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Table of Contents SECTION 1: A NEW DEAL FIGHTS THE DEPRSSION ............................................. 3 Electing Franklin Delano Roosevelt ...................................................................................... 3 Wating for Roosevelt to Take Over....................................................................................... 3 The Hundred Days ................................................................................................................. 4 An Important Fireside Chat .................................................................................................. 4 Regulating Banking and Finance......................................................................................... 4 Rural Assistance .................................................................................................................... 5 Providing Work Projects ........................................................................................................ 5 Promoting Fair Practices ....................................................................................................... 6 Food, Clothing and Shelter ................................................................................................... 6 The Supreme Court Reacts ................................................................................................... 7 Three Firery Critics ................................................................................................................. 7

SECTION 2: THE SECOND NEW DEAL TAKES HOLD ............................................ 9 The Second Hundred Day .................................................................................................... 9 Reelecting FDR ...................................................................................................................... 9 Helping Farmers .................................................................................................................... 9 Roosevelt Extends Relief ..................................................................................................... 10 Improving Labor and Other Reforms ................................................................................. 11

SECTION 3: THE NEW DEAL AFFECTS MANY GROUPS ..................................... 13 The New Deal Brings New Opportunities ........................................................................... 13 African- American Activism ............................................................................................... 13 Native Americans Gain Support ........................................................................................ 14 FDR Creates the New Deal Coalition ................................................................................ 14

SECTION 4: CULTURE IN THE 1930S ................................................................... 16 The Lure of Motion Pictures and Radio............................................................................... 16 The Art in Depression America ........................................................................................... 18

SECTION 5: THE IMPACTS OF THE NEW DEAL ................................................... 21 Supporters and Critics of the New Deal ............................................................................. 21 Expanding Government’s Role in the Economy .............................................................. 21 Protecting Workers’ Rights .................................................................................................. 22 Banking and Finance.......................................................................................................... 23 Social Security..................................................................................................................... 23 Rural Scene ......................................................................................................................... 23 The Environment .................................................................................................................. 23

GLOSSARY ......................................................................................................... 25

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Chapter 23 The New Deal Section 1: A New Deal Fights the Depression Electing Franklin Delano Roosevelt Many Americans felt depression about Hoover, that’s why they wanted to change the new president. They wanted to replace Hoover by Franklin Delano Roosevelt who was president Theodore Roosevelt’s cousin. FDR had proved to be an effective which were reform – mind leader and working to combat the problems.

Waiting for Roosevelt to Take Over While FDR wait until 1933, he worked with team of carefully picked advisers. He started with a New Deal program which focus on three goals: relief for the needy, economy recovery, and financial reform. 3|Page The New Deal


The Hundred Days Lasting from March 9 to June 16, Roosevelt administration launched a period known as Hundred Days. This congress passed more than 15 major pieces of New Deal legislation. On March 5,1933 Roosevelt declared a bank holiday and closed all of them to stop people from taking out more money because of wide spread bank failures. An Important Fireside Chat On March 12, before the first bank reopen, Roosevelt explaining in clear, simple language about his New Deal. He explained why the nation welfare depended on the public support government and the bank system.He also said the bank fail not because they were weak, but even the strong banks could not meet such heavy demands. Few weeks later, many Americans returned their saving back to the bank.

Regulating Banking and Finance Congress took another step to pass the Glass – Steagall Act in 1933, established FDIC. It provided federal insurance for individual bank accounts. The Federal Securities Act passed in May 1933, required to provide complete information on all stock. In June 1934, Congress created the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to prevent people with inside information about companies from “rigging” the stock market of their own profit. In addition, Roosevelt wanted to approve a bill allowing the manufacture and sale of some alcohol. End 1933, the 21st Amendment had repealed prohibition altogether.

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ďƒžRural assistance The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) sought to raise crop prices by lowering production.

