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DESIGN PROJECT - 2 Systems Design


By: Kartika Malpani | Strategic Design Management | PG 2012 | Guide: Srinivasarao Pattur


Date: 11th Oct 2013

I would like to convey my gratitude and sincere acknowledgement to a few people for their help and support during my Design Project for Systems Design in 3rd semester for course of Strategic Design Management. Firstly, I would like to convey gratitude and joy to Mr. Srinivasarao Pattur for his support, motivation and guidance throughout the project. Your inputs have helped shape our understanding of systems to a large extends. Also, thankful to Mr. Jignesh Khakkar, Mrs. Gayatri Menon & Mrs. Krishnesh Mehta for their insightful teaching and inputs during the course. Lastly, I wish to thank Mr. Bhavin Kothari for his motivation and consideration all the time.


Kartika Malpani SDM PG 2012

CONTENT Introduction to Systems What is systems| Approach | Boundary | Component | Relationship | Behavior | Interactions | Enviroment

Area of Interest Key Interest area | Reason | Understanding How does Information travel for users? Breakdown of “information system� Mode of information travel: Physical | Digital Factors: shaping core area of interest

How does information travel system through SIGNAGES? About Signage! Equation Analysis for signage as a medium Secondary Research: Understanding the Components | Current scenario | System breakdown

Understanding Banking Information System & Components Signage in banking sector Primary Research: Component | Stakeholders | Scenario | interaction Fieldtrip: HDFC | BOI | SBI

Insight generation + Opportunity Mapping Data Synthesis Analysis Ideation

Ideation + Impact


Introduction to Systems A system consists of a set of components that work as a whole to achieve a common goal. Understanding a system can be easier by taking the example of the NATURE, which is the most simplest but the vastest form of system and its existence. It involves in it multiple components including living (plants, animals) & nonliving (stones, water, rocks) etc which for an environment of existence with well-defined interactions between these components to achieve a common goal viz, balance and stability. Each system has a characteristic behavior that it delivers as an output generated by the input of various components associated with it. In case of the example here, we observe that the unanimous behavior of the complete system of nature is to be sustainable and cyclic in nature. Each system has a very fine line that decides it boundary. Sometimes it even hard to figure out the suitable periphery that circumscribes a system as systems exists in connections with many more systems around them and keep subtle associations with them in a micro view. But generally during a systems level project, it’s important to carve out the scope or boundary of the system.



System Thinking

Systematic Thinking

Systems thinking focuses on how the thing being studied interacts with the other constituents of the system, set of elements that interact to produce behavior of which it is a part. This means that instead of isolating smaller and smaller parts of the system being studied, systems thinking works by expanding its view to take into account larger and larger numbers of interactions as an issue is being studied. It produces many striking conclusion for dynamically complex systems which cannot be produced by traditional approaches.

A systematic process is often closely associated with critical thinking. In general the application of a systematic process is regarded as a means of management aimed at reducing the number and severity of mistakes, errors and failures due to either human or technological functions involved. Systematic thinking works in line works in line with these processes and has been a part of strategic planning with the changing environment to maintain quality.

Systemic Thinking Systematic thinking refers to an initiative to study systems from a holistic point of view. It is an attempt at developing logical, mathematical, engineering and philosophical paradigms and frameworks in which physical, technological, biological, social,cognitive, and metaphysical systems can be studied and modeled


BOUNDARY A system has a structure that contains components ( parts) which are related to one another in a direct or indirect manner. Everything outside this system is referred to as its surrounding and the line of segmentation that defines the system from its surrounding is called the boundary.

Component C1



SYSTEM A system is a set of interacting or interdependent components forming an integrated whole . Components are elements or a set of elements having relationships which are different from relationships of the set or its elements to other elements or set.

Relationships C1


R1 C2




A system has interconnectivity: the parts and processes are connected by structural and/or behavioral relationships.

Behavior INPUT




A system has behavior, it contains processes that transform inputs into outputs (material, energy or data)

Interactions S1


Each system will produce a certain behavior depending upon the relationships and component interconnectivity. There will also prevail connectivity between many systems working in collaboration with each other. The connectivity, inter or intra in the scope of a system are termed as interactions.

