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The development of Italian migration and asylum policies, between Europe and the Mediterranean Ferruccio Pastore (FIERI) Migration. Taking a look beyond the “Safe Mediterranean� Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, Rome, 9-10 December 2013


My approach • A long-term perspective on the development of Italian migration and asylum policies • Main focus on exogenous determinants (as opposed to endougenous, domestic ones) • Two main fronts of interaction: Europe (EU and MS) and the Neigbourhood (SS and TS, mainly in the Mediterranean) • Problematic relation between these two external sides of Italian M&A policies • Understanding these geopolitical tensions now more important than ever F. Pastore (FIERI), KAS workshop, 10 December 2013


Two external sides of Italian M&A policies

F. Pastore (FIERI), KAS workshop, 10 December 2013


The founding phase (1990s): Domestic priorities and European imperatives 1990: Suppression of ‘geographical reservation’ and belated start in setting up a national asylum system 1990-1998: Lengthy process of Schengen accession linked with development of migration control apparatus Late 1990s-onwards: Quotas, regularizations and the struggle to set up functioning admission channels in a closed Europe F. Pastore (FIERI), KAS workshop, 10 December 2013


Competing sets of demands taking shape on both sides

Demand for burden-sharing

Pressure to stem irregular flows and co-manage legal ones

Pressure to control ext. borders and host asylum-s.

Demand for wider legal channels

F. Pastore (FIERI), KAS workshop, 10 December 2013


The phase of ideological securitization and the ambiguous relations with Europe (2000s) • Migration and asylum policies under the CentreRight: symbolical legislation, policy neglect and bureaucratic continuities • Bilateral cooperation on migration controls with North African regimes and ambiguous attitude of EU and MS • Italian openness to intra-EU migration and ‘Europeanization’ of Italian migration system F. Pastore (FIERI), KAS workshop, 10 December 2013


Economic crisis and Mediterranean instability: Italian migration policies at a critical juncture • Impact of the crisis on migration in Italy: persisting pull factors and declining integration capacity • North African tormented transitions and weakening of cooperative migration control regimes Emerging South-North M&A divide: growing demand fo solidarity, revived spectre of transit migration, crisis of Schengen Emerging South-North intra-EU mobility divide: the debate on 'benefit tourism' and risks of EU disruption F. Pastore (FIERI), KAS workshop, 10 December 2013


Fronts of growing intra-EU tension on migration, asylum and mobility

S pectreof andS/N

transitflow s M & Adivide

rtcepS foe dna N /S

flew ra te o iru s m m o tilb y id iv ed

F. Pastore (FIERI), KAS workshop, 10 December 2013


2 OPPOSED SCENARIOS and TURNING POINTS Scenario I: Re-nationalisation - Dismantling (or hollowing) Schengen - Just formal solidarity on mixed flows - Selective freedom of movement Scenario II: Upgrade of cooperation • First proposals of the Task Force Mediterranean COM2013 (869) • Single European Labour Market Turning points: - Most decisive EP elections in history - 3 pillars of Mediterranean future: Syria, Lybia and Egypt F. Pastore (FIERI), KAS workshop, 10 December 2013


PASTORE, Ferruccio "The development of Italian migration and asylum policies"