Government achieved by paying farmer to leave every acres of land unseeded. It also paid cotton growers $200 million to plow under 10 million acres of their crop and paid hog farmer to slaughter 6 million pigs. That led to the hunger that many Americans had to suffered. Focus on the badly depressed Tennessee River Valley, the TVA created thousands of jobs, and provided flood control. ďƒžProviding Work Projects The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) put young man from 18 to 25 years old to work building roads, developing parks, planting trees. It supplied free food and uniforms. In period of 8 years, the men of CCC planted more than 200 million trees 5|Page The New Deal


preventing another Dust Bowl. The PWA which created in June 1933 was a part of the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) provided money to states to create jobs. Roosevelt established the Civil Works Administration in November 1933 when that program failed. It provided 4 million immediate jobs during winter. Although some critics claimed that this program was wasting a lot of money, it also build more than half a million miles of road. ďƒžPromoting Fair Practices The NIRA promoted industrial growth by establishing codes of fair practice. It created the NRA to set up prices of many products. Its aim was to promote recovery by interrupting the trend of wage cuts, failing prices, and layoffs. The codes of fair practice representatives of workers and consumers. Many business and politicians were critical of the NRA. There were charges the code served large business interests and increasing code violations. ďƒžFood, Clothing, and Shelter The HOLC provided government loans to homeowners. The 1934 National Housing Act created the Federal Housing Administration. The Federal Emergency Relief Administration provide direct relief for the needy. Half of the money was given to the states, the rest of it was distributed to states to support work relief programs. Harry Hopkins believed that money helped people buy food, gain confidence and respect.

By the end of the Hundred Days

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President Roosevelt

Many critics argued that the New Deal did not help the poor and reform the economic system. The Supreme Court Reacts By the mid 1930s, conservative opposition to the New Deal had received a boost from two Supreme Court decisions. In 1935 the Court struck down the NIRA as unconstitutional. In the following year, the Supreme Court struck down the AAA on the grounds that agriculture is a local matter and should be regulated by the states rather than by the federal government. Afraid about the Court’s decisions could affect the New Deal, Roosevelt proposed in February 1937 that congress enacts a court reform bill to reorganize the federal judiciary and allow him to appoint six new Supreme Court justices. Over the next four years, because of further resignations, Roosevelt was able to appoint seven new justices. Three fiery critics In 1934, some of strongest conservative opponents of the New Deal banded together to form an organization called the American Liberty League.

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A physician named Dr. Francis Townsend believed Roosevelt wasn’t doing enough to help poor and elderly, he would provided monthly benefits to the aged.

Huey Long

Long created a program called Share Our Wealth and promised something for everyone. At the same year, Long was assassinated by a lone gunman. Roosevelt knew more needed to be done to help people and to solve the nation’s economy problems. (Go to page 24 for vocabulary)

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Section 2: The Second New Deal Takes Hold The Second Hundred Day Continue the successful of the first Hundred Day New Deal, the President Roosevelt open a second activity called the Second Hundred Day. This activity mostly focused on farmers and workers by passing many laws that are more complete and helpful than the old ones.

Reelecting FDR: In 1936, presidential election was opened to choose the president for a second term. The winner belongs to the President Roosevelt with high votes in Democrats.

Helping Farmers: 9|Page The New Deal


The Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act replace with the Agriculture Adjustment Act to help the farmers and improved crop production. They also passed a second Agriculture Adjustment Act (AAA) without processing tax for farm subsidies. In addition, they provided loan money for workers and farmers to buy land through the Farm Security Administration (FSA).

ďƒžRoosevelt Extends Relief Works Progress Administration (WPA) was passed to create and give jobs to unskilled workers as soon as possible. Not only this program helped more than 8 million unskilled workers got a job but also it helped the country to constructed or repaired 651,000 miles of road and streets, build 850 airports and more than 125,000 buildings. To help people knew more about WPA, they tried to write guides to cities, collect historical slave narratives, paint on the school’s wall and performed around the country. Moreover, they also opened another program named National Youth Administration (NYA) to provide education, jobs, guides and entertainment for young people.

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ďƒžImproving Labor and other Reforms For the workers, they reform another act named Wagner Act to protect the right of workers and set up National Labor Relations Board to hear what they say about unfair practices. The government also gives workers the maximum hour per week and minimum wages an hour by passing Fair Labor Standards Act For the retirees, unemployment and people with disabled, they passed the Social Security Act to help them with pension and aids. Finally the government expand and regulating utilities by financing money and worked with electricity.

