represented by all the areas that fall within the scope of repres to existing spaces, some hidden or unknown, others degraded excluded green from 2_transversal connect relevance of the path and that are not crossed by the main or simply releva urban axis. life: a garden, a boulevard, a neighbourhood. axis. - re 3_green peripheral areas _40 green paths min 2 min 2 m min 1.5 m The traffic calming measures taken may be different, and

1.3_MAIo Depending


TION _ is chosen taking into consideration the existingspecies, the geographical charactheristics of the area and introducing n

CONSTRUCTION OF GREEN PATH _ MANUAL FOR PLANNING AND CONSTRUCTION OF GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE

g of 1_main axes - the main axis and the line of suitability for cycling / foot wing : the traffic continues thought the whole structure.They pass through different 1 _with 5 ection ow of1 _ 4 _areas defined below ( 1_1, 1_2,a1_3 ). Each typefor will the be section treated specific the manual aims to determine design method construction of all green paths requirements in order to obtain a homogeneity within the path.The parts in the city,which form the new environmental green skeleton of Varna defined are: 1.1_ road - the elements that make up the main axis accord- DEFINITION a) pedestrian OFpath GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE _ network of natural landscape assets b) cycle route-when the space is limited forand separate path we provide which underpin the economic, socio-cultural environmental functionality of our space ongreen the road,or pedestrian cities.The spaces and waterpath systems which intersperse, connect and provide vital green area -areas and directly connected to the main axes lifec)support for humans other species within our urban environments.Diversity system ons are The areas will be provided theprovide draft with of priority from a) to to relate other spatial formsin and thethe cityorder with ecological safety xis .The c).Green will be added depending on the space as defined in the subsevalues. and to quent sections GREEN PATHStype VARNA _ network of slow mobility starting from waterfront,passing 1.2_structured parks and the green areasand the main infrastructure of the city,forming though the city,following cannals eas are 1.3_areas withsystem particular unique green andfunction leading to regional scale.The connection strategy gives value of 2_transversal green to existing spaces, someconnections hidden or unknown, others degraded or simply excluded from main urban life: aperipheral garden, a boulevard, a neighbourhood. and connecting to the 3_green areas - requalificateing green paths min min22mm

pe ca pe 1.1 1.2 1.3 ing

2_

usu fun sup

3_

rep rel ax

min 2.5 m

minmin 1.5 m 2.5 m

epending on the remaining space will be diversified solutions . e apply the presented solution when the remaining space available r the green area is in between 3.0 m and 5.0 meters. 1.1_MAIN AXES - road

CO 1_

Depending on the remaining space will be divers We apply the presented solution when the remain green area is more than 5.0 meters.

cycle route . Depending ondistance the remaining space diversified solutions thewidth of the carriageway Starting from the between the will twobe building fonts, evadesfor : the inclusion of green areas.Follow standard sections diversified in relation to the size of the green (fro

IN AXES - park and green areas

neric green areas we provide pedesrtian and bicycle path.In the structured park we propose continuity of the parks and the ve us image of the structure.

section section 1_1 1_3

2m min 2.5 m min 2 m min min 1.5 m

section

min 2 m

IN AXES - areasThe with particular function ns. Depending onmeasures the remaining willdifferent, be diversified traffic calming takenspace may be and solutions.

m

Dependi


P L A N FORG E N E R A L DEVELOPMENT

Objectives: improve the quality of life and contribute to the attractiveness of the territory 1. Work for better environment - Use the potential of the green areas - Increase the pedestrian paths according to in accordance with the traffic flows - Introduce urban furniture, encouraging the use of public spaces and contributing to the esthetical qualities of the area - Requalification of dismissed green areas ,in particular, areas bordering with traffic, parking and dismissed areas 2. Work for urban quality of the space - consider the architectural and esthetic features of the area - improve the materials and take into consideration local materials and traditional use - importance of illumination 3. Give general criteria’s for good urban furniture - To emphasize on the viewpoints of the city and give esthetical qualities to it - Introduce abacus of the urban furniture - importance of illumination To be able to criticize and then increase the quality of public space we have to take into consideration several components of the urban fabric: _42


• street and pavement _increase the green areas and add trees _reorganize the borders and elements of protection _reorganize the pavement _use urban furniture and work on better illumination • street furniture _reduce typologies _reorganize typologies according to the function of the areas _reorganize the locality _increase the security factors and control • street railings _reduce typologies _coherent typologies with locations • bicycle parkings _reduce typologies _provide better focalizations • kiosks _reduce typologies _provide better localization _increase the control • signal stripes _regulate the signal colors _use more horizontal and less vertical signals _reorganize the vertical signals • technological urban furniture _reduce typologies _cordination with functions and activities _increase the quality and esthetic features • grille _reduce typologies _increase control and maintainance • cesate di cantiere _decorate and secure _compatible with the living areas and passages _information about the structures