Environment SYSTEM


Systems theory views the world as a complex system of interconnected parts. We scope a system by defining its boundary; this means choosing which entities are inside the system and which are outside – part of the environment

System Concepts Environment and boundaries Systems theory views the world as a complex system of interconnected parts. We scope a system by defining its boundary; this means choosing which entities are inside the system and which are outside – part of the environment. We then make simplified representations (models) of the system in order to understand it and to predict or impact its future behavior. These models may define the structure and/or the behavior of the system. Natural and human-made systems There are natural and human-made (designed) systems. Natural systems may not have an apparent objective but their outputs can be interpreted as purposes. Human-made systems are made with purposes that are achieved by the delivery of outputs. Their parts must be related; they must be “designed to work as a coherent entity” – else they would be two or more distinct systems. Theoretical framework An open system exchanges matter and energy with its surroundings. Most systems are open systems; like a car, coffeemaker, or computer. A closed system exchanges energy, but not matter, with its environment; like Earth or the project Biosphere2 or 3. An isolated system exchanges neither matter nor energy with its environment. A theoretical example of such system is the Universe. Process and transformation process A system can also be viewed as a bounded transformation process, that is, a process or collection of processes that transforms inputs into outputs. Inputs are consumed; outputs are produced. The concept of input and output here is very broad. E.g., an output of a passenger ship is the movement of people from departure to destination.

Subsystem A subsystem is a set of elements, which is a system itself, and a component of a larger system. System model A system comprises multiple views. For the man-made systems it may be such views as planning, requirement (analysis), design, implementation, deployment, structure, behavior, input data, and output data views. A system model is required to describe and represent all these multiple views. System architecture A system architecture, using one single integrated model for the description of multiple views such as planning, requirement (analysis), design, implementation, deployment, structure, behavior, input data, and output data views, is a kind of system model.


Key Interest Area It’s the information world today, everything that has to do with any community, society, family, culture existence runs and rest only on sharing of information. This information can govern our personal, emotional, social, psychological, physical, professional world in every single step of our daily life. So, I choose my key area of interest to be “the information system”.

Understanding the system An information system is made up of many critical and some supportive components. It consists of a mode of travel, which can be both physical and digital. Information system runs and functions in and as an iterative loop. The provider & receiver keep changing providing either many layers to the information or skimming the information from the original piece of data/sound/visual etc. For clear understanding of the system, an equation is plotted to understand each component and their relationship with the others in the system.

HOW DOES Information travel to the user?? Iterative Loop








Feed back This flowchart explains the simple flow of any type of information within a system. It shows how the input from a provider is processed over a travel gap with the effects of 4 more components of feeder, influencer, medium and noise to finally provide a suitable output to the receiver. Once the information reaches the receiver or a set of receiver depending on the mode/medium of travel for it, it goes back to the provider through a set of feedbacks. Interestingly, the receiver once becomes the owner of a certain information than can

conveniently wear the hat of a provider for a progressive flow of this information to another set of receivers through a chosen medium forming it an iterative loop.

Provider: The initial source of the information is termed as a provider. By initial, we mean in a information system with a closed boundary.

Receiver: The end user you takes up the processed piece of information in the form of the output of the system. He may be a provider of another system of information.

Feeder: Sometimes the provider may not be the feeder but another entity who collects the information and feeds it to the system. It may not be the person who alters the information but only act has a carrier.

Influencer: He is the main element of change during the processing of the information. It is the catalyst that transforms the data or its representation in a certain way. Ex: government policies, Company secrecy rules etc.

Medium: The most important link in an information system is the medium through which it is travelling. It decided the state or form of a system. Also its reach to the audience can be clearly described by the medium through which it reaches the end receiver. There are basic two set of mediums for travel of information. Physical: Print | Signage | Word of mouth Digital: Media | Internet

Noise: All the factors which end up causing friction for the travel of information fall in noise. They are the disturbing agents for information to reach through its most ideal and genuine state. They are generally not controllable and occurs towards the last phases of the processing.

Feedback: It’s a important part of the system task flow. It provides balance in a system to a certain extend that the information is maintained and represented in its closest ideal form.

Modes of Information travel Videos Videos Television Movies Movies

Mobile Mobile

Media Media

Telephones Telephones

Radio Radio Social Networking Newspaper


Print Books




News Links

Internet Forums

Experience websites


Magazines Sign on roads



Signage Family


Word-o-mouth Teacher


Community head

Influential person



Organizational boards

FACTORS: shaping core area of interest as Signage Information System


Rural sector

Accessibility: Universal:

Signage impact both

Urban sector

has no dependency on technology or a physical store.