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(Go to page 24 for vocabulary)

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Section 3: The New Deal Affects Many Group The New Deal Brings New Opportunities The New Deal gave not only some important opportunities but also some difficulties for women. Indeed, they held some important positions in government. For example, Frances Perkins became the first female cabinet member. She created the Social Security system and supervised labor legislation. Two female diplomats and a female federal judge were also appointed.

Frances Perkins But women were still discriminated by male workers and other groups. They were hired fewer than men and had lower minimum wages. African – American Activism African Americans joined the civil right movement to support Roosevelt and the New Deal. More than 100 African American were appointed to key government positions. One of them was Mary McLeod Bethune, who headed the Division of Negro Affairs of the National Youth Administration. H. Hastie and C. Weaver were appointed to Roosevelt’s Department of Interior. A. Philip Randolph organized the first all-trade black union. Marian Anderson’s performance was also noticed.

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Mary McLeod Bethune

Marian Anderson

Roosevelt still failed to support civil rights. He refused a federal anti-lynching law and an end to the poll tax. African Americans were clearly discriminated from NRA, CCC, and TVA. To protect tenant farmers and sharecroppers, increase job opportunities, tenants’ groups were organized.

Mexican American Fortunes This ethnic group had fewer benefits then African Americans, although supporting New Deal, too. Most of them work on farms and were unprotected by state and federal laws. They were discriminated by CCC and WPA, also being prevented from trying to unionize. Native Americans Gain Support Different from other groups, Native Americans received strong government support from New Deal and full citizenship by law in 1924. In Indian affairs, John Collier was appointed as the commissioner, who helped created the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 to support Native Americans. Some individual landowners objected the act. FDR Creates the New Deal Coalition

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An alignment of groups called New Deal Coalition was created to support the Democratic Party. The New Deal also helped the labor union members to have better working conditions, increase bargaining power, and supported Roosevelt’s reelection. Their members grew from 3 to more than 10 in 1933-1941. Some AFL formed the Committee for Industrial Organization, what then changed to the Congress of Industrial Organization (CIO). However, the disputes among labor still continued. The sit-down strike was used as an effective bargaining tactic in labor movement. The dispute at the Republic Steel in Chicago in 1937 became the Memorial Day Massacre when ten killed and 84 wounded, and that required the negotiation with union.

In 1936, President Roosevelt was reelected by the strong supports for Democratic Party. They are from urban voters in large cities, especially in the North, and from various religious, ethnic groups. He appointed many urban-immigrant officials, made persuasive appeals that based on New Deal labor laws and work-relief programs to reinforce his support.

(Go to page 24 for vocabulary)

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Section 4: Culture in the 1930s

During the New Deal, movement of pictures, radio, art, and literature strongly blossomed. The Lure of Motion Pictures and Radio

The radio and film industries flourished although the 1930s were a difficult time for many Americans. At that time, approximately 65 percent of the population participated in watching movies once a week. Radio was owned by nearly 90 percent of all America households.  Movies provided wacky comedies, entertaining musicals, love stories, drama, and gangster films. Later on, Hollywood, the film industry’s center came and 16 | P a g e Written by Natalie, John, Tom, Jennis and Karla


developed the “talking” pictures films in order to finish the period of silent films. They also support to identify with a new era of sophistication and glamour. There are several films which presented wealthy, funny, and romantic visions helped audience to escape from the hard realities of the Depression. Gone with the Wind was one of the most common and famous films of the era.

GONE WITH THE WIND

 Radio also incarnated the democratic spirit of the times. Families typically assembled several hours a day by their radio so as to pay attention together to their favorite shows. Orson Wells who was an actor, director, producer, and writer created one of the most renowned radio broadcasts of all time, “The War of the World's” in 1938. Soap operas were played for homemakers broadcast in middle of the day, while children’s programs were showed after school hours. Some immediate news coverage became customary in society.