REFERENCE PROJECTS

_44


Guangdong Greenway, Guangdong province, China “Greenways in cities should not be separated. A comprehensive greenway network in the Pearl River Delta will help improve its efficiency.” More greenways are to be built in downtown areas in the delta region, making it more attractive for residents to move between urban and suburb districts without using motorized transport, Fang said. The Manhattan Waterfront Greenway,New York,USA The Manhattan Waterfront Greenway is a 32-mile route that circumnavigates the island of Manhattan. The greenway builds on recent efforts to transform a long-ignored and derelict waterfront into a green attraction for recreational and commuting use. Wherever possible, it runs along the shoreline and thus reclaims the waterfront for pedestrians, cyclists, rollerbladers, and other users of nonmotorized transportation. The Manhattan Waterfront Greenway and other New York City greenways continuously improve the quality of life for New Yorkers by creating improved access to the waterfront and the open spaces throughout the City. The Midtown Greenway Minneapolis, Minnesota,USA The Midtown Greenway is a 5.5-mile long former railroad corridor in south Minneapolis with bicycling and walking trails. “No mere weekend park, it’s a bonafide transportation corridor that’s plowed in the winter, lit and open to bikers 24/7” South East London Green Chain,London,UK A network of footpaths link together many of the open spaces in South East London.This is one of the key strategic walks within the capital and it also links with other paths to create the Capital Ring - a continuous circular walk around London within 10 miles of Big Ben. The greenway,London,UK Running from Wick Lane in Tower Hamlets to Beckton, the Greenway is a traffic free route that passes by historical buildings and along peaceful waterways. The Greenway is an utterly unique stretch of east London that is a haven for wildlife. Capital Area Greenway, Raleigh, North Carolina The Capital Area Greenway System is a network of public open spaces and recreational trails which provides for activities such as walking, jogging, hiking, bird watching, nature study, fishing, picnicking and outdoor fun. The trails connect many of Raleigh’s parks and in many cases provide a complement to the recreational activities at the parks. Many of the city’s major ecological features can be experienced in their natural state along the Greenway. A major goal of the Greenway Program is to establish a closed network of interconnected trails. _46


Green loops, Denver, Colorado There are eight green loops in Denver,creating a unique green system for leasure activities and alternative way of transport. Carrall Street Greenway,Vancouver ,Canada is a major public realm, community building and economic revitalization initiative. The route will link north False Creek with the Burrard Inlet, completing a seawall loop around Downtown and Stanley Park, and connecting a series of parks, plazas and historic sites in Gastown, Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside and Chinatown.Beyond providing a pedestrian and cyclist-friendly transportation corridor, the greenway will also connect and build on the unique heritage character of these neighbourhoods, encourage active ground floor uses, and serve as a catalyst for economic revitalization and community development. Green Rays Milano: ‘‘The Green Rays project defines and promotes a network of slow mobility as a new green nerve within the urban tissue of Milan. The eight rays, one for  each area of the city, starting from the centre, branching outwards and flowing into a circular ring, which constitutes an urban green belt and will contain a pedestrian/ cycle path of about 72 linear km in length. From there the rays insert  themselves in the Metrobosco (Metrowoods) system on metropolitan scale. Taking an analysis of the city’s existing potentials as a starting point, we identified a trajectory – the green ray – able to attract and involve, along its course, a series of nearby and collateral worlds that discover through taking part in the process a renewed identity. The connection strategy of the Green Ray gives value to a set of existing spaces, some hidden or unknown, others degraded or simply excluded from urban life: a garden, a boulevard, a neighbourhood urban parks, those countless tiny spaces capable of offering a brief break from the metropolitan hyperactivity. The relationship with context, the ability to bring together multiple systems and hierarchies of public spaces, be it lawn or wooded, open or introverted, belonging to a water-system or infrastructure make up the important themes of this project which involves both public and private. ...In this “re-connotation”, the paradise garden of yesterday and the green rays of today aim to heighten the reflection and refined education of the senses. They indirectly pursue the defeat of consumerism and alienation. The garden, or rather Nature “that turns into thought” according to Rosario Assunto, demonstrates the natural/spiritual complexity of which we are a part and therefore teaches us that what is external to us is actually an expression of what is inside: the gardens are an extraordinary form of dialectic expression, they speak to us and observe us. Is this only a thing of the past? Of course not: the future is already under our noses in the works presented in this exhibition.’’ Guido Ferrara


ZOOM IN PROJECT _ SLOW MOTION GREEN BACKBONE

BEFORE... _48


AND AFTER


PROJECT ZOOM IN


_51


CONCLUSION


_53


I would like to express my gratitude to my supervisor, Prof. Andreas Kipar, whose expertise and understanding added considerably to my graduate experience. I would also acknowledge Valeria Pagliaro and Piera Chiuppani for their critical suggestions and patience during the reseach and the design process. Would like to gratitude to my employers Giampiero Peia and Marta Nasazzi for their understanding and support. To my lovely Italian “family� - Anna Chiara and Andrea, who took a great care of me during that crucial period. Last but not least would like to express my deepest love to my family, who has been supporting and helping me with great understanding during my years of education. Thank you! 21/12/2011, Milano

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

_55


BIBLIOGRAPHY •Niall Hobhouse ( 2005 ), Architecture is not made with the brain : the labour of Alison and Peter Smithson, London : Architectural Association • Sebastien Marot ( 2003 ) Sub-urbanism and the art of memory, London : AA Architectural Association • Marion Roberts & Clara Greed ( 2003 ) ,Approaching urban design : the design process, Harlow : Longman • Kevin Lynch ( 1960 ), The image of the city ,Cambridge, Mass. : MIT press • Mohsen Mostafavi, ( 2010 ) Ecological urbanism, Harvard : Harvard University Graduate school of design • Konstantinos Apostolos Doxiadis (1970 ) Ekistics, the Science of Human Settlements, Science, v.170, no.3956 • Jane Jacobs (1961 ) The Death and Life of Great American Cities New York : Vintage books •John Herington (1990) Beyond green belts : managing urban growth in the 21st century, London : J. Kingsley : Regional studies association •John Herington (1990) Beyond green belts : managing urban growth in the 21st century, London : J. Kingsley : Regional studies association •Marco Amati ( 2008 ) Urban green belts in the twenty-first Century, Aldershot ; Burlington : Ashgate •Plannign urban design and management for crime prevention handbook, ( 2006 )Politecnico di Milano,DiAP •James Q. Wilson (1982 ), Broken window theory, The Atlantic

* all isotypes in the project are from Gerd Arntz

http://www.gerdarntz.org

_57


Green infrastructure for Varna,Bulgaria