Present in every small activity performed in daily chores.

Updation: Has no proper updating or maintenance system or mechanism.

Literacy level: Caters to all

Non 25.6 %

Educated 74.4 %

Modes of Information travel Videos Videos Television Movies Movies

Mobile Mobile

Media Media

Telephones Telephones

Radio Radio Social Networking Newspaper


Print Books




News Links

Internet Forums

Experience websites


Magazines Sign on roads



Signage Family


Word-o-mouth Teacher


Community head

Influential person



Organizational boards


About Signage, Signage is defined as any kind of visual graphics created to display information to a particular audience. As far as, the history of signage dates back to when man first figured out a way to express him artistically. From the symbolic cave paintings of early human existence to the bright and modern digital city that is Tokyo, signs and symbols have always been used to communicate feelings, capture moments or advertise goods and services. Our first introduction into what we typically associate with modern signage is around the time of the Greeks and Romans. Usually made of stone or terra cotta, these signs used imagery more than text since many people were illiterate during this time. The signs depicted specific symbols to identify businesses like taverns and workshops that used raw materials like wood, leather, stone or metals. Early Christians used the cross to establish places to meet, while pagans used symbols like the sun and moon.

After the Dark Ages ended and commerce expanded, the need for signs grew dramatically. In 1389, King Richard III of England passed a law that any establishment that sold ale must place a sign out in front of its building. At first, these “trade” signs were fairly utilitarian, but soon signs where showing up with logos that included lions, dragons, shields and other popular symbols of the day. In order to keep pace with competitors, businesses realized that their signs needed to become more elaborate. Later, signs became larger and used more ornate materials. At the peak of “flamboyance” in the 16th and 17th centuries, signs were being created with hand-carved wood, wrought iron and gold leafing. As people increasingly began to congregate in cities, signs actually became a danger. Roads in urban areas were small and crowed with people, street vendors, animals and carts. Ordinances were established to control the size and placement of signs. In the 1700’s, both London and Paris introduced laws that forced signs to be removed or fixed flat against the wall. It wasn’t until the 18th century that new technologies like gas lighting, the industrial printing press and electricity began to shape modern signage. It’s at this point that businesses and artisans had even more options when creating signs and they began to realize how creativity played a role in attracting customers. World War II ushered in the time of mass production. Improvements in plastics made it easy and affordable to print larger quantities of signs. The creation of changeable signs (you know, the ones with the letters that always have funny misspelled words on them) gave businesses the opportunity to mix and change messages using a single sign. Today the sign industry is an estimated $50 billion dollar a year industry. There are hundreds of printable materials, colors and sizes. With all the changes and new technologies, one thing remains constant. Signs are still used as an effective way of communication.


Signage in Indian Context Signs are present in every single activity of life, from your room to your living room. Taking a walk simply in a park or a mall will be guided by various sign and symbols to provide us direction or instructions or sometimes warning. Every morning our daily run from our houses to our work places makes us come across many small and large signage systems in it. From the very moment we step outside the doors of our house and walk the street to reach the closest auto station or the metro station we come across the following signage systems  Traffic Signage system Then once we reach the metro station or the auto / bus stop to ascend our transport for the trip, we come across yet another signage system there,  Metro/Bus/Auto stand Signage system