The comedy couple George Burns and Gracie Allen

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Orson Wells and his radio broadcasts, The War of the World’s

The Arts in Depression America Although many radio and movie productions were flourished during the 1930s, the art and literature was sober and they also offered some serious critiques of American. Uplifting messages about the strength of character and values of the American people were conveyed by artistic work.

The mural Industries of California, painted in 1934 by Ralph Stack pole 

Artists were paid a living wage to produce posters, murals, and other public works of art and teach in schools by The Federal Art Project, a branch of the WPA. Many outstanding works painted by artists such as American Gothic of Grant Wood in 1930.

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American Gothic (1930) by Grant Wood

Woody Guthrie was a folk singer and a composer who experienced the tragedies of the Depression in 1932. He traveled many countries to seek a brighter life and wrote many songs about the plight of poor Americans during the Depression.

Woody Guthrie

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The Federal Writers’ Project supported people who became major writers. It also helped Richard Wright, an African - American author who wrote his acclaimed novel, Native Son in 1940. One of the country’s most famous authors of the period was John Steinbeck. His novel was The Grapes of Wrath which was published by The Federal Writers’ Project in 1939. Besides, some writers examined a lot of difficulties of life in 1930s, while others showed human dignity and the positive values of small-town life.

Richard Wright and his novel, Native Son (1940)

John Steinbeck and his novel, The Grapes of Wrath (1939)

(Go to page 24 for vocabulary)

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Section 5: The Impacts of the New Deal

Supporters and Critics of the New Deal Over time since the New Deal was established, many conservatives think that President Roosevelt’s policies made the federal government too large and too powerful in order to prevent enterprise and individual initiatives. The supporters contend that the president struck a reasonable balance between two extreme: unregulated capitalism and over-regulated socialism, and help the country recovers from it economic difficulties. On the other hands, the critics think that President Roosevelt didn’t do much to socialize the economic and to eliminate social and economic inequalities. Expanding Government’s Role in the Economy

The federal government established many agencies to expand its power, such as the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to regulate banking and investment activities. Besides, the federal also infused the nation’s economy with millions of dollars, created federal jobs, attempted to regulate supply and demand, and increased the government’s active participation in settling labor and management disputes to shape the economy. What the 21 | P a g e The New Deal


government did help to reduce the number of men, women, and children from suffering by providing them foods, jobs, and money. It also gave them hope and the sense of dignity.

Protecting Workers’ Rights The New Deal protected the workers’ right. The Wagner Act and the Fair Labor Standards Act set standard for wages and hours banned child labor and ensure the right of workers.

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Today, the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) is created under the Wagner Act and the Fair Labor Standards Act.

Banking and Finance: The SEC continued to supervise the stock market and enforce law regarding to the sale of stock and bonds. To control the bank system, the FDIC assure with people that their interests would be safe and would not be lost in the event of a bank failure. Social Security: Social security system helped a large number of poor Americans get some assistance. It provides an old-age insurance program, an unemployment compensation system, and aids for the disabled people and families with dependent children. The Rural Scene: The New Deal also had an impact on the nation’s agriculture. As the second Agricultural Adjustment Act was passed in 1938, loans were determined by the amount of farmers’ surplus crops and the parity price. The Environment:

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In the New Deal, president Roosevelt highly committed to protect the nation’s natural resources. The Civilian Conservation Crop planted trees, created walk path and build fire lookout towers. The Soil Conservation Service taught farmers how to maintain the soil through plowing, terracing and crop rotation. The Congress passed the Taylor Grazing Act in 1934 helped reduce grazing on public lands. To generate electricity and prevent flood in the Tennessee Valley, the Tennessee Valley Authority was created. Furthermore, the government established wildlife refuges and wilderness areas in the Nation Park. On the other hand, the strip-mining and coal burning led to air, land, and water pollution. In addition, the New Deal not only brought hope and gratitude for people for benefits and protections they received, but also brought anger and criticisms who believed that it took more of their money for taxes.