Once the travel is over, we go to our organization for the respective task, which has its own code and system of information travel, be it a bank, school, factory or a corporate office, yet another  BANK/ School/ organizational Signage system Even when we go out for leisure or entertainment, each place has its own relevance, purpose and importance of signage system incorporated in it.  Malls/ Cinema/ Exhibition/ Amusement parks Signage system And thus its very clear that information flow through signage has seamlessly become a part of our everyday lives in a very deepest manner. We tend to ignore it very conveniently with the digital and scientific mediums taking over. Its is one unique form of information transmission which is easily accessible to everyone equally irrespective of whether the person is educated or un educated. They equally spread their utility in both the urban and rural setup with equal utility, and unlike other modes of information like internet, Media or print one need not have facility of technology or availability to a very big extend. Considering the Indian context of signage systems and their existence, it’s observed that the sensibility of people is missing towards them. Its is observed that India with its highest population is becoming a crowded place day by day with decreasing level of civic sense. The health of signage systems in India clearly reflect that in every subsystem it is incorporated. Starting from the Traffic control system, Public has very low level of respect and acknowledgement of the same. Information system which is installed to guide the driver to reach his destination has faced many nose dives in Indian scenario. Small and thin lane are mostly the ones that are the face of the disastrous situation on sign systems in India. In cities like Jaipur, Lucknow, Calcutta etc it’s a general feature to see multiple signboards with confusing information’s, some of them would be having half tore election poster or local advertisement pamphlet on them. This nuisance is at its peak during any festival or election time, with all the government or public sign boards stuck with some local, useless information making the traveler/ user/ locals experience bad. So many times you miss out the on a lot of important warnings like <No parking> boards and end up paying the penalty because of ignorance or lack of maintenance. Also when we go to government office in India, there is an obvious ambiguity of information, even

though we have plates and sign boards for people and task information but just as out human behavior, we tend to keep asking people where exactly we can find so and so, or how we could reach to a certain place when we are on roads. Even in big private organizations like the factories or corporate house, we get so lost in the big building and the perfect ambience that signage systems take a back seat there itself too. Factories and industries are in much better state, so to say, reason being the strict prohibitory and hazardous operations. For safety reasons one has to consciously observe the signs laid out and follow it religiously. But talking about malls and amusement parks again, we get swayed by so many colors, fancy offers and crowd that we generally have a hard time finding our way to basic amenities or even the exits. Taking a place of parking for all the big malls, one has to be very carefull while on steering wheel to not miss a surprise turn and also control the car against any surprise turn or car. Once we park our cars in the vast parking on our return to the same parking lot to find our vehicles we generally tend to lose the track of the place as our orientations might be different and also with so many cars around, the sins are not visible as they are placed on the walls behind the cars in a meek manner. Currently, Indian design fraternity has been a lot of work for developing a more stable and simple, self dedicatory signage system. Its important to address the issue of poor maintenance and Ignorance of people due to human behavior. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a problem mushrooming due to mixed root cause at both organizational level and people/ users behavior level. The signage system for information has a huge scope to be worked on and I decided to take it up as my core for the systems design project.

HOW DOES Information travel through a Signage System??

The basic equation model of information travel is same as we discussed remains the same but the detail study of each component involved will show the deeper and micro understanding about the system, issues, concerns and concepts. Interestingly observed that if itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a foolproof signage information system prevails in reality then feedback and the iterative loop ( where the receiver once become the provider to help out other people) are actually same operation doing the same task.

Iterative Loop








Feed back


Component Study: Provider Color restriction Disability

Recreational Places Size (maps) Kids attention Weather

Smooth navigation Emergency Policy orientied


Information: Direction, safety, fun, ride details, ticket.

Hotel Restaurants Playful & fun context Service driven Comfort driven Limited and categorical footfall

Internal System

Directional Information

Small counters confusion Lack of understanding of operation & designation

Post offices

Animal details Prohibited areas & actions Damage due to weather

Location direction

Passenger Orientation


Dynamic metro running Info Useable details

Old installation

Metro Station


Proper maintenance Induce cleanliness

Bus | Auto stops


Typography (Icon)


Indoor system

Malls Exhibition


Size dependent

Parking lot


Task oriented

Crowd & proximity of vision

Poster problem

Disciplined environment Human behavior

Too many colors Huge space




Traffic Signals

Lingual Problem Incomplete Info

Public Toilets Poor travel system

Ticket counter Bus placement details @ loc. Cluttered shops Large Infrastructure

Basic layout problem

Complex commodity layout

Passenger orientation

Mixed passenger interaction

People Behavior Weathering effects Missing links

bus Info

Dynamic Information system

Streets Roads

Size is vast


Basic layout

Dynamic Train run Information Complex commodity layout

Railways Station

Component Study: Influencer













Legal issues







Ambient Atmosphere



Bio factors






Human factors










Component Study: Medium <Signage>



















Minimalistic Comprehendible Universal Simple










Font type


Component Study: Feeder Location Maintenance Installation time Purpose

Standardization Quality Complaints


Cost Implication




Ergonomics Content/icon


Machine | Tool Accuracy

Paint/ surface finish Weather

Infrastructure Factory / Plant

Quality Check



Storage Workers

Installation cost Maintenance cost Dimensional accuracy

Component Study: Disturbing Agents <Noise>

Implementation fault



Unpredictability Limitation in some cases

Free display Place

Election Poster



Cheap Promotion

Over Information



Vandalism No Vigilance

Human Behavior


Poor Maintenance Curiosity Power Ignorance Awareness

Grasped No proper system Uncontrollable Usage No feedback platform

Excitement to do the prohibited Self Interest

Component Study: Receiver

Improper Pre Usage

Disturbed Post Usage


Iterative Loop



Human Behavior Curiosity


Experience Surrounding



Power Ignorance

Physical Characteristic


Disability Confusion Limitation

Past experience


Some Snapshots from Indian Banks,

Many people at a single counter, some for work and some for inquiry. There is no queue or order.

A client asking a women employee for inquiry about loan whereas her duty is for fixed deposits

The confused guard who also volunteers to provide you guidance when you stepping inside the bank.

Field Trip: HDFC Branch office L o c k e r s

1. High Order Transaction 2. Complains 3. Wealth Management Customer

Server Room

Branch Manager

Way to FLOOR 2

1. Account opening 2. Customer Service 3. Fixed Deposit

1. Account opening 2. Customer Service 3. Fixed Deposit

Personal Banker

Personal Banker

Security | Waiting



L o c k e r s

1. 2. 3. 4.

May I help you?

Cash Deposit Cash Withdrawal Pay Order Foreign Exchange

Banking Kiosk

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Drop box

Account Info Product Info ATM/ Debit Cards Check Books Credit Cards



Field Trip: SBI Branch office Asst. Manager (Advances)

1. Processing for Account opening 2. General Inquiry

May I help you?


Drop box


Account Opening

1. High Order Transaction 2. Complains 3. Wealth Management Customer

L o c k e r s

Branch Manager


Forms Personal Banker


Asst. Manager (Branch operations)

5. 6. 7. 8.

ATM Query Locker Opening Internet Banking Mobile Banking

Personal Banker

1. 2. 3. 4.

STDR/TDR Clearing Acct Opening Internet Banking

Personal Banker

Personal Banker

1. Receipt Payment 2. Draft 3. Transfer

4. Receipt Payment 5. Passbook Printing 6. TDR/STDR

Field Trip: Bank of India Branch office Asst. Manager (Advances)

3. Processing for Account opening 4. General Inquiry

May I help you?

Loans Security

Account Opening

4. High Order Transaction 5. Complains 6. Wealth Management Customer

L o c k e r s


Branch Manager

Drop box

Forms Personal Banker


Asst. Manager (Branch operations)

9. 10. 11. 12.

ATM Query Locker Opening Internet Banking Mobile Banking

Personal Banker

5. 6. 7. 8.

STDR/TDR Clearing Acct Opening Internet Banking

Personal Banker

Personal Banker

7. Receipt Payment 8. Draft 9. Transfer

10. Receipt Payment 11. Passbook Printing 12. TDR/STDR

Stakeholders: Distribution of Stakes for a better signage system







Primary Recipient

Clarity of job

Government/ Private

Operational freedom

No distraction during work due to frequent queries by visiting user.

Efficient working environment

Ease of Banking Fastest Transaction time Clear & Crisp navigation Security in transaction Improved Experience

Efficient working environment Pride of system

Customer Satisfaction Increase in customer association

Operation Criticality & Frequency: According to the stakeholder     

Account Opening Cash Deposit Cash Withdrawal Passbook Printing Check related

  

Debit card related Credit Card related Drafts

Percentage Breakdown

63 %

“Most performed Operation”

28 %

“Frequent Operation”


“Occasional Operation”


   

Loans Internet banking Locker Service Sales & Product Information


Insights During the fieldtrips to the bank of both the category: public & private, some major system based problems were observed. These observations are a mix of participatory research technique and personal interview with the stake holder (User + Employee). The observations which acted insightful and can be acted upon as a leverage or fulcrum to direct the system to attain an environment of stability and smooth functioning of information travel through signage. Most of the insights are derived from the human behavior, approach and tendency to obtain constant sense of security and assurance from the organization by simply asking people and being ignorant to the subtle presence to sign boards, hoarding, layouts in banking sector. This provides them a sense of added security and satisfaction. The observations are: 1. Its was found that out of the regular footfall in the banks, the percentage shows that