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Vocabulary Vocabulary Section 1 Franklin Delano Roosevelt: also known as FDR, the two- term governor of New York and a distant cousin of former president Theodore Roosevelt. New Deal: President Franklin Roosevelt’s program to alleviate the problems of the Great Depression, focusing on relief for the needy, economic recovery, and financial reform. Glass- Steagall Act: The 1933 law that established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation to protect individuals’ bank accounts. Federal Securities Act: a law, enacted in 1933, that required corporations to provide complete, accurate information on all stock offerings. Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA): a law enacted in 1933 to raise crop prices by paying farmers to leave a certain amount of their land unplanted, thus lowering production. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC): an agency, established as part of the New Deal, that put young unemployed men to work building roads, developing parks, planting trees, and helping in erosion- control and flood- control projects. National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA): a law enacted in 1933 to establish codes of fair practice for industries and to promote industrial growth. Deficit spending: a government’s spending of more money than it receives in revenue. Huey Long: Senator of Louisiana who supported the New Deal at first but later turned against Roosevelt.

Vocabulary Section 2 Eleanor Roosevelt: a social reformer who combined her deep humanitarian impulses with great political skills. Works Progress Administration (WPA): an agency, established as part of the Second New Deal, that provided the unemployed with jobs in construction, garment making, teaching, the arts, and other fields. National Youth Administration: an agency that provided young Americans with aid and employment during the Great Depression Wagner Act: a law- also known as the National Labor Relations Act- enacted in 1935 to protect workers’ rights after the Supreme Court declared the National Industrial Recovery Act unconstitutional. Social Security Act: a law enacted in 1935 to provide aid to retirees, the unemployed, people with disabilities, and families with dependent children.

Vocabulary Section 3 Frances Perkins: America’s first female cabinet member Mary McLeod Bethune: an educator who dedicated herself to promoting opportunities for young African Americans John Collier: commissioner of Indian affairs New Deal coalition: an alliance of diverse groups – including Southern whites, African Americans, and unionized workers – who supported the policies of the Democratic Party in the 1930s and 1940s 25 | P a g e The New Deal


Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO): a labor organization composed of industrial unions founded in 1938, it merged with the AFL in 1955

Vocabulary Section 4 Gone With the Wind: a 1939 movie dealing with the life of Southern plantation owners during the Civil War- one of the most popular films of all time. Orson Welles: an actor, director, producer, and writer, created one of the most renowned radio broadcast of all time, “The War of the Worlds.” Grant Wood: America painters Richard Wright: an African- American author, complete his acclaimed novel Native Son (1940) The Grapes of Wrath: a novel by John Steinbeck, published in 1939, that deals with a family of Oklahomans who leave the Dust Bowl for California.

Vocabulary Section 5 Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC): an agency created in 1933 to insure individuals’ bank accounts, protecting people against losses due to bank failure. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC): an agency, created in 1934, that monitors the stock market and enforces laws regulating the sale of stocks and bonds. National Labor Relations Board (NLRB): created under the Wagner Act, continues to act as a mediator in labor disputes between unions and employers. Parity: a government- supported level for the prices of agricultural products, intended to keep farmers’ incomes steady. Tennessee Valley Authority: a federal corporation established in 1933 to construct dams and power plants in the Tennessee Valley region to generate electricity as well as to prevent floods.

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Citation Hilda, Solis. "The Mystery of the Frances Perkins Desk." Web log post. The Best Possible Life. 31 Mar. 2009. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://bestpossiblelife.wordpress.com/2009/03/>. Rod, Sellers. "Memorial Day Massacre." Web log post. Chicago's East Side Industrial Sites. Northeastern Illinois University. Web. <http://www.neiu.edu/~reseller/memdaymasscr.htm>. John, Simkin. "Franklin Delano Roosevelt." FDR Center's New Deal Information Service (NDIS) (1988). Rpt. in Franklin D. Roosevelt, radio broadcast, Fireside Chat (9th March, 1937). Eric, Weider. "WPA Approved by Congress." National Archives (1990). Rpt. in History Net. "The New Deal." Web log post. United States HISTORY. Online Highways LLC. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1851.html>. Brian, Bain. "The NLRB: The Wagner Act of 1935." Web log post. The University of St. Francis. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://www.stfrancis.edu/content/ba/ghkickul/stuwebs/btopics/works/wagner.htm>.

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Chapter 23- the new deal  

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