     

Salary People : 70% Shop or company owners : 20% Senior Citizens: 4% Housewives: 1% Business people : 4% Students : 1%

2. While entering in the back, the first person(touch point) a user meet is the employee with whom he has the most casual relationship, irrespective of the fact that their operation might need them to consult someone in some other department. 3. For most new comers/ new customer employees/ students it’s difficult to place the formal system of bank in their mind. They are sometimes not aware of the many jargons and terms used in banking. They also have lack of information or awareness of the operation/ task and its purpose and relevance. So they have a general tendency to either end up at wrong counters or end up asking something from a relatively friendly face. 4. In one 2 of he banks viz; Bank of India, State bank of India that instead of having a enquiry desk/ help counter at the entrance, everyone was still going to the counter with a female employee and end up asking the question. 5. Some times at the initial Inquiry desk, there is no designated person sitting but the security guard. He when you ask them something have no information or half information and ends up guiding out of chance. 6. There is generally a tendency observed that once in there is a que for a particular task then it generates conversations and builds a lot of noise and chaos. This needs to be brought into control as it kills the entire experience of banking.

Opportunity Mapping: at receiver end Improper Pre Usage

Disturbed Post Usage

Opportunity 1

Iterative Loop

Implementation Perceived

Human Behavior


Opportunity 2



Grasped Surrounding Overlapping

Physical Characteristic Disability Confusion Limitation

Opportunity 3

Past experience


Concept Looking at the current health of the system during primary, secondary research and fieldtrips, its very clear that the health of the system is critical and needs strategic design interventions to recuperate and turn into a well structured, independent and fool proof system of information travel through signage in banks When, I tried to understand the basic component system involved in his travel, it was found out that the major need of support and ideation is required at the receiver level. As prominently, its been coming out during the research that, in the end no matter how nicely you express and lay out signs, there is still a sense of unpredictability by user. My concept revolves around 3 basic area of implementation, 1. Human behavior : Opportunity 1 2. Experience : Opportunity 2 3. Physical Characteristic : Opportunity 3

Raw Material +

Raw material

Technology +

Strategic Input =


Proposed Concept Idea Summary: To reconstruct human behavior of the customer by providing 1. Trusted humanized guidance touch points at the entry of the system, 2 utilize technology to set up internal bank information system based on real time data 3. Providing a simpler + task based organized + quickly comprehend able visual signage information system 4. which generates smooth, productive and delightful banking experience for user.

1. Trusted humanized guidance WHY


No matter how many boards you put or information you display, Indians as typical consumers are always prone to be dependent of a guarantee (trusted person) to get assurance of a job.

Introducing a reception/counter at the entry of the bank with a female attendant (more gentle and assuring nature) who listens and guides user to his specific task flow/ concerned person/ block.

IMPACT No confusion for the first timers Smooth navigation to desired location Ease of banking

2. Technology base real time bank information system: only status HOW


By providing at code based system that informs the reception counter about the current satatus of their workstation (free-busy), which the user is feeded with and directed to the desired operation location.

Highest order of systematic flow of crowed

WHY To avoid and more confusion about where to go, and then reach to various people to confirm. Get rid of noisy ques Internal chaos

Better working environment Security by controlled intake of people in the premise

3. Simplest ~ Organized ~ comprehend able task based signage information system WHY We only know the name of operation but are un awared about what all to do, where to meet, what documents we need. How much processing time involved. To kill the confusion!

HOW Our signage Info system has,     

Operation Duration Documents Criticality mark Incharge

IMPACT This information will be in the most simple form refrening to only the required field – overloading. Crisp snapshot for the user Reduces transaction time

4. Delightful Banking Experience WHY Banks are last places you want to visit Confusing Boring Waste of time


HOW By a humanized soomth navigation system guiding you to just the correct counter. Self intiated operational approach oweing to crisp instructions

Easier and elating experience Iterative loop Trust Inculcation organized system behaviour

What the solution Offers?

Quick Delightful Experience


Overall IMPACT The strategic offering to the system by this concept can be represented in the 3 major levels of Impact to the user.



Happy banking ~ Thank You!!


Systems Design

System Design  
System Design  

Information system in banks through signages